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How X-ray was Discovered

As with many of mankind's monumental discoveries, X-ray technology was invented completely by accident.
In 1895, a German physicist named Wilhelm Roentgen made the discovery while experimenting with electron
beams in a gas discharge tube. Roentgen noticed that afluorescent screen in his lab started to glow when
the electron beam was turned on. This response in itself wasn't so surprising -- fluorescent material normally
glows in reaction to electromagnetic radiation -- but Roentgen's tube was surrounded by heavy black
cardboard. Roentgen assumed this would have blocked most of the radiation.

Roentgen placed various objects between the tube and the screen, and the screen still glowed. Finally, he put
his hand in front of the tube, and saw the silhouette of his bones projected onto the fluorescent screen.
Immediately after discovering X-rays themselves, he had discovered their most beneficial application.

Roentgen's remarkable discovery precipitated one of the most important medical advancements in human
history. X-ray technology lets doctors see straight through human tissue to examine broken bones, cavities
and swallowed objects with extraordinary ease. Modified X-ray procedures can be used to examine softer
tissue, such as the lungs, blood vessels or the intestines.

VIDEO LINK http://health.howstuffworks.com/x-ray.htm ( of actual experiment )

Analouge X-ray Machine : This is a Film based X-ray Machine which uses chemicals to develop
the film.
Machine contains a X-ray Generator , X-ray Tube , Film , and Dark Room to develop the Film

See the video on how analouge x-ray machine works


http://video.about.com/orthopedics/How-Does-an-X-Ray-Work--.htm

How X-Ray Technology Works

X-ray technology utilizes high-energy rays that can pass through certain body tissue and
create imagery vital to diagnosis and treatment.

The X-Ray Machine

The x-ray machine is composed of an x-ray tube that contains a pair of electrodes, or
conductors, called a cathode and an anode.

The cathode is a filament that releases energy with the introduction of an electrical current,
much like that of a light bulb. The cathode energy is released in the form of electrons.

The anode, located on the opposite end of the x-ray tube, is a disc made of tungsten, a
material that attracts the electrons.

When the electrons released from the cathode come in contact with the tungsten, they
release energy in the form of photons.

These highly energized photons are channeled through a lead cylinder and a series of filters,
creating an x-ray beam.

The x-ray beam is a high energy beam that can be absorbed only by dense body tissues, such
as bone.
During an X-Ray

During an x-ray, a radiographic film is placed behind the patient, and the patient is placed
between the film and the x-ray machine. The x-ray machine then focuses the energy beam at
the specific area of the patient's body.

What Does an X-Ray Image Show?

As the x-ray energy passes through the patient's body the photons of the beam reach the film
and cause a chemical reaction: the areas where x-ray energy passes through the body
become black, while the areas where energy is absorbed by the bones appear white. This
process produces a "radiographic," which is commonly referred to as an x-ray.

Step 2- It is developed in the


Analouge X-ray Procedure dark room, chemicals used
are not good for health and
corrode other machines in
hospital

Step3 :
You need
x-ray film
Step 1 – Film is dryer to
inserted and X-ray dry the
is exposed for film
some time Step5 : You need lot
of storage space to
store the films for
Step4. Doctor view future reference
the film , some time
difficult to see
minute things , no
zoom in out can be
done

Main Players in X-ray Market are Simmens , GE , Philips , Hitachi , Toshiba , Shimazu
WHAT IS A CR ( Computed Radiography )

In analouge x-ray machine film is used ( as it is used in old film based camera )
In order to improve the quality and reduce the usage of film and chemical people invented CR
technology , in this a Caseette is used instead of Film, this Cassate is then scanned by the Scanner
and Scanner save it to computer. Step3
-computer save
it from scanner

Step 1
Cassate is
inserted Step2
instead of Cassette is
Film inserted
into
scanner

Who manufacture CR machines - ?

KODAK CR
KONICA
FUJI CR
AGFA CR
HITACHI CR
Philips CR
What is DR ?
DR is for Direct Radiocraphy
Plate is inserted below the
table and it is directly
connected to the computer ,
since there is no scanner
required quality is high and
speed is high
It takes only 15 sec to take
x-ray using DR while CR
takes 15 min

Who manufacure DR machines ?

Naomi by RF Labs
Alpha Systems DR

Other manufacture such as GE , Simmens make Complete digital machines


which are very expensive for example GE make it for 60 lakh.
In that case you have to through out your existing X-ray machine and buy new
one but by Using Naomi you can convert existing x-ray machine to as good as
new digital x-ray machine........ at just 11 to 12 lakh RS.
Dental X-ray Machine

There are two types of Dental X-ray Machines

1> Single Tooth X-ray Machine – It can take X-ray of single tooth only
2> Panaroma X-ray Machine – It can take complete X-ray of all 32 teeths in one single sheet

Naomi can convert Dental x-ray machine to digital at even much lesser cost , some thing around 3
lakh rs for single X-ray machine and 8 lakh rs for panaroma x-ray machine.

Single Tooth Dental X-ray


Machine Panaroma dental X-ray
machine