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CHAPTER 1

The Problem and Its Setting


CHAPTER 1

The Problem and Its Setting

Introduction

People in the 20th century have been enshared in an accelerated and

active paced life. The peculiarities of modern technology, transportation and

communication undertakings previously took an eternity of time to achieve, had

drastically been made effortless.

In the early days of computing, operators sometimes invented games to

play on their computers in their spare time. What began as idle amusement has

become a billion-dollar industry.1 An even faster sort of linkup called local area

network ties computers together with thin fibre optic lines that transmit signals as

rapid pulses of light.2 Engineers are working to make the machines smaller, more

powerful, and less expensive. It seems certain that the computer’s impact on

society will continue to grow.3

"Online gaming is a technology rather than a genre; a mechanism for

connecting players together rather than a particular pattern of gameplay."4 Online

games are played over some form of computer network, now typically on the

Internet. One advantage of online games is the ability to connect to multiplayer

games, although single-player online games are quite common as well.

As this technology arises, many individuals now are addicted to online

gaming. Some individuals are spending their time on playing online games that
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makes their lifestyle sedentary. Due to the addiction to online gaming, many

people are accustomed to sitting, taking little exercise or having irregular physical

activities. Some individuals include playing online games on their activities of

daily living, which cause risk effects on their health.

There is a wide range of reported negative effects of online games on

health; however the actual evidence of games directly causing certain negative

effects is very weak. Other negative effects are usually due to prolonged

excessive play of online games. People who live a sedentary lifestyle such as

playing online games usually suffer from some sort of ailment later on in life,

such as heart and muscle problems and obesity. This is usually combined with a

poor diet, such as genetically-modified foods and junk food.

Development in technology brings many things that people do not have

many years back. One of these things is online gaming that is provided by the

internet.

Online gaming is one of the widely used leisure activities by many people.

Teenagers who are playing these online games said that they are playing these

games just for fun, to keep away from the heat of the sun, without knowing that

there are a lot of effects of playing these games that are more than what they

think.

This research study attempted to find out the negative effects on health

which deals on playing online games on nursing students of Centro Escolar

University. But as of now, playing online games to nursing students of CEU


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Makati is considered as their habit and past time. Sometimes, due to this doings,

they intend to disregard their education and focus on playing.

Setting of the Study

The researchers will conduct the study at Centro Escolar University Makati

located at 259 Sen. Gil Puyat Ave., Makati City.

Centro Escolar University was established on June 3, 1907 by Doña

Librada Avelino and Doña Carmen de Luna for the instruction and training of the

youth in all branches of the arts and sciences. With some benches, a single

blackboard and a few books, the two educators steadfastly nurtured a dream of

establishing a nationalistic center of learning for Filipino women. The first college

that of Pharmacy, opened in 1921. The College of Liberal Arts, Education and

Dentistry followed one after the other. Three years later, the College of

Optometry was established. Beginning as the Centro Escolar de Señoritas, the

school was granted university status by the Philippine government in 1932. It has

then steadily grown as an institution under the leadership of noted educators who

have contributed much to the development of their respective professions. Past

Presidents include Dr. Pilar Hidalgo-Lim, an educator and civic leader, Dr.

Dionisio C. Tiongco, another renowned scholar and educator, and Dr. Lourdes T.

Echauz, a distinguished philanthropist and educator. The immediate past

President, Dr. Rosita L. Navarro is a recognized educator, a role model, leader of

knowledge worker and an advocate of balance between globalization and

Filipinization. The current President, Dr. Ma. Cristina D. Padolina, was a former

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Commissioner of the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) and Chancellor

of the University of the Philippines Open University. Originally and fittingly called

Centro Escolar de Senoritas, the institution focused upon a program of education

leadership intended to implement the provisions in Article IV of the by-laws

governing the College approved on June10, 1910, three years after its

establishment. In the year 2005, Centro Escolar University witnessed the birth of

a campus located at Sen. Gil Puyat Makati City. After two years of operation,

CEU conceived a campus at Esteban St. Legaspi Village, Makati City on 2007-

2008. This study will be conducted inside the university for the purpose of

providing a means to assess the impact of computer gaming among Nursing

Students in Centro Escolar University of all level.

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Figure 1

Locator Map of Makati City

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Figure 2

Vicinity Map of Centro Escolar University

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Theoretical Framework

This study is supported by Gratification Theory of Jay Blumler and Elihu

Katz which emphasizes active role in interpreting and integrating media into their

own lives.

Online Games Addiction is excessive or compulsive use of computer and

video games that interferes with daily life. Instances have been reported in which

users play compulsively, isolating themselves from, or from other forms of, social

contact and focusing almost entirely on in-game achievements rather than

broader life events. While the existing literature points to the deep impact of

online gaming to physical and social skills of an individual, there is nonetheless a

scarcity of research on the particular issues of how to stop and prevent this

addiction.

Computer games addicts tend to isolate themselves from normal, face-to-

face human contact. Some of the most addictive games are found online, where

the player competes and cooperates with others around the world. These online

relationships online can eventually crowd out more intimate, real-life ones.

There are two theories or perspectives which regarding On-line games

Addiction. These are The Gratification Theory which says. Human’s gratification

needs can stem from low self-esteem, lack of personal relationships, and

dissatisfaction with life and The FLOW THEORY Activity that nothing else seems

to matter, totally unaware of their surroundings but enjoying the task and having

fun while doing it

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Computer games addiction has no physical component or objective

diagnosis, but many of the consequences are similar to alcoholism or drug

addiction. Some addicts allow jobs, relationships and academic careers to

languish or collapse in order to spend more time playing their favourite games.

Gamers who become entrenched in excessive daily gaming routines can find it

difficult to make room for much else in life.

Statement of the Problem

The researchers aim to investigate the impact of online gaming to physical

and social skills of B.S. Nursing students enrolled at CEU Makati Gil Puyat Unit,

school year 2009-2010.

Specifically, it aims to answer the following questions:

1. What is the profile of the respondents according to:

1.1 Age

1.2 Gender

1.3 Year Level

1.4 Frequency of online gaming

1.5 Cost for every game?

2. How does online gaming affect the respondents’ physical and social skills?

3. How do the impact of online gaming compare with the profile of the

respondents?

Assumptions:

This study was based on the assumption that the respondents will duly

complete the profile sheet and participate in the interview correctly and honestly

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Hypothesis

H0: There is a significant relationship between impact of online gaming and the

respondents’ profile.

H1: There is no significant relationship between the impact of online gaming and

the respondents’ profile.

Significance of the Study

The purpose of the study is to determine the impact of online gaming to

students particularly B.S. Nursing students in Centro Escolar University, Gil

Puyat, Makati. This study aims to evaluate the effects of online gaming to

students specifically on their physical health and social activities. This study

might also provide the reason of the respondents behind online gaming

addiction.

This might provide the students realization on the negative impact on

excessive online gaming in their lives. The study could influence students to

know their limitations and still prioritize their responsibilities before playing online

games. This can benefit students in realizing that too much online gaming can

cause them physical illness and it could also be a barrier with their social

interaction to other people. It is also beneficial for students to give their time in

more important things than playing online games.

Computer is important in the evolution of Generation X because it offers

applications, programs and software that can help learning institutions in serving

quality information. However, data obtained from identifying the common

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problems that will be encountered in computer games mostly shows that

technology results to students’ low & failing grades of academic performances.

Specifically, the study will be beneficial to the following:

To the Teachers, The findings of this study will enable the teachers to

discover the positive effects of computer games and not see only the negative

side. Since computer can be a medium of communication.

To the parents, the results of this study will be great helping to the

parents especially those who are bothered about their children who spend too

much spend his time for the computer.

To the students, the results of this research will surely benefit the

students. With this they will start to realized that computer games can influence

their academic performance in school

Future researchers, they may also be benefited by this study as it may

be a reference material for further studies.

Scope, Delimitations and Limitations

This study was intended to discuss only the effects of online gaming to the

physical and mental disadvantages of students. The students will include B.S.

Nursing students of all year levels of Centro Escolar University Makati City

enrolled during the year 2010-2011. The respondents will be asked to answer

survey forms and interviews about the effects of online gaming to their studies.

Firstly, this study is limited to the students who are only playing online

games in computer shops because not all students are fond of playing computer

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games. Another limitation may be the instruments that were used because not all

the students that we may find in computer shops would be able to be given a

survey form and the time to be interviewed.

The resources of this study are also a limitation because the information

gathered can only be found in selected articles in magazines and internet. There

is also no book that would give us more information about our study.

Definition of Terms

The following terms were used in the study:

Carpal tunnel. It is a narrow tunnel formed by the bones and other tissues

of your wrist. This tunnel protects your median nerve. The median nerve helps

you move your thumbs and the first 3 fingers on each hand.

Carpal tunnel syndrome. It is a painful disorder of the wrist and hand. It

occurs when other tissues in the carpal tunnel (such as ligaments and tendons)

get swollen or inflamed and press against the median nerve. That pressure can

make part of your hand hurt or feel numb.

Flow Theory. It is the mental state of operation in which the person is fully

immersed in what he or she is doing by a feeling of energized focus, full

environment, and success in the process of the activity.

Gratifications Theory. It is a popular approach to understanding mass

communication. The theory places more focus on the consumer, or audience,

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instead of actual message itself by asking “what people do with media” rather

than “media does to people”.

Online game. It is a game played over some forms of computer network.

At the present, this almost always means the Internet or equivalent technology;

but games have always used whatever technology was current: modems before

the internet, and hard wired terminals before modems. The expansion of online

gaming has reflected the overall expansion of computer networks from small

local networks to the Internet and the growth of Internet access itself. Online

games can range from simple text based games to games incorporating complex

graphics and virtual worlds populated by many players simultaneously. Many

online games have associated online communities, making online games a form

of social activity beyond single player games.

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NOTES

1
“Illustrated Encyclopedia of Science and Technology : The Computer

Age,” Time Life Asia (Alexandria, Virginia, U.S.A: Time Life Inc.: Gakken Co. Ltd,

2000), 4.

2
Computer,16.

3
Computer, 46.

4
Computer, 70.

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CHAPTER 2

Review of Related Literature

and Studies

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CHAPTER 2

Review of Related Literature and Studies

This chapter presents a review of related literature and studies

which helped the researchers pursue the study.

Local Literature

According to Dr. Bernardino Tolentino, director of the National Center for

Mental Health said many children and teenagers nowadays stay online for hours

because they do not want to miss anything in cyberspace. "If your children spend

hours huddled over a computer, there is a good chance you have something to

worry about – internet addiction," he said at a weekly health forum organized by

the Philippine College of Physicians in Quezon City.1

The Study showed indefinite reaction and side effects of computer

addiction where at the excessive and abusive use of computer affects daily

activities of those individual who are addict in computer games. This study shows

that, it is a fact that computer games can really affect the mental status of

children, especially when they are addicted to it. Their daily activities are also

affected especially their studies.

Child psychiatrist Dr. Vanessa Cainghug said in a forum that 18,000

internet users under age 18 showed that 15 percent were in the process of

becoming psychologically addicted. Moreover teenagers, on average, spend 14

hours a week on-line. Every year, the number of people using the internet

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particularly the youths is rising. That is why the number of Internet addicts is also

increasing every year. 2

Base from statistical researches, the statistics showed rapid increase in

number of computer addicts as evidenced by increase in academic performance

of those computer addict children.

Nicolas Yee added that some of these teenagers even log on to

pornography sites. He said that children start using the Internet without parental

supervision at the age of four. Internet addiction is like other addictions involving

drugs, alcohol or gambling, which provide escape and diversion from the real

world and problems. However, he stressed that the inability to cut back on usage,

a preoccupation with online activities, and symptoms of withdrawal such as

anxiety, boredom, or irritability after a few days of not going online are the few

signs of an Internet addict.3

In relation to our research, this provides the probable negative effects of

internet addiction to teenagers. This could lead to vices and other addictions if

not managed properly. Parental supervision is a must to educate the children.

Citing a recent report, Caracas noted that millions of youths are said to be

addicted to online games and Facebook, the world’s most popular social

networking site. Caracas said more youths are neglecting their studies as they

spend most of their time in the Internet. Curiosity, peer pressure, boredom,

depression, lack of parental supervision, family problems, and the drug itself are

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the main factors of addiction in any form. The best solution to prevent any kind of

addiction to youths is parents should always monitor their children. They should

spend more time with their kids and they should teach them to say ‘No”. 4

Computer addiction can have a variety of negative effects on a person.

The most immediate are social. The user withdraws from friends and family as he

spends more and more time on the computer. Relationships begin to wither as

the user stops attending social gatherings, skips meetings with friends and

avoids family members to get more computer time. Even when they do interact

with their friends, users may become irritable when away from the computer,

causing further social harm.

Eman said parents need to consciously plan family time, which can

include playing computer games together, doing projects together, having regular

family meal times and participating in regular outings.5

This is relevant to our research because it suggest that parents should

guide their children in playing computer games and make it as a family time. The

parents should plan other activities other than computer games to enhance

socialization.The more involved parents are in their kid’s life, the more valued

children feel. The Study showed indefinite reaction and side effects of computer

addiction where at the excessive and abusive use of computer affects daily

activities of those individual who are addict in computer games. In other way

around it is in the parent’s disciplinary initiative how to direct the addiction of their

children.
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Base from statistical researches, the statistics showed rapid increase in

number of computer addicts as evidenced by increase in academic performance

of those computer addict children. To eradicate this global problem, it will take

collaborative efforts from the parents and the Department of Health to conduct

massive emphasize regarding the unwanted effects of Computer Addiction.6

The Study showed indefinite reaction and side effects of computer

addiction where at the excessive and abusive use of computer affects daily

activities of those individual who are addict in computer games.

Foreign Literature

Today almost all of us have electronic devices at home for us to be

comfortable and handy at times. But it also has a negative effect on children,

especially teenagers. Parents usually buy computers for their children

educational resource. But teenagers who always seek to fun activities around

them use computer to play games, chat with their friends and to catch up with the

latest gossip on celebrities. And before they know it they are already addicted to

computer. Computer can cause teenagers to be physically, and mentally ill, and

the more the child spends more time on the computer, the more he or she loses

time to focus on academics, and to talk to their family.7

This provides the effects of computer in teenagers. This is relevant to our

study due to its presentation to reality that children uses computers for playing

and other fun activities rather than as an educational resources.

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Computers, video games, and the internet have become entrenched

features of our daily lives. Computer use has reached beyond work and is now a

major source of fun and entertainment for many people. For most people,

computer use and video game play integrated into their lives in a balanced

healthy manner. For other time spent on the computer or video game is out of

balance, and has displaced work, school, friends, and even family.

According to Gentile , video games are natural teachers. Children find

them highly motivating by virtue of their interactive nature. Children are actively

engaged, provide repeated practice, and include rewards for skillful play. These

facts make it likely that video games could have large effects, some of which are

intended by game designers, and some of which may not be intended. The data

about children's video game habits are correlated with risk factors for health and

with poorer academic performance. When video game play is analyzed for

violent content, additional risk factors are observed for aggressive behavior.8

It is a relevant study due to its explanation that computer games is

intended to bring education to children but some unintended effects was not

foreseen. It caused poor studying performance and aggressive behavior.

Fisher stated that, there's also another type of computer addiction that's

been identified, which has been labeled "positive addiction." It may sound like a

contradiction of terms, but having a positive addiction is defined as obsessive

behavior in which the benefits received outweigh the cost of the addiction. There

are many ways in which immersing oneself into the computer can actually help

make a person a better healthier, more aware human being. Not all the stuff on

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the Internet is bad, by any means. There's an incredible wealth of valuable,

enriching material available in an endless variety in cyberspace, as well.

In addition, there are a growing number of researchers who argues that

meeting someone online may actually be a more intimate and revealing

experience than face to face contact, because you're communicating your

thoughts, feelings, and emotions in a more real way, free of the game playing

and posturing that often accompanies real world dating. You get to know the

inner person in a more direct, spontaneous way without worrying about facial

expressions or inflections of the other person's voice. In a very real way, couples

who made their first contact online often know each other in a deeper, more

intimate way than couples who meet in the outside world.

Further, it is important to remember that even if a person spends a significant

amount of time on the computer every day, that doesn't necessarily mean that

the person is negatively addicted. Spending a considerable amount of time online

doesn't always ruin a person's life or the lives of the other people. There are

people who use their computers to reach out to others in a meaningful way and

use the awesome power and positive aspects of the Internet to learn and grow in

every area of their lives and to become better people.9

This study reveals that not all people spending time in front of the

computer is into addiction. Some people uses computer in a more important way

like studying to enhance their abilities and become better people.

On the other hand, Portal stated that, compulsive gaming is already

considered a psychological disorder. The growing number of students suffering

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from computer game addiction and video game addiction can be puzzling for

many people. What the people don’t realize is that any form of addiction roots

from things that used to be harmless. Just like in gambling, virtual games bring a

sense of fun, thrill and excitement when played, these feelings actually make the

game more appealing and engaging and addictive. The seriousness of video

game addiction and computer game addiction has gone unnoticed. It managed to

sneak from a good thing that turns out bad due to abuse and bad usage.10

It can contribute to the study because it brought up the fact that bad

usage and abuse is one of the causes of negative outlook in computer gaming.

This addiction is now associated as a psychological disorder.

Moreover, Kranz stated that the seriousness of the issues caused by

computer game addiction and video game addiction was even claimed to have

created a new face of addiction in modern-day societies. Since this kind of

addiction roots from seemingly harmless sources, what leads to addiction is the

people's abuse to the effects or benefits that they bring. Since no one will ever

prevent using computer these days, at work or in school, theorists predict that

this kind of disorder will be much harder to manage.11

The relationship of this article to the study is that addiction in computer

games is hard to manage because it is a harmless source. People tend to abuse

its benefits that results to negative effects.

According to the article “Even but no longer Odd” written by Rama

Ramaswami, online kids have to be self- motivated, manage their time and be

organized. As with innovations, it has taken some time for best practices to

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emerge and quality assurance mechanism should be put in place. The look, feel

and overall quality of today’s online courses are far beyond those that existed

before. The technology is much more robust today for supporting interactions. 12

This article delivers that proper guidance is needed to help kids manage

time and become organized individual through online games. Technology is a

source of interaction.

Geoffrey H. Fletcher emphasized that schools, libraries, colleges, and

community centers are singled out in the legislation as potentially prime receivers

of broadband education, awareness, training, access, equipment and support to

enable them to facilitate greater use of broadband services in their communities.

Rural areas and urban and suburban as well are crying out for broadband. And

with the growth of technology use in education, and the increasing demand for

digital content in general like movie clips and other rich media, schools will need

even more broadband as they need it now. 13

This is relevant because it shows that technology especially the

broadband or internet use is now a need in different fields and places like in the

field of education.

An article in Reform Judaism Magazine, “Cyber Judaism” states that

“Technology affords us a chance to become more of a community”. As we make

the transition to employ more electronic communication, we need to be vigilant in

the process lest we disenfranchise those who are less “tech savy” or prefer to

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spend less time online. We should not let the means of communication change

that we are. 14

Its significance is its message that technology can bind us but can also

break us. It can make us one but can also break us if we let technology

overpower our lives.

When time spent on the computer, playing computer games or cruising

the internet reaches a point that is harm a child’s or adult’s family and social

relationships, or disrupt school or work life, that person may be caught in a circle

of addiction. Like other addiction, the computer or video game has replaced

friends and family as a source of person’s emotional life. Increasingly, to feel

good, the addicted person spends more time playing video games or searching

the internet. Time away from the computer or game causes moodiness or

withdrawal.15

It is significant to the study because it reflects that computer addiction

replaces social relationships and it is interrupting school and work.

Local Studies

According to Pepita Edna Carvajal, head of the Guidance Office of the

Ateneo de Davao University (ADDU) "relational dysfunction in the family such as

lack of connection and communication transposes a child's attention into

something that will give him appreciation, welcoming and achievement and this

online gaming attitude may also be a form of rebellion against the family ".

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Sometimes a kid does it for draw himself away from what he thinks is a

disorganized world or a kid does it for the family to take notice of him. At least by

that, he is given recognition. And also, according to Nicolas Yee the author of

Psychology MMORPG Games, there are five factors why players are hooked to

online computer games. One of these is relationship, wherein people play

computer games to meet other people around the country or around the world.

They seek to have closure to some other people in the world and they want to

build a new friendship with someone. Next is manipulation, people tend to

manipulate other people for his personal gains and satisfaction. Third one is

immersion; gamers tend to enjoy computer games because of its graphics,

effects which satisfy their imagination. Second to the last is escapism, wherein

people engage themselves to online computer games in order to overcome

depressions, stress and forget their problems here in the real world. The last is

achievement factor, wherein people tend to play computer games to become

strong and popular even just in the online computer games for them to be

recognized. 16

In relation to our study, this article has been a really big help because

these indicate all the reasons why people are hooked in computer online games.

And this gives researchers more information about their topic and ideas that may

help them in doing such study.

According to Goh Chee Leong, dean of the Department of Psychology at

Kuala Lumpur's HELP University College, online gaming is addictive because

many people feel powerless in our society while in online games they’re in
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control of armies, of cities, and other people. Online games give them recognition

that they were able to feel that they exist in society because of popularity in

online gaming. And according to psychology professor Mark Griffiths, author of

several in-depth studies of online gaming and gambling addiction, once they

already have such power, popularity and richness they get addicted to it and

continue to play until they still have it. One reason that people who are into online

games want to continue playing is because of the so-called "rewards" which are

random and unpredictable. This is how the best games are programmed: to keep

the player interested by promising predictable outcomes, but to hook them by

randomly allowing them to earn new positions or powers in the game. But there's

another problem that online games bring, health wise. In the past, students play

basketball and other games that require physical activities (like bicycling, hiking,

swimming, running, walking, etc.). But nowadays kids are restrained in their own

little corner without moving a little bit save for their hands which resulted from

obesity. "I am seeing a lot more obese children compared to ten years ago," Dr.

Sioksoan Chan-Cua, a pediatrician-endocrinologist and associate professor of

pediatrics at the University of the Philippines.17

In relation to our study, computer online games really gives us a bad effect

such as obesity, addiction, lack of interest in school, waste our money and less

time to interact with our family and other people. This article entails all the

negative effects of computer online games in an individual which made a person

non functional in our society. Nowadays you can’t even see kids playing outside

their houses and engage in physical activities/games like “patintero, taguan, etc.”

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But try to look in some computer shop, there you can see kids, students in

uniform, sitting in one chair in front of a computer and stays there for a long

period of time like 3 hours and above.

According to Duncan Morris, vice president for research and market

development at Turner International Asia Pacific kids have an innate ability to

assimilate new technology and adapt to change at a phenomenal rate and this

can be clearly seen in the way they have embraced computers, the Internet and

mobile phones. Because of these they lose interest in studying, playing physical

games and interact with their family. Morris also conducted study which he found

out that some parents set rules on what website to visit, how long will he/she use

the computer and kids understood those rules. Also a study was conducted on

why do people use internet and they’ve found out that nearly 80 percent of the

kids surveyed cite online games as the number one reason why they use the

Internet. Among age groups, the study said kids 7-8 years old play the most. 18

In relation to our study we understand that kids love to explore new things

and new access, but they should have their limitations and set rules for them not

to get addictive to it. Parents should be the one to monitor their children and be

sure that their kids will use internet not for playing but for learning.

Foreign Studies

As pointed out by study made by Searle Huh and Nicholas David

Bowman, with the growing popularity of online video games, there have been

anecdotal reports suggesting that these games are highly addictive, with some

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gamers spending in excess of 40 to 50 hours per week playing. Thus, research

into the individual characteristics that lead to excessive play is warranted. This

paper examines two individual variables – personality and perceptions of media –

and explores how they relate to online game play, specifically online game

addiction. By presenting a revised metric for online game addiction, this paper

explores the relationship between addiction and both personality and perception.

Online addiction is presented in this paper as a process addiction with four

unique factors: perceived social sanctions, excessive play, uncontrollable play,

and displacement. Both personality and perception are found to be significantly

associated with online game addiction. These results are interpreted and

discussed, and future research direction is suggested.19

This study pertains to addiction of the students who have the possible

highest number of hours of play.

Addiction is widely associated with alcohol, and drug abuse, but in more

recent times has started to include dependences not linked with substance

abuse, such as gambling, internet use and video-game addiction. The term

video-game addiction encompasses all genres of games, but it is often

associated with MMORPGs as several high profile deaths of MMORPG addicts

have been heavily publicized. For example one such addict in South Korea fatally

collapsed after playing an online game for 86 hours straight without eating or

sleeping. Since then addiction of online games has been specifically highlighted,

with the Thai government imposing a curfew on online games , and Europe's first

video-game addiction clinic opening in Amsterdam.But what causes these


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addictive relationships to form in the first place?

With the online community of players expected to rise to the 100 million mark by

2010, the addiction associated with MMORPGs is only going to rise. Thus this

dissertation will look into the reasons addiction occurs and compare them to the

reasons people play online games, with the goal of highlighting the key

motivational factors linked to the formation of addictive behaviors.

Interactive video and computer games belong to the new multimedia

culture that is based on the digital computer technology. These games have

become increasingly popular in the past 20 to 25 years, especially among young

people. In the beginning they were mainly played by youth and young adults who

were enthusiastic about computers. During the early nineties, however, video

and computer games became a matter-of-course in the everyday life of young

people, including children. There is not one single explanation for this

development. Probably a number of different reasons can be alleged. From an

economic perspective one might argue that children and youth have become

important target groups for many industries, e.g. media, fashion, music. Young

people are believed to act as "driving forces" in and for new markets and

products, and their purchasing power is noteworthy. The computer game industry

obviously has been quite successful in attracting these young customers. From a

technical perspective one could point out that starting and playing electronic

games has become easier in the past two decades.21

This study is helpful to the researchers because it proves that online

gaming has been successful for attracting young people for the past years.
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Research from the ivied halls of Harvard Medical School suggests that

violent video games can be a healthy form of social interaction for teenagers;

especially boys. The study by doctors Lawrence Kutner and Cheryl Olsen also

suggests that teenagers that don’t play any computer games are at a greater risk

of being involved in antisocial activities. 22

The research seems to hinge on the fact that playing videogames has

become a normal form of social interaction for young people. Therefore, to not

play video games might indicate that a person is feeling disconnected from

society and “at risk”.It added the positive significance of computer gaming to

socialization. This statement suggest that computer gaming can be a form of

social interaction and it has no negative effect on being connected with the

society.

According to a list of statistics produced by Media Family: "Effects of

Video Game Playing on Children" roughly 97 percent of kids played video games

in 2008. In 2006 45 percent of kids were regular gamers, which means that they

played for two or more hours on a daily basis. The high number of kids shows the

importance of learning to choose games that will help strengthen and push the

intellect of the child playing.23

It can be included in the researchers’ study that not all computer gamer

uses computer games a hobby. Thus, computer games can also be a source of

learning.

30
Dmitri Williams, the lead author of the study state that after an average

playtime of 56 hours over the course of a month with “Asheron’s Call 2,” a

popular MMRPG, or “massively multi-layer online role-playing game,” they found


24.
no strong effects associated with aggression caused by this violent game.

There is no aggression effects in playing violent games which is a positive

impact that can be added to our research results.

Gaming among college-aged men may provide a healthy source of

socialization, relaxation, and coping. In college aged men there was no

significant correlation between BMI, academic performance, social functioning

and frequency of online game play. Women and men differ hardly in performance

with online gaming. Women probably use gender neutral characters and names;

they probably game as much online as men.25

The study is relevant to the research because it provides a positive effect

of online gaming to college-aged people. It renders positive effect to social

function.

31
32
NOTES

1
Angela De Leon, “Internet Addiction Spreading Among Kids,”

http://www.malaya.com.ph/11112009/news3.html, 2009, November 11.

2
Angela De Leon, “Internet Addiction Spreading Among Kids,”

http://www.malaya.com.ph/11112009/news3.html , 2009, November 11.

3
Edward Culpa, June Jane Gentiles and Eliza Zsa Zsa Perasol, “Online

games: Addiction Raises Concern On Family, Social Relations,”

http://www.sunstar.com.ph/static/dav/2005/04/17/feat/online.games.addiction.rais

es.concern.on.family.social.relations.html , 2007, April 17.

4
Janette Toral, “Dealing with Internet Addiction,”

http://www.sunstar.com.ph/static/ceb/2008/07/17/bus/toral.dealing.with.internet.a

ddiction.html,2008, July 17.

5
Stuart Fischoff, “Internet Addiction: Real or Really Techno-Hysteria?,”

http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/the-media-zone/200807/internet-

addiction-real-or-really-techno-hysteria-part-3, 2008, July 11.

6
“Psychiatric Symptoms May Predict Internet Addiction in Adolescents,”

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/10/091005181636.htm, 2009,

October 6.

7
“Computer and Video Game Addiction,”

http://www.mediafamily.org/facts/facts_gameaddiction.shtml.

33
8
Douglas A. Gentile, “The Effects of Video Games on Children: What

Parents Need to Know,”

http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0816/is_6_21/ai_n9772319/, 2004,

June.

9
Jeanette Joy Fisher, “Computer Addiction: Who Suffers From it?,”

http://www.clickingaddict.com/computer_addictions.html.

10
Finance Portal, “The Seriousness of Computer Gaming Addiction,”

http://hubpages.com/hub/Computer-Gaming-Addiction.

11
“Video Games: The Modern Day Addiction”,

http://www.artipot.com/articles/208460/video-games-the-modern-

dayaddiction.htm.

12
“Cyber Judaism,” Reform Judaism, Summer 2009, 36-40, 53.

13
Rama Ramaswami, “Even but no Longer Odd,” The Journal:

Transforming Education through Technology, May 2009, 39-34.

14
Geoffrey H. Fletcher, “A Stimulus to Broadband Use,” The Journal:

Transforming Education through Technology, May 2009, 8.

15
Fat Boi, “Do You have an Addiction?” 2009, October 9. Asia Finest.

16
Edward Culpa, June Jane Gentiles and Eliza Zsa Zsa Perasol, “Online

games: Addiction Raises Concern on Family, Social Relations,”

http://www.sunstar.com.ph/static/dav/2005/04/17/feat/online.games.addiction.rais

es.concern.on.family.social.relations.html, 2005, April 17.


34
17
Izah Morales, “Study Shows More Filipino Kids Going Online,”

http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/breakingnews/infotech/view/20091028-232751/Study-

shows-more-Filipino-kids-going-online, 2009, October 8.

18
Henrylito D. Tacio, “Health Hazards of Online Games,”

http://www.sunstar.com.ph/davao/health-hazards-online-games, 2009, February

16.

19
Searle Huh and Nicholas David Bowman, “Perception of and an

Addiction to Online Games as a Function of Personality

Traits”,http://calstatela.edu/faculty/sfischo/Bowman online game addiction-

final.doc, 2008, April 26.

20
Elvin Morton Jellinek, “The Disease Concept of Alcoholism,”

http://findarticles.com/p/articles/ mi_m0847/is_n4_v15/ai_12754619/, 1960.

21
Johannes Fromme, “Computer Games as a Part of Children's Culture”.

http://www.gamestudies.org/0301/fromme/,2003, May. Game Studies.

22
Lawrence Kutner and Cheryl Olsen, “Study Suggests Computer Games

are Good for Boys”, http://www.uberreview.com/2008/05/study-suggests-

computer-games-are-good-for-boys.htm,2008, May 9.

35
23
Kyle Aldous, “Computer Gaming Effects on Academic Performance”.

http://www.ehow.com/list_5910606_computer-gaming-effects-academic-

performance.html

24
Dmitri Williams, “No strong link seen between violent video games and

aggression”, http://www.physorg.com/news5758.html , 2005, August 11.

25
Dr. Shock, “Healthy Online Gaming and Browser Gaming”,

http://www.shockmd.com/2009/03/09/healthy-online-gaming-and-browser-

gaming/,2009, March 9.

36
CHAPTER 3

Research Methods and

Procedure

37
CHAPTER 3

Research Methods and Procedure

This chapter presents the research method, instrument used, procedure

and the statistical treatment employed in this study.

Research Methodology

This research study will use descriptive method wherein the researchers

will employ the normative approach in organizing the data gathered. This method

is a technique that determines that facts with sufficient analysis and

interpretation. It is also a general procedure employed in studies whose objective

is to have a detailed description on existing procedure. However, it is not limited

to routine fact gathering. Descriptive research is mainly done when a researcher

wants to gain a better understanding of a topic. The main goal of this type of

research is to describe the data and characteristics about what is being studied.

38
The researchers chose descriptive method to gain a better understanding

about the topic. The researchers wish to have accurate result by conducting

surveys. The researchers want to hear the voice of the BSN students about the

negative effects of online gaming. The researcher wants to gain critics and

opinions from BSN students of CEU Makati.

Finally, like qualitative research, descriptive research aims to gather data

without any manipulation of the research context. In other words, descriptive

research is also low on the "control or manipulation of research context" scale. It

is non-intrusive and deals with naturally occurring phenomena.

Respondents of the Study

The study will be on Centro Escolar University, College of Nursing, Makati

City Campus. The researchers will utilize two hundred (200) BSN students who

are playing online games as the respondents of this research study. These two

hundred (200) respondents were from four (4) year levels, every year level will

represent 50 respondents, respectively.

The researchers decided to involve the above number of respondents

because it is based on the estimated number of the nursing students who are

playing online games.

Sampling Technique Used

The researchers employed purposive sampling in conducting the selection

of the B.S. Nursing students of Centro Escolar University from all year levels.

39
The researchers considered it to be appropriate to perform the study to B.S.

Nursing students, because they are the ones who are greatly reflecting the

study’s purpose. A great number of B.S. Nursing students are engaged to online

gaming and more likely, they are the ones to develop health problem due to

much exposure to it.

Data Gathering Instruments

Phrase completion scales are a type of psychometric scale used in

questionnaires. Developed in response to the problems associated with Likert

scales, Phrase completions are concise, unidimensional measures that tap

ordinal level data in a manner that approximates interval level data.

Phrase completions consist of a phrase followed by an 11-point response

key. The phrase introduces part of the concept. Marking a reply on the response

key completes the concept. The response key represents the underlying

theoretical continuum. Zero(0)indicates the absence of the construct.

Ten(10)indicates the theorized maximum amount of the construct. Response

keys are reversed on alternate items to mitigate response set bias.

Sample question using the phrase completion method:

I am aware that playing online games affects my academic performance.

Never Continually

0 1 2 3 4 5

40
After the questionnaire is completed the score on each item is summed

together, to create a test score for the respondent. Hence, Phrase Completions,

like Likert scales, are often considered to be summative scales.

The response categories represent an ordinal level of measurement.

Ordinal level data, however, varies in terms of how closely it approximates

interval level data. By using a numerical continuum as the response key instead

of sentiments that reflect intensity of agreement, respondents may be able to

quantify their responses in more equal units.

Data Gathering Procedure

The researchers listed possible topics and presented it to their English

professor, Mr. Alvin S. Sicat on January 8, 2010. The professor verified and

approved the chosen topic which is “ The Impact of Online Gaming to Physical

and Social Skills of BSN Students of CEU Makati”. The researchers started to

gather data related to online games and technology in possible resources such

as internet, magazines and books.

A consultation was done to arrive in to a formula and type of questionnaire

to be used in the study. The researchers consulted an Electronic Engineer, Mr.

Jomar Aplaon regarding the possible type of statistical method to be used. After

the selection of formula, the researchers submitted a letter asking for the

approval of the managers of the three nearest computer shop in CEU Makati,

namely, Phoenix, I-hooked and Cosplay to conduct a survey. After the letters

41
have been approved, necessary instruments have been gathered by the

researchers.

The procedure was done through asking the respondents to fill- up a

survey form asking for the average number of hours the respondent has been

playing each day and the respondent’s preliminary and midterm grades. The

respondents will also need to indicate weight gain or weight loss within the

semester, to evaluate the physical effect of excessive playing of online games.

Our target day of survey will be until March 16, 2010, Wednesday.Scores were

obtained by summing up the respondents’ responses for the number of hours

they play online games, grades during the prelim and midterm period, and

respondent’s weight for the past four months to evaluate the impact of playing

online games.

Statistical Treatment

The following statistics will be used in this study:

1. Percentage.2This method computes for the score proportion or rate in

terms of the total representative sample.

where: f = frequency of scores

n = sample size

2. Mean. 3This method computes for the average score of the respondents.

42
where: x = raw score

n = sample size

3. Standard Deviation. 4This method computes for the average deviation of

the individual scores from the mean score.

where: x = raw score

n = sample size

4. Chi-squared test.5 Chi-square is a statistical test commonly used to compare

observed data with data we would expect to obtain according to a specific

hypothesis.

Where: observed = observed data

expected = expected data

43
NOTES

1
“Likert Scale,” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Likert_scale

2
Rosita G. Santos, et al., Statistics. (Manila: Centro Escolar

University, 2006), 35.

3
Rosita G. Santos, et al., 46.

4
Rosita G. Santos, et al., 64.

5
Rosita G. Santos, et al., 234

44