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1! "T$%T!&'(a*!+e-ort!

LINEAR!FEATURES,!FORESTRY!AND!WOLF!
PREDATION!OF!CARIBOU!AND!OTHER!PREY!
IN!WEST!CENTRAL!ALBERTA!
Final!Report!
%o1er'(2!$3t'1't'e4!5rom!7a(uar9!1:!200=!to!>e3ember!31:!200A!

Prepared!by:
Mark!Hebblewhite:!"r'(3'-a*!B(1e4t'2ator:!C'*D*'5e!E'o*o29!"ro2ram:!F('1er4't9!o5!Go(ta(a!
Marco!Musiani,!"r'(3'-a*!B(1e4t'2ator:!&a3u*t9!o5!H(1'ro(me(ta*!>e4'2(:!F('1er4't9!o5!%a*2ar9!
Nick!DeCesare,!"I>!4tuDe(t:!F('1er4't9!o5!Go(ta(a!
Saakje!Hazenberg,!&'e*D!%oorD'(ator!
Wibke!Peters,!GJ!4tuDe(t:!F('1er4't9!o5!Go(ta(a!
Hugh!Robinson,!"o4t"Do3tora*!&e**oK:!F('1er4't9!o5!Go(ta(a!
Byron!Weckworth,!"I>!JtuDe(t:!F('1er4't9!o5!%a*2ar9!
Prepared!For:!
Petroleum!Technology!Alliance!of!Canada!
!
Canadian!Association!of!Petroleum!Producers!
!

1!
2! "T$%T!&'(a*!+e-ort!
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ACKNOWLEGEMENTS!
!
Primary!funding!was!provided!through!the!Canadian!Association!of!Petroleum!Producers!(CAPP)!
through!the!Petroleum!Technology!Alliance!of!Canada!(PTAC)’s!environmental!research!program!under!
the!Broad!Industry!Initiatives!Caribou!Fund.!
!
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FUNDING!
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DISCLAIMER!
TI'4!-ro2re44!re-ort!3o(ta'(4!-re*'m'(ar9!Data!5rom!o(2o'(2!a3aDem'3!re4ear3I!D're3teD!b9!tIe!
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-re*'m'(ar9!a(D!to!be!'(ter-reteD!K'tI!3aut'o(:!a(D!are!4ubVe3t!to!re1'4'o(M!!
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COVER!PHOTO!CREDITS!
%o1er!-Ioto2ra-I4!are!3reD'teD!to!GarN!EraD*e9!Qto-"*e5tR:!E9ro(!Ce3NKortI!Qbottom"r'2ItR!
a(D!Gar3o!Gu4'a('!Q2!rema'('(2!-Ioto4R!
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SUGGESTED!CITATION!
Webb*eKI'te:!GM:!Gu4'a(':!GM:!NM!>e%e4are:!JM!WaTe(ber2:!CM!"eter4:!WM!+ob'(4o(:!a(D!EM!
Ce3NKortIM!2010M!L'(ear!&eature4:!&ore4tr9!a(D!Co*5!"reDat'o(!o5!%ar'bou!a(D!\tIer!"re9!'(!
Ce4t!%e(tra*!$*bertaM!&'(a*!re-ort!to!tIe!"etro*eum!Te3I(o*o29!$**'a(3e!o5!%a(aDa!Q"T$%RM!O4!
-a2e4M!
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4! "T$%T!&'(a*!+e-ort!
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TABLE!OF!CONTENTS! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !!!!!!!!!PAGE!
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1.0 INTRODUCTION! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 6!
!
1.1!Project!Overview!!! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 6!
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2.0 STUDY!AREA! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 8!
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3.0!GENERAL!FIELD!METHODS! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 10!
!
! 3.1!Introduction! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 10!
! 3.2!Animal!Capture!and!Radio"collaring! ! ! ! ! ! 10!
! 3.3!Data!Sharing!and!Compilation! ! ! ! ! ! ! 12!
!
4.0 APPARENT!COMPETITION!REVIEW!! ! ! ! ! ! ! 14!
!
4.1!Scope! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 14!
4.2!Abstract! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 14!
4.3!Summary!of!Findings! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 15!
!
5.0 CARIBOU!POPULATION!GENETICS!IN!WESTERN!ALBERTA!AND!EASTERN!
BRITISH!COLUMBIA! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 18!
!
! 5.1!Scope! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 18!
! 5.2!Abstract! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 18!
! 5.3!Summary!of!Findings! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 18!
!
6.0 VEGETATION!AND!HUMAN!DISTURBANCE!MAPPING!IN!THE!
TRANSBOUNDARY!STUDY!AREA! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 26!
!
6.1 Introduction! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 26!
6.2 Methods! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 26!
6.2.1 Land!cover!and!vegetation!data! ! ! ! ! 26!
6.2.2 Anthropogenic!data! ! ! ! ! ! ! 27!
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7.0 PREDATOR!EFFICIENCY!OVER!A!REGIONAL!GRADIENT!OF!HUMAN!
DEVELOPMENT! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 31!
!
7.1 Scope! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 31!
7.2 Schedule! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 31!
7.3 Introduction!! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 31!
7.4 Methods! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 31!
7.4.1 Resource!Selection!Functions! ! ! ! ! 31!
7.4.2 Predation!Efficiency! ! ! ! ! ! ! 33!

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7.5!Results! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 35!
! 7.5.1!!Resource!Selection!Functions! ! ! ! ! ! 35!
! 7.5.2!!Predation!Efficiency! ! ! ! ! ! ! 38!
!
8.0 HUMAN!ACTIVITIES!AND!PRIMARY!PREY!PRODUCTIVITY!IN!
WOLF"CARIBOU!SYSTEMS! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 52!
!
! 8.1!Scope! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 52!
! 8.2!Schedule! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 52!
! 8.3!Introduction! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 52!
! 8.4!Objectives!! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 53!
! ! 8.4.1!!Moose!Resource!Selection! ! ! ! ! ! 53!
! ! 8.4.2!!Moose!Abundance!Models! ! ! ! ! ! 53!
! 8.5!Methods! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 54!
! ! 8.5.1!!Moose!Resource!Selection! ! ! ! ! ! 54!
! ! 8.5.2!!Moose!Abundance!Models! ! ! ! ! ! 54!
! 8.6!Progress!and!Results!to!Date! ! ! ! ! ! ! 56!
! ! 8.6.1!!Moose!Resource!Selection! ! ! ! ! ! 56!
! ! 8.6.2!!Moose!Abundance!Models! ! ! ! ! ! 58!
! 8.7!Outlook:!Combining!Resource!Selection!and!Abundance!
! !!!!!!!Estimation! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 62!
!
9.0 CARIBOU!MIGRATORY!AND!SURVIVAL!PATTERNS!OVER!REGIONAL!
GRADIENTS!IN!HUMAN!DEVELOPMENT!! ! ! ! ! ! 63!
!
! 9.1!Introduction! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 63!
! 9.2!Methods! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 65!
! 9.3!Results! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 66!
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10.0 IMPLICATIONS!AND!CONSERVATION!STRATEGIES! ! ! ! ! 69!
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10.1!Management!Implications!of!Genetic!Findings! ! ! ! 69!
! 10.1.1!!Allowing!for!survival!of!the!partially!migratory!
! !!!!!!!!!!!!!Canadian!Rockies!caribou! ! ! ! ! ! 69!
! 10.1.2!!Allowing!for!natural!levels!of!migrants!among!
! ! caribou!populations! ! ! ! ! ! ! 70!
! 10.1.3!Implications! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 72!
10.2!Caribou"wolf!overlap:!minimizing!impacts!in!risk!areas! ! ! 72!
10.3!Future!Research:!Spatial!population!viability!analysis!! ! ! 73!
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PRESENTATIONS,!PUBLICATIONS,!AND!WORKSHOPS! ! ! ! ! 77!
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LITERATURE!CITED! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 79!
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b! "T$%T!&'(a*!+e-ort!
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SECTION!1.!!INTRODUCTION!
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1.1 PROJECT!OVERVIEW!

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!
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Ee3au4e!o5!tIe!4tro(2!(umer'3!re4-o(4e!o5!Ko*1e4!Q0anis!lu2usR!to!u(2u*ate!-re9:!*o22'(2!
'(3rea4e4!Ko*5!De(4't9!a(D!tIu4!-reDat'o(!rate4!o(!3ar'bou!QCe3*aK!a(D!WuD4o(!2004:!Le44arD!
200a:!Jore(4o(!et!a*M!200ORM!
!
2M Je'4m'3!eX-*orat'o(!*'(e4!a(D!a33e44!roaD4!'(3rea4e!-reDator!e55'3'e(39!b9!'(3rea4'(2!tIe!rate!at!
KI'3I!Ko*1e4!N'**!-re9!be3au4e!Ko*1e4!4e*e3t!5or:!a(D!mo1e!5a4ter!o(:!4u3I!*'(ear!5eature4!Q7ame4!
a(D!Jtuart"Jm'tI!2000:!>9er!et!a*M!2002:!Neu5e*D!200bRM!
!
\ur!re4ear3I!5o3u4eD!o(!tIe!'m-a3t4!o5!tIe4e!tKo!me3Ia('4m4!o(!Demo2ra-I9:!-o-u*at'o(!2e(et'34:!
a(D!*a(D43a-e!e3o*o29!o5!3ar'bou!-o-u*at'o(4!'(!Ke4t"3e(tra*!$*bertaM!La(D43a-e!2e(et'34!a--roa3Ie4!
a**oKeD!u4!to!e1a*uate!(atura*!14M!a(tIro-o2e('3!3au4e4!5or!-o-u*at'o(!4tru3tur'(2!a(D!Iab'tat!
5ra2me(tat'o(M!TIe4e!te3I('Zue4!a*4o!Ie*-eD!u4!'De(t'59!e3o*o2'3a**9!re*e1a(t!IerD!De4'2(at'o(4!a(D!
3om-are!K'tI!m'2rator9!beIa1'ora*!Data!5or!4ub4eZue(t!IerD"*e1e*!e3o*o2'3a*!a(a*94e4M!Ce!a--*'eD!(eK!

b!
=! "T$%T!&'(a*!+e-ort!
!

4tat'4t'3a*!a--roa3Ie4!to!eXam'(e!tIe!e55e3t4!o5!tIe!tKo!-r'mar9!3au4e4!5or!3ar'bou!De3*'(e4!Q-reDator!
e55'3'e(39:!-re9!De(4't9!'(3rea4e4R!'(!3ar'bou!-o-u*at'o(4!a3ro44!a!*ar2e!Iuma(!De1e*o-me(t!2raD'e(tM!
!
Ee3au4e!o5!tIe!Iu2e!4-at'a*!43a*e!o5!-reDator"-re9!re*at'o(4I'-4:!5eK!4tuD'e4!Ia1e!em-'r'3a**9!*'(NeD!
*'(ear!5eature4!to!'(3rea4eD!Ko*5!-reDat'o(!rate4M!+e3o2('t'o(!o5!tIe!'m-orta(3e!o5!a*tereD!-r'mar9!-re9!
De(4't9!'4!*'NeK'4e!I'(DereD!b9!5eK!Zua(t'tat'1e!4tuD'e4!o(!tI'4!re*at'o(4I'-M!&urtIermore:!Iuma("
tr'22ereD!3Ia(2e4!to!-reDator!e55'3'e(39!a(D!-r'mar9!-re9!De(4't9!are!o5te(!3o(5ou(DeD!'(!4-a3e!a(D!
t'me!be3au4e!5ore4tr9!a(D!o'*!d!2a4!De1e*o-me(t!3o"o33urM!TIu4:!ma(a2er4!5a3e!a!-rob*em!o5!tr9'(2!to!
u(Der4ta(D!tIe!re*at'1e!ro*e4!o5!'(3rea4e4!'(!-reDator!e55'3'e(39!Q-r'mar'*9!a44o3'ateD!K'tI!o'*!d!2a4R!14M!
tIe!-roDu3t'o(!o5!-r'mar9!-re9!Iab'tat!Q-reDom'(a(t*9!a44o3'ateD!K'tI!5ore4tr9RM!!E9!3om-ar'(2!3ar'bou"
Iuma(!re*at'o(4I'-4!a3ro44!a!*ar2e!2raD'e(t!o5!3ar'bou!IerD4!'(!Ke4t"3e(tra*!$*berta:!our!o1era**!
obVe3t'1e4!Ka4!to!Determ'(e!tIe!e55e3t4!o5!tIe!D'55ere(t!t9-e4!o5!De1e*o-me(t!o(!3ar'bou!a(D!to!De1e*o-!
3ar'bou!re3o1er9!4trate2'e4!'(!Ke4t"3e(tra*!$*bertaM!!
!
TIe!4tre(2tI!o5!our!metIoD4!Ka4!to!3om-are!3ar'bou!D9(am'34!a3ro44!tIe!e(t're!mou(ta'(!3ar'bou!
ra(2e!'(!$*berta:!3o(tra4t'(2!-rote3teD!area4!to!tIo4e!'(!I'2I*9!De1e*o-eD!*a(D43a-e4!Q&'2ure!1RM!CI'*e!
ma(9!3ar'bou!-o-u*at'o(4!are!De3*'('(2!Q=!o5!10!N(oK!*o3a*!IerD4R:!4e1era*!are!4tab*e!or!-ote(t'a**9!
'(3rea4'(2!QTab*e!2M1RM!!Ce!u4eD!tIe!2raD'e(t4!'(!Iuma(!a3t'1't9!a(D!De1e*o-me(t!tIat!o33ur!a3ro44!
tIe4e!3ar'bou!ra(2e4!a4!tIe!ba4'4!5or!our!eX-er'me(ta*!De4'2(M!Wuma(!D'4turba(3e!o33ur4!-reDom'(a(t*9!
'(!ea4ter(!5ootI'**4!5ore4t4M!!TIe!JoutI!7a4-er!-o-u*at'o(Q4R!'(!7a4-er!Nat'o(a*!"arN!Q7N"R!eX'4t4!'(!*a(D4!
*ar2e*9!u(De1e*o-eD!b9!e'tIer!5ore4tr9!or!Iuma(!a33e44:!a(D!a3t!a4!a!3ru3'a*!ba4e*'(e!3o(tro*!area!
Q$r3e4e!a(D!J'(3*a'r!1AA=RM!!Go1'(2!(ortI:!tIe!$!La!"e3Ie!Q$L"R!IerD!Ia4!eXte(4'1e!5ore4tr9!a(D!o'*!d!2a4!
De1e*o-me(t!o(!'t4!K'(ter!ra(2e:!but!(ot!o(!'t4!4ummer!ra(2eM!TIe!L'tt*e!JmoN9!IerD!QLJGR!'4!tIe!mo4t!
De1e*o-eD!o(!K'(ter!a(D!4ummer!ra(2e!a(D!-re4e(t*9!tIe!4ubVe3t!o5!'(te(4'1e!ma(a2eme(t!re3o1er9!
e55ort4!'(3*uD'(2!Ko*5!a(D!moo4e!3o(tro*M!TIe!+eDro3N""ra'r'e!%reeN!Q+"%R!Ia4!tIe!I'2Ie4t!'(te(4't9!o5!
Iuma(!a3t'1't9!a(D!De1e*o-me(t!o(!'t4!K'(ter!ra(2e:!K'tI!*'tt*e!De1e*o-me(t!o(!'t4!4ummer!ra(2eM!!TIe!
NarraKa9!QN$+R!IerD!Ia4!moDerate!Iuma(!De1e*o-me(t!o(!'t4!K'(ter!ra(2e:!but!e1e(!*e44!De1e*o-me(t!
o(!'t4!4ummer!ra(2eM!!&'(a**9:!tIe!(eK*9!'De(t'5'eD!3ar'bou!IerD:!tIe!+eDK'**oK!IerD!QKI'3I!ma9!be!a(!
eXte(4'o(!o5!tIe!NarraKa9R!'4!4'm'*ar!to!tIe!NarraKa9!IerD:!K'tI!*e44!De1e*o-me(t!o(!'t4!K'(ter!ra(2eM!!
E9!3om-ar'(2!3ar'bou!D9(am'34!a3ro44!tI'4!2raD'e(t:!Ke!are!ab*e!to!te4t!5or!tIre4Io*D4!'(!re4-o(4e4!o5!
Ko*1e4!to!Iuma(!De1e*o-me(tM!!\ur!re4ear3I!maNe4!u4e!o5!tIe!4ub4ta(t'a*!re4ear3I!a(D!mo('tor'(2!
e55ort!'(1e4teD!'(!tIe4e!!3ar'bou!IerD4!'(!3oo-erat'o(!K'tI!-roVe3t!-art(er4!Ce9erIaeu4er:!$*berta!&'4I!
a(D!C'*D*'5e:!E%!G'('4tr9!o5!H(1'ro(me(t:!a(D!7a4-er!Nat'o(a*!"arNM!!
!
Ce!a*4o!3o**aborateD!K'tI!>rM!>a*e!Je'-:!E%!_!G'('4tr9!o5!&ore4t4!tIrou2I!I'4!re4ear3I!o(!tIe!4"a!
3ar'bou!IerD4!'mmeD'ate*9!NortI!Ce4t!o5!tIe!+eD!C'**oK!IerD!Qeu'(tette:!Gober*9:!"ar4('-:!Ye((eD9:!
a(D!Eur(t!"'(e!IerD4R:!a(D!tIrou2I!Vo'(t!mo('tor'(2!o5!botI!Ko*1e4!a(D!3ar'bou!'(!tIe!+eD!C'**oK!IerDM!
>rM!Je'-!a*4o!re3e'1eD!5u(D'(2!5rom!"T$%!a(D!Ke!a3t'1e*9!3o**aborateD!o(!-o-u*at'o(!2e(et'3!a(D!
-reDat'o("re*ateD!Zue4t'o(4!to!e(ab*e!our!re4ear3I!to!be!a--*'3ab*e!o1er!a(!e1e(!*ar2er!2eo2ra-I'3!areaM!
!

=!
O! "T$%T!&'(a*!+e-ort!
!

!
2.0!!STUDY!AREA!
!
! \ur!4tuD9!area!e(3om-a44e4!a!40:000!Nm2!-ort'o(!o5!tIe!%a(aD'a(!+o3N'e4!o5!Ke4ter(!$*berta!
a(D!ea4ter(!Er't'4I!%o*umb'a!3o(ta'('(2!4e1e(!-o-u*at'o(4!o5!KooD*a(D!3ar'bou!o5!tKo!3hreatene*!
e3ot9-e4!QTab*e!2M1:!&'2ure!2M1RM!!J'X!-o-u*at'o(4!are!5eDera**9!3*a44'5'eD!a4!tIe!4outIer(!mou(ta'(!
e3ot9-e!Q$!*a!"e3Ie:!Ea(55:!NarraKa9:!+eDro3N""ra'r'e!%reeN:!+eDK'**oK:!a(D!JoutI!7a4-erR!a(D!tIe!
4e1e(tI!a4!tIe!borea*!e3ot9-e!QL'tt*e!JmoN9RM!!TIe!Ea(55!-o-u*at'o(!Ka4!re3e(t*9!eXt'r-ateD!b9!a(!
a1a*a(3Ie!e1e(t!'(!$-r'*!200A:!KI'3I!'(3*uDeD!tIe!morta*'t9!o5!2!raD'o"3o**areD!'(D'1'Dua*4:!a(D!tIe!JoutI!
7a4-er!-o-u*at'o(!'4!3om-o4eD!o5!tIree!4ub"-o-u*at'o(4!QEraTeau:!Ga*'2(e:!a(D!To(Zu'(R!a4!'De(t'5'eD!'(!
&'2ure!2M1M!!!
! TIe!%a(aD'a(!+o3N'e4!3o(ta'(!ru22eD!mou(ta'(ou4!terra'(!KI'3I!2'1e4!Ka9!to!ro**'(2!borea*!
5ootI'**4!a*o(2!tIe'r!ea4ter(!5ro(tM!!%ar'bou!'(!tI'4!re2'o(!eXI'b't!2e(et'3!e1'De(3e!o5!m'XeD!*'(ea2e4!o5!
D'1er2eD!Eer'(2'a("Hura4'a(!m'2rator9!Q+M!tM!2roe(*a(D'3u4R!a(D!NortI!$mer'3a(!4eDe(tar9!Q+M!tM!3ar'bouR!
4ub4-e3'e4!QG3>e1'tt!et!a*M!200ARM!!TIe4e!tKo!4ub4-e3'e4!Kere!*ar2e*9!4e-arateD!b9!2*a3'a*!'3e!Dur'(2!tIe!
*ate!"*e'4to3e(e!Q>ue3N!1AAO:!&*a24taD!a(D!+oeD!2003R:!but!a(!'3e"5ree!3orr'Dor!at!tIe!e(D!o5!tIe!*a4t!
2*a3'at'o(4!a--ear4!to!Ia1e!a**oKeD!tIe'r!m'X'(2!a*o(2!tIe!ea4ter(!+o3N'e4!Q%atto!et!a*M!1AAb:!G3>e1'tt!et!
a*M!200ARM!!Earre("2rou(D!3ar'bou!t9-'3a**9!re4'De!'(!tIe!o-e(!tu(Dra!o5!NortI!$mer'3a!a(D!$4'a:!a(D!are!
N(oK(!5or!a22re2ateD:!4ea4o(a*!m'2rat'o(4!betKee(!K'(ter!ra(2e4!a(D!3a*1'(2!2rou(D4!Q&a(39!et!a*M!
1AOAR:!KIerea4!KooD*a(D!3ar'bou!-o-u*at'o(4!are!t9-'3a**9!more!4-ar4e!a(D!4eDe(tar9M!!B(D'1'Dua*4!'(!
our!4tuD9!area!are!-art'a**9!m'2rator9:!KIere!4ome!K'(ter!'(!tIe!5ootI'**4!a(D!m'2rate!b0_A0!Nm!Ke4t!to!
a*-'(e!4ummer!ra(2e4:!a(D!otIer!'(D'1'Dua*4!are!4eDe(tar9!'(!e'tIer!tIe!5ootI'**4!or!mou(ta'(4!9ear"
rou(DM!!!
! TIe!-reDator!3ommu('t9!'(3*uDe4!Ko*1e4:!2r'TT*9!bear4:!b*a3N!bear4!Q5rsus!americanusR:!3ou2ar4!
Q7uma!concolorR:!Ko*1er'(e!Q8ulo!guloR:!*9(X!Q9:n;!cana*ensisR:!a(D!3o9ote4!Q0anis!latransRM!\tIer!
u(2u*ate!-re9!'(3*uDe!moo4e!Q<lces!alcesR:!e*N!Q0er=us!ela2husR:!mu*e!Deer!Q>*ocoileus!hemionusR:!KI'te"
ta'*eD!Deer!Q>*ocoileus!=irginianusR:!b'2Ior(!4Iee-!Q>=is!cana*ensisR:!a(D!mou(ta'(!2oat4!Q>reamnos!
americanusRM!!Co*1e4!re*9!-r'mar'*9!o(!e*N!a4!-re9!'(!tIe!4outIer(!e(D!o5!tI'4!e3o494tem!QWebb*eKI'te!et!
a*M!2004R:!but!4I'5t!toKarD4!more!3ommo(!moo4e!a*o(2!a!(ortI"4outI!2raD'e(t!Q"arN4!%a(aDa!-er4M!
3ommM:!&ra(Ne!et!a*M!200bRM!!!
!

Table!2.1.!%ar'bou!IerD!4tatu4!a(D!a--roX'mate!-o-u*at'o(!4'TeM!H4t'mate4!a(D!4tatu4!-ro1'DeD!b9!
$*berta!&'4I!a(D!C'*D*'5e!u(-ub*'4IeD!Data:!"arN4!%a(aDa!u(-ub*'4IeD!Data:!Webb*eKI'te!et!a*M!Q200=R:!
a(D!E%!G'('4tr9!o5!&ore4t4!Q>M+M!Je'-R!u(-ub*'4IeD!Data:!5or!tIe!(ortIer(!E%!IerD4M!!
Caribou!Population! Status! Approximate!Population!Size!
Ea(55! BmmeD'ate!+'4N!o5!HXt'r-at'o(! a"=!
7a4-er!Qa**!tIree!IerD4!3omb'(eDR! Jtab*e! f100!
$!La!"e3Ie! >e3*'('(2! 1a0!
L'tt*e!JmoN9! BmmeD'ate!+'4N!o5!HXt'r-at'o(! O0!
+eDro3N""ra'r'e!%reeN! >e3*'('(2! f300!
NarraKa9! >e3*'('(2! f100!
+eDK'**oK!_!EearIo*e! >e3*'('(2! fa0!
eu'(tette! Jtab*e! 1=3"21O!
Gober*9! Jtab*e! f42!Qm'('mum!3ou(tR!
Eur(t!"'(e! Jtab*e! f13!Qm'('mum!3ou(tR!
"ar4('-! F(N(oK(! F(N(oK(!
Ye((eD9! F(N(oK(! F(N(oK(!
O!
A! "T$%T!&'(a*!+e-ort!
!

Figure!2.1.!!%a(aD'a(!+o3N'e4!4tuD9!area!a*o(2!tIe!$*berta!_!Er't'4I!%o*umb'a!D'1'De:!'(3*uD'(2!100g!
m'('mum!3o(1eX!-o*92o(4!QG%"4R!o5!KooD*a(D!3ar'bou!-o-u*at'o(4:!1AAO!_!200AM!!!

A!
10! "T$%T!&'(a*!+e-ort!
!

3.0!!GENERAL!FIELD!METHODS!
!
3.1!INTRODUCTION!
!
Ce!u4eD!tIe!3a-ture!a(D!raD'o"3o**ar'(2!o5!aDu*t!3ar'bou:!Ko*1e4:!a(D!moo4e!to!mo('tor!mo1eme(t4!a(D!
4ur1'1a*!o5!'(D'1'Dua*4!a3ro44!tIe!ra(2e!o5!3o(D't'o(4!-re4e(t!'(!tIe!4tuD9!areaM!!J-e3'5'3a**9:!Ke!u4eD!
U"J"e(ab*eD!3o**ar4!QLoteN"2200:!3300J:!3300G:!4400J:!4400G:!LoteN!C're*e44:!B(3M:!NeKmarNet:!
\(tar'o:!%a(aDah!$TJ"U2000:!$D1a(3eD!Te*emetr9!J94tem4:!B(3M:!B4a(t':!G'((e4ota:!FJ$R!to!3o**e3t!
*o3at'o(!Data!o5!I'2I!Zua*'t9!a(D!Zua(t't9!5or!5'(e"43a*e!a(a*94'4!o5!re4our3e!4e*e3t'o(:!-reDat'o(:!a(D!
mo1eme(t!-atter(4M!
!
3.2!ANIMAL!CAPTURE!AND!RADIOCOLLARING!!
!
C'(ter!Ie*'3o-ter!(et"2u(('(2!Ka4!u4eD!to!3a-ture!3ar'bou:!Ko*1e4:!a(D!moo4e!Q$(Dr9N!et!a*M!1AO3R:!a(D!
Ke!4u--*eme(teD!tIe4e!e55ort4!K'tI!aDD't'o(a*!4ummer!5oot"Io*D!tra--'(2!5or!Ko*1e4!Q&rame!a(D!Ge'er!
200=RM!!$**!a('ma*!3a-ture!-ro3eDure4!Kere!a--ro1eD!b9!2o1er(me(t!a(D!u('1er4't9!a('ma*!3are!
-roto3o*4!a(D!-erm'tt'(2!-ro3e44e4!QTab*e!3M1RM!!!&u**!Deta'*4!o5!a('ma*!3a-ture!-roto3o*4!are!a1a'*ab*e!
u-o(!reZue4t!5rom!a(9!-roVe3t!-er4o((e*M!!>ur'(2!200=_200A!Ke!4u-er1'4eD!tIe!3a-ture!o5!3b!KooD*a(D!
3ar'bou:!40!Ko*1e4:!a(D!3=!moo4e!a3ro44!our!4tuD9!area!Q&'2ure!3M1R:!3o**e3t'1e*9!De-*o9'(2!=2!U"J!3o**ar4!
a(D!40!^W&!3o**ar4M!!Ce!'(3urreD!tIree!3a-ture"re*ateD!moo4e!morta*'t'e4!Dur'(2!tIe!4tuD9!Q1!(e3N!
5ra3ture!d!2!3a-ture!m9o-atI9RM!!TI'4!-rom-teD!a!tIorou2I!'(ter(a*!re1'eK!a(D!ame(Dme(t!to!moo4e!
3a-ture!-roto3o*4:!K'tI!aDVu4tme(t4!to!3o(4er1at'1e!KorN'(2!tem-erature4!Qi!"aj%R!a(D!3Ia4e!t'me4!Qi!1!
m'(uteRM!!!
!
Table!3.1.!+e4ear3I!a(D!3o**e3t'o(!-erm't4:!%a(aD'a(!+o3N'e4:!200="200AM!
!
$*berta!Ju4ta'(ab*e!+e4our3e!>e1e*o-me(tc!&'4I!a(D!C'*D*'5e!>'1'4'o(!
! Collection!Licenses:!#21803,!#27086,!#27088,!#27090!
! Research!Permit:!#27085,!#27809,!#27812!
$*berta!Tour'4m:!"arN4:!a(D!+e3reat'o(!
! Research!and!Collection!Permits:!RC08WC014!&!Wilka101"07!
______________________________________________________________________________!
Er't'4I!%o*umb'a!G'('4tr9!o5!H(1'ro(me(tc!"erm't!a(D!$utIor'Tat'o(!Jer1'3e!
! Wildlife!Act!Permit!VI08"31411!
! Park!Use!Permits:!101964!
kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk!
"arN4!%a(aDa!$2e(39!
! Research!and!Collection!Permit:!JNP"2007"952!
kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk!
F('1er4't9!o5!Go(ta(a!
! Animal!Use!Protocol:!056"06MHECS"010207!
! Animal!Use!Protocol:!059"09MHWB"122109!
kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk!
F('1er4't9!o5!%a*2ar9!
! Animal!Use!Protocol:!BI"2007"57!
!

10!
11! "T$%T!&'(a*!+e-ort!
!

Figure!3.1.!!$('ma*4!3a-tureD!5or!re4ear3I!'(!tIe!%a(aD'a(!+o3N'e4:!7a(uar9!200=!_!Gar3I!200AM

!
!
!

11!
12! "T$%T!&'(a*!+e-ort!
!

3.3.!DATA!SHARING!AND!COMPILATION!!
!
TIrou2I!Data!4Iar'(2!a2reeme(t4!K'tI!$*berta!J+>:!Ce9erIaeu4er!%om-a(9:!JIe**!%a(aDa:!"arN4!
%a(aDa:!a(D!tIe!F('1er4't9!o5!$*berta:!Ke!Ia1e!a44emb*eD!a!Databa4e!o5!fa00:000!3ar'bou!U"J!5'X!
attem-t4!a(D!l100:000!Ko*5!U"J!5'X!attem-t4!Q&'2ure4!3M2:!3M3RM!
!
! !
!
!
!
!

Figure!3.2. U"J!*o3at'o(4!o5!3o**areD!3ar'bou!'(!a**!4tuD9!area!-o-u*at'o(4:!%a(aD'a(!+o3N'e4:!
1AAO_200=M!
12!
13! "T$%T!&'(a*!+e-ort!
!

!
! Figure!3.3.!!U"J!*o3at'o(4!o5!3o**areD!Ko*1e4!Q4IoK'(2!o(*9!Data!5rom!TI'4!JtuD9!a(D!tIo4e!
! 3o**e3teD!'(!7a4-er!N"R!a(D!o1er*a-!K'tI!3ar'bou!-o-u*at'o(!Iome!ra(2e4:!%a(aD'a(!+o3N'e4:!2003_
! 200=M!

13!
14! "T$%T!&'(a*!+e-ort!
!

!
4.0!!APPARENT!COMPETITION!REVIEW!
!
4.1!SCOPE!!
!
H3o494tem!3Ia(2e!'4!o33urr'(2!2*oba**9!1'a!Iab'tat!a*terat'o(:!'(troDu3eD!4-e3'e4:!3*'mate!3Ia(2e:!a(D!
D'4ea4e:!tIou2I!tIe!3ommu('t9!e55e3t4!o5!ea3I!3a(!be!3om-*eX!a(D!'(D're3tM!!TIe!*a4t!De3aDe!Ia4!4ee(!a(!
eX-*o4'o(!o5!-a-er4!o(!tIe!e55e3t4!o5!'(ter"4-e3'5'3!'(tera3t'o(4!a4!5a3tor4!3au4'(2!4-e3'e4!e(Da(2erme(tM!!
"re4umab*9!3ar'bou!'4!a!4-e3'e4!e(Da(2ereD!Due!to!4u3I!me3Ia('4m4M!"reDat'o(!'4!a!3ommo(!
3om-o(e(t!o5!4-e3'e4!De3*'(e4:!9et!e3o*o2'4t4!*a3N!a!re1'eK!'(te2rat'(2!tIe!ro*e!o5!a--are(t!3om-et't'o(:!
or!4IareD!-reDat'o(!'(!mu*t'-*e"-re9!494tem4:!o(!-reDator"meD'ateD!e(Da(2erme(t!o5!-re9:!4u3I!a4!
3ar'bouM!
!
TIere!'4!a!r'3I!tIeoret'3a*!*'terature!3o(3er('(2!3oeX'4te(3e!amo(2!-re9!4-e3'e4!tIat!eXI'b't!eX-*o'tat'1e!
a(D!a--are(t!3om-et't'o(:!9et!tI'4!eX'4t4!K'tI!4ome!D'43o((e3t!to!tIe!2roK'(2!boD9!o5!em-'r'3a*!4tuD'e4!
Demo(4trat'(2!tIe!ro*e!o5!tIe4e!D9(am'34!'(!4-e3'e4!De3*'(eM!!B(!tI'4!re1'eK!Ke!u4e!tIe!tIeoret'3a*!
*'terature!to!-ro1'De!a(!'(te2rateD!D'43u44'o(!o5!-arameter4!Dr'1'(2!a49mmetr9!amo(2!3om-et'(2!-re9M!!
Ce!tIe(!'(3or-orateD!4e1era*!re3e(t!4tuD'e4!*'(N'(2!a--are(t!3om-et't'o(!to!tIe!e(Da(2erme(t!o5!-re9!
4-e3'e4M!!TIu4:!our!re1'eK!o5!tIe!tIeor9!a(D!em-'r'3a*!e1'De(3e!Demo(4trateD!tIe!-ote(t'a**9!De4tru3t'1e!
e55e3t4!o5!a--are(t!3om-et't'o(!o(!4-e3'e4!4u3I!a4!3ar'bouM!La4t*9!Ke!D'43u44!re4ear3I!a(D!3o(4er1at'o(!
o-t'o(4!5or!Demo(4trat'(2!a(D!aDDre44'(2!a--are(t!3om-et't'o(!to!be4t!2u'De!e(Da(2ereD!4-e3'e4!
re3o1er9M!
!
\ur!5'(D'(24!o(!tI'4!-art'3u*ar!obVe3t'1e!are!5u**9!De43r'beD!'(!tIe!-a-erc!
?e0esare@!A.!C.@!De..leEhite@!F.@!!o.inson@!D.!an*!F.!Fusiani!(HIJI).!Ln*angere*@!a22arentl:M!the!role!
of!a22arent!com2etition!in!en*angere*!s2ecies!conser=ation.!<nimal!0onser=ation@!Nn!7ress.!
$!4ummar9!o5!5'(D'(24!'4!a*4o!-ro1'DeD!be*oKM!
!
4.2!ABSTRACT!
!
!%o(4er1at'o(!b'o*o2'4t4!Ia1e!re3e(t*9!re-orteD!2roK'(2!e1'De(3e!o5!5ooD"Keb!'(tera3t'o(4!a4!3au4e4!o5!
4-e3'e4!e(Da(2erme(t!_a!-Ie(ome(o(!a*4o!4u22e4teD!5or!3ar'bou!De3*'(eM!$--are(t!3om-et't'o(!'4!a(!
'(D're3t!'(tera3t'o(!amo(2!-re9!4-e3'e4!meD'ateD!b9!a!4IareD!-reDator:!a(D!Ia4!bee(!'(3rea4'(2*9!*'(NeD!
to!De3*'(e4!o5!-re9!4-e3'e4!a3ro44!taXaM!Ce!re1'eKeD!tIeoret'3a*!a(D!em-'r'3a*!4tuD'e4!o5!a--are(t!
3om-et't'o(:!K'tI!4-e3'5'3!atte(t'o(!to!tIe!me3Ia('4m4!o5!a49mmetr9!amo(2!a--are(t*9!3om-et'(2!-re9!
4-e3'e4M!$49mmetr9!'4!tIeoret'3a**9!Dr'1e(!b9!('3Ie!o1er*a-:!4-e3'e4!5't(e44!tra't4:!4-at'a*!Ietero2e(e't9!
a(D!2e(era*'4t!-reDator!beIa1'ourM!B(!rea*"Kor*D!494tem4:!Iuma(!'(Du3eD!3Ia(2e4!to!e3o494tem4!4u3I!a4!
Iab'tat!a*terat'o(!QeM2M!3ar'bou!Iab'tatR!a(D!'(troDu3eD!4-e3'e4!ma9!be!u*t'mate!4our3e4!o5!4-e3'e4!
e(Da(2erme(tM!WoKe1er:!a--are(t!3om-et't'o(!'4!4IoK(!to!be!a!-roX'mate!me3Ia('4m!KIe(!re4u*ta(t!
3Ia(2e4!'(troDu3e!or!4ub4'D'Te!abu(Da(t!-r'mar9!-re9!5or!-reDator!-o-u*at'o(4!QeM2M!Ko*1e4RM!
>emo(4trat'o(!o5!a--are(t!3om-et't'o(!'4!D'55'3u*t!Due!to!tIe!'(D're3t!re*at'o(4I'-4!betKee(!-re9!a(D!
-reDator!4-e3'e4!a(D!tIe!-ote(t'a*!5or!3o(3urre(t!eX-*o'tat'1e!3om-et't'o(!or!otIer!3ommu('t9!e55e3t4M!
WoKe1er:!2e(era*!3o(3*u4'o(4!are!DraK(!3o(3er('(2!tIe!3Iara3ter'4t'34!o5!-re9!a(D!-reDator!4-e3'e4!
*'Ne*9!to!eXI'b't!a49mmetr'3!a--are(t!3om-et't'o(:!a(D!tIe!o-t'o(4!5or!re3o1er'(2!e(Da(2ereD!4-e3'e4!
4u3I!a4!3ar'bouM!CI'*e!4Iort"term!ma(a2eme(t!QeM2M!Ko*5!3o(tro*R!ma9!be!reZu'reD!to!a1o'D!'mm'(e(t!
eXt'(3t'o(!'(!494tem4!Demo(4trat'(2!a--are(t!3om-et't'o(:!Ke!-ro-o4e!aDa-t'1e!3o(4er1at'o(!e55ort4!
D're3teD!at!*o(2"term!re3o1er9M!!

14!
1a! "T$%T!&'(a*!+e-ort!
!

!
4.3!SUMMARY!OF!FINDINGS!
!
J'm'*ar!to!eX-*o'tat'1e!3om-et't'o(:!a--are(t!3om-et't'o(!3a(!be!De5'(eD!a4!a!re3'-ro3a*!(e2at'1e!
'(tera3t'o(!Q":!"R:!tIeoret'3a**9!-romot'(2!3oeX'4te(3e!amo(2!-re9M!WoKe1er:!a49mmetr'3a*!Q":!0R!
'(tera3t'o(4!ma9!be!more!3ommo(!'(!(ature:!a(D!3ou*D!3au4e!De3*'(e4!'(!o(e!-re9!4-e3'e4!Q&'2M!4M1RM!Bt!'4!
-re3'4e*9!tI'4!a49mmetr9!tIat!ma9!-ut!4ome!4-e3'e4:!4u3I!a4!3ar'bou:!at!r'4N!KI'*e!otIer4!5*our'4I!u(Der!
-reDat'o(!b9!a!4IareD!-reDatorM!
!

!
Figure!4.1.!&ooD!Keb!43Iemat'3!De-'3t'(2!D're3t!Q4o*'DR!a(D!'(D're3t!QDa4IeDR!'(tera3t'o(4!3Iara3ter'4t'3!
o5!a--are(t!3om-et't'o(!D9(am'34!betKee(!-r'mar9!Q1R!a(D!4e3o(Dar9!Q2R!-re9!u(Der!a!4IareD!-reDatorM!
!
B(!eX-*o'tat'1e!3om-et't'o(!moDe*4:!tIe!4-e3'e4!5't(e44!rat'o!QO1PO2R!Ia4!bee(!u4eD!to!3om-are!a1era2e!
5't(e44!amo(2!3o(4umer!4-e3'e4:!a33orD'(2!to!tIe!ma'(te(a(3e!reZu'reme(t4!o5!-re9!4-e3'e4!-er!u('t!
re4our3e:!a(D!tIe'r!maX'mum!rate!o5!re4our3e!Iar1e4tM!TI'4!rat'o!3om-are4!tIe!tIeoret'3a*!3om-et't'1e!
ab'*'t9!o5!-re9!4-e3'e4!4u3I!a4!3om-ar'(2!-ote(t'a*!-o-u*at'o(!2roKtI!a**oKeD!b9!'(Iere(t!*'5e!I'4tor9M!
!
B(!494tem4!K'tI!4IareD!-reDat'o(:!tIe!4-e3'e4!5't(e44!rat'o!'4!eX-a(DeD!to!'(3*uDe!botI!re4our3e!Dr'1e(!
2roKtI!rate4!a(D!4e(4't'1't9!to!-reDat'o(!amo(2!a--are(t*9!3om-et'(2!-re9M!%oeX'4te(3e!3a(!tIe(!be!
tIeoret'3a**9!re-re4e(teD!a4!a!5u(3t'o(!o5!botI!tIe!4-e3'e4!5't(e44!rat'o!a(D!('3Ie!o1er*a-!amo(2!-re9!
4-e3'e4:!KIere!tIe!De2ree!o5!('3Ie!o1er*a-!3o(4tra'(4!a**oKab*e!5't(e44!D'55ere(3e4!Q&'2M!4M2RM!&or!
eXam-*e:!KIe(!('3Ie!o1er*a-!amo(2!tKo!4-e3'e4!'4!I'2I:!tIe!D'55ere(3e!betKee(!*oK!a(D!I'2I!4-e3'e4!
5't(e44!rat'o4!m'2It!re-re4e(t!tIe!D'55ere(3e!betKee(!-er4'4te(3e!a(D!eXt'(3t'o(!5or!a!4-e3'e4!Q&'2M!4M2RM!

1a!
1b! "T$%T!&'(a*!+e-ort!
!

!
Figure!4.2.!TIeoret'3a*!'m-*'3at'o(4!5or!eXt'(3t'o(!o5!tIe!re*at'1e!4-e3'e4!5't(e44!rat'o!a(D!('3Ie!o1er*a-!
betKee(!a!-r'mar9!Q1R!a(D!4e3o(Dar9!Q2R!-re9!4-e3'e4M!
!
H(Da(2ereD!4-e3'e4!Q4u3I!a4!3ar'bouR!are!o5te(!4e3o(Dar9!-re9!to!-reDator4!4ub4'4t'(2!o(!a(!abu(Da(t!
-r'mar9!-re9!K'tI!I'2Ier!a1era2e!5't(e44:!a(D!-re9!4-e3'e4!Kou*D!be!eX-e3teD!to!3o(tr'bute!D'4-arate*9!
to!tIe!-reDator!(umer'3a*!re4-o(4eM!%o(trar9!to!4'(2*e!-re9!494tem4!QrIo"m0R!K'tI!re2u*ator9!-reDat'o(:!
a49mmetr'3!a--are(t!3om-et't'o(!amo(2!mu*t'-*e!-re9!QrIo"!I'2Ier!tIa(!0R!-roDu3e4!a!-o4't'1e!9"
'(ter3e-t!'(!tIe!(umer'3!re4-o(4e!to!4e3o(Dar9!-re9:!De-e(4ator9!-reDat'o(:!a(D!tIu4!a!me3Ia('4m!o5!
eXt'(3t'o(!1'a!a--are(t!3om-et't'o(M!TIe!*a3N!o5!(umer'3!re4-o(4e!to!4e3o(Dar9!-re9!'4!a!I9-otIe4'TeD!
*'(N!to!De3*'(e4!o5!tIreate(eD!4-e3'e4!'(!4e1era*!mu*t'-*e"-re9!494tem4M!
!
\ur!o1er1'eK!'(D'3ateD!tIe!3r't'3a*!re*at'o(4I'-4!eX'4t'(2!betKee(!a--are(t!3om-et't'o(:!-reDat'o(!rate4!
a(D!D9(am'34!o5!-re9!4-e3'e4M!$49mmetr9!'(!a--are(t!3om-et't'o(!Ia4!tIeoret'3a*!'m-*'3at'o(4!5or!
e(Da(2ereD!4-e3'e4!De3*'(e:!tIou2I!Ke!Ia1e!4IoK(!-ote(t'a*!me3Ia('4m4!5or!re*aXeD!-reDat'o(!at!*oK!
-re9!De(4't9M!Were!Ke!u4e!eXam-*e4!'(!tIe!*'terature!to!'De(t'59!tIe!em-'r'3a*!3o(D't'o(4!a44o3'ateD!K'tI!
a49mmetr9!'(!a--are(t!3om-et't'o(M!T9-'3a*!o5!a**!eXam-*e4!'4!Iuma("'(Du3eD!3Ia(2e!to!re4our3e:!-re9!
or!-reDator!3ommu('t'e4!QTab*e!4M1RM!!

1b!
1=! "T$%T!&'(a*!+e-ort!
!

Table!4.1.!W9-otIe4'TeD!3a4e4!o5!4-e3'e4!De3*'(e!'(Du3eD!b9!a49mmetr'3!a--are(t!3om-et't'o(!amo(2!
-re9:!'(3*uD'(2!-arameter4!4u3I!a4!tIe'r!ro*e!o5!De3*'('(2!4-e3'e4!a4!-r'mar9!Q1R!or!4e3o(Dar9!Q2R!-re9!to!
tIe!-reDator:!re4our3e!('3Ie!o1er*a-!QrIo+R:!re*at'1e!4-e3'e4!5't(e44!rat'o!QN1m5't(e44!o5!a*ter(ate!-re9:!
N2m5't(e44!o5!De3*'('(2!-re9h!a**!1a*ue4!a44umeD!I'2Ier!tIa(!1!eX3e-t!KIe(!(oteD!a4!4u3IR:!a(D!tIe!
4u4-e3teD!u*t'mate!3au4e!o5!a49mmetr9!amo(2!49m-atr'3!-re9M!Note!3ar'bou!a4!4-e3'e4!'(!De3*'(eM!

!
!
+e1'eK!o5!tIe!ma(9!4-e3'e4!a(D!494tem4!4tuD'eD!re1ea*eD!-ra3t'3a*!-atter(4!*'(N'(2!tIeoret'3a*!
me3Ia('4m4!to!botI!tIe!o33urre(3e!a(D!4tre(2tI!o5!a--are(t!3om-et't'o(!'(!(atura*!494tem4!QTab*e!4M1RM!
&'r4t:!4IareD!-reDat'o(!amo(2!-re9!4-e3'e4!'(Iere(t*9!'m-*'e4!4ome!*e1e*!o5!rea*'TeD!a--are(t!
3om-et't'o(!Vu4t!a4!4IareD!re4our3e4!'m-*9!eX-*o'tat'1e!3om-et't'o(!5or!5ooDM!Ga(9!eXam-*e4!o5!
a49mmetr'3!a--are(t!3om-et't'o(!o33ur!'(!tIe!ab4e(3e!o5!eX-*o'tat'1e!3om-et't'o(M!TIu4:!'(3rea4eD!
3o(4'Derat'o(!o5!-reDat'o(!a4!a!3ru3'a*!3om-o(e(t!o5!tIe!('3Ie!o5!4-e3'e4!a(D!('3Ie!o1er*a-!amo(2!
4-e3'e4!'4!Karra(teDM!U'1e(!-reDat'o(!('3Ie!o1er*a-!amo(2!-re9:!tIeor9!-reD'3t4!tIat!-r'mar9!-re9!
4-e3'e4!4Iou*D!eX-er'e(3e!re2u*ator9!-reDat'o(:!but!4e3o(Dar9!-re9!4u3I!a4!3ar'bou!4Iou*D!be!more!
4u43e-t'b*e!to!D'4-e(4ator9!-reDat'o(M!!
!
B(!our!re1'eK!o5!a49mmetr9!'(!a--are(t!3om-et't'o(!tI'4!-reD'3t'o(!'4!Ke**!4u--orteD:!K'tI!rare!or!
e(Da(2ereD!4-e3'e4!QeM2M!3ar'bouR!o5te(!4u33umb'(2!to!a!-reDator!-o-u*at'o(!QeM2M!Ko*5R!tIat!'4!
otIerK'4e!4u4ta'(eD!b9!a(!abu(Da(t!-r'mar9!-re9!QTab*e!1RM!
!

1=!
1O! "T$%T!&'(a*!+e-ort!
!

!
5.0!!CARIBOU!POPULATION!GENETICS!IN!WESTERN!ALBERTA!AND!EASTERN!
BRITISH!COLUMBIA!
!
5.1!SCOPE!
!
Ce!eXam'(eD!tIe!2e(et'3!D'1er4't9!o5!3ar'bou!at!tIe!'(D'1'Dua*:!-o-u*at'o(:!a(D!meta"-o-u*at'o(!*e1e*4M!
Ce!te4teD!2e(et'3!re*at'o(4I'-4!a(D!D'1er4't9!K'tI'(!a(D!amo(2!3ar'bou!-o-u*at'o(4!3Iara3ter'TeD!a4!
m'2rator9!or!re4'De(t:!or!'(3*uD'(2!botI!m'2rator9!a(D!re4'De(t!'(D'1'Dua*4M!\ur!2e(et'3!a(a*94e4!are!
a44'4t'(2!tIe!"ro1'(3'a*!Uo1er(me(t4:!"arN4!%a(aDa!a(D!a**!4taNeIo*Der4!to!e1a*uate!tIe'r!3ar'bou!
-o-u*at'o(!ma(a2eme(t!a(D!3o(4er1at'o(!-ro2ram4M!
!
\ur!5'(D'(24!o(!tI'4!-art'3u*ar!obVe3t'1e!are!5u**9!De43r'beD!'(!tIe!-a-erc!
Fc?e=itt@!<.!?.@!Fariani@!P.@!De..leEhite@!F.@!?e0esare@!A.!C.@!Forgantini@!9.@!Pei2@!?.@!QecREorth@!S.!T.!
an*!F.!Fusiani!(HIIU).!Pur=i=al!in!the!!ocRies!of!an!en*angere*!h:.ri*!sEarm!from!*i=erge*!
cari.ou!(!angifer!taran*us)!lineages.!Folecular!Lcolog:!JVM!WWXYWZU.!
$!4ummar9!o5!5'(D'(24!'4!a*4o!-ro1'DeD!be*oKM!
!
5.2!ABSTRACT!
!
B(!NortI!$mer'3a:!3ar'bou!Q!angifer!taran*usR!eX-er'e(3eD!D'1er4'5'3at'o(!'(!4e-arate!re5u2'a!be5ore!tIe!
*a4t!2*a3'a*!maX'mumM!Ueo2ra-I'3a*!'4o*at'o(!-roDu3eD!tIe!barre("2rou(D!3ar'bou!Q!angifer!taran*us!
groenlan*icusR!K'tI!'t4!D'4t'(3t'1e!m'2rator9!Iab't4:!a(D!tIe!KooD*a(D!3ar'bou!Q!angifer!taran*us!
cari.ouR:!KI'3I!Ia4!4eDe(tar9!beIa1'our!a(D!'4!(oK!'(!Da(2er!o5!eXt'(3t'o(M!Were'(!Ke!re-ort!o(!tIe!
-I9*o2e(et'34:!-o-u*at'o(!4tru3ture:!a(D!m'2rator9!Iab't4!o5!3ar'bou!'(!tIe!%a(aD'a(!+o3N'e4:!ut'*'T'(2!
mo*e3u*ar!a(D!4-at'a*!Data!5or!223!'(D'1'Dua*4M!G'to3Io(Dr'a*!>N$!a(a*94e4!4IoK!tIe!o33urre(3e!o5!tKo!
I'2I*9!D'1er2eD!*'(ea2e4h!tIe!Eer'(2'a(_Hura4'a(!a(D!NortI!$mer'3a(!*'(ea2e4:!KI'*e!m'3ro4ate**'te!Data!
re1ea*!tIat!-re4e(t"Da9!+o3N'e4]!3ar'bou!-o-u*at'o(4!Ia1e!re4u*teD!5rom!'(terbreeD'(2!betKee(!tIe4e!
D'1er2eD!*'(ea2e4M!$(!'3e"5ree!3orr'Dor!at!tIe!e(D!o5!tIe!*a4t!2*a3'at'o(!*'Ne*9!a**oKeD:!5or!tIe!5'r4t!t'me:!
5or!barre("2rou(D!3ar'bou!to!m'2rate!5rom!tIe!NortI!a(D!o1er*a-!K'tI!KooD*a(D!3ar'bou!eX-a(D'(2!
5rom!tIe!JoutIM!TIe!*a3N!o5!3orre*at'o(!betKee(!(u3*ear!a(D!m'to3Io(Dr'a*!Data!ma9!'(D'3ate!tIat!
D'55ere(t!e(1'ro(me(ta*!5or3e4:!KI'3I!m'2It!a*4o!'(3*uDe!Iuma("3au4eD!Iab'tat!*o44!a(D!5ra2me(tat'o(:!
are!3urre(t*9!re4Ia-'(2!tIe!-o-u*at'o(!4tru3ture!o5!tI'4!-o4t2*a3'a*!I9br'D!4KarmM!&urtIermore:!4-at'a*!
e3o*o2'3a*!Data!4IoK!e1'De(3e!o5!-ro(ou(3eD!m'2rator9!beIa1'our!K'tI'(!tIe!4tuD9!area:!a(D!4u22e4t!
tIat!tIe!-robab'*'t9!o5!be'(2!m'2rator9!ma9!be!I'2Ier!'(!'(D'1'Dua*!3ar'bou!3arr9'(2!a!Eer'(2'a(_!Hura4'a(!
Ia-*ot9-e!KI'3I!'4!ma'(*9!a44o3'ateD!K'tI!tIe!barre("2rou(D!4ub4-e3'e4M!\1era**:!our!a(a*94e4!re1ea*!a(!
'(tr'2u'(2!eXam-*e!o5!-o4t2*a3'a*!m'X'(2!o5!D'1er2eD!*'(ea2e4M!B(!a!*a(D43a-e!tIat!'4!3Ia(2'(2!Due!to!
3*'mat'3!a(D!Iuma("meD'ateD!5a3tor4:!a(!u(Der4ta(D'(2!o5!tIe4e!D9(am'34:!botI!-a4t!a(D!-re4e(t:!'4!
e44e(t'a*!5or!ma(a2eme(t!a(D!3o(4er1at'o(!o5!tIe4e!-o-u*at'o(4M!
!
5.3!SUMMARY!OF!FINDINGS!
!
Ce!'(1e4t'2ateD!12!D'55ere(t!3ar'bou!IerD4!a4!-art!o5!our!4tuD9:!KIere!IerD!Ka4!De5'(eD!u4ua**9!b9!
-ro1'(3'a*!K'*D*'5e!a2e(3'e4!a4!a!n*o3a*!-o-u*at'o(]:!t9-'3a**9!a33orD'(2!to!tIe!Kater4IeD!5reZue(teD!Q&'2M!
aM1RM!B(!tota*:!our!4tuD9!area!*'Ne*9!3o(ta'(4!a--roX'mate*9!1000!3ar'bou!D'4tr'buteD!'(!12!*o3a*!IerD4!
QTIoma4!d!Ura9!2002RM!$t!*ea4t!tIree!o5!tIe4e!IerD4!are!N(oK(!to!be!'(!De3*'(e!QTab*e!aM1RM!

1O!
1A! "T$%T!&'(a*!+e-ort!
!

!
Figure!5.1.!+a(2e4!o5!3ar'bou!IerD4!a(a*94eD!'(!tI'4!4tuD9!Qm'('mum!3o(1eX!-o*92o(4h!4tra'2It!*'(e4!o(!
ma-R!a(D!3ore!area4!u4eD!b9!mo('toreD!'(D'1'Dua*4!QNer(e*!Aag!-robab'*'t9!-o*92o(4h!3ur1eD!*'(e4R!'(!tIe!
%a(aD'a(!+o3N9!Gou(ta'(4:!$*berta!Q$ER!a(D!Er't'4I!%o*umb'a!QE%R!-ro1'(3e4M!>otteD!*'(e4!De*'(eate!tIe!
bou(Dar'e4!betKee(!5eDera*!QmarNeD!a4!&eDera*R!a(D!-ro1'(3'a*!e3ot9-e!De4'2(at'o(4!o5!IerD4!Q$E!or!
E%RM!Uree(!4IaD'(2!De-'3t4!(at'o(a*!-arN4!a(D!-ro1'(3'a*!-rote3teD!area4h!to-o2ra-I9!a(D!maVor!roaD4!
are!a*4o!'(D'3ateDM

1A!
20! "T$%T!&'(a*!+e-ort!
!

!
! ! "#$%&'(!)(*+,-.%+$-*! ! ! !
70+%+*8! =!>.0%+.44&!
/(01! 2$1(! 3(1(0.4! 546(0%.! ;%.%9*! N H" A< =!?+,0.%$0& =!7@/!
2$49:6+.! ?+,0.%$0&!
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>.0*-+'! >5<! ;$9%8(0-!?$9-%.+-! B! ?$9-%.+-! I-#0(.*+-,! LP! FGPFO! KGLOL! LP! LP! K!
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V.*'(0! VC>! ;$9%8(0-!?$9-%.+-! ?$9-%.+-! C$0%8(0-! I-!)(#4+-(! LJ! FGHDL! DGLIP! EF! HF! OE!
W9+-%(%%(! WNI! ;$9%8(0-!?$9-%.+-! B! C$0%8(0-! ;%.64(! LL! FGPJH! KGDOD! DD! KO! OD!
?$6(04&! ?X7! ;$9%8(0-!?$9-%.+-! B! C$0%8(0-! ;%.64(! J! Y! Y! KH! KH! F!
>+-(! >IC! ;$9%8(0-!?$9-%.+-! B! C$0%8(0-! ;%.64(! E! Y! Y! F! F! F!
<(1!Z+44$M! <Z<! ;$9%8(0-!?$9-%.+-! B! C$0%8(0-! N-A-$M-! E! Y! Y! F! LFF! F!
7.-RR! 75C! ;$9%8(0-!?$9-%.+-! ?$9-%.+-! C$0%8(0-! <+*A!$R!"S%+0'.%+$-! E! Y! Y! F! DF! LFF! !
!
! Table!5.1.!%ar'bou!IerD4:!5eDera*!a(D!-ro1'(3'a*!e3ot9-e!De4'2(at'o(:!a(D!3o(4er1at'o(!4tatu4M
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

20!
21! "T$%T!&'(a*!+e-ort!
!

!
Le1e*4!o5!2e(et'3!D'1er4't9!QDH!a(D!<+R!Kere!moDerate*9!I'2I!amo(2!IerD4!QTab*e!aM1R!a(D!3om-arab*e!to!
otIer!-o-u*at'o(!*e1e*!4tuD'e4!o5!3ar'bou!IerD4!QG3Lou2I*'(!et!alM!2004h!o'tt*au!2004h!Eou*et!et!alM!200=RM!
WoKe1er:!tIe!L'tt*e!JmoN9!IerD!IaD!*oKer!*e1e*4!o5!D'1er4't9!3om-areD!to!tIe!otIer!IerD4!QTab*e!aM1RM!
!
Ce!obta'(eD!l!a00!000!^W&!a(D!U"J!*o3at'o(4!5rom!231!aDu*t!5ema*e!3ar'bou!5rom!2001!to!200=!
tIrou2Iout!tIe!12!3ar'bou!IerD4M!$!5u**!4u'te!o5!m'2rator9!beIa1'our4!5rom!4eDe(tar9:!to!-art'a**9!or!5u**9!
m'2rator9!3Iara3ter'TeD!ea3I!-o-u*at'o(!QTab*e!aM1h!&'2M!AM1!pbe*oKqR!TIe!-ro-ort'o(!o5!m'2rator9!
'(D'1'Dua*4!'(!3ar'bou!IerD4!ra(2eD!5rom!0M1O!Q'(!tIe!"ar4('-!IerDR!to!1M00!'(!tIe!NarraKa9:!+eD!+o3N!
"ra'r'e!%reeN:!a(D!+eD!C'**oK!IerD4!QTab*e!aM1RM!
!
TKe(t9"5our!-o*9mor-I'3!4'te4!Kere!'De(t'5'eD!'(!tIe!3o(tro*!re2'o(!o5!m'to3Io(Dr'a*!>N$!'(!tIe!4tuD9!
area!KI'3I!re4u*teD!'(!1=!u('Zue!Ia-*ot9-e4:!(eat*9!Vo'(eD!'(to!tIe!tKo!*'(ea2e4!'De(t'5'eD!-re1'ou4*9!a4!
tIe!NortI!$mer'3a(!*'(ea2e!QN$LR!a(D!tIe!Eer'(2'a(_Hura4'a(!*'(ea2e!QEHLRM!EotI!*'(ea2e4!Kere!5ou(D!
tIrou2Iout!tIe!4tuD9!area!Q&'2M!aM2RM!
!
!

!
Figure!5.2.!GeD'a("Vo'('(2!(etKorN4!o5!QaR!tIe!Eer'(2'a(_Hura4'a(!a(D!QbR!tIe!NortI!$mer'3a(!*'(ea2e4M!
Number4!o(!bra(3Ie4!'(D'3ate!(umber!o5!mutat'o(4!'5!2reater!tIa(!o(eM!TIe!2eo2ra-I'3a*!D'4tr'but'o(!o5!
botI!Ia-*o2rou-4!'4!4IoK(!'(!Q3R!QreD!3'r3*e4c!N$Lh!9e**oK!3'r3*e4c!EHLRM!
!
%ar'bou!'(!our!4tuD9!area!Ia1e!*o(2!bee(!3o(4'DereD!to!be*o(2!to!tIe!KooD*a(D!4ub4-e3'e4:!K'tI!tIe!
barre("2rou(D!4ub4-e3'e4!o33urr'(2!'(!tIe!tu(Dra:!Iu(DreD4!o5!N'*ometre4!5urtIer!(ortIM!Were!Ke!4IoK!

21!
22! "T$%T!&'(a*!+e-ort!
!

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Gou(ta'(4!Q&'2M!43RM!H1e(!tIou2I!tIe!EHL!a(D!N$L!D'1er2eD!be5ore!tIe!o(4et!o5!tIe!*a4t!2*a3'a*!maX'mum!
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5rom!re5u2'a!Dur'(2!"*e'4to3e(e!2*a3'a*!393*e4!Ia4!*e5t!a!2e(et'3!*e2a39!a3ro44!ma(9!taXa:!-art'3u*ar*9!'(!
Ke4ter(!NortI!$mer'3a!Q&o(ta(e**a!et!a*M!200O:!Lat3I!et!a*M!200A:!\]Ne'**!et!a*M!200a:!Jo*t'4!et!a*!1AA=RM!
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3*a44'5'3at'o(4M!TIe4e!-atter(4!are!e1e(!e1'De(t!'(!*ar2e:!1a2'*e!mamma*4:!'(3*uD'(2!Ko*1e4!QCe3NKortI!
et!a*M!200a:!2010R:!b*a3N!bear4!Q"ea3o3N!et!a*M!200=:!Jto(e!a(D!%ooN!2000:!CooD'(2!a(D!CarD!1AA=R:!a(D!
mu*e!Deer!QLat3I!et!a*M!200O:!200ARM!J'm'*ar!-atter(4!ma9!a*4o!De43r'be!tIe!-I9*o2eo2ra-I'3!I'4tor9!o5!
3ar'bou!
!
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eu'(tette!IerD!Ka4!(ot!4'2('5'3a(t*9!D'55ere(t'ateD!5rom!tIe!IerD4!'(!NarraKa9:!+eD!+o3N!"ra'r'e!%reeN!
a(D!"ar4('-M!TIe!"ar4('-!IerD!Ka4!a*4o!(ot!4'2('5'3a(t*9!D'55ere(t'ateD!5rom!tIe!IerD!'(!Ye((eD9!QTab*e!
aM2RM!TI'4!m'rror4:!to!a!2ooD!eXte(t:!tIe!U"J!te*emetr9!Data!o(!ra(2e!o1er*a-!Q&'2M!aM1RM!
!
Table!5.2.!"a'rK'4e![JT!1a*ue4!betKee(!IerD4!u4'(2!mt>N$!Qu--er!D'a2o(a*R!a(D!m'3ro4ate**'te4!Q*oKer!
D'a2o(a*RM!

!
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%*u4ter!2!*ar2e*9!3orre4-o(DeD!to!tIe!IerD!'(!tIe!L'tt*e!JmoN9!area:!3*u4ter!1!Ka4!mo4t*9!3o(5'(eD!to!
NarraKa9!a(D!+eD!+o3N!"ra'r'e!%reeN:!3*u4ter!3!IaD!a!more!4outIer*9!D'4tr'but'o(!but!a*4o!IaD!'(D'1'Dua*4!
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'(3or-orateD:!tIe!-ro2ram!THJJ!a*4o!re1ea*eD!tIat!tIe!mo4t!*'Ne*9!(umber!o5!3*u4ter4!Ka4!O!m!4:!9'e*D'(2!
a!-'3ture!tIat!'4!*ar2e*9!'(!a2reeme(t!K'tI!tIat!obta'(eD!K'tI!Jtru3ture!Q&'2M!aM3bR:!9et!-ro1'D'(2!a!I'2Ier!
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22!
23! "T$%T!&'(a*!+e-ort!
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Q&'2M!aM4RM!TIe!be4t"4u--orteD!moDe*!Ka4!a!4'm-*'5'eD!5u(3t'o(!tIat!re*ateD!tIe!-robab'*'t9!o5!be*o(2'(2!to!
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23!
24! "T$%T!&'(a*!+e-ort!
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a(D!m'2rator9:!1R!a(D!tIe!-robab'*'t9!o5!a(!'(D'1'Dua*!3ar'bou!to!be*o(2!to!tIe!Eer'(2'a(_!Hura4'a(!
*'(ea2e:!3o(D't'o(a*!o(!ea3I!o5!tIe!ma'(!THJJ!2e(et'3!3*u4ter4!Ke!'De(t'5'eD!QO!m!4:!&'2M!aM3bRM!Ue(et'3!
3*u4ter4!are!3o*our!3oDeD!a4!'(!&'2M!aM3QbRM!%o(D't'o(a*!-robab'*'t'e4!Kere!Der'1eD!5rom!a!2e(era*'TeD!
*'(ear!m'XeD!moDe*!ru(!o(!'(D'1'Dua*!3ar'bou!Qn!m!223RM!
!
%om-areD!to!t9-'3a*!KooD*a(D!-o-u*at'o(4!e*4eKIere!'(!%a(aDa:!3ar'bou!'(!tIe!%a(aD'a(!+o3N'e4!eXI'b't!
a!more!-ro(ou(3eD!te(De(39!to!m'2rate!QEer2eruD!et!alM!1AA0h!Terr9!et!alM!2000h!$--4!et!alM!2001h!Eou*et!
et!alM!200=RM!\ur!moDe**'(2!re1ea*eD!tIat!K'tI'(!tIe!mou(ta'(!-arN!a(D!tIe!NortIer(!3ar'bou!
-o-u*at'o(4:!tIe!-robab'*'t9!o5!be'(2!m'2rator9!'(3rea4eD!'5!a(!'(D'1'Dua*!3ar'bou!be*o(2eD!to!tIe!
Eer'(2'a(_Hura4'a(!*'(ea2eM!B(!tIe4e!e(1'ro(me(t4:!m'2rator9!ab'*'t9!ma9!re-re4e(t!a(!'m-orta(t!
aDa-t'1e!tra't!o5!tIe4e!2e(et'3a**9!u('Zue!nI9br'D!-o-u*at'o(4]:!KIo4e!Iab'tat!-re4e(t4!tIe!3Ia**e(2e!o5!
4-at'a*!a(D!4ea4o(a*!3Ia(2e4!'(!5ora2e!Zua*'t9M!B(!5a3t:!m'2rator9!3ar'bou!5reZue(t!tIe!tu(Dra"*'Ne!a*-'(e!
area4!Dur'(2!tIe!4ummer!o(*9!Q&'2M!AM1!pbe*oKqR:!tIat!'4:!tIe!-er'oD!o5!I'2I!-*a(t!-roDu3t'1't9!QJIa3N*eto(!
1AAAh!$--4!et!alM!2001RM!
!
%*ear*9!tIe!(o(aDa-t'1e!(ature!o5!tIe!2e(et'3!marNer4!em-*o9eD!Iere!Doe4!(ot!a**oK!5or!tIe!Dete3t'o(!o5!
a(9!3au4a*!re*at'o(4I'-!betKee(!2e(et'3!a(D!-Ie(ot9-'3!QbeIa1'oura*R!tra't4M!$*tIou2I!Ke!3a((ot!5u**9!
3om-reIe(D!tIe!a3tua*!4'2('5'3a(3e!o5!tIe!Dete3teD!a44o3'at'o(:!'t!'4!'m-orta(t!to!4tre44!tIat!m'2rat'o(!
Ia4!bee(!a(!aDa-t'1e!re4-o(4e!to!3*'mate!3Ia(2e!'(!tIe!-a4t!a(D!'4!-reD'3teD!to!reDu3e!tIe!r'4N!o5!
eXt'r-at'o(!2'1e(!5uture!3*'mate!3Ia(2e!Q$u4t'(!d!+eI5'43I!200ah!Eroe(('ma(!et!alM!200bh!Le1'(4N9!et!alM!
200=RM!+e4ear3I!3o(5'rm4!tIat!3*'mat'3!'m-a3t4!K'**!be!reDu3eD!5or!4-e3'e4!K'tI!a!beIa1'oura*!
-reD'4-o4't'o(!5or!m'2rat'o(!Q$u4t'(!d!+eI5'43I!200ah!Eroe(('ma(!et!alM!200bRM!&urtIer!'(1e4t'2at'o(4!
4Iou*D!e1a*uate!tIe!re*at'o(4I'-4!betKee(!tIe!-re4e(3e!o5!tIe!tKo!m'to3Io(Dr'a*!>N$!*'(ea2e4!'(!our!
3ar'bou!-o-u*at'o(4:!a(D!tIe!'m-*'3at'o(4!5or!'(D'1'Dua*!5't(e44!a(D!5or!-o-u*at'o(!4ur1'1a*!o5!tIe!
'(terre*ateD!4eDe(tar9!a(D!m'2rator9!*'5e!4trate2'e4M!
!

24!
2a! "T$%T!&'(a*!+e-ort!
!

\ur!Data!a*4o!re1ea*eD!tIat!-o-u*at'o(4!a*o(2!tIe!(ortIKe4t_!4outIea4t!aX'4!o5!tIe!+o3N9!Gou(ta'(4!are!
*e44!D'1er2e(t!tIa(:!5or!'(4ta(3e:!tIe!L'tt*e!JmoN9!IerD:!ea4t!o5!W'2IKa9!40!Q&'2M!aM1RM!TI'4!IerD!'4!4-at'a**9!
3o(t'2uou4!to!tIe!$!*a!"e3Ie!IerD!Q&'2M!aM1R:!9et!5rom!a!2e(et'3!-o'(t!o5!1'eK!'t!3o(4t'tute4!a!u('Zue!a(D!
4e-arate!3*u4ter!Dete3tab*e!u4'(2!botI!mt>N$!a(D!m'3ro4ate**'te!Data!a(D!K'tI!or!K'tIout!tIe!
'(3or-orat'o(!o5!4-at'a**9!eX-*'3't!Data!'(to!a(a*9t'3a*!moDe*4!QTab*e!aM2:!&'2M!aMaa!a(D!aMabRM!TIe!L'tt*e!
JmoN9!IerD!a*4o!Ia--e(4!to!be!tIe!o(*9!o5!nborea*]!e3ot9-e:!a33orD'(2!to!botI!&eDera*!a(D!"ro1'(3'a*!
Q$*bertaR!3ar'bou!De4'2(at'o(4:!KI'3I!Ka4!a*arm'(2!'(!4ome!re4-e3t4!be3au4e!o5!'t4!re*at'1e!'4o*at'o(!5rom!
otIer!borea*!KooD*a(D!-o-u*at'o(4!QtIe!3*o4e4t!otIer!o(e!be'(2!l!100!Nm!aKa9!a(D!a*4o!at!'mmeD'ate!
r'4N!o5!eXt'r-at'o(RM!Yet:!tIe!L'tt*e!JmoN9!IerD!a*4o!4IoK4!a!I'2I!-ro-ort'o(!o5!barre("2rou(D!Ia-*ot9-e4:!
4u22e4t'(2!tIat!De4-'te!Ia1'(2!or'2'(ateD!5rom!tIe!4ame!-o4t2*a3'a*!e1e(t!a4!tIe!otIer!-o-u*at'o(4:!
otIer!5a3tor4!r!-o44'b*9!a(tIro-o2e('3!r!Ia1e!3o(tr'buteD!to!'t4!re3e(t!'(De-e(De(t!e1o*ut'o(M!
!
!

2a!
2b! "T$%T!&'(a*!+e-ort!
!

!
6.0!VEGETATION!AND!HUMAN!DISTURBANCE!MAPPING!IN!THE!
TRANSBOUNDARY!STUDY!AREA!
!
6.1!INTRODUCTION!
!
To!a3I'e1e!our!re4ear3I!obVe3t'1e4:!a!3o(4'4te(t!4-at'a*!Databa4e!o5!1e2etat'o(!re*ateD!Q*a(D!3o1er:!
3a(o-9!3*o4ure:!D'4turba(3e!De(4't9:!4ta(D!a2eR!a(D!a(tIro-o2e('3!Qa(tIro-o2e('3!a(D!(atura*!5eature4R!
Data!'4!reZu'reD!5or!tIe!e(t're!$*berta!a(D!E%!-ort'o(4!o5!tIe!4tuD9!area!Q&'2ure!2M1RM!!TIe!tra(4bou(Dar9!
(ature!o5!our!4tuD9!area!re4u*t4!'(!o1er!=!D'55ere(t!Vur'4D'3t'o(4!Q&'2ure!1R!a(D!at!*ea4t!3!D'55ere(t!
e3o*o2'3a*!or!1e2etat'o(!'(1e(tor9!metIoD4!betKee(!-ro1'(3e4!a(D!(at'o(a*!"arN4!QHL%!'(!"arN4!%a(aDa:!
$^B!'(!$*berta:!T+BG!Data!'(!Er't'4I!%o*umb'aRM!&urtIermore:!ma(9!Ne9!-ort'o(4!o5!our!4tuD9!area!Kere!
(ot!'(1e(tor'eD!Dur'(2!-ro1'(3'a*!1e2etat'o(Pt'mber!'(1e(tor'e4!QeM2M:!tIe!C'**moreRM!!!To!(a1'2ate!tI'4!
4'2('5'3a(t!barr'er!to!a3I'e1'(2!our!re4ear3I!obVe3t'1e4:!Ke!4et!out!'(!tI'4!5'r4t!9ear!o5!tIe!-roVe3t!to!
De1e*o-!remote*9"4e(4eD!UBJ!Databa4e4!5or!*a(D!3o1er!a(D!otIer!1e2etat'1e!3om-o(e(t4!5or!our!4tuD9!
areaM!Ce!KorNeD!'(!3o**aborat'o(!K'tI!tIe!&ootI'**4!+e4ear3I!B(4t'tute!Ur'TT*9!Eear!+e4ear3I!"ro2ram!
Q&+BUE+"R!*a(D!3o1er!ma--'(2!'('t'at'1e:!*eD!b9!>rM!Ure2!G3>erm'D!at!tIe!F('1er4't9!o5!%a*2ar9]4!&ootI'**4!
&a3'*'t9!5or!UBJ!'(!-art(er4I'-!K'tI!UorDo(!Jte(Iou4e!o5!tIe!&+BUE+"M!!\1er!tIe!*a4t!O!9ear4:!tIe!&+BUE+"!
Ia4!eX-e(DeD!m'**'o(4!o5!Do**ar4!De1e*o-'(2!*a(D!3o1er!a(D!Iuma(!D'4turba(3e!*a9er4!5or!tIe!$*berta!
-ort'o(!o5!tIe!4tuD9!area:!a(D!our!2oa*4!Kere!to!eXte(D!tI'4!*a(D!3o1er!ma--'(2!to!tIe!u(ma--eD!E%!
-ort'o(!o5!tIe!4tuD9!area!QeM2M:!&'2ure!2M1h!Tab*e!bM1RM!!
! J'(3e!'t4!*au(3I!'(!1AAA:!tIe!&+BUE+"!Ia4!3o(Du3teD!4e1e(!-Ia4e4!o5!*a(D43a-e!ma--'(2!'(!Ke4ter(!
$*berta:!K'tI!our!u-DateD!eXte(4'o(!to!*a(D4!'(!Er't'4I!%o*umb'a!re-re4e(t'(2!tIe!4e1e(tI!-Ia4eM!!>ur'(2!
tI'4!t'me!tIe9!Ia1e!'De(t'5'eD!4e1era*!Ne9!*e44o(4!to!-roDu3'(2!e55e3t'1e!a(D!re*'ab*e!remote*9"4e(4eD!
ma--'(2!-roDu3t4!5or!K'*D*'5e!re4ear3I:!'(3*uD'(2c!1R!a(!em-Ia4'4!o(!3o(t'(uou4!ratIer!tIa(!3ate2or'3a*!
ma--'(2:!2R!a!reDu3t'o(!o5!4-at'a*!'(3o(4'4te(3'e4:!a(D!3R!a!Kar'(e44!o5!o1er"4'm-*'3at'o(!QG3>erm'D!et!
a*M!B(!-re-RM!!TIe!3omb'(at'o(!o5!tIe4e!ma--'(2!-I'*o4o-I'e4!a(D!a(!a--*'3at'o(!5rameKorN!5ou(DeD!o(!
e3o*o29!*eD!to!a!remote"4e(4'(2!4trate29!o5!-roDu3'(2!mu*t'-*e!4-at'a*!Data!-roDu3t4!to!3a-ture!tIe!
mu*t'"attr'bute!(ature!o5!3om-*eX!*a(D43a-e4!QG3>erm'D!et!a*M!200a:!G3>erm'D!et!a*M!200A:!G3>erm'D!et!
a*M!B(!-re-RM!
!
6.2!METHODS!
!
W.H.J!9an*co=er!\!Tegetation!?ataM!!!
TI'4!'(3*uDe4!a44emb*eD!*a(D3o1er!a(D!otIer!a(tIro-o2e('3!a(D!b'o-I94'3a*!Data4et4!ma(a2eD!u(Der!tIe!
au4-'3e4!o5!tIe!&+BUE+"!b9!>rM!Ure2!G3>erm'D!'(!3o**aborat'o(!K'tI!UorDo(!Jte(Iou4e!u(Der!tIe!Data!
4Iar'(2!a2reeme(t!4'2(eD!0AP0=P200=M!
! &+BUE+"!-er4o((e*!3o(Du3teD!2rou(D"trutI'(2!1e2etat'o(!4am-*'(2!Data!at!l3O00!5'e*D!-*ot4!a3ro44!
tIe!4tuD9!area:!2e(era**9!K'tI'(!ia00m!5rom!roaD"a33e44'b*e!area4M!!B(!aDD't'o(:!-er4o((e*!5rom!tI'4!
re4ear3I!-roVe3t!3o(Du3teD!a(!aDD't'o(a*!=O!-*ot4!Dur'(2!eXte(4'1e!ba3N3ou(tr9!I'Ne4!a(D!5ro(t"3ou(tr9!
re3o((a'44a(3e!Q&'2ure!bM1RM!!>ata!3o**e3teD!at!-*ot4!'(3*uDeD!*a(D3o1er!3*a44'5'3at'o(:!tree!4-e3'e4!
3om-o4't'o(:!a(D!1ert'3a*!Iem'4-Ier'3a*!3a(o-9!3*o4ure!-Ioto2ra-I9M!!+emote!4e(4'(2!'ma2er9!Ka4!
3om-'*eD!5rom!La(D4at"a!TG:!La(D4at"=!HTGs:!a(D!G\>BJ!'ma2er9:!a(D!aDD't'o(a*!Data!4our3e4!'(3*uDeD!
a!D'2'ta*!e*e1at'o(!moDe*:!$*berta!^e2etat'o(!B(1e(tor9!Q$^BR:!a(D!otIer!5ree*9!a1a'*ab*e!-roDu3t4M!Ce!
Ia1e!obta'(eD!u-DateD!5're!-o*92o(!bou(Dar'e4!5rom!"arN4!%a(aDa!a(D!$E"J+>!5or!tIe!4tuD9!area!a(D!
Ia1e!'(te2rateD!tIem!'(to!tIe!eX'4t'(2!*a(D3o1er!moDe*'(2!e55ort4M!
!

2b!
2=! "T$%T!&'(a*!+e-ort!
!

+a4ter!a(D!1e3tor!UBJ!-roDu3t4!-roDu3eD!5rom!tI'4!KorN!'(3*uDeD!QTab*e!bM1Rc!
!
Vegetation!! Topographic/Hydrologic!
t!&ore4t!3roK(!3*o4urec!0_100g!Q&'2ure!bM2R! t!H*e1at'o(!
t!La(D3o1erc!%ate2or'e4!'(3*uDeDc!u-*a(D!tree4:! t!J*o-e!
Ket*a(D!tree4:!u-*a(D!Ierb4:!Ket*a(D!Ierb4:! t!$4-e3t!
4Irub4:!Kater:!barre(!*a(D:!a(D!4(oKP'3e! t!%ur1ature!
t!Tree!4-e3'e4!3om-o4't'o(c!0g!3o('5erou4!_! t!W'**4IaDe!Q4o*ar!'(4o*at'o(R!
100g!3o('5erou4! t!To-o2ra-I'3!-o4't'o(!'(DeXc!5rom!Dra'(a2e4!Q"R!
t!Norma*'TeD!>'55ere(3e!^e2etat'o(!B(DeX! to!r'D2e4!QsR!
QN>^BRc!'(DeX!o5!2ree(!1e2etat'o(! t!Jtream4!
t!Eur(eD!3o1er!t9-e4:!'(3*uD'(2!9ear!o5!5're! t!LaNe4!
t!Jta(D!a2e!Q'(!$*berta!o(*9R! t!J(oK!3o1er!Q&'2ure!bM3R!
!
!
bM2M2!<nthro2ogenic!*ata.!
!!!
TIrou2I!3oo-erat'o(!K'tI!$*berta!J+>!our!Databa4e!o5!*'(ear!5eature4!QroaD4:!-'-e*'(e4:!a(D!4e'4m'3!
*'(e4R!K'tI'(!$*berta!'4!-ro1'DeD!b9!tIe!$*berta!J+>!$33e44!Databa4eM!!To!3reate!a!4'm'*ar!Databa4e!'(!E%:!
Ke!a3Zu'reD!J"\T!'ma2er9!Qa"meter!re4o*ut'o(R!a(D!ortIore3t'5'eD!a'r-Ioto4!tIrou2I!E%!3o**aborator4!
>a*e!Je'-:!E%"G\&:!a(D!Ga*3om!Ura9!
a(D!Earbara!Ura9"C'N4te(:!B(te2rateD!
La(D!Ga(a2eme(t!EureauR!5or!ma(ua*!
D'2't'T'(2!o5!rema'('(2!*'(ear!5eature4!
tIrou2Iout!tIe!E%!-ort'o(!o5!tIe!4tuD9!
areaM!!^e3tor!UBJ!-roDu3t4!-roDu3eD!
5rom!tI'4!KorN!'(3*uDe!4-at'a*!-o'(t:!
-o*9*'(e:!a(D!-o*92o(!re-re4e(tat'o(!o5!
roaD4:!4e'4m'3!*'(e4:!-'-e*'(e4:!Ke**!-aD4:!
a(D!3ut"b*o3N4!a3ro44!tIe!4tuD9!areaM!
!

Figure!6.1.!!Lo3at'o(4!o5!1e2etat'o(!
4am-*'(2!-*ot4!3o**e3teD!'(!Er't'4I!
%o*umb'a!5or!tIe!-ur-o4e4!o5!2rou(D"
trutI'(2!a!(eK!remote*9"4e(4eD!*a(D!
3o1er!ra4ter!5or!tIe!4tuD9!areaM!!"*ot4!
Kere!1'4'teD!'(!5ro(t!3ou(tr9!area4!
QG3Ure2or!a(D!+eDK'**oK!+'1er!
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ba3N3ou(tr9!I'Ne!Dur'(2!4ummer:!200=M

2=!
2O! "T$%T!&'(a*!+e-ort!
!

!
Table!6.1.!Terra'(!a(D!*a(D3o1er!UBJ!*a9er4!u4eD!'(!-reD'3t'1e!+J&!moDe*4!5or!3ar'bou:!Ko*1e4:!a(D!
moo4e!K'tI'(!tIe!Ea(55:!7a4-er:!a(D!$!*a!"e3Ie!4tuD9!area:!2001_200AM!
Variable! Variable! Range!of! Description!
Type! Values!
Terrain!
NortI! %ate2or'3a*! 0:1! NortI!a4-e3t4!5rom!31aj!to!4aj!
JoutI! %ate2or'3a*! 0:1! JoutI!a4-e3t4!5rom!13aj!to!22aj!
Ha4t! %ate2or'3a*! 0:1! Ha4t!a4-e3t4!5rom!4aj!to!13aj!
Ce4t! %ate2or'3a*! 0:1! Ce4t!!a4-e3t4!5rom!22aj!to!31aj!
&*at! %ate2or'3a*! 0:1! No!a4-e3t!Q4*o-e!m!0R!
J*o-e! %o(t'(uou4! 0_bO2=g! "er3e(t!4*o-e!QeZu'1a*e(t!to!!0!_!A0jR!
H*e1at'o(! %o(t'(uou4! aa3_3Aaam H*e1at'o(!'(!meter4!
Landcover!
$*-'(e!Earre(! %ate2or'3a*! 0:1! Earre(!2rou(D!betKee(!2200!a(D!2=00mM!
$*-'(e!Werb! %ate2or'3a*! 0:1! $*-'(e!meaDoK4!abo1e!2200mM!
$*-'(e!JIrub! %ate2or'3a*! 0:1! JIrub!3ommu('t'e4!abo1e!2200mM!
Eur(! %ate2or'3a*! 0:1! $rea4!bur(eD!1Aa0!to!-re4e(tM!
%*o4eD!%o('5er! %ate2or'3a*! 0:1! %o('5erou4!5ore4t!K'tI!la0g!3a(o-9!3*o4ure!a(D!l=0g!
3o('5er!3om-o4't'o(M!
>e3'Duou4! %ate2or'3a*! 0:1! >e3'Duou4!Dom'(ateD!5ore4t4!i30g!3o('5erou4M!
&ore4t!
B3e!a(D!+o3N! %ate2or'3a*! 0:1! "erma(e(t!'3e:!4(oK!a(D!a*-'(e!ro3N!abo1e!2=00mM!
LoK!Earre(! %ate2or'3a*! 0:1! Earre(!but!-o44'b*e!4t'**!-roDu3t'1e!2rou(D!be*oK!2200mM
LoK!Werb! %ate2or'3a*! 0:1! Ura44*a(D4!be*oK!2200m!
LoK!JIrub! %ate2or'3a*! 0:1! JIrub!4ta(D4!be*oK!2200mM!
G'XeD!&ore4t! %ate2or'3a*! 0:1! &ore4t4!l30g!a(D!i=0g!3o('5erou4M!
\-e(!%o('5er! %ate2or'3a*! 0:1! %o('5erou4!5ore4t!K'tI!ia0g!3a(o-9!3*o4ure!a(D!l=0g!
3o('5er!3om-o4't'o(M!
Cet*a(D4!a(D! %ate2or'3a*! 0:1! Cater!a(D!Ket*a(D4!at!a**!e*e1at'o(4M!
Cater!
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30!
31! "T$%T!&'(a*!+e-ort!
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7.0!PREDATOR!EFFICIENCY!OVER!A!REGIONAL!GRADIENT!OF!HUMAN!
DEVELOPMENT!!
!
7.1!SCOPE!
!
Ce!are!u4'(2!U"J"ba4eD!Ko*5!mo1eme(t!Data!to!aDDre44!IoK!a(tIro-o2e('3!3Ia(2e4!to!5ore4t!4tru3ture!
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7.2!SCHEDULE!
!!
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7.3!INTRODUCTION!
!
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7.4!METHODS!
!
=M4M1!!esource!Pelection![unctions!
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31!
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33!
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34!
3a! "T$%T!&'(a*!+e-ort!
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7.5!RESULTS!
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=MaM1!!esource!Pelection![unctions!
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D'4ta(3e4!5or!D'4ta(3e!to!-r'mar9!roaD4!'(!botI!4tuD9!area4!Q&'2ure4!=M3:!=M4:!=M=:!=MORM!!WoKe1er:!'(!tIe!
+eDK'**oK!tIe!ZuaDrat'3!term!5or!D'4ta(3e!to!roaD4!4u22e4teD!tIat!tIe9!4e*e3teD!5or!area4!botI!3*o4e!to!
a(D!5ar!5rom!roaD4:!a(D!a1o'DeD!'(termeD'ate!area4M!!Je*e3t'o(!'(!tIe!+eDK'**oK!5or!4e'4m'3!*'(e4!Ka4!a*4o!
5't!'(!a!(o("*'(ear!5a4I'o(:!K'tI!u4e!-eaN'(2!about!b00m!5rom!4e'4m'3!*'(e4M!TIe9!-re5erreD!area4!3*o4e!to!
Kater:!a(D!a*4o!-re5erreD!to!be!3*o4er!to!tra'*4!'(!tIe!Ea(55:!7a4-er:!a(D!$!*a!"e3Ie!4tuD9!areaM!!TIe9!a*4o!
4e*e3teD!5or!bur(4!a(D!otIer!o-e(!Iab'tat4!a(D!a1o'DeD!I'2I!e*e1at'o(Pa*-'(e!area4M!!!
! GoDe*!-er5orma(3e!5or!tIe!+eDK'**oK!Ko*5!+J&!bu'*t!K'tI!o(*9!(m2!Ko*1e4!Ka4!Zu'te!-oorM!+\%!
43ore4!3o(5'rmeD!KeaN!D'43r'm'(ator9!-oKer!K'tI!a(!+\%!m!0M=1M!%*a44'5'3at'o(!4u33e44!Ka4!a*4o!Zu'te!
-oor:!K'tI!o(*9!b4g!o5!*o3at'o(4!be'(2!3*a44'5'eD!3orre3t*9M!&'(a**9:!4'm'*ar!to!tIe!3ar'bou!moDe*!1a*'Dat'o(:!
tIe!moDe*!1a*'DateD!Ke**!a3ro44!tIe!e(t're!4et!at!ra(Dom!Qr4!m!s0MAa:!JH!m!0M03R:!but!-oor*9!3om-ar'(2!
o(e!Ko*5!to!tIe!otIer!Qr4!m!s0M3:!JH!m!0M10R:!I'2I*'2It'(2!tIe!'m-orta(3e!o5!'(3rea4'(2!4am-*'(2!a3ro44!a!
2reater!(umber!o5!-a3N4M!!B(!tIe!Ea(55:!7a4-er!a(D!$!*a!"e3Ie!4tuD9!area:!tIe!to-!K'(ter!Ko*5!moDe*!IaD!a!
4tro(2!+\%!o5!0MOA3:!Demo(4trat'(2!eX3e**e(t!to!out4ta(D'(2!D'43r'm'(at'o(M!!Y"5o*D4!3ro44!1a*'Dat'o(!
re1ea*eD!eX3e**e(t!-reD'3t'1e!3a-a3't9!to!botI!moDe*!tra'('(2!Data!QJ-earma(!ra(N!3orre*at'o(!
rIom0MAA=R!a(D!K'tIIe*D!moDe*!1a*'Dat'o(!^W&!Data!QJ-earma(!ra(N!3orre*at'o(!rIom0MAOaRM!
!
!

3b!
3=! "T$%T!&'(a*!+e-ort!
!

a) b)

Figure!7.3.!B(!tIe!+eDK'**oK!4tuD9!area:!aR!Co*1e4!4e*e3teD!area4!about!b00m!5rom!*'(ear!5eature4:!
a1o'D'(2!tIem!4*'2It*9!3*o4er!tIa(!tI'4!D'4ta(3e:!but!4tro(2*9!a1o'D'(2!D'4ta(3e4!2reater!tIa(!about!
1000m!5rom!roaD4M!WoKe1er:!Ko*1e4!bR!4tro(2*9!a1o'DeD!area4!3*o4e!to!roaD4M!Je*e3t'1't9!5or!D'4ta(3e!to!
a3t'1e!roaD4!a(D!*'(ear!5eature4!are!4IoK(!'(!b*ue!5rom!tIe!re4our3e!4e*e3t'o(!5u(3t'o(!Q+J&RM!$*4o!
4IoK(!are!tIe!-er3e(t!a1a'*ab'*'t9!o5!tIe!*a(D43a-e!'(!D'55ere(t!D'4ta(3e!to!roaDP*'(ear!5eature!3*a44e4!
Qta(R!3om-areD!to!tIe!-er3e(t!u4eD!b9!Ko*1e4!Q2o*DR:!KI'3I!4IoK4!aR!more!u4e!b9!Ko*1e4!at!5artIer!
D'4ta(3e4!tIa(!a1a'*ab*e!'(!tIe!*a(D43a-e!a(D!bR!I'2Ie4t!3ar'bou!u4e!at!'(termeD'ate!D'4ta(3e4!5rom!
roaD4!tIa(!a1a'*ab*e!'(!tIe!*a(D43a-eM!!!

!
!

a) b)

Figure!7.4.!B(!tIe!Ea(55:!7a4-er!a(D!$!*a!"e3Ie!4tuD9!area:!aR!Co*1e4!4tro(2*9!4e*e3teD!area4!3*o4e!to!
tra'*4:!a(D!bR!a1o'DeD!area4!3*o4e!to!4e3o(Dar9!roaD4M!Je*e3t'1't9!5or!D'4ta(3e!to!tra'*4!a(D!4e3o(Dar9!
roaD4!are!4IoK(!'(!2ree(!5rom!tIe!re4our3e!4e*e3t'o(!5u(3t'o(!Q+J&RM!$*4o!4IoK(!are!tIe!-er3e(t!
a1a'*ab'*'t9!o5!tIe!*a(D43a-e!'(!D'55ere(t!3*a44e4!QKI'teR!3om-areD!to!tIe!-er3e(t!u4eD!b9!Ko*1e4!Q2o*DRM
!
!
!
!
!

3=!
3O! "T$%T!&'(a*!+e-ort!
!

Goo4e!+e4our3e!Je*e3t'o(M!!Goo4e!'(!tIe!Ea(55:!7a4-er:!a(D!$!*a!"e3Ie!4tuD9!area!-re5erreD!4Irub*a(D4:!
2ra44*a(D4:!o-e(!3o('5er!5ore4t4:!a(D!area4!3*o4e!to!o-e('(24:!a(D!a1o'DeD!a*-'(e!Iab'tat4!QTab*e!=Ma:!
&'2ure!=MARM!!TIe9!4e*e3teD!5or!'(termeD'ate!e*e1at'o(4:!reDu3eD!4*o-e4:!area4!3*o4e!to!Kater:!a(D!
4outIer(!a(D!ea4ter(!a4-e3t4M!!Goo4e!a*4o!-re5erreD!area4!3*o4e!to!-r'mar9!roaD4!a(D!tra'*4:!KI'*e!be'(2!
5artIer!5rom!4e3o(Dar9!roaD4!K'tI'(!tIe!4tuD9!areaM!!TIe!to-!K'(ter!moo4e!moDe*!IaD!a!4tro(2!+\%!o5!
0MA02:!Demo(4trat'(2!out4ta(D'(2!D'43r'm'(at'o(M!!Y"5o*D4!3ro44!1a*'Dat'o(!re1ea*eD!2ooD!-reD'3t'1e!
3a-a3't9!to!botI!moDe*!tra'('(2!Data!QJ-earma(!ra(N!3orre*at'o(!rIom0MA12R!a(D!K'tIIe*D!moDe*!
1a*'Dat'o(!^W&!Data!QJ-earma(!ra(N!3orre*at'o(!rIom0MAOORM!
!
!
=MaM2!7re*ation!Lfficienc:!
!
>ur'(2!200O_200A:!Ke!1'4'teD!la00!U"J"ba4eD!4-at'o"tem-ora*!3*u4ter4:!Do3ume(t'(2!N'**"4'te4!o5!A!
mamma*'a(!-re9!4-e3'e4:!'(3*uD'(2!3ar'bou:!moo4e:!e*N:!KI'te"ta'*eD!Deer:!mu*e!Deer:!b'2Ior(!4Iee-:!
mou(ta'(!2oat4:!bea1er:!a(D!marmot4M!!C'(ter!Data!Kere!3o**e3teD!Dur'(2!K'(ter4!200="200O!a(D!200O"
200A:!a(D!a!4'(2*e!4ummer!4e44'o(!Ka4!3o(Du3teD!Dur'(2!Ga9"Je-tember!200AM!!U"J"ba4eD!N'**!4am-*'(2!
metIoD4!Kere!De1e*o-eD!'(!K'(ter!4tuD'e4!QCebb!et!a*M!200OR:!but!botI!Ko*5!beIa1'or!Q3e(tra*"-*a3e!
De(('(2!a3t'1't9R!a(D!-re9!a2e!4tru3ture!Q(eo(ate4!bor(!'(!7u(eR!are!D'55ere(t!'(!4ummerM!!To!
3o(4er1at'1e*9!a44e44!tIe!e55e3t'1e(e44!o5!tIe4e!metIoD4!Dur'(2!4ummer:!Ke!reDu3eD!our!U"J!5'X!'(ter1a*!
to!30!m'(ute4!a(D!1'4'teD!e1er9!4'(2*e!*o3at'o(!5or!a!4ub4et!o5!Ko*1e4"mo(tI4!to!3e(4u4!N'**"rate4!Q&'2ure!
=M10RM!
!
$(a*94e4!are!o(2o'(2!5or!tI'4!3om-o(e(t!o5!our!re4ear3IM!!"re*'m'(ar9!re4u*t4!4u22e4t!a!1ar'et9!o5!N'**!a(D!
(o("N'**!re*ateD!beIa1'or4!at!3*u4ter!4'te4!QTab*e!=MbR!a4!Ke**!a4!4ome!De2ree!o5!-re9!4-e3'a*'Tat'o(!K'tI'(!
-a3N4!QTab*e!=M=RM!!>e%e4are!et!a*M!Q2010R!4u22e4teD!tIat!a!2e(era*'4t!-reDator!3a(!4t'**!5a3'*'tate!a--are(t!
3om-et't'o(!amo(2!-re9!e1e(!'5!-reDator!'(D'1'Dua*4!eXI'b't!4ome!De2ree!o5!4-e3'a*'Tat'o(M!!$4!4ee(!'(!
our!-re*'m'(ar9!Data:!4ome!-a3N4!a--ear!to!3o(3e(trate!-reDat'o(!e55ort!o(!a*-'(e!u(2u*ate4!4u3I!a4!
b'2Ior(!4Iee-!a(D!mou(ta'(!2oat4!QU*a3'er!"a44!-a3NR:!4ome!o(!Deer!4-e3'e4!QTKo!LaNe4!-a3NR:!4ome!o(!
moo4e!QJu(Ka-taR:!tIou2I!e1er9!-a3N!eXI'b'teD!4ome!De2ree!o5!1ar'ab'*'t9!a(D!2e(era*'4t!5ora2'(2!QTab*e!
=M=RM!!WoKe1er:!boD9!4'Te!o5!-re9!4Iou*D!be!taNe(!'(to!3o(4'Derat'o(!KIe(!1'eK'(2!tIe4e!Data!KIe(!tIe!
o1era**!b'oma44!2a'(eD!5rom!ea3I!-re9!4-e3'e4!'4!D'43u44eDM!
!
TIe!"I>!4tuDe(t!QN'3N!>e%e4areR!'4!43IeDu*eD!to!3om-*ete!tI'4!KorN!a4!-art!o5!I'4!D'44ertat'o(!at!tIe!
F('1er4't9!o5!Go(ta(a!Dur'(2!5a**!2011:!K'tI!ma(u43r'-t4!-re-areD!a(D!4ubm'tteD!at!or!be5ore!tIe!t'me!
o5!De5e(4eM!
!

3O!
3A! "T$%T!&'(a*!+e-ort!
!

Table!7.1.!+eDK'**oK!K'(ter!3ar'bou!re4our3e!4e*e3t'o(!5u(3t'o(!moDe*!3oe55'3'e(t4!5or!tIe!to-!moDe*!
4IoK'(2!1ar'ab*e:!De43r'-t'o(:!beta!3oe55'3'e(t!Q5or!*'(ear!e55e3t4!-o4't'1e!mea(4!4e*e3teD!5or:!(e2at'1e!
mea(4!4e*e3teD!a2a'(4tR!a(D!JHM!!&or!No("*'(ear!e55e3t4:!ZuaDrat'3!term4!'(3*uDe!a!4ZuareD!termM!
!!
Variable! Description! Beta! SE! P!>!|z|!
LANDCOVER! ! ! ! !
Ket*a(DkIerb! ! 1MA=40=4! 0M13a34! i0M0001!
31to20! %a(o-9!3o1era2e!1!"!20g! 0M44a243=! 1M12004! 0M12!
320to40! %a(o-9!3o1era2e!20!"!40g! 1M1=bb4A! 0M2AaO31! i0M0001!
340tob0! %a(o-9!3o1era2e!40"b0g! 1M=A2AOb! 0M1344O! i0M0001!
3b0toO0! %a(o-9!3o1era2e!b0!"!O0g! 1M0Oa34b! 0M12A=32! i0M0001!
3O0to100! %a(o-9!3o1era2e!O0!"!100g! 1MAaO4aO! 0MO430=b! i0M0001!
eD2ekD'4t! D'4ta(3e!to!5ore4t!eD2e! "0M000OA3A! AMaOH"0a! i0M0001!
TOPOGRAPHY! ! ! ! !
e*e1at'o(! ! 0M004O=0=! 0M000222! i0M003!
4*o-e! ! "0M11141A3! 0M00bO4O! i0M0001!
KaterkD'4t! >'4ta(3e!to!Kater! 0M0012431! 0M000101! i0M0001!
KaterkD'4t2! euaDrat'3!Q1arx2R! "4MabH"0=! 4M2=H"0O! i0M0001!
(ortI! a4-e3tc!31aj!to!4aj! 0M40aO03a! 0M0ab33=! i0M0001!
4outI! a4-e3tc!13aj!to!22aj! 0M3014b=! 0M0aO00b! i0M0001!
Ke4t! a4-e3tc!22aj!to!31aj! 0Ma2aaa=! 0M0b04AA! i0M0001!
HUMAN!USE! ! ! ! !
D'4tk*'(ear! >'4ta(3e!to!*'(ear!5eature4! 0M0003O4b! aM14H"0a! i0M0001!
D'4tkroaD! >'4ta(3e!to!+oaD! 0M000A=a2! aM1OH"0a! i0M0001!
D'4troaD2! euaDrat'3!Q>+x2R! "1MA4H"0=! 1M14H"0O! i0M0001!
k3o(4ta(t! QmoDe*!'(ter3e-tR! "=MAO0111! 0M3200b1! i0M0001!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

3A!
40! "T$%T!&'(a*!+e-ort!
!

Table!7.2.!Ea(55:!7a4-er!a(D!$!*a!"e3Ie!K'(ter!3ar'bou!re4our3e!4e*e3t'o(!5u(3t'o(!moDe*!
3oe55'3'e(t4!5or!tIe!to-!moDe*!4IoK'(2!1ar'ab*e:!De43r'-t'o(:!beta!3oe55'3'e(t!Q5or!*'(ear!e55e3t4!
-o4't'1e!mea(4!4e*e3teD!5or:!(e2at'1e!mea(4!4e*e3teD!a2a'(4tR!a(D!JHM!!&or!No("*'(ear!e55e3t4:!
ZuaDrat'3!term4!'(3*uDe!a!4ZuareD!termM!
Variable! Description! Beta! SE! P!>!|z|!
LANDCOVER! ! ! ! !
3*o4eDk3o('5er! 3*o4eD!3a(o-9!3o('5er! 0M33==30=! 0M024=1b! i0M0001!
o-e(k3o('5er! o-e(!3a(o-9!3o('5er! 0MOA1==a4! 0M031b04! i0M0001!
a*-'(ekbarre(! a*-'(e!barre(! "0Mabaa22a! 0M0411a1! i0M0001!
a*-'(ekIerb! a*-'(e!Ierba3eou4! 1M01b24a0! 0M04A04! i0M0001!
a*-'(ek4Irub! a*-'(e!4Irub4! 1M14400a0! 0M0b3O41! i0M0001!
*oKke*e1kbarre(! *oK!e*e1at'o(!barre(! "1M0b3=4A0! 0M0a03! i0M0001!
'3ekro3N! ro3N!d!'3e! "4M122=4b0! 0M204a4b! i0M0001!
eD2ekD'4t! D'4ta(3e!to!5ore4t!eD2e! 0M0023b34! AMO4H"0a! i0M0001!
eD2ekD'4t !!2
euaDrat'3!Q1arx2R! "0M0000024! 1M10H"0=! i0M0001!
bur(kD'4t! D'4ta(3e!to!bur(! 0M0002a23! aM44H"0b! i0M0001!
bur(kD'4t !2
euaDrat'3!Q1arx2R! "0M000000013! 2Mb4H"10! i0M0001!
TOPOGRAPHY! ! ! ! !
e*e1at'o(! e*e1at'o(! 0M00AOO04! 0M0001=a! i0M0001!
e*e1at'o(2! euaDrat'3!Q1arx2R! "0M0000024! aM02H"0O! i0M0001!
4*o-e! J*o-e! "0M03OA13=! 0M000aOb! i0M0001!
ea4t! a4-e3tc!4aj!to!13aj! "0M4bbb=32! 0M020aab! i0M0001!
4outI! a4-e3tc!13aj!to!22aj! "0M31aA24=! 0M0222aO! i0M0001!
5*at! a4-e3tc!5*at!4*o-e4! 0M1A43A4=! 0M03AO32! i0M0001!
HUMAN!USE! ! ! ! !
2jkroaD4kD'4t! D'4ta(3e!to!4e3o(Dar9!roaD4! 0M000214O! 2M=bH"0b! i0M0001!
2jkroaD4kD'4t2! euaDrat'3!Q1arx2R! "0M000000003! aMA0H"11! i0M0001!
tra'*4kD'4t! D'4ta(3e!to!tra'*4! "0M0001043! 3Ma3H"0b! i0M0001!
k3o(4ta(t! QmoDe*!'(ter3e-tR! "12MbA04A0! 0M1aa334! i0M0001!

40!
41! "T$%T!&'(a*!+e-ort!
!

!
Table!7.3.!+eDK'**oK!K'(ter!Ko*5!re4our3e!4e*e3t'o(!5u(3t'o(!moDe*!3oe55'3'e(t4!5or!tIe!to-!moDe*!
4IoK'(2!1ar'ab*e:!De43r'-t'o(:!beta!3oe55'3'e(t!Q5or!*'(ear!e55e3t4!-o4't'1e!mea(4!4e*e3teD!5or:!(e2at'1e!
mea(4!4e*e3teD!a2a'(4tR!a(D!JHM!!&or!No("*'(ear!e55e3t4:!ZuaDrat'3!term4!'(3*uDe!a!4ZuareD!termM!
Covariate! Description! Coef.! SE! P>|z|!
LANDCOVER! ! ! ! !
4Irub! 4Irub!*a(D3o1er! 1M4a4A! 0M2300! 0!
340tob0! %a(o-9!3o1era2e!40!"!b0g! 1M2ab2! 0M231b! 0!
3b0toO0! %a(o-9!3o1era2e!b0!"!O0g! 1M1=3b! 0M22=3! 0!
3O0to100! %a(o-9!3o1era2e!O0!"!100g! 2M=1bA! 1M1A=0! 0M023!
eD2ekD'4t! D'4ta(3e!to!5ore4t!eD2e! "0M001=! 0M0001A! 0!
TOPOGRAPHY! ! ! ! !
4*o-e! 4*o-e! "0M01b10! 0M00O0b! 0M04b!
4outI! a4-e3tc!13aj!to!22aj! "0M2Oa=0! 0M0O1A! 0!
Ke4t! a4-e3tc!22aj!to!31aj! "0M3AbO! 0M0Oa0! 0!
KaterkD'4t! D'4ta(3e!to!Kater! "0M000bO! 0M0000b! 0!
HUMAN!USE! ! ! ! !
roaD4kD'4t! D'4ta(3e!to!roaD4! "0M0002b! 0M0000=! 0!
2 euaDrat'3!Q1arx2R!
roaD4kD'4t ! 1M01H"0=! 1M2AH"0O! 0!
*'(earkD'4t! D'4ta(3e!to!4e'4m'3!*'(e4! 0M00100! 0M00024! 0!
*'(earkD'4t2! D'4ta(3e!to!4e'4m'3!*'(e4! "=M3OH"0=! 1MO1H"0=! 0!
k3o(4ta(t! QmoDe*!'(ter3e-tR! "0Mbbb3! 0M242A! 0M00b!

41!
42! "T$%T!&'(a*!+e-ort!
!

!
Table!7.4.!Ea(55:!7a4-er:!a(D!$!*a!"e3Ie!K'(ter!Ko*5!re4our3e!4e*e3t'o(!5u(3t'o(!moDe*!3oe55'3'e(t4!5or!
tIe!to-!moDe*!4IoK'(2!1ar'ab*e:!De43r'-t'o(:!beta!3oe55'3'e(t!Q5or!*'(ear!e55e3t4!-o4't'1e!mea(4!4e*e3teD!
5or:!(e2at'1e!mea(4!4e*e3teD!a2a'(4tR!a(D!JHM!&or!No("*'(ear!e55e3t4:!ZuaDrat'3!term4!'(3*uDe!a!4ZuareD!
termM!
Covariate! Description! Coef.! SE! P>|z|!
LANDCOVER! ! ! ! !
o-e(k3o('5er! o-e(!3a(o-9!3o('5er! 0M=4b33! 0M03=201! l0M0001!
*oKke*e1k4Irub! *oK!e*e1at'o(!4Irub4! 0M41bA0O! 0M041O=3! l0M0001!
*oKke*e1kIerba3eou4! *oK!e*e1at'o(!Ierba3eou4! 0Maa24O3! 0M0a211! l0M0001!
a*-'(ekbarre(! a*-'(e!barre(! "0MaA=1A! 0M10a0bO! l0M0001!
o-e(kD'4t! D'4ta(3e!to!o-e(!*a(D3o1er! "0M00131! bM1OH"0a! l0M0001!
'3ekro3N! ro3N!d!'3e! "2M11AO3! 0M2=14A1! l0M0001!
bur(! bur(!*a(D3o1er! 0M4=1044! 0M0aba0a! l0M0001!
bur(kD'4t! D'4ta(3e!to!bur(! "0M00014! 2MO2H"0b! l0M0001!
TOPOGRAPHY! ! ! ! !
e*e1at'o(! e*e1at'o(! 0M014=4O! 0M00040O! l0M0001 !
e*e1at'o( !2 euaDrat'3!Q1arx2R! "4M0bH"0b! 1M23H"0=! l0M0001!
4*o-e! J*o-e! "0M03=Ob! 0M000OOA! l0M0001!
KaterkD'4t! D'4ta(3e!to!Kater! "0M000bO! 0M000034! l0M0001!
ea4t! a4-e3tc!4aj!to!13aj! 0M1OO22! 0M03004b! l0M0001!
4outI! a4-e3tc!13aj!to!22aj! 0M2440=O! 0M0314b! l0M0001!
HUMAN!USE! ! ! ! !
1jkroaD4kD'4t! D'4ta(3e!to!-r'mar9!roaD4! "aH"0a! 1MA=H"0b! l0M0001!
2jkroaD4kD'4t! D'4ta(3e!to!4e3o(Dar9!roaD4! 0M0000a4! 1M0bH"0b! l0M0001!
tra'*kD'4t! D'4ta(3e!to!tra'*4! "0M00023! OM00H"0b! l0M0001!
k3o(4ta(t! QmoDe*!'(ter3e-tR! "11MO=34! 0M32A1O3! l0M0001!
!

42!
43! "T$%T!&'(a*!+e-ort!
!

!
!

Table!7.5.!Ea(55:!7a4-er:!a(D!$!*a!"e3Ie!K'(ter!moo4e!re4our3e!4e*e3t'o(!5u(3t'o(!moDe*!3oe55'3'e(t4!5or!
tIe!to-!moDe*!4IoK'(2!1ar'ab*e:!De43r'-t'o(:!beta!3oe55'3'e(t!Q5or!*'(ear!e55e3t4!-o4't'1e!mea(4!4e*e3teD!
5or:!(e2at'1e!mea(4!4e*e3teD!a2a'(4tR!a(D!JHM!&or!No("*'(ear!e55e3t4:!ZuaDrat'3!term4!'(3*uDe!a!4ZuareD!
termM!
Covariate! Description! Coef.! SE! P>|z|!
LANDCOVER! ! ! ! !
o-e(k3o('5er! o-e(!3a(o-9!3o('5er! 0M=4b33! 0M03=201! l0M0001 !
*oKke*e1k4Irub! *oK!e*e1at'o(!4Irub4! 0M41bA0O! 0M041O=3! l0M0001!
*oKke*e1kIerba3eou4! *oK!e*e1at'o(!Ierba3eou4! 0Maa24O3! 0M0a211! l0M0001!
a*-'(ekbarre(! a*-'(e!barre(! "0MaA=1A! 0M10a0bO! l0M0001!
o-e(kD'4t! D'4ta(3e!to!o-e(!*a(D3o1er! "0M00131! bM1OH"0a! l0M0001!
'3ekro3N! ro3N!d!'3e! "2M11AO3! 0M2=14A1! l0M0001!
bur(! bur(!*a(D3o1er! 0M4=1044! 0M0aba0a! l0M0001!
bur(kD'4t! D'4ta(3e!to!bur(! "0M00014! 2MO2H"0b! l0M0001!
TOPOGRAPHY! ! ! ! !
e*e1at'o(! e*e1at'o(! 0M014=4O! 0M00040O! l0M0001!
e*e1at'o( !2 euaDrat'3!Q1arx2R! "4M0bH"0b! 1M23H"0=! l0M0001!
4*o-e! J*o-e! "0M03=Ob! 0M000OOA! l0M0001!
KaterkD'4t! D'4ta(3e!to!Kater! "0M000bO! 0M000034! l0M0001!
ea4t! a4-e3tc!4aj!to!13aj! 0M1OO22! 0M03004b! l0M0001!
4outI! a4-e3tc!13aj!to!22aj! 0M2440=O! 0M0314b! l0M0001!
HUMAN!USE! ! ! ! !
1jkroaD4kD'4t! D'4ta(3e!to!-r'mar9!roaD4! "aH"0a! 1MA=H"0b! l0M0001 !
2jkroaD4kD'4t! D'4ta(3e!to!4e3o(Dar9!roaD4! 0M0000a4! 1M0bH"0b! l0M0001!
tra'*kD'4t! D'4ta(3e!to!tra'*4! "0M00023! OM00H"0b! l0M0001!
k3o(4ta(t! QmoDe*!'(ter3e-tR! "11MO=34! 0M32A1O3! l0M0001!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

43!
44! "T$%T!&'(a*!+e-ort!
!

Table!7.6.!!"re*'m'(ar9!5'e*D!1a*'Dat'o(!re4u*t4!o5!1'4't'(2!-utat'1e!Ko*5!N'**"4'te4:!a4!De*'(eateD!b9!Ko*5!U"J"
ba4eD!*o3at'o(!3*u4ter4!'De(t'5'eD!5rom!-ro2ram!JaTJ3a(:!'(!Ke4t"3e(tra*!$*berta:!5or!a!-ort'o(!o5!tIe!
4tuD9!-er'oD!3o1er'(2!a!4'(2*e!K'(ter!a(D!4ummer!4am-*'(2!4e44'o(!ea3I:!200O_200AM!
Season! Pack! Wolf! Kill! Non"kill! Scavenge! Total!
U*a3'er!"a44! C13a! 12! 33! 0! 4a!
YaNKa! C134! 11! 24! 0! 3a!
J'2(a*! C110! b! 4=! 1! a4!
Jummer! Ju(Ka-ta! C0ab! 2! 0! 0! 2!
Ju(Ka-ta! C112! 13! 141! 1! 1aa!
Pu.total! ! ]]! H]X! H! HUJ!
! ! ! ! ! ! !
$!*a!"e3Ie! C122! 1! A! 0! 10!
EraTeau! C10=! 3! 14! 0! 1=!
U*a3'er!"a44! C12A! 13! 21! 0! 34!
YaNKa! C124! 1=! 23! 0! 40!
JIee-!%reeN! C131! 0! 1! 0! 1!
C'(ter!
J'2(a*! C110! 1b! 2=! 1! 44!
Ju(Ka-ta! C0ab! 1=! 3a! a! a=!
TKo!LaNe4! C12=! 2A! a0! 1! O0!
Pu.total! UW! JVI! Z! HV^!
!
Tota*! ! 140! 42a! A! a=4!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

44!
4a! "T$%T!&'(a*!+e-ort!
!

!
Table!7.7.!!J-e3'e4!3om-o4't'o(!o5!N'**"4'te4!Dete3teD!u4'(2!5'e*D!1a*'Dat'o(!o5!1'4't'(2!-utat'1e!Ko*5!N'**"4'te4:!a4!De*'(eateD!b9!Ko*5!U"J"ba4eD!*o3at'o(!
3*u4ter4!'De(t'5'eD!5rom!-ro2ram!JaTJ3a(:!'(!Ke4t"3e(tra*!$*berta:!5or!a!-ort'o(!o5!tIe!4tuD9!-er'oD!3o1er'(2!a!4'(2*e!K'(ter!a(D!4ummer!4am-*'(2!
4e44'o(!ea3I:!200O_200AM!
!
! ! ! Ungulate!prey! Other!
Deer! Mountain! Bighorn!
Caribou! Elk! Moose! Beaver! Marmot! Unknown!
Season! Pack! Wolf! !"".! goat! sheep!
U*a3'er!"a44! C13a! 1! 0! 0! 4! 2! 3! 1! 2! 0!
YaNKa! C134! 0! a! 1! 0! a! 0! 0! 0! 2!
J'2(a*! C110! 0! 2! 1! 0! 1! 1! 0! 1! 2!
Jummer! Ju(Ka-ta! C0ab! 1! 0! 0! 1! 0! 0! 0! 0! 0!
Ju(Ka-ta! C112! 2! 1! 0! 2! O! 0! 1! 1! 0!
Jubtota*! ! 4! O! 2! =! 1b! 4! 2! 4! 4!
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
$!*a!"e3Ie! C122! 0! 1! 0! 0! 0! 0! 0! 0! 0!
EraTeau! C10=! 0! 1! 0! 0! 0! 2! 0! 0! 0!
U*a3'er!"a44! C12A! 0! 1! 0! 4! 1! 4! 0! 0! 2!
C'(ter! YaNKa! C124! 0! 12! 3! 0! 3! 0! 0! 0! 0!
J'2(a*! C110! 0! 10! 3! 0! 0! 2! 0! 0! 1!
Ju(Ka-ta! C0ab! 2! O! a! 0! b! 1! 0! 0! 0!
TKo!LaNe4! C12=! 0! 2=! 0! 0! 3! 0! 0! 0! 1!
! Jubtota*! ! 2! b0! 11! 4! 13! A! 0! 0! 4!

Tota*! ! ! 6! 68! 13! 11! 29! 13! 2! 4! 8!


!!

4a!
4b! "T$%T!&'(a*!+e-ort!
!

!
Figure!7.5.C'(ter!re4our3e!4e*e3t'o(!5u(3t'o(!Q+J&R!5or!3ar'bou!5or!tIe!+eDK'**oK!K'(ter!ra(2e:!200b!to!
200AM!!

4b!
4=! "T$%T!&'(a*!+e-ort!
!

!
Figure!7.6.!!C'(ter!re4our3e!4e*e3t'o(!5u(3t'o(!Q+J&R!5or!3ar'bou!5or!tIe!Ea(55:!7a4-er:!a(D!$!*a!"e3Ie!
4tuD9!area:!2001!to!200AM!
!

4=!
4O! "T$%T!&'(a*!+e-ort!
!

!
Figure!7.7.!C'(ter!re4our3e!4e*e3t'o(!5u(3t'o(!Q+J&R!5or!Ko*1e4!5or!tIe!+eDK'**oK!K'(ter!ra(2e:!200b!to!
200AM!

4O!
4A! "T$%T!&'(a*!+e-ort!
!

Figure!7.8.!C'(ter!re4our3e!4e*e3t'o(!5u(3t'o(!Q+J&R!5or!Ko*1e4!5or!tIe!Ea(55:!7a4-er!a(D!$!*a!"e3Ie!4tuD9!
area:!2001!to!200AM!

4A!
a0! "T$%T!&'(a*!+e-ort!
!

!
Figure!7.9.!C'(ter!re4our3e!4e*e3t'o(!5u(3t'o(!Q+J&R!5or!moo4e!5or!tIe!Ea(55:!7a4-er!a(D!$!*a!"e3Ie!4tuD9!
area:!2001!to!200AM!
!

a0!
a1! "T$%T!&'(a*!+e-ort!
!

Figure!7.10.!!HXam-*e!N'**"4'te!1a*'Dat'o(!Data!4IoK'(2!tIe!U"J"ba4eD!mo1eme(t4!o5!a!4'(2*e!Ko*5:!a(D!
tIe!4-at'o"tem-ora*!3*u4ter4!Determ'(eD!to!be!a3tua*!N'**"4'te4:!%a(aD'a(!+o3N'e4:!200AM!

a1!
a2! "T$%T!&'(a*!+e-ort!
!

8.0!!HUMAN!ACTIVITIES!AND!PRIMARY!PREY!PRODUCTIVITY!IN!WOLF"CARIBOU!
SYSTEMS!
!
8.1!SCOPE!
!
Goo4e!-o-u*at'o(4!'(!Ke4t"3e(tra*!$*berta!Ia1e!(ot!bee(!
4tuD'eD:!De4-'te!tIe'r!Ne9!ro*e!'(!3ar'bou!3o(4er1at'o(!1'a!
Ko*5"meD'ateD!a--are(t!3om-et't'o(!a(D!'(!$*berta]4!
-ro1'(3'a*!moo4e!Iar1e4tM!Ce!are!'(te2rat'(2!aer'a*!moo4e!
4ur1e94:!U"J!3o**ar!te3I(o*o29:!a(D!re4our3e!4e*e3t'o(!
moDe**'(2!to!1R!u(Der4ta(D!tIe!Iab'tat!re*at'o(4I'-4!o5!
moo4e!re*at'1e!to!5ore4t!3Iara3ter'4t'34!a(D!Iuma(!
D'4turba(3e:!a(D!2R!e4t'mate!moo4e!-o-u*at'o(!De(4't'e4!
a3ro44!our!4tuD9!area!to!better!2u'De!ma(a2eme(t!o5!moo4e!
Iar1e4t!a(D!tIe!3o(4er1at'o(!o5!KooD*a(D!3ar'bouM!
!
8.2!SCHEDULE!
Figure!8.1.!Goo4e!Dete3teD!Dur'(2!aer'a*!
!!! 4ur1e94!K'(ter!200OP200AM!
! 200O!_!U"J!3o**ar'(2!o5!1b!moo4e!Q$TJ!4tore!o(!boarDR!
! 200A!_!U"J!a(D!^W&!3o**ar'(2!o5!22!moo4eQ$TJ!4tore!o(!
boarD!a(D!LoteNRh!>'4ta(3e!4am-*'(2!4ur1e94!'(!CGF!440!a(D!4'2Itab'*'t9!tr'a*4!!
! 2010!_!>'4ta(3e!4ur1e94!'(!CGF!3a3!a(D!4'2Itab'*'t9!tr'a*4h!U"J!3o**ar!retr'e1a*!Gar3I!2010h!a(a*94'4!
a(D!GJ!De5e(4e!Q5a**R!
!
8.3!INTRODUCTION!
!
CI'*e!tIere!'4!4u55'3'e(t!N(oK*eD2e!o5!moo4e!Iab'tat!u4e!-atter(4!to!u(Der4ta(D!2e(era*!4e*e3t'o(!'(!
mo4t!re2'o(4:!*o3a*!Iab'tat!4e*e3t'o(!3a(!1ar9!4ub4ta(t'a**9!a4!Iab'tat!3om-o4't'o(!3Ia(2e4!Q"eeN!200=RM!
%o(4eZue(t*9:!4ome!re4ear3Ier4!3aut'o(!a2a'(4t!2e(era*'T'(2!ob4er1at'o(4!o5!moo4e!Iab'tat!-re5ere(3e4!
a(D!a--*9'(2!tIem!to!otIer!2eo2ra-I'3a*!area4!QeM2M:!T'mmerma((!a(D!G3N'3o*!1AOO:!\4No!et!a*M!2004RM!
B(!2e(era*:!moo4e!o5te(!-ro4-er!'(!ear*9!4u33e44'o(a*!1e2etat'o(!3ommu('t'e4!5o**oK'(2!D'4turba(3e4!
Due!to!a!I'2Ier!Zua(t't9!a(D!Zua*'t9!o5!5ora2e!QeM2M:!T'mmerma((!a(D!G3N'3o*!1AOO:!&orbe4!a(D!
TIeber2e!1AA3RM!We(3e:!*a(D43a-e4!K'tI!'(3rea4eD!9ou(2!4era*!4ta(D4!are!I9-otIe4'TeD!to!4u--ort!*ar2er!
moo4e!-o-u*at'o(4!a(D!tIereb9!4u--ort!more!Ko*1e4!QG3N'3o*!a(D!U'*bert!1AO0:!Yu(Ne*!a(D!"*et43Ier!
2000:!C'ttmer!et!a*M!200a:!Jtot9(!200ORM!B(3rea4eD!5ooD!a1a'*ab'*'t9!'4!o5te(!3ou-*eD!K'tI!'(3rea4eD!
eX-o4ure!to!u(5a1ourab*e!5a3tor4!4u3I!a4!I'2Ier!-reDat'o(!r'4N!a(D!KeatIer!'m-a3t4!Due!to!a!*a3N!o5!
4Ie*ter!a(D!3o1er!Q>u44au*t!et!a*M!2004:!>u44au*t!et!a*M!200aRM!&or!eXam-*e:!5ore4tr9!-ra3t'3e4!o5te(!
a44o3'ateD!K'tI!I'2Ier!5ora2e!abu(Da(3e!aDD!*'(ear!5eature4!4u3I!a4!roaD4!or!4e'4m'3!*'(e4!to!tIe!
*a(D43a-e!!Q"oo*e!a(D!Jerrou9a!2003RM!TI'4!'(!tur(!-romote4!Ko*5!tra1e*!a(D!tIereb9!'(3rea4e4!Ko*5!
-reDat'o(!e55'3'e(39!QEer2eruD!1A=4:!7ame4!a(D!Jtuart"Jm'tI!2000:!7ame4!et!a*M!2004:!Neu5e*D!200bRM!
WoKe1er:!*o22'(2!Ia4!bee(!4IoK(!to!(ot!a55e3t!-reDat'o(!b9!Ko*1e4!o(!moo4e!Dur'(2!K'(ter!4ea4o(4!
QYu(Ne*!a(D!"*et43Ier!2000RM!TIu4:!moo4e!mu4t!maNe!traDe"o554!betKee(!5ooD!a1a'*ab'*'t9!a(D!eX-o4ure!
to!otIer!*'m't'(2!5a3tor4:!4u3I!a4!-reDat'o(!Q>u44au*t!et!a*M!200bRM!!

CI'*e!Iab'tat!4e*e3t'o(!'4!2e(era**9!a44umeD!to!be!re*ateD!to!5't(e44!QEo93e!a(D!G3>o(a*D!1AAA:!"ear3e!
a(D!&err'er!2001:!+a'*4ba3N!et!a*M!2003:!N'e*4e(!et!a*M!200a:!G3Lou2I*'(!et!a*M!200bR:!tIe!o33urre(3e!o5!a!
4-e3'e4!ma9!(ot!a*Ka94!be!a!2ooD!-reD'3tor!o5!Iab'tat!Zua*'t9!Q^a(Ior(e!1AO3RM!B(!4ome!4'tuat'o(4!

a2!
a3! "T$%T!&'(a*!+e-ort!
!

a('ma*4!K'**!4e*e3t!Iab'tat!tIat!3a(!De3rea4e!4ur1'1a*!QUate4!a(D!U94e*!1A=O:!N'e*4e(!et!a*M!200bRM!>e4-'te!
'(3rea4eD!morta*'t9!r'4N!'(!tIe4e!attra3t'1e!4'(N4!Q"u**'am!1AOOR!a('ma*4!ma9!'mm'2rate!5rom!4our3e!
-o-u*at'o(4!QJ3I*ae-5er!et!a*M!2002RM!TIe4e!e3o*o2'3a*!tra-4!are!-art'3u*ar*9!3ommo(!'(!Iuma("moD'5'eD!
e(1'ro(me(t4!Q>e*'be4!et!a*M!2001:!>o(o1a(!a(D!TIom-4o(!2001:!J3I*ae-5er!et!a*M!2002RM!TIe!
a44um-t'o(!tIat!tIere!'4!a!-o4't'1e!3orre*at'o(!betKee(!abu(Da(3e!a(D!4e*e3t'o(!'(!a(!e3o494tem!K'tI!
-reDat'o(!a(D!Iuma(!De1e*o-me(t!3a(!be!te4teD!b9!3om-ar'(2!re4u*t4!o5!+J&!moDe*'(2!K'tI!abu(Da(3e!
e4t'mate4:!tI'4!Ia4!9et!to!be!Do(e!5or!moo4eM!!

&urtIermore:!N(oK*eD2e!o5!moo4e!De(4't9!'t4e*5!'4!'m-orta(t!5or!3ar'bou!3o(4er1at'o(!a(D!re3o1er9!
-*a(('(2!'5!3ar'bou!De3*'(e4!are!re*ateD!to!a--are(t!3om-et't'o(!D9(am'34!K'tI!moo4eM!&or!eXam-*e:!
moDe*'(2!4tuD'e4!b9!Ce3*aK!a(D!WuD4o(!Q2004R:!Le44arD!et!a*M!Q200aR:!a(D!%ourto'4!a(D!eue**et!Q200=R!
4IoK!tIat!Ko*5!reDu3t'o(!K'tIout!3o(3urre(t!moo4e!reDu3t'o(!K'**!5a'*!to!re3o1er!3ar'bou!a4!Ko*5!
-o-u*at'o(4!K'**!Zu'3N*9!re3u-erate:!u(*e44!moo4e!De(4't9!'4!a*4o!reDu3eD!QWa9e4!et!a*M!2003RM!TIere5ore:!
tIe!$*berta!CooD*a(D!%ar'bou!+e3o1er9!"*a(!re3omme(D4!a3t'1e!ma(a2eme(t!o5!-reDator4!'(!
3omb'(at'o(!K'tI!3o(tro**'(2!moo4e!De(4't'e4!'(!3ar'bou!ra(2e4:!KI'*e!a*4o!mo('tor'(2!moo4e!-o-u*at'o(!
4'Te!a(D!tre(D!'(!3ar'bou!ra(2e4!to!2au2e!-ote(t'a*!5or!(e2at'1e!e55e3t4!o5!a--are(t!3om-et't'o(!Q$*berta!
CooD*a(D!%ar'bou!+e3o1er9!Team!200aRM!>e4-'te!tIe4e!a22re44'1e!re3o1er9!4trate2'e4:!tIere!Ia1e!bee(!
(o!5orma*!te4t4!o5!tIe!a44um-t'o(!tIat!tIere!'4!a!D're3t!re*at'o(4I'-!betKee(!'(3rea4e4!'(!moo4e!
De(4't'e4!a(D!tIe!rate!o5!5ore4t!Iar1e4t!'(!3ar'bou!ra(2e4!'(!Ke4t"3e(tra*!$*bertaM!L'tt*e!'4!N(oK(!about!
moo4e!-o-u*at'o(!abu(Da(3e!or!Iab'tat!4e*e3t'o(M!&urtIermore:!mo('tor'(2!e55ort4!b9!$E!&dC!are!
'm-eDeD!'(!tIe!-re4e(3e!o5!*'m'teD!5'(a(3'a*!re4our3e4M!!
!
8.4!OBJECTIVES!
!!
OM4M1!Foose!!esource!Pelection!!
F(Der4ta(D'(2!4ea4o(a*!3Ia(2e4!'(!moo4e!re4our3e!4e*e3t'o(!'4!'m-orta(t!'(!orDer!5or!ma(a2er4!to!
better!e1a*uate!Iab'tat!o1er*a-!o5!moo4e!a(D!3ar'bou!Dur'(2!3r't'3a*!t'me!-er'oD4!QeM2M!t'me4!o5!5ooD!
43ar3't9!or!Dur'(2!3a*1'(2!t'meRM!Ce!a'm!to!u(Der4ta(D!moo4e!re4our3e!4e*e3t'o(!a4!a!5u(3t'o(!o5!
a(tIro-o2e('3!D'4turba(3e:!ab'ot'3!a(D!b'ot'3!5a3tor4:!a4!Ke**!a4!o1er*a-!K'tI!3ar'bou!b9!De1e*o-'(2!a!
re2'o(a*!re4our3e!4e*e3t'o(!5u(3t'o(!Q+J&R!to!aDDre44!tKo!Ne9!Zue4t'o(4!about!moo4e!ma(a2eme(t!'(!
Ke4t"3e(tra*!$*bertaM!
!
1M Goo4e!re4our3e!4e*e3t'o(!a4!a!5u(3t'o(!o5!5ore4t!3o(D't'o(!a(D!Iuma(!D'4turba(3eM!!E9!eXam'('(2!
-atter(4!o5!4ea4o(a*!re4our3e!4e*e3t'o(:!Ke!K'**!3o(tr'bute!to!tIe!'De(t'5'3at'o(!a(D!ma--'(2!o5!
3r't'3a*!K'(ter!ra(2e!5or!moo4eM!
2M TIe!4-at'a*!4e-arat'o(!I9-otIe4'4!-reD'3t4!tIat!tIe!4ur1'1a*!a(D!-o-u*at'o(!D9(am'34!o5!tIe!
tIreate(eD!KooD*a(D!3ar'bou!are!Dr'1e(:!'(D're3t*9:!b9!tIe'r!4-at'a*!4e-arat'o(!5rom!moo4e:!4u3I!
tIat!4e-arat'o(!5rom!moo4e!'4!eZu'1a*e(t!to!4e-arat'o(!5rom!tIe'r!-r'mar9!-reDator:!Ko*1e4M!!B(4'2It4!
'(to!tIe!me3Ia('4m4!o5!3ar'bou"moo4e!o1er*a-!K'**!Ie*-!2u'De!5uture!5ore4t!a(D!o("2o'(2!moo4e!
Iar1e4t!ma(a2eme(t!to!be4t!3o(4er1e!moo4e!a(D!3ar'bou!-o-u*at'o(4M!
!
OM4M2!Foose!<.un*ance!Fo*els!
!
1M Ce!a'm!to!a44e44!tIe!re*at'1e!abu(Da(3e!o5!moo4e!a3ro44!Ke4t"3e(tra*!$*berta!b9!3omb'('(2!
-o-u*at'o(!e4t'mate4!obta'(eD!5rom!Ua4aKa9!4ur1e94!5*oK(!b9!$E!&dC!'(!re3e(t!9ear4!Qrea3I'(2!
ba3N!u(t'*!2004P200aR!a(D!>'4ta(3e!4am-*'(2!Data!3o**e3teD!'(!K'(ter4!200OP200A!a(D!200AP2010M!!
2M %om-are!Ua4aKa9!metIoD!a(D!>'4ta(3e!4am-*'(2!'(!term4!o5!-re3'4'o(:!3o4t!a(D!t'me!e55'3'e(39M!

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!

3M EotI!a5oreme(t'o(eD!aer'a*!4ur1e9!metIoD4!K'**!*eaD!to!b'a4eD!-o-u*at'o(!e4t'mate4!KIe(!(ot!
3orre3t'(2!5or!De3rea4eD!Dete3tab'*'t9M!CI'*e!moo4e!abu(Da(3e4!are!a44umeD!to!be!*oKer!'(!De(4er!
Iab'tat4:!moo4e!K'**!a*4o!be!m'44eD!more!'(!tIe4e!Iab'tat4!K'tI!De3rea4eD!4'2Itab'*'t9M!Ce!a'm!to!
3orre3t!botI!o5!tIe!a5oreme(t'o(eD!metIoD4!5or!De3rea4eD!4'2Itab'*'t9M!
4M %omb'(e!re4u*t4!5rom!+J&!moDe*'(2!a(D!abu(Da(3e!e4t'mat'o(!b9!u4'(2!re5ere(3e!area4!K'tI!
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!
8.5!METHODS!!
!
OMaM1!Foose!!esource!Pelection!!
!
Ce!u4eD!U"J!3o**ar!Data!o5!4!moo4e!to!moDe*!-re*'m'(ar9!moo4e!K'(ter!+e4our3e!Je*e3t'o(!&u(3t'o(4!
Q+J&4R!K'tI'(!tIe!L'tt*e!JmoN9:!+eDro3N""ra'r'e!%reeN:!NarraKa9!a(D!$!La!"e3Ie!3ar'bou!Iome!ra(2e4!
Q&'2ure!OM3RM!%o**ar4!Kere!De-*o9eD!5or!about!o(e!9ear:!3o**e3teD!*o3at'o(!Data!e1er9!5our!Iour4!a(D!Kere!
retr'e1eD!'(!4-r'(2!200AM!Ce!u4eD!m'XeD!e55e3t4!+J&4!to!a44e44!Iab'tat!u4e!b9!moo4eM!
!
OMaM2!Foose!<.un*ance!Fo*els!
!
1M Ua4aKa9!metIoDc!$er'a*!4ur1e94!Ia1e!be3ome!a(!'(1a*uab*e!too*!to!e4t'mate!-o-u*at'o(!4'Te!o5!
K'*D*'5e!QeM2M:!%au2I*e9!1A=4:!Jamue*!et!a*M!1AO=:!$(Der4o(!a(D!L'(DTe9!1AAbRM!B(!NortI!$mer'3a:!
moo4e!-o-u*at'o(4!are!3ommo(*9!e4t'mateD!u4'(2!tIe!Ua4aKa9"metIoD!QUa4aKa9!et!a*M!1AObR:!a!
4trat'5'eD!ra(Dom!b*o3N!4am-*'(2!De4'2(M!Bt!'4!u4ua**9!a44umeD!tIat!100g!o5!a**!moo4e!are!Dete3teD!
K'tI'(!'(te(4'1e*9!4ur1e9eD!b*o3N4!Q400m!*'(e!4-a3'(2h!Ua4aKa9!et!a*M!1AObRM!>ue!to!I'2I!t'me!a(D!
3o4t!reZu'reme(t4!QCarD!et!a*M!2000R:!tI'4!b*o3N"ba4eD!metIoD!'4!5a1orab*e!5or!4ma**!4ur1e9!area4!
a(D!De(4e!moo4e!-o-u*at'o(4!'(!-re5erab*9!o-e(!Iab'tat4!QEu3N*a(D!et!a*M!2001:!N'e*4o(!et!a*M!200bRM!
W'2I!3o4t4!o5!tIe!Ua4aKa9!metIoD!'(!Ke4t"3e(tra*!$*berta!o5te(!-re3*uDe!moo4e!4ur1e94:!e4-e3'a**9!
'(!3ar'bou!ra(2e4M!$E!&dC!3o(Du3teD!Ua4aKa9!4ur1e94!'(!a!(umber!o5!C'*D*'5e!Ga(a2eme(t!F('t4!
QCGF4R!K'tI'(!a(D!arou(D!3ar'bou!ra(2e4!'(!re3e(t!9ear4M!Ce!a'm!to!u4e!tIe!4ur1e9!Data!obta'(eD!
4'(3e!f200a!Q&'2ure!OM4R!to!bu'*D!*ar2e!43a*e!Qa!m'(!*at'tuDe!X!a!m'(!*o(2'tuDe!2r'D4!_!4'Te!o5!tIe!
'(te(4'1e!re4am-*eD!4ur1e9!b*o3N4R!Iab'tat!4u'tab'*'t9!moDe*4!5or!moo4e!ba4eD!o(!abu(Da(3e!
e4t'mate4M!!

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area!o5!3ar'bou!ra(2eM!CI'*e!ma(9!o5!tIe!(o("4ur1e9eD!3ar'bou!ra(2e4!are!tIou2It!to!3o(ta'(!*oKer!
moo4e!De(4't'e4:!tIe9!are!a*4o!eX-er'e(3'(2!ra-'D!*a(D43a-e!a*terat'o(4!Due!to!5ore4tr9!a(D!o'*!a(D!
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3urre(t*9!u4eD!b9!$E!&dC:!KI'*e!-ro1'D'(2!-o-u*at'o(!e4t'mate4!o5!moo4e!K'tI!a!I'2I!*e1e*!o5!
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re3omme(Dat'o(4!b9!$E&CRM!Ju3I!a(!a*ter(at'1e!to!Ua4aKa9!4ur1e94!are!*'(e!tra(4e3t!4ur1e94!tIat!
e4t'mate!4'2Itab'*'t9!b'a4!u4'(2!D'4ta(3e!4am-*'(2!metIoDo*o29!a(D!3a(!be!more!u4e5u*!'(!*oK!
De(4't9!-o-u*at'o(4!'(!1ar9'(2!3o1er!t9-e4!QJamue*!et!a*M!1AO=:!Eu3N*a(D!et!a*M!2001RM!>'4ta(3e!
4am-*'(2!u4e4!tra(4e3t!*'(e4!a*o(2!KI'3I!tIe!ob4er1er!re3orD4!tIe!-er-e(D'3u*ar!D'4ta(3e!o5!Dete3teD!
moo4e!a(D!*ater!a!Dete3t'o(!5u(3t'o(!o5!tIe!De3rea4'(2!Dete3t'o(!-robab'*'t9!K'tI!'(3rea4'(2!D'4ta(3e!
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e55e3t'1e!QGM!+u44e*:!$E!&dC:!u(-ub*'4IeD!DataRM!!
!
TIe!*'(e!4-a3'(2!5or!>'4ta(3e!4ur1e94!3o(Du3teD!1ar'eD!betKee(!3!_!a!m'(ute4!o5!*o(2'tuDeM!Jur1e94!
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tIe!*o3at'o(!KIere!tIe!moo4e!Ka4!'('t'a**9!Dete3teD!a(D!taN'(2!a!Ka9-o'(tM!TIe!D'55ere(3e!o5!tIe!
FTG"Ha4t!1a*ue!o5!tIe!tra(4e3t!*'(e!5rom!tIe!FTG"Ha4t!1a*ue!o5!tIe!Ka9-o'(t!eZua*4!tIe!D'4ta(3e!
5rom!tIe!*'(e!to!tIe!moo4eM!$DD't'o(a*!1ar'ab*e4!Kere!re3orDeD!at!ea3I!moo4e!*o3at'o(:!4u3I!a4!
1e2etat'o(!3o1er:!*a(D3o1er!t9-e:!terra'(:!4(oK3o1er:!2rou-!4'Te:!et3M!to!a**oK!a(a*94'4!'(3*uD'(2!
mu*t'-*e!3o1ar'ate4!*aterM!&or!5urtIer!'(5ormat'o(!o(!>'4ta(3e!4am-*'(2!metIoDo*o29!4ee!Eu3N*a(D!et!
a*M!2001!a(D!Eu3N*a(D!et!a*M!2004M!!
!
3M J'2Itab'*'t9c!TIe!Ua4aKa9!metIoD!maNe4!tIe!a44um-t'o(!o5!100g!4'2Itab'*'t9!K'tI'(!tIe!200m!4tr'-4!
o5!tIe!re4ur1e9eD!b*o3N4!a(D!Doe4!(ot!D're3t*9!3orre3t!5or!a('ma*4!m'44eD!Dur'(2!5*'2It4!QEor3Ier4!et!
a*M!2002RM!&or!D'4ta(3e!4am-*'(2!tIe!mo4t!3r't'3a*!a44um-t'o(!'4!tIat!a('ma*4!o(!tIe!3e(ter!*'(e!are!
Dete3teD!K'tI!100g!3erta'(t9!Q2Q0Rm1M0!a44um-t'o(h!Eu3N*a(D!et!a*M!2001:!Eor3Ier4!et!a*M!2002:!
N'e*4o(!et!a*M!200bRM!+e4ear3I!Ia4!4IoK(!tIat:!Dete3t'o(!-robab'*'t9!o5!a('ma*4!(ear!tIe!a-eX!'4!o5te(!
mu3I!*e44!tIa(!1M0!Due!to!1'4'b'*'t9!b'a4!a(D!K'**!De3rea4e!K'tI!D'4ta(3e!5rom!tIe!tra(4e3t!*'(e!
Q$(Der4o(!a(D!L'(DTe9!1AAb:!Eor3Ier4!et!a*M!2002:!N'e*4o(!et!a*M!200bRM!TI'4!re4u*t4!'(!-o-u*at'o(!
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ma2('tuDe!o5!1'4'b'*'t9!b'a4!3a(!be!I'2I*9!u(Dere4t'mateD!b9!re4ear3Ier4!a(D!3a(!be!e4-e3'a**9!4e1ere!
KIe(!e4t'mat'(2!-o-u*at'o(4!'(!Ietero2e(eou4!*a(D43a-e4!Q"o**o3N!et!a*M!200bR:!4u3I!a4!Ke4t"3e(tra*!
$*bertaM!!

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3om-*ete!Dete3tab'*'t9!K'tI'(!tIe!200m!4ur1e9!4tr'-4!o5!tIe!Ua4aKa9!metIoD!a(D!-ote(t'a**9!
3orre3t'(2!5or!tI'4!b'a4:!Ke!3o(Du3teD!4'2Itab'*'t9!tra'*4!K'tI!raD'o"3o**areD!moo4e!'(!3oo-erat'o(!
K'tI!$%$!a(D!$E!&dC!'(!K'(ter!200OP200A!a(D!200AP2010M!+aD'o"3o**areD!moo4e!Kere!'('t'a**9!
*o3ateD!5rom!a!%e44(a!33=!a(D!a!ra(Dom*9!3Io4e(!4ur1e9!b*o3N!o5!1MbNm!b9!1MbNm!Ka4!-roVe3teD!
o1er!tIe!a('ma*M!TIe4e!3oorD'(ate4!Kere!re-orteD!to!a!4e3o(D!-'*ot!'(!a!Ie*'3o-ter:!KI'3I!tIe(!5*eK!
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Q&'2ure!OM2RM!H1er9!moo4e!Dete3teD!Ka4!re3orDeD!to!4'mu*ate!aer'a*!4ur1e9!3o(D't'o(4M!G'44eD!tar2et!
moo4e!Kere!re*o3ateD!'mmeD'ate*9!a(D!1ar'ab*e4!5or!tIat!*o3at'o(!re3orDeDM!!
Figure!8.2.!HXam-*e!o5!a!4ur1e9!
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8.6!PROGRESS!AND!RESULTS!TO!DATE!
!
OMbM1!Foose!!esource!Pelection!!
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5a'*ure4!o5!tIe!5'r4t!11!moo4e!3o**ar4:!De-*o9eD!'(!Gar3I!200O:!I'2I*9!'(3rea4eD!tIe!3o4t!o5!tI'4!-roVe3t!
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U"J!3o**ar4!'(!Gar3I!200A!QKarra(t9!re-*a3eDRM!!Goo4e!3o**ar4!Kere!D'4tr'buteD!a3ro44!a(!e*e1at'o(!
2raD'e(t!5rom!tIe!3o(t'(e(ta*!D'1'De!to!tIe!5ootI'**4:!a(D!a3ro44!a!Iuma(!D'4turba(3e!2raD'e(t!'(3*uD'(2!
moo4e!'(!-rote3teD!area4!a4!tIe!YaNKa!C'*D*a(D!"arN:!C'**more!C'*Der(e44!"arN:!a(D!7a4-er!Nat'o(a*!
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&rom!5our!retr'e1eD!moo4e!3o**ar4!Ke!Ia1e!tIu4!5ar!De1e*o-eD!a!-re*'m'(ar9!+J&!5or!moo4e!a3ro44!tIe!
L'tt*e!JmoNe9:!+eDro3N""ra'r'e!%reeN:!NarraKa9!a(D!$!La!"e3Ie!3ar'bou!Iome!ra(2eM!Goo4e!-re5erreD!
m'XeD!5ore4t4:!3*o4e!D'4ta(3e4!to!Kater:!'(termeD'ate!D'4ta(3e4!to!o-e('(24!a(D!4e'4m'3!*'(e4!a(D!
4e*e3teD!a2a'(4t!3*o4eD!3a(o-9!3o1er!t9-e4!Q4e*e3teD!o-e(!3o1er!t9-e4RM!TIe!4am-*eD!moo4e!a*4o!
-re5erreD!area4!5urtIer!aKa9!5rom!roaD4!Q(o!D'55ere(t'at'o(!betKee(!-r'mar9!a(D!4e3o(Dar9!roaD4!5or!
tI'4!a(a*94'4R!at!*oKer!e*e1at'o(4!QTab*e!OM2!a(D!&'2ure!OM3RM!TIe!to-!K'(ter!moo4e!moDe*!IaD!a!+\%!o5!
0M=2M!Y"5o*D4!3ro44!1a*'Dat'o(!IaD!a(!a1era2e!J-earma(]4!ra(N!3orre*at'o(!o5!rIom0MAb!KIe(!K'tIIo*D'(2!
1PatI!o5!tIe!U"J!Data!5rom!ea3I!tra'('(2!moDe*!4et!a(D!u4'(2!tIe!K'tIIe*D!Data!a4!e1a*uat'o(!Data!4et!
QK'tI'(!4am-*e!moDe*!e1a*uat'o(:!Eo93e!et!a*M!2002RM!
!
Table!8.1.!+eDro3N""ra'r'e!%reeN:!L'tt*e!JmoNe9:!NarraKa9!a(D!$!La!"e3Ie!K'(ter!moo4e!re4our3e!
4e*e3t'o(!5u(3t'o(!moDe*!3oe55'3'e(t4!5or!tIe!to-!moDe*!4IoK'(2!1ar'ab*e:!De43r'-t'o(:!beta!3oe55'3'e(t!
Q5or!*'(ear!e55e3t4!-o4't'1e!mea(4!4e*e3teD!5or:!(e2at'1e!mea(4!4e*e3teD!a2a'(4tR!a(D!JHM!&or!No("*'(ear!
e55e3t4:!ZuaDrat'3!term4!'(3*uDe!a!4ZuareD!termM!
Covariate!! Description! Coef.! SE P>|z|
Landcover!! l0M0001
G'XeD!&ore4t! &ore4t4!l30g!a(D!i=0g!3o('5erou4 0M33Ob3 0M0b=a3! l0M0001
%a(o-9!%*o4ure! "er3e(t!3a(o-9!3o1er "0M01414 0M00102! l0M0001
Cater!>'4ta(3e! >'4ta(3e!to!Kater! "0M00023 0M0000b! l0M0001
Ce4t! Ce4t!a4-e3t4!5rom!22aj!to!31aj! "0M2O4O3 0M0b4O2! l0M0001
H*e1at'o(! H*e1at'o(!'(!meter4M "0M002O= 0M00024! l0M0001
J*o-e!! J*o-e!! "0M03aA1 0M0033=! l0M0001
Human!Impact! !
Je'4m'3!>'4ta(3e!! >'4ta(3e!to!Je'4m'3!L'(e 0M000b= 0M00022! 0M002
Je'4m'3!>'4ta(3e2! euaDrat'3!Q1ar2R! "1M3H"0b 1MOH"0=! l0M0001
+oaD!>'4ta(3e!! >'4ta(3e!to!-a1eD!a(D!2ra1e*!roaD 0M0001O 1MbH"0a! l0M0001
\-e(!>'4ta(3e! >'4ta(3e!to!o-e(!*a(D3o1er 0M0003A 2MOH"0a! l0M0001
\-e(!>'4ta(3e2! euaDrat'3!Q1ar2R! "1M3H"0O 3H"0A! l0M0001
! !
%o(4ta(t! QmoDe*!'(ter3e-tR! 2M=43a1 0M24=01! l0M0001

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Figure!8.3.!"re*'m'(ar9!K'(ter!re4our3e!4e*e3t'o(!5u(3t'o(!Q+J&R!5or!moo4e!5or!tIe!+eDro3N""ra'r'e!%reeN:!
L'tt*e!JmoNe9:!NarraKa9!a(D!$!La!"e3Ie!%ar'bou!Iome!ra(2e!ba4eD!o(!K'(ter!Data!o5!5our!U"J!moo4e!
3o**ar4!Qabout!4:000!u4eD!*o3at'o(4R:!&ebruar9!200O!to!&ebruar9!200AM!!

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tIou2I!tIe!5our!3o**areD!moo4e!'(Iab'teD!tIe!4ame!e3o494tem:!tIe9!a*4o!o33u-'eD!re2'o(4!tIat!3o(ta'(!
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G94teruD!a(D!Bm4!1AAO:!Eo93e!a(D!G3>o(a*D!1AAARM!Jt'**:!D'55ere(3e4!'(!a1a'*ab'*'t9!are!o5te(!'2(oreD!'(!
Iab'tat!4e*e3t'o(!4tuD'e4M!To!a33ou(t!5or!u(ba*a(3eD!4am-*e!4'Te4!a4!Ke**!a4!tem-ora*!a(D!4-at'a*!
auto3orre*at'o(!Ke!u4eD!a!m'XeD!moDe*!+J&!K'tI!a!ra(Dom!'(ter3e-t!Q4ee!%Ia-ter!=h!Webb*eKI'te!a(D!
Gerr'**!200O:!Eo*Ner!et!a*M!200AR!to!a44e44!moo4e!Iab'tat!4e*e3t'o(!5or!tIe4e!5our!U"J!3o**ar4M!&o**oK'(2!
moo4e!U"J!3o**ar!retr'e1a*!o5!14!more!3o**ar4!Q43IeDu*eD!5or!Gar3I!2010R!Ke!K'**!e1a*uate!moo4e!
re4our3e!4e*e3t'o(!aDD't'o(a**9!K'tI!a!ra(Dom!3oe55'3'e(t!Q$(V!X(R!to!a33ou(t!5or!'(D'1'Dua*!1ar'at'o(!'(!
4e*e3t'o(!or!a1o'Da(3e!o5!*a(D43a-e4!a*tereD!b9!Iuma(4!amo(2!moo4ec!
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a(D!$(V!X(V!'4!tIe!1ar'a(3e!arou(D!%1!amo(2!'(D'1'Dua*!moo4e!5or!3o1ar'ate!X(V!QWebb*eKI'te!a(D!Gerr'**!
200ORM!
$DD't'o(a**9:!a('ma*4!Ia1e!to!maNe!De3'4'o(4!at!D'55ere(t!43a*e4!'(!orDer!to!a1o'D!-reDat'o(!a(D!
maX'm'Te!5ora2e!Q7oI(4o(!1AO0RM!%ourto'4!et!a*M!Q2002R!e4t'mateD!moo4e!Iab'tat!4e*e3t'o(!at!2!43a*e4M!
Je*e3t'o(!at!tIe!3oar4er!43a*e!QIome!ra(2e!4e*e3t'o(R!Ka4!(ot!a55e3teD!b9!3*ear"3ut4!a(D!a*4o!3*ear"3ut4!
Kere!(ot!re*ateD!to!5't(e44!Qmorta*'t9!a(D!-roDu3t'1't9RM!TIere5ore:!o(!a!5'(er!43a*e:!moo4e!IaD!to!maNe!a!
traDeo55!betKee(!maX'm'Tat'o(!o5!5ooD!'(taNe!a(D!a1o'Da(3e!o5!(e2at'1e!'m-a3t4M!C'tI'(!tIe'r!Iome"
ra(2e4!moo4e!te(DeD!to!a1o'D!3*ear"3ut4!Dur'(2!mo4t!4ea4o(4:!4IoKeD!4e*e3t'o(!5or!mature!o1er!9ou(2!
4ta(D4!a(D!4e*e3t'o(!Ka4!4tro(2e4t!5or!m'XeD!4ta(D4M!TI'4!re4ear3I!4IoK4!tIat!a!3om-ar'4o(!betKee(!
D'55ere(t!43a*e4!o5!4e*e3t'o(!'4!e44e(t'a*!to!u(Der4ta(D!IoK!moo4e!traDe"o55!-reDat'o(!r'4N!a(D!5ora2e!
a1a'*ab'*'t9M!TIu4!5ar:!Ke!o(*9!a44e44eD!3rD!orDer!4e*e3t'o(!QK'tI'(!Iome"ra(2eh!7oI(4o(!1AO0R:!but!K'**!
'(3*uDe!a(a*94'4!o(!tIe!2(D!orDer!QIome"ra(2e!4e*e3t'o(h!7oI(4o(!1AO0R!'(!our!5'(a*!a(a*94'4!5o**oK'(2!
3o**ar!retr'e1a*M!!
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OMbM2!Foose!<.un*ance!Fo*els!
!
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arou(D!3ar'bou!ra(2e4!'(!re3e(t!9ear4M!Go4t!CGF4!are!4ur1e9eD!e1er9!5'1e!9ear4:!K'tI!eX3e-t'o(!to!
mou(ta'(!CGF4!Kere!tIe!Ua4aKa9!metIoD!'4!(ot!a--*'3ab*eM!TIrou2I!Data!4Iar'(2!a2reeme(t4!Ke!
re3e'1eD!tIe!4ur1e9!Data!obta'(eD!4'(3e!f200a!'(!Ke4t!3e(tra*!$*berta!Q&'2ure!OM4RM!TI'4!Data!3o(4'4t4!
o5!Deta'*eD!4trat'5'3at'o(!Data:!abu(Da(3e!e4t'mate4!a(D!U"J!Ka9-o'(t4!5or!ea3I!moo4e!Dete3teD!
Dur'(2!tIe!4ur1e9:!KI'3I!K'tI!Ke!a'm!to!bu'*D!*ar2e!43a*e!Qa!m'(!*at'tuDe!X!a!m'(!*o(2'tuDe!2r'D4!_!4'Te!
o5!tIe!'(te(4'1e!4am-*e!4ur1e9!b*o3N4R!Iab'tat!4u'tab'*'t9!moDe*4!5or!moo4e!ba4eD!o(!abu(Da(3e!
e4t'mate4!a(D!3om-are!tIo4e!to!+J&!moDe*4!ba4eD!o(!U"J!3o**ar!DataM!!
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2M >'4ta(3e!Jam-*'(2c!Ce!5*eK!>'4ta(3e!4ur1e94!'(!CGF!440!'(!&ebruar9!200A!a(D!are!3urre(t*9!'(!tIe!
-ro3e44!o5!3o(Du3t'(2!o(e!>'4ta(3e!4ur1e9!'(!CGF!3a3!Q!to!be!3om-*eteD!Gar3I!2010c!&'2ure!OM4RM!
To!e4t'mate!moo4e!De(4't9!'(!tIe!5ootI'**4!re2'o(!o5!CGF!440!Ke!5'tteD!a!2*oba*!Dete3t'o(!5u(3t'o(!
to!our!3omb'(eD!Data!4et!QCGF!440!>'4ta(3e!Data!a(D!J'2Itab'*'t9!Data!Q4ee!be*oKRh!&'2ure!OMaR!
3o(4'Der'(2!moo4e!3*u4ter4!u4'(2!tIe!GarN!+e3a-ture!>'4ta(3e!Jam-*'(2!QG+>JR!e(2'(e!'(!-ro2ram!
>BJT$N%H!bM0!QTIoma4!et!a*M!200ARM!Ce!tIe(!u4eD!tI'4!5'tteD!Dete3t'o(!5u(3t'o(!to!e4t'mate!moo4e!
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De(4't9!o5!0M2=!moo4ePNm2!Q%^m0M4!K'tI!a!Aag%B:!a!re*at'1e*9!'m-re3'4e!e4t'mateR!K'tI!a(!a1era2e!
3*u4ter!4'Te!o5!1M2b:!a44um'(2100g!4'2Itab'*'t9!Q2Q0R!m!1M0R!a*o(2!tIe!tra(4e3t!*'(e!QtIe!De5au*t!'(!
>BJT$N%HRM!!
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ma9!be!u4'(2!tIe!-ro2ram!$er'a*!Jur1e9!QF(4KortI!et!a*M!1AA4R!or!3*u4ter!4am-*'(2!te3I('Zue4!
De1e*o-eD!5or!>'4ta(3e!4am-*'(2!QTIoma4!et!a*M!200=RM!
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Figure!8.4.!Ga-!o5!4tuD9!area!'(3*uD'(2!U"J!a(D!^W&!3o**ar4!De-*o9eD!a4!o5!7a(uar9!2010!a(D!
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te3I('Zue!a(D!Data!'4!a1a'*ab*e!are!D'4-*a9eD!'(!ora(2e!a(D!CGF4!tIat!a*reaD9!Kere!4ur1e9eD!or!
are!-*a((eD!to!be!4ur1e9eD!K'tI!>'4ta(3e!4am-*'(2!are!D'4-*a9eD!'(!9e**oK!QCGF!440!'(!$E!a(D!
CGF!="1A!'(!E%RM!CGF!3a3!K'**!be!4ur1e9eD!K'tI!>'4ta(3e!4am-*'(2!'(!4-r'(2!2010!a(D!Ia4!
bee(!4ur1e9eD!u4'(2!tIe!Ua4aKa9!te3I('Zue!'(!re3e(t!9ear4!Qora(2e!4tr'-e4RM!F(4ur1e9eD!CGF4!
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0.8 Figure!8.5.!>ete3t'o(!5u(3t'o(!-*ot!
QWa*5"(orma*!moDe*:!3Io4e(!ba4eD!
o(!$B%3R!o5!tIe!3omb'(eD!Data!4etM!
D etection probability

Ce!*e5t!tru(3ateD!tIe!Data!to!bbm:!
0.6

KI'3I!3orre4-o(D4!to!tIe!
ob4tru3teD"1'eK!area!be(eatI!tIe!
0.4

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*ar2e4t!agM!TI'4!5u(3t'o(!'4!ba4eD!o(!
100g!4'2Itab'*'t9!Q2Q0R!m!1M0R!a*o(2!
0.2

tIe!tra(4e3t!*'(eM!!
0.0

100 150 200 250 300 350

Distance
!
!

B(!orDer!to!3om-are!e55'3'e(39!o5!>'4ta(3e!4am-*'(2!a(D!Ua4aKa9!4ur1e94!Ke!3a*3u*ateD!tIe!e55ort!
(e3e44ar9!to!a3I'e1e!a!3oe55'3'e(t!o5!1ar'at'o(!o5!20g!QmaX'mum!1ar'at'o(!$E!&dC!a'm4!5or!K'tI!
Ua4aKa9!4ur1e94RM!TI'4!3a(!be!ea4'*9!Do(e:!be3au4e!-re3'4'o(!'(!>'4ta(3e!'4!a!5u(3t'o(!o5!De(4't9!a(D!
4ur1e9!e55ort!QNmR!a(D!Ke!tIere5ore!4'mu*ateD!tIe!tra(4e3t!*e(2tI!Ke!Kou*D!Ia1e!reZu'reD!to!
a3I'e1e!a!%^!o5!20g!at!Aag!'(!CGF!400!5o**oK'(2!5ormu*a!Eu3N*a(D!et!a*M!Q2001:!-2M!242RM!Ce!u4eD!
Data!5rom!-a4t!Ua4aKa9!4ur1e94!a(D!3om-areD!tIe!a1era2e!rotar9!K'(2!5*'2It!e55ort!Q(e2*e3t'(2!5'XeD!
K'(2!e55ort!(e3e44ar9!5or!4trat'5'3at'o(!5or!Ua4aKa9!4ur1e94R!to!our!>'4ta(3e!4am-*'(2!-'*ot!4tuD9!'(!
CGF!440!3orre3teD!5or!a!%^!o5!0M2M!Ce!a44e44eD!5*'2It!e55ort!a4!a!5u(3t'o(!o5!moo4e!De(4't9!to!
3o(tro*!5or!a(9!-ote(t'a*!e55e3t4!o5!moo4e!De(4't9M!&'2ure!OM=!4IoK4!tIat!>'4ta(3e!4ur1e94!Ia1e!tIe!
-ote(t'a*!to!reZu're!*e44!e55ort!tIa(!3om-arab*e!Ua4aKa9!4ur1e94:!e1e(!'2(or'(2!tIe!aDD't'o(a*!5'XeD"
K'(2!3o4t4!o5!moo4e!4trat'5'3at'o(!5*'2It4!5or!Ua4aKa9M!$*4o:!at!I'2Ier!moo4e!De(4't'e4:!>'4ta(3e!
4am-*'(2!4Iou*D!2et!3Iea-er:!-er!u('t!e55ort:!3om-areD!to!Ua4aKa9:!KIere!e55ort!rema'(4!3o(4ta(t!
2'1e(!'t4!4am-*'(2!De4'2(M!CI'*e!5urtIer!te4t4!are!reZu'reD!a3ro44!a!broaDer!ra(2e!o5!moo4e!De(4't'e4!
a(D!u(Der!D'55ere(t!3o(D't'o(4:!>'4ta(3e!4am-*'(2!4IoK4!2reat!-ote(t'a*M!!

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Figure!8.6.!&*'2It!e55ort!
QIr4R!'(!re*at'o(!to!moo4e!
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CGF4!QData!5rom!2000"
200ARM!Ce!e4t'mateD!tIe!
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$*berta!a(D!CGF!="1A!'(!Er't'4I!%o*umb'a!QDe-e(D'(2!o(!a1a'*ab'*'t9!o5!5u(D'(2h!&'2ure!OM4R!'(!K'(ter!
200AP2010!to!re3e'1e!1er9!re3e(t!Data!o(!moo4e!abu(Da(3e!K'tI!L'tt*e!JmoNe9!a(D!tIe!NarraKa9!
3ar'bou!Iome!ra(2e4!5or!moo4e!abu(Da(3e!moDe*'(2M!
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2010R:!Ke!3a(!o(*9!DraK!-re*'m'(ar9!3o(3*u4'o(4!5rom!Data!a1a'*ab*e!to!DateM!B(!23!4'2Itab'*'t9!b*o3N4!
Ke!3o(Du3teD:!Ke!o(*9!Dete3teD!14!raD'o"3o**areD!moo4eM!TIere5ore:!our!te(tat'1e!re4u*t4!'(D'3ate!
4'2Itab'*'t9!3o(D't'o(4!1ar9!I'2I*9!'(!Ke4t"3e(tra*!$E!a(D!4'2Itab'*'t9!at!2Q0R!ma9!be!a4!*oK!a4!b0g:!
K'tI!De3rea4'(2!-robab'*'t9!o5!Dete3t'(2!a!moo4e!K'tI!'(3rea4'(2!D'4ta(3e!5rom!tIe!tra(4a3t!-atIM!
TI'4!3o(5'rm4!tIe!(eeD!to!De1e*o-!a!4'2Itab'*'t9!aDVu4tme(t!a*o(2!tIe!tra(4e3t!*'(e!5or!>'4ta(3e!a(D!
a*4o!5or!Ua4aKa9!4am-*'(2M!$!De3rea4eD!4'2Itab'*'t9!K'**!De3rea4e!abu(Da(3e!e4t'mate4!4ub4ta(t'a**9!
QTab*e!OM2!a(D!&'2ure!OMOR!a(D!K'**!a*4o!*eaD!to!5*aKeD!3o(3*u4'o(4!o(!moo4e!Iab'tat!4e*e3t'o(!Q5or!
moDe*4!ba4eD!o(!aer'a*!4ur1e9!Data!KIere!moo4e!are!m'44eD!e4-e3'a**9!'(!De(4er!Iab'tat4:!KI'*e!
more!5reZue(t*9!Dete3teD!'(!o-e(!Iab'tat4RM!!

Table!8.2.!J'mu*at'(2!4'2Itab'*'t9!at!2Q0R!5or!0MO:!0Mb!a(D!0M4!
4'2Itab'*'t9!Kou*D!a--roX'mate!tIe!5o**oK'(2!De(4't9!
e4t'mate4PNm2!Qa*4o!4ee!&'2ure!OMORM!
2
>ete3tab'*'t9!at!2Q0R >e('t9!e4t'mate!QNm R g!>e(4't9!'(3rea4e
1 0M2= P
0MO 0M34 2a
0Mb 0M4a bb
0M4 0M=2 1bb !!

b1!
b2! "T$%T!&'(a*!+e-ort!
!

Detection function plot


Figure!8.7.!TIe!b*a3N:!4o*'D!3ur1e!4IoK4!
tIe!2*oba*!Dete3t'o(!5u(3t'o(!5or!
>'4ta(3e!4ur1e9!Data!5rom!K'(ter!
0.8

200OP200AM!Bt!'4!a!Ia*5"(orma*!moDe*!
ba4eD!o(!100g!4'2Itab'*'t9!Q2Q0R!m!1M0R!
Detection probability

0.6

a*o(2!tIe!tra(4e3t!*'(eM!TIe!reD:!DotteD!
*'(e4!'(D'3ate!a(!a--roX'mat'o(!o5!tIe!
0.4

Dete3t'o(!5u(3t'o(4!K'tI!5or3eD!
'(ter3e-t4!KIe(!4'mu*at'(2!De3rea4eD!
0.2

4'2Itab'*'t9!43e(ar'o4!5or!0MO:!0Mb!a(D!0M4!
4'2Itab'*'t9!at!2Q0RM!
0.0

100 150 200 250 300 350

Distance !
!
8.7!OUTLOOK:!COMBINING!RESOURCE!SELECTION!AND!ABUNDANCE!ESTIMATION!
!!
$5ter!a44e44'(2!1ar'ab*e4!tIat!'(5*ue(3e!moo4e!Iab'tat!4e*e3t'o(:!a(a*9T'(2!IoK!Iuma(!De1e*o-me(t!
3Ia(2e4!tIe4e!Iab'tat!4e*e3t'o(!-atter(4!o(!mu*t'-*e!43a*e4:!a(D!-oo*'(2!moo4e!abu(Da(3e!e4t'mate4!
3orre3teD!5or!4'2Itab'*'t9h!Ke!K'**!be!ab*e!to!3a*'brate!tIe!U"J!a(D!aer'a*!4ur1e9!Data!tIrou2I!moDe*!
3ro44"1a*'Dat'o(!a2a'(4t!ea3I!otIer!QeM2M:!JaIer:!200ah!%'ar('e**o!et!a*M:!200=h!Eo93e!et!a*M:!2002RM!Ce!K'**!
tIe(!e4t'mate!tIe!-ote(t'a*!De(4't9!o5!moo4e!'(!u(4ur1e9eD!re2'o(4!u4'(2!tIe!3a*'brat'o(!o5!moo4e!
De(4't'e4!5rom!4ur1e9eD!re2'o(4!a(D!-reD'3teD!-robab'*'t9!o5!u4e!b9!+J&!moDe*4!QeM2M:!Eo93e!a(D!
G3>o(a*D!1AAA:!Eo93e!a(D!Ca**er!2003R!a(D!tIereb9!!De1e*o-!a!moo4e!Iab'tat"ba4eD!abu(Da(3e!moDe*!
a3ro44!3ar'bou!Iome!ra(2e4!K'tI'(!our!4tuD9!re2'o(M!TI'4!K'**!-ro1'De!broaD!43a*e!De(4't9!e4t'mate4!a(D!
Iab'tat!4u'tab'*'t9!moDe*4!5or!Ke4t!3e(tra*!$*bertaM!
!
!

b2!
b3! "T$%T!&'(a*!+e-ort!
!

!
9.0!CARIBOU!MIGRATORY!AND!SURVIVAL!PATTERNS!OVER!REGIONAL!
GRADIENTS!IN!HUMAN!DEVELOPMENT!
!
9.1!INTRODUCTION!
!
TIe!e1o*ut'o(!o5!-art'a*!m'2rat'o(!'4!a!to-'3!r'3I!K'tI!I9-otIe4e4!a(D!tIeoret'3a*!D'43u44'o(!Q%oX!1AOa:!
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amo(2!beIa1'ora*!2rou-4!2'1e(!D'55ere(t'a*!3o4t4!a(D!be(e5't4!o5!m'2rat'o(M!!WoKe1er:!-art'a*!m'2rator9!
4trate2'e4!amo(2!'(D'1'Dua*4!'(!a!-o-u*at'o(!a(D!K'tI'(!'(D'1'Dua*!De3'4'o("maN'(2!are!3ommo(!'(!b'rD4!
Q$Dr'ae(4e(!a(D!>Io(Dt!1AA0:!U'**'4!et!a*M!200OR:!5'4Ie4!QEroDer4e(!et!a*M!200OR:!'(4e3t4!Q>'(2*e!1AAbR:!a(D!
mamma*4!QEa**!et!a*M!2001:!Webb*eKI'te!a(D!Gerr'**!200=:!CI'te!et!a*M!200=RM!!!
! "art'a*!m'2rat'o(!'4!-art'3u*ar*9!3ommo(!'(!u(2u*ate4!Q&r9Xe**!et!a*M!1AOORM!WoKe1er:!tIe!4e*e3t'1e!
ba*a(3e!betKee(!4eDe(tar9!a(D!m'2rator9!4trate2'e4!ma9!be!a*tereD!b9!2*oba*!3*'mate!3Ia(2e!QEertIo*D!
1AAA:!2001!but!4ee!N'*44o(!et!a*M!200bR:!a(tIro-o2e('3!a*terat'o(!QWebb*eKI'te!et!a*M!200bR!or!
5ra2me(tat'o(!QEer2er!2004R!o5!Iab'tat:!or!3Ia(2e4!'(!-reDator!3ommu('t'e4!QWebb*eKI'te!et!a*M!200b:!
CI'te!et!a*M!200=RM!!TI'4!m'2It!3reate!D'4-arate!4e*e3t'o(!-re44ure4!betKee(!4trate2'e4!QEertIo*D!et!a*M!
1AA0R:!'(!tIe!5orm!o5!a*tereD!4ur1'1a*!a(D!5e3u(D't9!rate4:!or!3ou*D!3au4e!a!beIa1'ora*!4I'5t!aKa9!5rom!a!
4trate29M!!Eo*2er!et!a*M!Q200OR!5ou(D!tIat!D'4ru-t'o(!o5!m'2rator9!route4!3au4eD!ra-'D!-o-u*at'o(!3o**a-4e4!
amo(2!ob*'2ate!m'2rator9!u(2u*ate!-o-u*at'o(4:!tIou2I!tIe9!D'D!(ot!D'43u44!IoK!4e*e3t'o(!-re44ure4!or!
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'(Du4tr'e4!Ia4!o33urreD!D'4-ro-ort'o(ate*9!o(!3ar'bou!K'(ter!ra(2e4M!!B(!tIe4e!-o-u*at'o(4!m'2rator9!
beIa1'or4!amo(2!-o-u*at'o(4!Ia1e!bee(!3orre*ateD!to!2e(et'3!Ia-*ot9-e!5reZue(3'e4!QG3>e1'tt!et!a*M!
200ARM!!!WoKe1er:!'t!'4!u(3*ear!KIetIer!m'2rator9!or!4eDe(tar9!4trate2'e4!are!a44o3'ateD!K'tI!D'55ere(t!
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re*at'1e!ro*e4!o5!m'2rat'o(!beIa1'or!a(D!Iab'tat!5ra2me(tat'o(!'(!-reD'3t'(2!4ur1'1a*!amo(2!aDu*t!5ema*e!
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b3!
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Figure!9.1.!Jam-*e!3a4e!
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9.2!METHODS!
!
Ce!u4eD!a!3omb'(at'o(!o5!^W&"!a(D!U"J"ba4eD!te*emetr9!Data!5rom!2OO!raD'o"3o**areD!aDu*t!5ema*e4!to!
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moDe*'(2!'(!re3e(t!De3aDe4!-ro1'DeD!a!5rameKorN!4u'tab*e!K'tI!*e5t!tru(3ateD:!4ta22ereD"e(tr9!Data!
4u3I!a4!tIe4e!Q$(Der4o(!a(D!U'**!1AO2:!TIer(eau!a(D!Uramb43I!2000RM!!!
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3ate2or'e4M!!Ce!5o**oKeD!4te-4!Wo4mer!et!a*M!Q200OR!K'tI!re4-e3t!to!3o1ar'ate4:!a(D!3om-*eteD!a**!
a(a*94e4!'(!Jtata!10!QJtata%or-!200=h!%*ea1e4!et!a*M!200ORM!!Ce!bu'*t!4ea4o(a*!moDe*4!u4'(2!u('1ar'ate!
a(a*94'4!o5!ea3I!3o1ar'ate:!a44e44me(t!o5!3o**'(ear't9!a(D!-ro-ort'o(a*!IaTarD4!amo(2!3o1ar'ate4:!
3o(4'Derat'o(!o5!3o(5ou(D'(2!a(D!'(tera3t'(2!3o1ar'ate4:!a(D!tIe!u4e!o5!Gart'(2a*e!re4'Dua*4!to!
Determ'(e!5u(3t'o(a*!5orm!Q%*ea1e4!et!a*M!200O:!Wo4mer!et!a*M!200ORM!!Ce!u4eD!$Na'Ne!B(5ormat'o(!
%r'ter'a!Q$B%R!to!a44e44!tIe!e1'De(3e!5or!4u--ort!o5!ea3I!moDe*!a4!tIe!be4t!3a(D'Date:!a(D!a44e44eD!tIe!
o1era**!5't!o5!moDe*4!u4'(2!tIe!-art'a*!*'Ne*'IooD!rat'o!te4t!a(D!a(a*94'4!o5!%oX"J(e**!re4'Dua*4!Q%*ea1e4!et!
a*M!200ORM!
!
!

ba!
bb! "T$%T!&'(a*!+e-ort!
!

!
9.3!RESULTS!
!
Ea4eD!o(!a!tKo"*e1e*!3ate2or'Tat'o(!Qm'2rator9"4eDe(tar9R:!4ummer!4ur1'1a*!Ka4!*oKer!5or!m'2rator9!
3ar'bou!3om-areD!to!4eDe(tar9!3ar'bouM!!C'tI!a!tIree"*e1e*!3ate2or'Tat'o(!Qm'2rator9:!4eDe(tar9"
mou(ta'(4:!4eDe(tar9"5ootI'**4R:!m'2rator9!'(D'1'Dua*4!IaD!*oKe4t!4ur1'1a*:!5o**oKeD!b9!tIo4e!'(!*oKer"
e*e1at'o(!5ootI'**4:!K'tI!I'2Ie4t!4ummer!4ur1'1a*!5or!3ar'bou!'(!I'2I!e*e1at'o(!mou(ta'(!Iab'tat4!Q&'2ure!
AM2RM!!WoKe1er:!tIe!tKo"*e1e*!3ate2or'Tat'o(!Ka4!mo4t!4u--orteD!b9!$B%!moDe*!4e*e3t'o(!3r'ter'a!QTab*e!
AM1RM!!TIe4e!re4u*t4!4u22e4t!tIat!3urre(t!-atter(4!o5!aDu*t!4ur1'1a*!are!eXI'b't'(2!4e*e3t'o(!a2a'(4t!
m'2rator9!KooD*a(D!3ar'bou:!KI'3I!'4!5urtIer!4u--orteD!b9!a!De3*'('(2!tre(D!'(!tIe!-ro-ort'o(!o5!
3o**areD!'(D'1'Dua*4!tIat!eXI'b'teD!m'2rat'o(!'(!tKo!IerD4!mo('toreD!4'(3e!1AO1!Q&'2ure!AM3RM!
!
!
Table!9.1.!%om-ar'4o(!o5!4am-*e!4'Te!QA_(umber!o5!DeatI4R:!(umber!o5!-arameter4!QRR:!'(5ormat'o(!
3r'ter'a!Q&$B%3R:!a(D!moDe*!Ke'2It4!QER!a(D!re*at'1e!ra(N:!5or!moDe*4!o5!4ummer!5ema*e!KooD*a(D!
3ar'bou!4ur1'1a*!a4!3*a44'5'eD!'(to!o(e:!tKo:!a(D!tIree!2rou-4!a33orD'(2!to!m'2rator9!a(D!4eDe(tar9!
beIa1'or:!%a(aD'a(!+o3N'e4:!1AAO_200AM!
!
GoDe*! A! R! &$B%3! E! +a(N
o(e"3*a44!Q(o!e55e3t!o5!m'2rat'o(R! ab! 1! 2M33! 0M1O! 3!
tKo"3*a44!Qm'2rator9:!4eDe(tar9R! ab! 2! 0! 0MaO! 1!
tIree"4ta2e!Qm'2rator9:!4eDe(tar9"mou(ta'(:!4eDe(tar9"5ootI'**4R! ab! 3! 1M=4! 0M24! 2!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

Figure!9.2.!Jur1'1a*!-robab'*'t9!b9!-art'a*!m'2rat'o(!beIa1'ora*!4trate29!5or!
aDu*t!5ema*e!KooD*a(D!3ar'bou!'(!tIe!%a(aD'a(!+o3N'e4:!1AAO_200AM!

bb!
b=! "T$%T!&'(a*!+e-ort!
!

Figure!9.3.!TIe!-ro-ort'o(!o5!raD'o"3o**areD!aDu*t!5ema*e4!eXI'b't'(2!m'2rat'o(!o1er!t'me!'(!tKo!
-o-u*at'o(4!o5!KooD*a(D!3ar'bou!'(!tIe!%a(aD'a(!+o3N'e4:!1AO1_200AM!
!
J-at'a*:!t'me"1ar9'(2:!%"W!moDe*4!re1ea*eD!4'2('5'3a(t!e55e3t4!o5!4-at'a*!3o1ar'ate4!o(!Da'*9!
3ar'bou!4ur1'1a*!-robab'*'t9M!!>ur'(2!K'(ter:!tIe!mo4t!-ar4'mo('ou4!moDe*!3o(ta'(eD!(e2at'1e!e55e3t!4!o5!
3utb*o3N4!Q"m2M4aO:!7m0M043R!a(D!1a**e9"*'Ne!to-o2ra-I9!Q"!m"0M0044:!7m0M030R!o(!Da'*9!3ar'bou!4ur1'1a*!
QTab*e!AM2RM!!>ur'(2!4ummer:!tIe!mo4t!-ar4'mo('ou4!moDe*4!Q&$B%3!i2R!3o(ta'(eD!a!(e2at'1e!e55e3t!o5!
m'2rat'o(!Q"m0M41b:!7m0M13AR!a(D!a!-o4't'1e!e55e3t!o5!a*-'(e!Iab'tat4!Q"m"1M=A:!7m0M001h!Tab*e!AM2RM!!Notec!
tIe!3oe55'3'e(t4!Q"R!abo1e!re5*e3t!tIe!re*at'o(4I'-!betKee(!tIe!3o1ar'ate!a(D!tIe!IaTarD:!4o!a!-o4't'1e!
3oe55'3'e(t!'(D'3ate4!'(3rea4eD!IaTarD!a(D!De3rea4eD!4ur1'1a*M!
! TIou2I!tI'4!a(a*94'4!Doe4!(ot!D're3t*9!a44e44!tIe!e55e3t!o5!-reDat'o(:!re*at'o(4I'-4!Do!4u22e4t!a!
2e(era*!2e4ta*t!o5!-reDat'o(!r'4N!a(D!3ar'bou!4ur1'1a*M!!"reDat'o(!r'4N!Kou*D!be!a44umeD!to!be!I'2Ie4t!'(!
5ore4teD!1a**e94!Q*oK!T"B!a(D!a*-'(e!1a*ue4R:!KI'3I!are!4e*e3teD!5or!tra1e*!b9!Ko*1e4!QWebb*eKI'te!et!a*M!
200aR:!a(D!tIe!(e2at'1e!e55e3t!o5!3utb*o3N4!4u--ort4!a!4ta(D'(2!I9-otIe4'4!tIat!tIe!-o4't'1e!e55e3t!o5!
3utb*o3N4!o(!-r'mar9!-re9!Qmoo4eR!a(D!Ko*1e4!ma9!-roDu3e!a!(e2at'1e!e55e3t!o(!3ar'bou!QJe'-!1AA2:!
C'ttmer!et!a*M!200=RM!!TIere!rema'(4!o(e!-uTT*e!'(!tIe4e!re4u*t4:!'(!tIat!m'2rat'o(!Ia4!a!(e2at'1e!e55e3t!
o(!4ur1'1a*:!9et!tIe!a*-'(e!Iab'tat4!KI'3I!are!tIe!re4u*t!o5!m'2rat'o(!o55er!a!-o4't'1e!e55e3tM!!TIe!e55e3t!o5!
m'2rat'o(!ma9:!'(!5a3t!be!tIe!I'2I!r'4N!'(1o*1eD!'(!m'2rat'o(!'t4e*5:!KI'3I!m'2It!o1er3ome!a(9!-o4't'1e!
e55e3t4!o5!tIe!e1e(tua*!arr'1a*!'(!a*-'(e!Iab'tat4M!!TI'4!I9-otIe4'4!'4!tIu4!5ar!u(te4teD:!tIou2I!Ke!are!
3o(t'(u'(2!tI'4!a(a*94'4!K'tI!more!eX-*'3't:!t'me"1ar9'(2!3o(4'Derat'o(!o5!4ea4o(4:!'4o*at'(2!t'me!4-e(t!o(!
K'(ter!ra(2e4:!o(!4ummer!ra(2e4:!a(D!'(!tIe!a3t!o5!m'2rat'o(M!
!
!
!
!
!
!

b=!
bO! "T$%T!&'(a*!+e-ort!
!

Table!9.2.!%om-ar'4o(!o5!4am-*e!4'Te!QA_(umber!o5!DeatI4R:!(umber!o5!-arameter4!QRR:!'(5ormat'o(!
3r'ter'a!Q&$B%3R:!a(D!moDe*!Ke'2It4!QER!a(D!re*at'1e!ra(N:!5or!4-at'a*:!t'me"1ar9'(2!%oX!-ro-ort'o(a*!
IaTarD4!moDe*4!o5!K'(ter!a(D!4ummer!5ema*e!KooD*a(D!3ar'bou!4ur1'1a*!a4!3*a44'5'eD!'(to!o(e:!tKo:!a(D!
tIree!2rou-4!a33orD'(2!to!m'2rator9!a(D!4eDe(tar9!beIa1'or:!%a(aD'a(!+o3N'e4:!1AAO_200AM!
!
! Winter! ! Summer!
GoDe*! A! R! &$B%3 E! +a(N ! A! R! &$B%3! E! +a(N!
(u**! 3O! 1! 2M=AO! 0M0b! =! ! ab! 1! 12MA3b! 0M00! =!
m'2rat'o(! 3O! 2! 3MO4b! 0M04! 10! ! ab! 2! 12M20=! 0M00! b!
alpine! 3O! 2! 3Mab4! 0M04! A! ! ab! 2! 0.000! 0.38! 1!
T"B! 3O! 2! 0MbbO! 0M1A! 2! ! ab! 2! 14M4Ab! 0M00! 12!
3utb*o3N4! 3O! 2! 2M20b! 0M0A! 3! ! ab! 2! 14M4b=! 0M00! 11!
*'(ear! 3O! 2! 4M=b=! 0M02! 1a! ! ab! 2! 1aM0O=! 0M00! 1a!
3utb*o3N4!*'(ear! 3O! 3! 4MabA! 0M03! 14! ! ab! 3! 1bMb0A! 0M00! 1A!
t-'!a*-'(e! 3O! 3! 2MbAO! 0M0=! b! ! ab! 3! 2M202! 0M13! 4!
tpi!forestry! 3O! 3! 0.000! 0.26! 1! ! ab! 3! 1bM133! 0M00! 1=!
migration!alpine! 3O! 3! 4M20=! 0M03! 12! ! ab! 3! 0.003! 0.38! 2!
m'2rat'o(!t-'! 3O! 3! 2Mba2! 0M0=! a! ! ab! 3! 13M43O! 0M00! O!
m'2rat'o(!5ore4tr9! 3O! 3! 3M411! 0M0a! O! ! ab! 3! 13MA=a! 0M00! A!
m'2rat'o(!*'(ear! 3O! 3! aMOb=! 0M01! 1b! ! ab! 3! 14M0Oa! 0M00! 10!
m'2rat'o(!a*-'(e!t-'! 3O! 4! 4Mabb! 0M03! 13! ! ab! 4! 2M324! 0M12! a!
m'2rat'o(!5ore4tr9!*'(ear! 3O! 4! aMA1a! 0M01! 1O! ! ab! 4! 1aMa3=! 0M00! 1b!

bO!
bA! "T$%T!&'(a*!+e-ort!
!

!
10.0!IMPLICATIONS!AND!CONSERVATION!STRATEGIES!
!
10.1!MANAGEMENT!IMPLICATIONS!OF!GENETIC!FINDINGS!
!
10M1M1!<lloEing!for!sur=i=al!of!the!2artiall:#migrator:!!ocRies!cari.ou!
!
%ar'bou!'(!our!4tuD9!area!Ia1e!*o(2!bee(!3o(4'DereD!to!be*o(2!to!tIe!KooD*a(D!4ub4-e3'e4:!K'tI!tIe!
barre("2rou(D!4ub4-e3'e4!o33urr'(2!'(!tIe!tu(Dra:!Iu(DreD4!o5!N'*ometre4!5urtIer!(ortIM!Were!Ke!4IoK!
u(amb'2uou4*9!tIat!tIe!Eer'(2'a(_Hura4'a(!m'to3Io(Dr'a*!*'(ea2e!a44o3'ateD!K'tI!tIe!barre("2rou(D!
3ar'bou!'4!-re4e(t!'(!tIe!%a(aD'a(!+o3N9!Gou(ta'(4!Q&'2M!10M1:!r'2It!-a(e*RM!
!
\ur!4tuD9!I'2I*'2IteD!tIat!3ar'bou!o5!tIe!%a(aD'a(!+o3N'e4!'**u4trate!a(!'(tr'2u'(2!eXam-*e!o5!2*a3'a*!
1'3ar'a(3e!3reat'(2!D'1er2eD!*'(ea2e4:!5o**oKeD!b9!*o3a*'TeD!-o4t2*a3'a*!49m-atr9:!KI'3I!-romoteD!tIe!
m'X'(2!o5!2e(e!-oo*4!tIat!IaD!bee(!e1o*1'(2!'(De-e(De(t*9!5or!4e1era*!tIou4a(D!9ear4M!NeK!aDa-t'1e!
2e(et'3!D'1er4't9!ma9!Ia1e!bee(!2e(erateD!b9!nI9br'D!4Karm'(2]!'(!re4-o(4e!to!(eK!Iab'tat!a1a'*ab't*'9!
o1er!a!re*at'1e*9!4Iort!-er'oD!o5!t'meM!
!

!
Fig.!10.1!$(!'3e"5ree!3orr'Dor!at!tIe!e(D!o5!tIe!*a4t!2*a3'at'o(!*'Ne*9!a**oKeD:!5or!tIe!5'r4t!t'me:!5or!barre("
2rou(D!3ar'bou!to!m'2rate!5rom!tIe!NortI!a(D!o1er*a-!K'tI!KooD*a(D!3ar'bou!eX-a(D'(2!5rom!tIe!JoutI!
Q*e5t!-a(e*:!5rom!>ue3N!1AAORM!Were:!tIrou2I!tIe!'(te2rateD!u4e!o5!(u3*ear!a(D!m'to3Io(Dr'a*!marNer4:!
Ke!4IoKeD!tIat!tIe!-re1'ou4*9!D'1er2eD!*'(ea2e4!are!-re4e(t!'(!tIe!4tuD9!area!Qr'2It!-a(e*R!a(D!Ia1e!
'(terbreD!'(!re3e(t!t'me4M!
!
TIe!%a(aD'a(!+o3N'e4!3ar'bou!eXI'b't!tIe!2e(et'3!a(D!-Ie(ot9-'3!tra't4!o5!a(!'(tra4-e3'5'3!I9br'D!4Karm!
tIat!Ia4!-ro1eD!1er9!4u33e445u*!'(!aDa-t'(2!to!tIe!5ore4t4!a(D!a*-'(e!tu(Dra!o5!tIe!-o4t2*a3'a*!+o3N9!
Gou(ta'(4!e(1'ro(me(tM!B(!a!*a(D43a-e!tIat!'4!3Ia(2'(2!Due!to!3*'mat'3!a(D!Iuma("meD'ateD!5a3tor4:!a(!

bA!
=0! "T$%T!&'(a*!+e-ort!
!

u(Der4ta(D'(2!o5!tIe4e!D9(am'34:!botI!-a4t!a(D!-re4e(t:!'4!e44e(t'a*!5or!ma(a2eme(t!a(D!3o(4er1at'o(!
o5!tIe4e!-o-u*at'o(4M!
!
B(!tIe!+o3N'e4:!a*-'(e!area4!a(D!5ore4t!area4!o33ur!at!D'55ere(t!a*t'tuDe4!r!KIerea4!at!tIe!4ub3o(t'(e(ta*!
43a*e!tu(Dra!a(D!5ore4t!o33ur!at!D'55ere(t!*at'tuDe4M!TIe!4-at'a*!a(D!a*t'tuD'(a*!ra(2e!o5!3ar'bou!m'2rat'o(!
'(!tIe!+o3N'e4!'4!u('Zue!KIe(!3om-areD!to!(ortIer(!3ar'bou!QGu4'a('!et!a*M!200=RM!&'(a**9:!tIe!5a3t!tIat!
*'(ea2e!m'X'(2!'(!our!4tuD9!area!o33ur4!re*at'1e*9!5ar!5rom!tIe!ob1'ou4!e3oto(e!To(e4!betKee(!tIe!
barre("2rou(D!a(D!KooD*a(D!ra(2e4!a*4o!4u22e4t4!u('Zue(e44!o5!tIe4e!-o-u*at'o(4M!
!
%o(4er1at'o(!-*a((er4!4Iou*D!taNe!'(to!3o(4'Derat'o(!tIe!(eeD!to!a**oK!5or!*o(2"term!-er4'4te(3e!o5!tIe!
+o3N'e4!3ar'bou!_'MeM!a(!aDD't'o(a*!*e1e*!o5!3o(3er(!5or!a!4-e3'e4!N(oK(!to!be!tIreate(eDM!TIe!mo4t!
ob1'ou4!a--*'3at'o(!o5!our!(eK!5'(D'(24!'4!tIat!o5!a**oK'(2!5or!4ur1'1a*!o5!tIe!3ar'bou!'(D'1'Dua*4!tIat!
4e*e3t!tIe!m'2rator9!4trate29M!G'2rat'o(!*'Ne*9!re4u*t4!'(!more!5reZue(t!e(3ou(ter4!K'tI!-reDator4!a4!Ke**!
a4!K'tI!Iab'tat4!tIat!are!a*tereD!b9!Iuma(!De1e*o-me(tM!\ur!ma-4!I'2I*'2It!area4!3Iara3ter'TeD!b9!
I'2Ier!e(3ou(ter!rate4!K'tI!'m-orta(t!-reDator4!4u3I!a4!Ko*1e4M!\tIer!ma-4!'(D'3ate!area4!K'tI!Iuma(!
5eature4!4u3I!a4!5ore4tr9!a(D!*'(ear!De1e*o-me(t4!tIat!Ia1e!N(oK(!'m-a3t4!o(!3ar'bouM!TIe4e!4Iou*D!be!
3o(4'DereD!4e(4't'1e!area4!5or!3ar'bou!morta*'t9:!e4-e3'a**9!3o(4'Der'(2!tIat!our!moDe*'(2!'(D'3ate4!*oKer!
4ur1'1a*!5or!m'2rator9!'(D'1'Dua*4!Q4ee!abo1e!4e3t'o(!ARM!
!
10M1M2!<lloEing!for!Aatural!9e=els!of!Figrants!among!0ari.ou!7o2ulations!
!
Methods:!
TIe!e55e3t'1e!(umber!o5!5ema*e4!eX3Ia(2eD!-er!2e(erat'o(!Ka4!e4t'mateD!5rom!mt>N$!&4t"1a*ue4!
a33orD'(2!to!tIe!a--roX'mat'o(!N5m!m!QQ1P&4tR_1RP2M!TIe!eXte(t!o5!2e(e!5*oK!QNmR!amo(2!tIe!D'55ere(t!
IerD4!Ka4!e1a*uateD!5rom!o1era**!&JT!e4t'mate4!o5!m'3ro4ate**'te4!b9!tIe!eZuat'o(c!Nm!m!QQ1P&JTR!_!1RP4!
QJ*atN'(!1AAah!G'3Ia*aN'4!d!HX3o55'er!1AAbRM!$*tIou2I!tIe!1era3't9!o5!tIe!ab4o*ute!2e(e!5*oK!e4t'mate4!
De-e(D4!o(!4e1era*!a44um-t'o(4!tIat!ma9!(ot!be!met!'(!tIe!-re4e(t!4'tuat'o(!Q-o-u*at'o(!'(!eZu'*'br'um!
K'tI!re4-e3t!to!2e(et'3!Dr'5t!a(D!m'2rat'o(:!'4*a(D!moDe*!o5!-o-u*at'o(!4tru3tureR:!tIe9!(e1ertIe*e44!
-ro1'De!a!ba4'4!5or!e4t'mat'(2!(atura*!*e1e*4!o5!2e(e!5*oK!amo(2!t9-'3a*!+o3N'e4!-o-u*at'o(4M!To!3a*3u*ate!
2e(erat'o(!t'me!5or!3ar'bou!Ke!tooN!'(to!3o(4'Derat'o(!tIat!a!5ema*e!3a(!be!4eXua**9!mature!a4!ear*9!a4!
1b!mo(tI4!o5!a2e:!but!more!3ommo(*9!at!2O!mo(tI4M!C'tI!2ooD!(utr't'o(!5ema*e4!2'1e!b'rtI!to!3a*1e4!
ea3I!9ear:!but!ma9!4N'-!9ear4!'(!-oor!ra(2e4M!
!
Results:!
!
Estimates!of!fixation!indices!(FST)!
!
#$%&'()!M+%),!(-'&&+-'!.!U*oba*!&JT!1a*ue4!Kere!4'm'*ar!a(D!4'2('5'3a(t!5or!a**!2rou-'(24!te4teD!Qa1era2e!
amo(2!IerD4c!0M044h!amo(2!Jtru3ture!3*u4ter4c!0M04Oh!amo(2!THJJ!3*u4ter4c!0M042h!"!i!0M0001RM!$**!
-a'rK'4e!3om-ar'4o(4!o5!&JT!betKee(!3*u4ter4!'De(t'5'eD!b9!tIe!-ro2ram!Jtru3ture!Q-a'rK'4e!&JT!1a*ue4!
ra(2e4c!0M020_0M0A1R!a(D!tIe!-ro2ram!THJJ!Q-a'rK'4e!&JT!1a*ue4!ra(2e4c!0M01b_0M0b=R!Kere!4'2('5'3a(tM!
!
M+-,%/,01)+(&!2#A.!"o-u*at'o(!4ubD'1'4'o(!Ka4!e1a*uateD!ba4eD!o(!m'to3Io(Dr'a*!>N$!u4'(2!4-at'a*!
a(a*94'4!o5!mo*e3u*ar!1ar'a(3e!QJ$G\^$RM!TIe!a(a*94'4!4IoKeD!tIat!K'tI!tIe!or2a('Tat'o(!'(!4e1e(!
2rou-4:!tIere!Ka4!a!te(De(39!5or!tIe!NarraKa9!a(D!"ar4('-!IerD4!to!5orm!o(e!3*u4ter:!KIerea4!a**!otIer!
IerD4!3*u4tereD!4e-arate*9!Qa1era2e!&JT!m!0M1OA:!"!i!0M000001h!&%T!m!0M20O:!"!i!0M03ORM!
!
!

=0!
=1! "T$%T!&'(a*!+e-ort!
!

!
Table!10.1.!$1era2e:!m'('mum!a(D!maX'mum!(umber4!o5!3ar'bou!m'2ra(t4!-er!2e(erat'o(!QAmR!1a*ue4!
betKee(!-o-u*at'o(4!u4'(2!m'3ro4ate**'te4!QK'tI!a*ter(at'1e!metIoD4:!re-re4e(t'(2!a**!'(D'1'Dua*4R!a(D!
u4'(2!mt>N$!QK'tI!J$G\^$!a--roa3I:!re-re4e(t'(2!5ema*e4RM!
method Fst Nm
herds 0.04 5.43

structure
average 0.048 4.96
min 0.091 2.50
max 0.02 12.25
tess
average 0.042 5.70
min 0.067 3.48
max 0.016 15.38

samova (females) 0.189 2.15 !


!
!
Table!10.2.!"a'rK'4e!a(D!a1era2e!(umber4!o5!3ar'bou!m'2ra(t4!-er!2e(erat'o(!QAmR!1a*ue4!betKee(!a**!
IerD4!u4'(2!mt>N$!Qu--er!D'a2o(a*:!re-re4e(t'(2!5ema*e4R!a(D!m'3ro4ate**'te4!Q*oKer!D'a2o(a*:!
re-re4e(t'(2!a**!'(D'1'Dua*4RM!
Natural Levels of Migrants Among Caribou Herds (Nm)
Herd RPC NAR LSM ALP PAR KEN JNP QUI Female Average (Nfm)
RPC 0.87 1.11 2.75 3.22 2.14 10.39 3.48 4.49
NAR 10.25 0.39 4.52 1.96 0.48 0.96 2.21
LSM 3.86 3.30 1.00 1.90 0.76 0.83 1.08
ALP 13.12 6.26 4.72 9.12 1.07 5.92 19.99
PAR 12.84 7.12 3.09 10.53 2.95 3.38 27.28
KEN 8.84 5.56 4.71 7.95 19.75 1.35 1.45
JNP 4.23 3.04 2.37 4.23 5.41 3.74 13.09
QUI 9.11 9.67 2.74 7.28 3.58 6.13 3.58
Average (Nm) 6.68 !
!
!
Table!10.3.!"a'rK'4e!a(D!a1era2e!(umber4!o5!3ar'bou!m'2ra(t4!-er!2e(erat'o(!QAmR!1a*ue4!betKee(!
-o-u*at'o(4!u4'(2!mt>N$!Qu--er!D'a2o(a*:!re-re4e(t'(2!5ema*e4R!a(D!m'3ro4ate**'te4!Q*oKer!D'a2o(a*:!
re-re4e(t'(2!a**!'(D'1'Dua*4RM!J'2('5'3a(3e!5or!-o-u*at'o(4!u('t4!Ka4!a44e44eD!a5ter!Eo(5erro('!3orre3t'o(!
Q'('t'a*!a*-Ia!m!0M001ORM!
Natural Levels of Migrants Among Caribou Populations (Nm)
Significant Populations RPC NAR LSM ALP PAR KEN JNP QUI Female Average (Nfm)
RPC 0.87 1.11 2.75 3.22 2.14 1.37
NAR 10.25 0.39 1.96 0.48 0.96
LSM 3.86 3.30 1.00 1.90 0.76 0.83 1.08
ALP 13.12 6.26 4.72 1.07
PAR 12.84 7.12 3.09 10.53
KEN 8.84 5.56 4.71 7.95 1.35 1.45
JNP 4.23 3.04 2.37 4.23 5.41 3.74
QUI 2.74 7.28 6.13 3.58
Average (Nm) 6.04 !
!
!
!
!
!

=1!
=2! "T$%T!&'(a*!+e-ort!
!

!
10M1M3!Nm2lications!
!
TIe4e!re4u*t4!4u22e4t!tIat!3ar'bou!IerD4!or!-o-u*at'o(4!'(!tIe!+o3N'e4!eX3Ia(2e!a!m'('mum!o5!1!5ema*e!
m'2ra(t!a(D!I'2Ier!(umber4!o5!ma*e!m'2ra(t4!e1er9!2e(erat'o(M!$4!2e(erat'o(!t'me!'4!2"3!9ear4:!'t!'4!
aD1'4eD!tIat!a!3om-arab*e!(umber!o5!3ar'bou!4Iou*D!be!eX3Ia(2eD!K'tI!(e'2Ibor'(2!-o-u*at'o(4!e1er9!3!
9ear4:!a4!a!m'('mumM!B(!-art'3u*ar:!ma(a2er4!4Iou*D!maNe!4ure!tIat!a!m'('mum!o5!o(e!5ema*e!e1er9!3!
9ear4!'mm'2rate4!'(!a!2'1e(!IerD!or!-o-u*at'o(:!4ur1'1e4!a(D!re-roDu3e4!(atura**9!'(!tIat!-o-u*at'o(M!TI'4!
5'2ure!3ou*D!a*4o!be!'(ter-reteD!a4!2!5ema*e4!e1er9!b!9ear4:!or!3!e1er9!('(e!9ear4M!
!
$DDre44'(2!Iab'tat!5ra2me(tat'o(!Demo(4trateD!b9!m'4mat3I!betKee(!2e(et'3!a(D!te*emetr9!Data!
!
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to!tI'(N!tIat!tI'4!K'**!3Ia(2eRM!Wab'tat!5ra2me(tat'o(!Ia4!*'Ne*9!'m-eDeD!D'4-er4a*M!
bM Ue(et'3!Data!4IoK4!KIat!Ia--eD!'(!tIe!-a4tM!G'3ro4ate**'te4!'(D'3ate!*e1e*4!o5!D'4-er4a*!
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(oKaDa94M!
4M Ce!3a(!u4e!tI'4!'(5ormat'o(!to!aDDre44!o(2o'(2!-rob*em4!o5!5ra2me(tat'o(M!Ce!4Iou*D!a'm!at!
re4tor'(2!3ar'bou!Iab'tat!a*4o!'(!area4!betKee(!ra(2e4!o33u-'eD!b9!IerD4M!Ce!4Iou*D!(ot!5o3u4!
o(*9!o(!ma'(ta'('(2!Iab'tat!'(!eX'4t'(2:!5ra2me(teD!IerD!ra(2e4M!
!
!
10.2!CARIBOU"WOLF!OVERLAP:!MINIMIZING!IMPACTS!IN!RISK!AREAS!
!
BDe(t'59'(2!area4!o5!o1er*a-!betKee(!Ko*1e4!a(D!3ar'bou!'4!a!Ne9!4te-!to!m'('m'T'(2!r'4N4!to!3ar'bouM!B(!
5a3t:!r'4N4!m'2It!be!I'2Ier!5or!3ar'bou!KIe(!De1e*o-me(t!re4u*t4!'(!more!I'2I!Zua*'t9!Ko*5!Iab'tat!'(!
o1er*a-!area4!Q5ore4tr9R!or!'t!'(3rea4e4!Ko*5!tra1e*!e55'3'e(39!'(!4u3I!area4!QeM2M:!!b9!-ro1'D'(2!Ko*1e4!K'tI!
4e'4m'3!*'(e4!a4!tra1e*!route4RM!
!
BDe(t'5'3at'o(!o5!I'2I!o1er*a-!area4!3ou*D!be!-ote(t'a**9!u4e5u*!to!m't'2ate!e55e3t4!o5!De1e*o-me(t!b9!
a1o'D'(2!I'2I!o1er*a-!area4M!!+e3e(t!aD1a(3e4!'(!+J&!a--*'3at'o(4!to!-reDator"-re9!tIeor9!3o(5'rm4!tIat!
+J&!moDe*4!3a(!be!u4eD!to!e4t'mate!o1er*a-!u4'(2!tIe!-roDu3t!e4t'mator!o5!tKo!'(De-e(De(t!+J&!moDe*4!
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4-e3'e4!*'Ne!moo4e:!e*N!a(D!Deer!'(!3ar'bou!494tem4!QWebb*eKI'te!et!a*M!200=R:!tIe!a44um-t'o(!o5!
'(De-e(De(3e!4eem4!rea4o(ab*e!5or!Ko*1e4!a(D!3ar'bouM!
!
Ce!treateD!+J&!moDe*4!5or!3ar'bou!a(D!Ko*1e4!a4!Iab'tat!ra(N'(2!moDe*4:!a(D!u4eD!tIem!to!a44e44!
3ar'bou"Ko*5!o1er*a-!b9!4ubtra3t'(2!'(ter"4-e3'e4!+J&4M!!J-e3'5'3a**9:!Ke!4ubtra3teD!tIe!b'((eD!Ko*5!+J&!
moDe*!5rom!tIe!b'((eD!3ar'bou!+J&!moDe*M!!TI'4!2e(erateD!a!3ar'bou"Ko*5!o1er*a-!'(DeX!5rom!"10!to!s10:!

=2!
=3! "T$%T!&'(a*!+e-ort!
!

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'(D'3ate!*oK!Zua*'t9!3ar'bou!Iab'tat!a(D!I'2I!Zua*'t9!Ko*5!Iab'tatM!!Ce!*'Ne(!tI'4!'(DeX!to!a!4-at'a*!
-reD'3t'o(!o5!3ar'bou!u4a5e!To(e4v!Q&'2ure4!10M1:!10M2R:!KIere'(!I'2I!1a*ue4!are!tIo4e!*'Ne*9!to!be!botI!
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!
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*oK!1a*ue!5or!tIe!u4a5e!To(e4v!'(DeXM!
!
10.3!FUTURE!RESEARCH:!SPATIAL!POPULATION!VIABILITY!ANALYSIS!
!
%o(4er1at'o(!o5!KooD*a(D!3ar'bou!K'**!De-e(D!o(!our!ab'*'t9!to!e55e3t'1e*9!mo('tor!-o-u*at'o(!tre(D4!
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a3ro44!tIe!4-e3'e4!ra(2eM!!Ce!are!u4'(2!eX'4t'(2!mo('tor'(2!Data!3o**e3teD!'(!$*berta!to!a44e44!tIe!
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D'43u44'o(!Iere'(!-re*'m'(ar9M!
!
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betKee(!1'ta*!rate4!QaDu*t!4ur1'1a*!a(D!re3ru'tme(tR!a(D!-o-u*at'o(!2roKtI:!2R!tIe!-oKer!'(!our!ab'*'t9!to!
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e4tab*'4IeD!-roto3o*4:!3R!tIe!e55e3t4!o5!m'43*a44'5'3at'o(!error4!'(!3a*5"3oK!rat'o!Data:!a(D!4R!tIe!*o(2"
term!1'ab'*'t9!o5!KooD*a(D!3ar'bou!'(!$*berta!a4!a!3a4e"4tuD9!'(!u4'(2!4-at'a**9"eX-*'3't!"^$4!to!-reD'3t!
3Ia(2e4!'(!meta"-o-u*at'o(!D9(am'34M!Ce!are!a*4o!3o(4'Der'(2!tIreat4!a(D!-o-u*at'o(!2roKtI!rate4!
4-e3'5'3!to!ea3I!*o3a*!-o-u*at'o(M!
!
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-o-u*at'o(!2roKtI!rate!Q&'2ure!10M3RM!!

=3!
=4! "T$%T!&'(a*!+e-ort!
!

Figure!10.1.!%ar'bou"Ko*5!o1er*a-!moDe*!De1e*o-eD!to!'**u4trate!u4a5e!To(e4v!5or!3ar'bouM!!
W'2I!Q2ree(R!area4!'(D'3ate!To(e4!KIere!botI!tIe!-robab'*'t9!o5!u4e!b9!3ar'bou!'4!I'2I!a(D!tIe!
-robab'*'t9!o5!u4e!b9!Ko*1e4!'4!*oK:!KI'*e!LoK!QbroK(R!area4!'(D'3ate!-*a3e4!KIere!tIe!
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+eDK'**oK!4tuD9!area:!Er't'4I!%o*umb'a:!200b_200AM!

=4!
=a! "T$%T!&'(a*!+e-ort!
!

Figure!10.2.!%ar'bou"Ko*5!o1er*a-!moDe*!De1e*o-eD!to!'**u4trate!u4a5e!To(e4v!5or!
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'4!I'2I!a(D!tIe!-robab'*'t9!o5!u4e!b9!Ko*1e4!'4!*oK:!KI'*e!LoK!QbroK(R!area4!'(D'3ate!
-*a3e4!KIere!tIe!-robab'*'t9!o5!u4e!b9!3ar'bou!'4!*oK!a(D!tIe!-robab'*'t9!o5!u4e!b9!
Ko*1e4!'4!I'2I!K'tI'(!tIe!Ea(55:!7a4-er!a(D!$!*a!"e3Ie!4tuD9!area:!2001_200AM!

=a!
=b! "T$%T!&'(a*!+e-ort!
!

!
Figure!10.3.!!"re*'m'(ar9!4'mu*at'o(!re4u*t4!e4t'mat'(2!tIe!2"D'me(4'o(a*!tIre4Io*D!betKee(!-o4't'1e!
!
a(D!(e2at'1e!-o-u*at'o(!2roKtI:!a4!e4t'mateD!b9!aDu*t!5ema*e!4ur1'1a*!a(D!Gar3I!aer'a*!4ur1e94!o5!
!
3a*5c3oK!rat'o4M!!
!
!
!
!

=b!
==! "T$%T!&'(a*!+e-ort!
!

PRESENTATIONS,!PUBLICATIONS!AND!WORKSHOPS!!
!
Publications!
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a--are(t!3om-et't'o(!'(!e(Da(2ereD!4-e3'e4!3o(4er1at'o(M!$('ma*!%o(4er1at'o(:!B(!"re44M!
Webb*eKI'te:!GM:!CI'te:!%M$M!a(D!GM!Gu4'a('!Q200AR!+e1'4't'(2!eXt'(3t'o(!'(!-rote3teD!area4c!B4!'t!
a33e-tab*e!5or!mou(ta'(!3ar'bou!to!2o!eXt'(3t!'(!a!Nat'o(a*!"arNz!%o(4er1at'o(!E'o*o29!00c!000"000M!
G3>e1'tt:!$M!>M:!M:!Gar'a(':!JM:!Webb*eKI'te:!GM:!>e%e4are:!NM!7M:!Gor2a(t'(':!LM:!Je'-:!>M:!Ce3NKortI:!EM!^M!
a(D!GM!Gu4'a('!Q200ARM!Jur1'1a*!'(!tIe!+o3N'e4!o5!a(!e(Da(2ereD!I9br'D!4Karm!5rom!D'1er2eD!3ar'bou!
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Iot-ot4!o5!3*'mate!3Ia(2eM!E'o43'e(3e:!aAc!4OA"4AA.!
Cebb:!NM:!Webb*eKI'te:!GM!d!Gerr'**:!HM!WM!Q200OR!Jtat'4t'3a*!metIoD4!5or!'De(t'59'(2!Ko*5!N'**!4'te4!'(!a!
mu*t'-*e!-re9!494tem!u4'(2!U"J!3o**ar!*o3at'o(4M!7our(a*!o5!C'*D*'5e!Ga(a2eme(tM!
Gerr'**:!HM!WM:!Ja(D:!WM:!o'mmerma(:!EM:!G3"Iee:!WM:!Webb*eKI'te:!GM:!Cebb:!NM:!CabaNNa(:!"M!d!&ra'r:!7M!LM!
Q2010R!\--ortu('t'e4!a(D!3Ia**e(2e4!5or!u4'(2!-reDator!mo1eme(t4!to!a44e44!N'**!4'te4!a(D!atta3N!rate4M!
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Presentations!at!Scientific!Conferences!
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Workshops!/!Project!Partner!Presentations!
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LITERATURE!CITED!
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