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COURSE INSTRUCTOR: Mr. V. SRIPATHI RAJA

……………………………………………………….. Biological Control Systems

COURSE OBJECTIVE

The human body controls a large number of body parameters like body

temperature, pressure& respiration. It would be of great interest to study these

aspects of human body function in order to diagnose, predict & control health.

Health, from this engineering point of view, can be considered as a controlled

process of a biological system.

Study of biological control systems depends to a large extent on the well-

developed field of control systems engineering. Design of control systems is

based on concepts of stability & feedback. A large body of mathematical theory

consisting of Laplace transforms, poles, zeros, stability concept & differential

equations is used for the analysis and design of control systems. So the study &

analysis of biological control systems based on control system concepts would

enable us to design better health systems, drug delivery systems and in turn, help

in improving living conditions.

……………………………………………………….. Biological Control Systems

References

RECOMMENDED WEBSITES:

www.ieeecs.org

www.riken.edu

www.instruments.org

www.ieee.org/web

www.riken.go.jp/engn/r-world

www.addall.com

www.che.psu.edu/control

……………………………………………………….. Biological Control Systems

UNIT-I

DYNAMIC SYSTEMS AND THEIR CONTROL

RECOMMENDED BOOKS:

1. Control Systems------------------- Nagoor. S. Kani

This unit deals with System & its fundamentals, different types of systems,

characteristics and differences of closed loop and open loop systems, block

diagrams, transfer functions, methods for obtaining transfer functions from block

diagrams by Reduction, Signal Flow Graphs & State space representations. It also

deals with the analysis of a First Order and second Order systems in the Time

domain.

At the end of the unit, the student is able to answer these questions:

1. Define the following types of technological control systems:

(i) Open loop and Closed loop systems.

(ii) A Regulator and a Servomechanism.

(iii) Proportional and Proportional plus Derivative control.

Give examples for each.

2. What are type 0, 1 & type 2 systems?

3. Draw the signal flow graph for a given block diagram and obtain the

transfer function.

Explain Mason’s Gain formula for SFG.

B.V.R.I.T. Course File ……………………………………………….. 4

……………………………………………………….. Biological Control Systems

4. Discuss briefly the various positive and negative feedback systems

present in the human body.

5. The open loop transfer function of a servo system with a unity

feedback is given by

G(s)= 1/((1+0.5s)(1+0.2s)).

Determine the damping ratio and percent overshoot to a unit

step.

6. Define static error coefficients, kv, ka and kp. Explain how the steady

state error can be computed using the error coefficients.

7. A feedback system having derivative feedback has the following

block diagram representation.

Find the value of kd so that the damping ratio for the system is 0.65.

Ei(S) E0 (S)

1

∑ 10 ∑ S(S+2)

S Kd

8. Draw the time response curve for a second order system for

0<τ <1.Derive the expression for the same. Define rise time, peak

overshoot, delay time and peak time.

9. Obtain the state space representation of the following control system.

R(S) C(S)

S+4 16

10

S+16 S(S+2)

……………………………………………………….. Biological Control Systems

UNIT-II

FIRST ORDER AND SECOND ORDER SYSTEMS

RECOMMENDED BOOKS:

1. Control Systems------Nagoor S.Kani

Feedback effect of a control system is studied. What is feedback? What are the

different parameters of the system which are being affected by feedback? Time

response analysis: Transient response analysis of first order system and second

order system are studied. Different parameters like rise time, peak time, delay

time, settling time, percentage peak overshoot are calculated here. Responses of a

standard second order system with sinusoidal input for different ranges of ξ are

studied. Steady state analysis: steady state error is found using static error

coefficients and dynamic error coefficients.

At the end of the unit the student is able to answer these questions:

1. A unity feedback system is characterized by an open loop transfer function

G(s)=K/s(s+10). Determine the gain K so that the system will have a

damping ratio of 0.5. For this value of K, determine settling time, peak

overshoot and time to peak overshoot for a unit step input.

2. The open loop transfer function of a unity feedback system is given by

G(s)=K/s(1+sT) where T and K are constants having positive values. By

what factor the amplifier gain be reduced so that (a) the peak overshoot of

unit step response of the system is reduced from 75% to 25%. (b) The

damping ratio increases from 0.1 to 0.6.

3. Determine the error co-efficients and static error for

G(s) =1/s(s+1)(s+10)

H(s) =s+2.

4. In a position control system the forward path transfer function is

100/s(s+1) and the feedback path transfer function is 10. Determine the

……………………………………………………….. Biological Control Systems

sensitivity of T with respect to the feed forward feedback elements

respectively in the vicinity of ω = 1 rad/sec.

UNIT-III

SYSTEM STABILITY AND COMPENSATION

RECOMMENDED BOOKS:

1. Control Systems------Nagoor S.Kani

Stability is an important design aspect of control systems. This unit covers the

stability compensation techniques of closed loop systems like Routh Hurwitz

Criterion & Root Locus plot. The frequency response analysis of first order and

second order systems i.e., Bode plots & Polar plots are also studied. In all these

methods Laplace Transforms are used to represent systems, which are a

prerequisite to the course. Introduction to Non-linear control is also studied in this

unit.

At the end of the unit the student is able to answer these questions:

1. Sketch the Bode plot for the following transfer function and obtain gain and

phase margin.

G(s) = 10(1+0.5s)

s (1+0.1s)(1+0.2s) .

2. The open loop transfer function of a unity feedback system is given by

k(s+2)/s2 (s+3) (s+1). Find the restriction on k so that the closed loop system

is absolutely stable.

3. Show that the output of a system to a bounded input is stable if the impulse

response is finite.

4. The open loop transfer function of a unity feedback control system is given by

G(s) = k(s+3)/ s(s2+2s+2)(s+5).Sketch the root locus diagram.

5. Write about the various methods for finding the stability of a system.

6. Find out whether the given system is stable using Routh’s stability criterion.

……………………………………………………….. Biological Control Systems

S8+10s5+6s4+3s3+2s+1=0.

7. Find the centroid and angle of asymptotes for the following system.

G(s)=100/s(1+0.2s)(1+0.5s).

UNIT-IV

BIOLOGICAL CONTROL SYSTEMS

RECOMMENDED BOOKS:

1. Principles of anatomy & physiology.

Torotora & Grobowski.

2. Biological Control Systems Analysis----Milsum John H

The general engineering principles obtained in the previous chapters are applied

to various biological control systems in this chapter whereby the complex

mechanism called the human body is studied. Various systems like the pupil

control system, the Visual Fixation system, the role of Occulo-Motors in visual

fixation are all analyzed.

At the end of the unit the student is able to answer these questions:

1. Discuss about pupil control system and develop block diagram for the same.

2. Explain convergence and accommodation of the pupil control system.

Explain how illumination is controlled.

3. What is Weber-Fechner law?

……………………………………………………….. Biological Control Systems

UNIT-V

THERMOREGULATION AND SERVOMECHANISM

RECOMMENDED BOOKS:

1. Principles of anatomy & physiology.

Torotora & Grobowski.

2. Biological Control Systems Analysis----Milsum John H

The semi-circular canal& free-swinging human limb are studied and their

feedback mechanisms determined. The Thermo-regulation of human body

and the Servomechanism of the Skeletal System are also studied.

explain how the temperature is maintained.

2. Explain the anatomy of human thermoregulation. What are the feedback

transducers?

3. Discuss the anatomy and working of skeletal muscle servomechanism.

4. Derive the transfer function of a semi-circular canal.

5. What are the forces acting on a free-swinging human limb?

Write the equations and write the expression for the same.

……………………………………………………….. Biological Control Systems

UNIT-VI

RESPIRATORY AND OTHER CONTROL SYSTEMS

RECOMMENDED BOOKS:

1. Principles of anatomy & physiology.

Torotora & Grobowski.

2. Biological Control Systems Analysis----Milsum John H

In this unit a few more systems are studied. The feedback control of Respiratory

system, blood pressure control by the Cardio-Vascular system, The roles played

by the endocrine glands in controlling other biological systems are also studied.

An interesting conclusion is that the CPU of all these systems is the Nervous

system-the Hypothalamus to be specific.

At the end of the unit the student is able to answer these questions:

control system.

systems.

……………………………………………………….. Biological Control Systems

UNIT-VII

SUGAR LEVEL CONTROL MECHANISM AND ENDOCRINE

CONTROL SYSTEM

RECOMMENDED BOOKS:

1. Principles of anatomy & physiology.

Torotora & Grobowski.

2. Biological Control Systems Analysis----Milsum John H

Different control systems like the sugar level control mechanism (what are

different factors which helps in maintaining the sugar leveling various fluid of the

body) and the endocrine control system are studied. Here we also study the

excretion control system.

At the end of the unit the student is able to answer these questions:

Discuss about the endocrine control system

1. How is sugar level maintained in a normal person?

Explain the mechanism involved for a diabetic person.

2. Explain the different models of sugar level control system.

……………………………………………………….. Biological Control Systems

UNIT-VIII

HUMAN OPERATOR MODELS AND BIOLOGICAL

RECEPTORS

RECOMMENDED BOOKS:

1. Principles of anatomy & physiology.

Torotora & Grobowski.

2. Biological Control Systems Analysis----Milsum John H

Human operator models and their tracking characteristics deal with the

mechanism involved in any man-machine interaction. That is, how a human

operator deals with the various interactions of the machine. And finally those

involved in the feedback of all the above systems-the biological receptors are

studied.

There are various receptors in the human body like the baro receptors, mechano

receptors, tactile receptors and cold and warm thermo receptors which are

sensitive to various forms of energy like heat, light, chemical, pressure etc. This

chapter deals with the characteristics and transfer functions of such receptors.

At the end of the unit the student is able to answer these questions:

Smith.

functions. Name some receptors and their functions.

……………………………………………………….. Biological Control Systems

5. Write about the human operator tracking characteristics.

GLOSSARY:

Block Diagram: - Block diagram is a pictorial representation of a

control system

Bode plot: It is a logarithmic plot of magnitude and angle of transfer

function against frequency.

Branch: It is the line joining or connecting two nodes

Closed Loop Control Systems: - Control systems with Feed back

Control system:-Control System is a science, which deals with

systems, mechanisms, devices or collection of objects joined to have

some form of interaction with a purpose.

Delay time: It is the time required for the response to reach 50% of its

final value in the very first attempt.

Loop: Loop is a closed path, which originates from a node and

terminates at the same node and along which no intermediate path is

traversed twice.

Node: Nodes are the variables or signals of the systems

Open Loop Control System: Control System without feedback

Path gain: It is the product of the gains of all branches along the path

Peak over shoot: Peak over shoot is the maximum deviation of the

response over the step input.

Peak Time: Peak time is the time required for the response to reach its

maximum response or peak overshoot.

Polar Plot:- The polar plot of a sinusoidal transfer function G(jw) is a

plot of │G(jw) │versus phase angle of G(jw) on polar coordinates as

‘W’ is varied from zero to infinity.

Rise Time: It is the time required for the response to rise from 0 to

100% of its final value for un-damped case. For over-damped case, 10

to 90% rise time is commonly specified.

Settling time: Settling time is the time required for the response to

reach and finally remain within a specified tolerance band (2% to 5%)

of its final value.

Sink Node: A sink node is a node having incoming branches

Source Node: A source node is a node having only outgoing branches

Stability: A system is said to be stable if the output of the system is

bounded for any bounded input.

……………………………………………………….. Biological Control Systems

Important Points:

a) Command

b) Reference input

c) Error signal

d) Error detector

e) Control elements

f) Plant

g) Controlled output

h) Feedback elements

equations.

T = 1/∆∑ Pk ∆k

∆ = 1- (sum of all individual loop gains) + (sum of the gain

product of all possible combination of two non touching loops) – (sum

of the gain product of all possible combination of three non touching

loops) + (……) – (…..) + ……

∆ k = same as ∆ but formed by loops not touching the kth forward

path

4. The time response of a control system can be divided into two parts,

the transient and steady state response.

a) Step signal

b) Ramp signal

c) Parabolic signal

a) Nature of the input of signal

b) Type of system, and

c) Non-linearities present in the system

7. Error constants:

a) Position Error Constant

b) Velocity error constant

c) Acceleration error constant.

……………………………………………………….. Biological Control Systems

8. Transient response specifications:

a) Delay time

b) Rise time

c) Peak time

d) Peak overshoot

e) Settling time

f) Steady state error

a) Bandwidth

b) Resonant peak

c) Resonant frequency

10. Root locus is a graphical method to find the position of the roots

of the characteristic equation or the poles of closed loop of transfer

function.

a) Routh Hurwitz criterion

b) Nyquist criterion

c) Bode diagram

12. Transient response is defined as the part of the time response that

goes to zero as time goes to infinity

13. Steady state response is the part of the total response that remains

after the transient has died out.

14. A minimum phase transfer function does not have poles or zeros

in the right half s-plane or on the jw-axis, except at s=0.

……………………………………………………….. Biological Control Systems

TOPICS TO BE COVERED IN EACH UNIT

S.No Unit Topics To Be Covered

Introduction to control systems and importance of biological control systems-various positive and negative

1 I

feedback systems in the human body

2 Definitions and study of a system and its components

3 Types of systems, Classifications based on their differences

4 Block diagram and its fundamentals

Constructing a block diagram using various blocks, transfer function

5

its derivation, importance

6 Differences between an open loop system and closed loop system

7 Block diagram reduction- Procedure and problems

8 Signal flow graphs –definitions and construction

9 Constructing a SFG from a block diagram

10 Mason’s gain formula for determining transfer function of a signal flow graph

State space representation of systems

11

13 First order and second order systems

14. Time response analysis of closed loop systems-first order and second order

15. Type number of control systems and static error constants

Finding the rise time, peak time, percent overshoot, damping ratio and delay time for unity feedback

16.

systems for various inputs like step, ramp and parabolic functions

17. II Stability and its importance in closed loop systems

18. Determining the stability of a system based on the input function and roots

19. Stability compensation techniques-Routh’s stability criteria, nyquist factor

20. Routh’s criteria –procedure and problems

21. Frequency response analysis of closed loop systems-bode plots and polar plots

22. Sketching the bode plot of a system hence finding its gain margin and phase margin

23. Sketching a polar plot , finding the gain and phase margin for a system from its polar plot

24. Root locus method (determination of roots and finding their loci), introduction to non linear control

Examples of biological control systems, pupil control system, its engineering analogy-aperture control of a

25. III

camera

26. Skeletal muscle servomechanism- reason for being called a servo system

Human thermo regulation- the process of heat generation and storage, human body and its lumps-core

27.

muscle and skin-definitions and equations, the Engg analogy –room temperature control

28 The semicircular canal and free swinging limbs

29 IV Respiratory system-physiology, information flow diagram and control mechanism

Visual fixation system and occulo motor system- types of target for a human eye, the fixing mechanism,

30

muscles involved and response curves for various targets

31 Cardio vascular system-physiology and control system for measurement of blood pressure

Sugar level control mechanism- oral glucose, intravenous tolerance tests, block diagram, equations and

32

graphs

33 Endocrine control system-general function and control of other systems

34 V Models on human operator, human operator tracking characteristics

35 Biological receptors, receptor characteristics, transfer function models of receptors

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