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## BIOLOGICAL CONTROL SYSTEMS

COURSE INSTRUCTOR: Mr. V. SRIPATHI RAJA

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## BIOLOGICAL CONTROL SYSTEMS

COURSE OBJECTIVE

The human body controls a large number of body parameters like body
temperature, pressure& respiration. It would be of great interest to study these
aspects of human body function in order to diagnose, predict & control health.
Health, from this engineering point of view, can be considered as a controlled
process of a biological system.
Study of biological control systems depends to a large extent on the well-
developed field of control systems engineering. Design of control systems is
based on concepts of stability & feedback. A large body of mathematical theory
consisting of Laplace transforms, poles, zeros, stability concept & differential
equations is used for the analysis and design of control systems. So the study &
analysis of biological control systems based on control system concepts would
enable us to design better health systems, drug delivery systems and in turn, help
in improving living conditions.

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References

## Systems --- Milhorn T H.

RECOMMENDED WEBSITES:

www.ieeecs.org

www.riken.edu

www.instruments.org

www.ieee.org/web

www.riken.go.jp/engn/r-world

www.che.psu.edu/control

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UNIT-I
DYNAMIC SYSTEMS AND THEIR CONTROL

RECOMMENDED BOOKS:
1. Control Systems------------------- Nagoor. S. Kani

## 5. Control Systems---------------------M. Gopal

This unit deals with System & its fundamentals, different types of systems,

characteristics and differences of closed loop and open loop systems, block

diagrams, transfer functions, methods for obtaining transfer functions from block

diagrams by Reduction, Signal Flow Graphs & State space representations. It also

deals with the analysis of a First Order and second Order systems in the Time

domain.

At the end of the unit, the student is able to answer these questions:
1. Define the following types of technological control systems:
(i) Open loop and Closed loop systems.
(ii) A Regulator and a Servomechanism.
(iii) Proportional and Proportional plus Derivative control.
Give examples for each.
2. What are type 0, 1 & type 2 systems?
3. Draw the signal flow graph for a given block diagram and obtain the
transfer function.
Explain Mason’s Gain formula for SFG.
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4. Discuss briefly the various positive and negative feedback systems
present in the human body.
5. The open loop transfer function of a servo system with a unity
feedback is given by
G(s)= 1/((1+0.5s)(1+0.2s)).
Determine the damping ratio and percent overshoot to a unit
step.
6. Define static error coefficients, kv, ka and kp. Explain how the steady
state error can be computed using the error coefficients.
7. A feedback system having derivative feedback has the following
block diagram representation.
Find the value of kd so that the damping ratio for the system is 0.65.

Ei(S) E0 (S)
1
∑ 10 ∑ S(S+2)

S Kd

8. Draw the time response curve for a second order system for
0<τ <1.Derive the expression for the same. Define rise time, peak
overshoot, delay time and peak time.
9. Obtain the state space representation of the following control system.

R(S) C(S)
S+4 16
10
S+16 S(S+2)

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UNIT-II
FIRST ORDER AND SECOND ORDER SYSTEMS

RECOMMENDED BOOKS:
1. Control Systems------Nagoor S.Kani

## 2. Control Systems------Nagrath and Gopal

Feedback effect of a control system is studied. What is feedback? What are the
different parameters of the system which are being affected by feedback? Time
response analysis: Transient response analysis of first order system and second
order system are studied. Different parameters like rise time, peak time, delay
time, settling time, percentage peak overshoot are calculated here. Responses of a
standard second order system with sinusoidal input for different ranges of ξ are
studied. Steady state analysis: steady state error is found using static error
coefficients and dynamic error coefficients.

At the end of the unit the student is able to answer these questions:
1. A unity feedback system is characterized by an open loop transfer function
G(s)=K/s(s+10). Determine the gain K so that the system will have a
damping ratio of 0.5. For this value of K, determine settling time, peak
overshoot and time to peak overshoot for a unit step input.
2. The open loop transfer function of a unity feedback system is given by
G(s)=K/s(1+sT) where T and K are constants having positive values. By
what factor the amplifier gain be reduced so that (a) the peak overshoot of
unit step response of the system is reduced from 75% to 25%. (b) The
damping ratio increases from 0.1 to 0.6.
3. Determine the error co-efficients and static error for
G(s) =1/s(s+1)(s+10)
H(s) =s+2.
4. In a position control system the forward path transfer function is
100/s(s+1) and the feedback path transfer function is 10. Determine the

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sensitivity of T with respect to the feed forward feedback elements
respectively in the vicinity of ω = 1 rad/sec.

UNIT-III
SYSTEM STABILITY AND COMPENSATION

RECOMMENDED BOOKS:
1. Control Systems------Nagoor S.Kani

## 2. Control Systems------Nagrath and Gopal

Stability is an important design aspect of control systems. This unit covers the
stability compensation techniques of closed loop systems like Routh Hurwitz
Criterion & Root Locus plot. The frequency response analysis of first order and
second order systems i.e., Bode plots & Polar plots are also studied. In all these
methods Laplace Transforms are used to represent systems, which are a
prerequisite to the course. Introduction to Non-linear control is also studied in this
unit.

At the end of the unit the student is able to answer these questions:
1. Sketch the Bode plot for the following transfer function and obtain gain and
phase margin.
G(s) = 10(1+0.5s)
s (1+0.1s)(1+0.2s) .
2. The open loop transfer function of a unity feedback system is given by
k(s+2)/s2 (s+3) (s+1). Find the restriction on k so that the closed loop system
is absolutely stable.
3. Show that the output of a system to a bounded input is stable if the impulse
response is finite.
4. The open loop transfer function of a unity feedback control system is given by
G(s) = k(s+3)/ s(s2+2s+2)(s+5).Sketch the root locus diagram.
5. Write about the various methods for finding the stability of a system.
6. Find out whether the given system is stable using Routh’s stability criterion.

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S8+10s5+6s4+3s3+2s+1=0.
7. Find the centroid and angle of asymptotes for the following system.
G(s)=100/s(1+0.2s)(1+0.5s).

## What is the necessary and sufficient condition for Routh-Hurwitz criterion?

UNIT-IV
BIOLOGICAL CONTROL SYSTEMS
RECOMMENDED BOOKS:
1. Principles of anatomy & physiology.
Torotora & Grobowski.
2. Biological Control Systems Analysis----Milsum John H

The general engineering principles obtained in the previous chapters are applied
to various biological control systems in this chapter whereby the complex
mechanism called the human body is studied. Various systems like the pupil
control system, the Visual Fixation system, the role of Occulo-Motors in visual
fixation are all analyzed.

At the end of the unit the student is able to answer these questions:

1. Discuss about pupil control system and develop block diagram for the same.
2. Explain convergence and accommodation of the pupil control system.
Explain how illumination is controlled.
3. What is Weber-Fechner law?

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UNIT-V
THERMOREGULATION AND SERVOMECHANISM
RECOMMENDED BOOKS:
1. Principles of anatomy & physiology.
Torotora & Grobowski.
2. Biological Control Systems Analysis----Milsum John H

The semi-circular canal& free-swinging human limb are studied and their
feedback mechanisms determined. The Thermo-regulation of human body
and the Servomechanism of the Skeletal System are also studied.

## 1. Draw the information flow diagram of human thermoregulation system and

explain how the temperature is maintained.
2. Explain the anatomy of human thermoregulation. What are the feedback
transducers?
3. Discuss the anatomy and working of skeletal muscle servomechanism.
4. Derive the transfer function of a semi-circular canal.
5. What are the forces acting on a free-swinging human limb?
Write the equations and write the expression for the same.

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UNIT-VI
RESPIRATORY AND OTHER CONTROL SYSTEMS

RECOMMENDED BOOKS:
1. Principles of anatomy & physiology.
Torotora & Grobowski.
2. Biological Control Systems Analysis----Milsum John H

In this unit a few more systems are studied. The feedback control of Respiratory
system, blood pressure control by the Cardio-Vascular system, The roles played
by the endocrine glands in controlling other biological systems are also studied.
An interesting conclusion is that the CPU of all these systems is the Nervous
system-the Hypothalamus to be specific.
At the end of the unit the student is able to answer these questions:

control system.

systems.

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UNIT-VII
SUGAR LEVEL CONTROL MECHANISM AND ENDOCRINE
CONTROL SYSTEM

RECOMMENDED BOOKS:
1. Principles of anatomy & physiology.
Torotora & Grobowski.
2. Biological Control Systems Analysis----Milsum John H

Different control systems like the sugar level control mechanism (what are
different factors which helps in maintaining the sugar leveling various fluid of the
body) and the endocrine control system are studied. Here we also study the
excretion control system.

At the end of the unit the student is able to answer these questions:
Discuss about the endocrine control system
1. How is sugar level maintained in a normal person?
Explain the mechanism involved for a diabetic person.
2. Explain the different models of sugar level control system.

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UNIT-VIII
HUMAN OPERATOR MODELS AND BIOLOGICAL
RECEPTORS

RECOMMENDED BOOKS:
1. Principles of anatomy & physiology.
Torotora & Grobowski.
2. Biological Control Systems Analysis----Milsum John H

Human operator models and their tracking characteristics deal with the
mechanism involved in any man-machine interaction. That is, how a human
operator deals with the various interactions of the machine. And finally those
involved in the feedback of all the above systems-the biological receptors are
studied.
There are various receptors in the human body like the baro receptors, mechano
receptors, tactile receptors and cold and warm thermo receptors which are
sensitive to various forms of energy like heat, light, chemical, pressure etc. This
chapter deals with the characteristics and transfer functions of such receptors.

At the end of the unit the student is able to answer these questions:

Smith.

## 3. Discuss about the various receptor characteristics and their transfer

functions. Name some receptors and their functions.

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5. Write about the human operator tracking characteristics.

GLOSSARY:

##  Arrow: It indicates the flow of signal

 Block Diagram: - Block diagram is a pictorial representation of a
control system
 Bode plot: It is a logarithmic plot of magnitude and angle of transfer
function against frequency.
 Branch: It is the line joining or connecting two nodes
 Closed Loop Control Systems: - Control systems with Feed back
 Control system:-Control System is a science, which deals with
systems, mechanisms, devices or collection of objects joined to have
some form of interaction with a purpose.
 Delay time: It is the time required for the response to reach 50% of its
final value in the very first attempt.
 Loop: Loop is a closed path, which originates from a node and
terminates at the same node and along which no intermediate path is
traversed twice.
 Node: Nodes are the variables or signals of the systems
 Open Loop Control System: Control System without feedback
 Path gain: It is the product of the gains of all branches along the path
 Peak over shoot: Peak over shoot is the maximum deviation of the
response over the step input.
 Peak Time: Peak time is the time required for the response to reach its
maximum response or peak overshoot.
 Polar Plot:- The polar plot of a sinusoidal transfer function G(jw) is a
plot of │G(jw) │versus phase angle of G(jw) on polar coordinates as
‘W’ is varied from zero to infinity.
 Rise Time: It is the time required for the response to rise from 0 to
100% of its final value for un-damped case. For over-damped case, 10
to 90% rise time is commonly specified.
 Settling time: Settling time is the time required for the response to
reach and finally remain within a specified tolerance band (2% to 5%)
of its final value.
 Sink Node: A sink node is a node having incoming branches
 Source Node: A source node is a node having only outgoing branches
 Stability: A system is said to be stable if the output of the system is
bounded for any bounded input.

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Important Points:

## 1. Elements of Automatic or Feedback control system:

a) Command
b) Reference input
c) Error signal
d) Error detector
e) Control elements
f) Plant
g) Controlled output
h) Feedback elements

equations.

T = 1/∆∑ Pk ∆k

## Where T = Overall transmittance of the system

∆ = 1- (sum of all individual loop gains) + (sum of the gain
product of all possible combination of two non touching loops) – (sum
of the gain product of all possible combination of three non touching
loops) + (……) – (…..) + ……

## Pk = Gain of kth forward lath

∆ k = same as ∆ but formed by loops not touching the kth forward
path

4. The time response of a control system can be divided into two parts,
the transient and steady state response.

## 5. Standard test signals:

a) Step signal
b) Ramp signal
c) Parabolic signal

## 6. Steady state error may be caused in the system due to the :-

a) Nature of the input of signal
b) Type of system, and
c) Non-linearities present in the system

7. Error constants:
a) Position Error Constant
b) Velocity error constant
c) Acceleration error constant.

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8. Transient response specifications:
a) Delay time
b) Rise time
c) Peak time
d) Peak overshoot
e) Settling time

## 9. Frequency response specifications:

a) Bandwidth
b) Resonant peak
c) Resonant frequency

10. Root locus is a graphical method to find the position of the roots
of the characteristic equation or the poles of closed loop of transfer
function.

## 11. Methods of determining stability:-

a) Routh Hurwitz criterion
b) Nyquist criterion
c) Bode diagram

12. Transient response is defined as the part of the time response that
goes to zero as time goes to infinity

13. Steady state response is the part of the total response that remains
after the transient has died out.

14. A minimum phase transfer function does not have poles or zeros
in the right half s-plane or on the jw-axis, except at s=0.

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TOPICS TO BE COVERED IN EACH UNIT
S.No Unit Topics To Be Covered
Introduction to control systems and importance of biological control systems-various positive and negative
1 I
feedback systems in the human body
2 Definitions and study of a system and its components
3 Types of systems, Classifications based on their differences
4 Block diagram and its fundamentals
Constructing a block diagram using various blocks, transfer function
5
its derivation, importance
6 Differences between an open loop system and closed loop system
7 Block diagram reduction- Procedure and problems
8 Signal flow graphs –definitions and construction
9 Constructing a SFG from a block diagram
10 Mason’s gain formula for determining transfer function of a signal flow graph
State space representation of systems
11

## 12 Proportional and proportional plus derivative control

13 First order and second order systems
14. Time response analysis of closed loop systems-first order and second order
15. Type number of control systems and static error constants
Finding the rise time, peak time, percent overshoot, damping ratio and delay time for unity feedback
16.
systems for various inputs like step, ramp and parabolic functions
17. II Stability and its importance in closed loop systems
18. Determining the stability of a system based on the input function and roots
19. Stability compensation techniques-Routh’s stability criteria, nyquist factor
20. Routh’s criteria –procedure and problems
21. Frequency response analysis of closed loop systems-bode plots and polar plots
22. Sketching the bode plot of a system hence finding its gain margin and phase margin
23. Sketching a polar plot , finding the gain and phase margin for a system from its polar plot

24. Root locus method (determination of roots and finding their loci), introduction to non linear control
Examples of biological control systems, pupil control system, its engineering analogy-aperture control of a
25. III
camera
26. Skeletal muscle servomechanism- reason for being called a servo system
Human thermo regulation- the process of heat generation and storage, human body and its lumps-core
27.
muscle and skin-definitions and equations, the Engg analogy –room temperature control
28 The semicircular canal and free swinging limbs
29 IV Respiratory system-physiology, information flow diagram and control mechanism

Visual fixation system and occulo motor system- types of target for a human eye, the fixing mechanism,
30
muscles involved and response curves for various targets
31 Cardio vascular system-physiology and control system for measurement of blood pressure
Sugar level control mechanism- oral glucose, intravenous tolerance tests, block diagram, equations and
32
graphs
33 Endocrine control system-general function and control of other systems
34 V Models on human operator, human operator tracking characteristics
35 Biological receptors, receptor characteristics, transfer function models of receptors