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SHIP TYPES AND CLASSIFICATION SERVICES

This post is based and linked on DNV Classification Services (http://www.dnv.com), adding my own coments and

adaptations to contribute for a better understanding about these important issues in maritime affairs.

CLASSIFICATION SERVICES

Definitions:
Classification is a comprehensive verification service providing assurance that a set of requirements laid
down in rules and standards established by the classification society are met during design and
construction, and maintained during operation of an offshore unit.

The rules and standards are aimed at ensuring safety against hazards to the unit, personnel, and against
hazards to the environment.

Ship classification implies an activity, in which a ship or an offshore unit is surveyed during construction
on the basis of design approval, tested before being taken into service, and surveyed regularly during its
whole operational life.

A classified "Full Container" type ship crossing the Panamá Canal.


The aim is to verify that the required safety standard is built in, observed and maintained. Classification
has gained world-wide recognition as representing an adequate level of safety and performing approval
and surveys.
Around the world most countries has its own classification societies. Companies as DNV, Bureau Veritas,
Lloyds Register are some of the biggest.
MAIN SHIP TYPES ON OPERATIONS
Bulk Carrier:
Are ships designed for carriage of solid bulk cargoes. In gross tonnes, bulk carriers amount for almost one
third of the world's sailing fleet.

A Bulk Carrier loading soybeans in Paranaguá port, Brazil.

Classification societies services have to focus on safety of the ship, cargo and crew, combined the efficient
operations.

The modern bulk carrier originated in 1954 (M/S "Cassiopeia", designed by Ole Skaarup), and currently
more than 7000 bulk carriers are sailing the seas, and they carry the vast majority of the world's dry bulk
cargoes.
Total seaborne dry bulk transports amounts more than 2500 million tonnes per year, including bulk
cargoes as iron ore, coal, grain, bauxite/alumina, phosphate, steel products, cement, petcoke, forest
products, fertilizers, sulphur and other dry bulk cargoes.

Often seen as "workhorses of the seas", bulk carriers are indeed designed to be sturdy cargo ships, but
their demanding duties mean that they must be built, loaded and operated with keen attention. Good
classification society must to be in the forefront of risk management for bulk carriers, and currently the
following selected topics are high on agenda:

Cargo securing manual


Class notations for bulk carriers
Common Structural Rules (CSR)
Condition Assessment Program (CAP)
Hull Integrity Management
Port congestions and loading speed
Panama canal extension
Protective coating
Software support for design
Software support for maintenance
Trading in cold climate

Combination Carriers:

These ships types included:


· Ships intended for separate carriage of oil and dry cargoes in bulk (notation: Bulk Carrier or Tanker for
Oil)
· Ships intended for separate carriage of oil and ore in bulk (notation: Ore Carrier or Tanker for Oil)
· Combination of the two above, so-called OBO (Oil/Bulk/Ore carrier)

A classification society services normally focus on safety of the ship, cargo and crew, combined with
efficient operations.
A Capesize combinated carrier may load minerals, ore, grains and others merchandises.

The combination carriers are subject to demanding duties, which mean that they must be built, loaded
and operated with keen attention. A good classification society must to be in the forefront of risk
management for combination carriers, and currently the following selected topics are high on an
responsable agenda:

Condition Assessment Program


Hull Integrity Management
Protective coating
Software support for design
Software support for maintenance
Vetting
Tanker Management Self Assessment
Trading in cold climate

Container Ships:

Called "full containers" ships are exclusively intended for the carriage of containers. A modern
classification society must to invest heavily in R & D, and in to document the results of these R & D efforts,
helping clients to stay on top of current technologies and trends influencing the container carrier
business.

Full Containers ships: growing faster than others types.


Investment in new containerships has been substantial in the last decades. The world fleet has grown by
more than 10% per year on average - an unparalleled growth rate in modern shipping.
Classification services focus on safety of the ship, cargo and crew, combined with cost efficient operation.

New, bigger designs are emerging rapidly and the value of cargo is increasing. Therefore, it is necessary
with a proactive approach to deal effectively with the hazards associated with containerships.

Traditionals e experienced classification societies must have history of addressing risk management for
container ships, and currently the following selected topics are high on an classification agenda:

Cargo fires
Cargo securing manual
Class notations for container carrier
Cold ironing
Containers and Portable Units
Hull Integrity Management
Panama canal extension
Parametric rolling
Propulsion
Protective coating
Protective location of fuel tanks
Side shell fatigue
Software support for design
Software support for maintenance

Gas Carriers:
A gas carrier ship. High security technology construction and requirements.

These ships intended for transportation of compressed or liquefied gas. In the forefront of technology for
gas carriers for many years, global classification societies have accumulated experience and knowledge
about risk management for gas carriers, and must attend the following selected topics are high on an
agenda:

Class notations for gas carrier


Compressed Natural Gas
Condition Assessment Programme
Hull Integrity Management
Protective coating
Software support for design
Software support for maintenance
Trading in cold climate

General Cargo Carriers and Ro/Ro ships:


A Ro/Ro ship scheme, a multipurpose ship.

General Cargo Carriers are ships arranged for lift on/lift off cargo handling and intended for carriage of
general dry cargoes. Ships arranged for roll-on roll-off cargo handling are denoted additional notation
Ro/Ro. A classification society services must focus on safety of the ship, cargo and crew, combined with
efficient operations.

New, bigger designs are emerging rapidly and the value of cargo is increasing. Therefore, it is necessary
with a proactive approach to deal effectively with the hazards associated with general cargo carriers.

A Grimaldi Ro/Ro liner operating vehicles in Paranaguá port, Brazil.


A traditional classification society is recommended to have a history of addressing risk management for
general cargo carriers, and below is list of links to some of the topics high on a classification agenda:

Class notations for General Cargo Carrier and Ro/Ro


Hull Integrity Management
Panama canal extension
Protective coating
Protective location of fuel tanks
Software support for design
Software support for maintenance

Ore Carrier:

Minerals are the main productos carried by these ships. Ore Carriers are ships designed for carriage of ore
cargoes in centre holds. The last years have seen a dramatic increase of the newbuilding orders for Very
Large Ore Carriers (VLOC), mainly driven by the increasing demand for iron ore imports from Australia
and Brazil to the steel mills in China.

A typical Ore Carrier (VLOC)

A typical and traditional classification society services must to focus on safety of the ship, cargo and crew,
combined with efficient operations.
A Capesize giant ship

The ore carriers are the giants of the seas, and are indeed designed to be sturdy cargo ships, but their
demanding duties mean that they must be built, loaded and operated with keen attention. A experienced
and traditional classification society must have been in the forefront of risk management for ore carriers,
and currently the following selected topics are high on an agenda to attend requirements:
Cargo securing manual
Class notations for ore carriers
Condition Assessment Program (CAP)
Hull Integrity Management
Port congestion and loading speed
Protective coating
Software support for design
Software support for maintenance
Trading in cold climate

Passengers Ships:

Passengers ships: beauty and high technology on the seas.


They are primarely ships designed for carriage of passengers and Car and Train Ferries designed for
regular transport of passengers and vehicles.

New, innovative, faster and bigger designs are emerging rapidly. Therefore, it is necessary with a proactive
approach to deal effectively with the hazards associated with passenger ships. A experienced classification
society may have a long history of addressing risk management for passenger ships, and below is list of
links to some of the topics high on an expertise´s agenda:

Class notations for Passenger Ships


Comfort class for Noise and Vibrations
Comfort class for Indoor Climate
Noise and Vibrations
Software support for design and construction
Software support for maintenance

A skilled classification and long experience in this ship type can made leaders in this kind of classification
of passenger ships and various Ro/Ro designs. In particular our abilities within direct wave load and
strength analysis has made especial companies preferred class for new, innovative designs. We have
special experience with ship types as:
* Coastal Express - Ship designed for carriage of passengers and cargo for domestic trade.
* Cruise Ships - Ship intended for carriage of passengers only.
* Ferries - Ships intended for regular transport of passengers and vehicles.
*Ropax - Ships intended for carriage of heavy cargo, vehicles and a limited number of passengers. The
cargo is transferred to and from the ship and between cargo spaces onboard by means of vehicles.

Tanker for Chemicals:


They are ships intended for transportation of all types of liquid chemicals.
In gross tonnes, tankers (including gas carriers and chemical tankers) amount for more than one third of
the worlds sailing fleet has classification services focused by only one classification society.
Tankers and chemicals carriers ships operating in the liquid bulks terminal in Paranaguá port, Brazil.

Safety of the ship, cargo and crew, must to be combined with efficient operations.
Tankers must be operated safely and with minimum spills and loss of life and cargo.

Being the leading class for tankers for many years, we have accumulated unique experience and
knowledge about risk management for tankers, and currently the following selected topics are high in a
classification service agenda:

Class notations for chemical tankers


Common Structural Rules
Condition Assessment Program
Fatigue challenges
Hull Integrity Management
Protective coating
Software support for design
Software support for maintenance
Vetting
Tanker Management Self Assessment
Trading in cold climate

Tanker for Oil:


Oil carriers are ships intended for transport of oil in bulk, whereas oil product carriers are ships intended
for transport of all types of oil products except crude oil. In gross tonnes, tankers (including gas carriers
and chemical tankers) amount for more than one third of the worlds sailing fleet, that´s what only one
classification society portfolio´s have.

A very large oil tanker ship.

A good classification services must focus on safety of the ship, cargo and crew, combined with efficient
operations.

Being the leading class for tankers for many years, a classification society must have accumulated unique
experience and knowledge about risk management for tankers, and currently the following selected topics
are high on our agenda to maintain this lead:

Class notations for oil tanker


Common Structural Rules
Condition Assessment Program
Fatigue challenges
Hull Integrity Management
Protective coating
Software support for design
Software support for maintenance
Vetting
Tanker Management Self Assessment
Trading in cold climate

This ship type market share is still growing, and currently we classify close to 49 million gt of tankers,
ranging from ULCC and VLCC’s to Aframax and smaller vessels. Current orderbook for newbuildings
amounts to 21 million gt for tankers. About 80% of all shuttle tankers operating in the North Sea by DNV
classification society.

Based on DNV site http://www.dnv.com/ and author ´s coments and adaptations