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Marine Design

© Mr D. L. Smith

Universities of Glasgow & Strathclyde

2006
Marine Design 2
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Marine Design 3
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TOPIC OUTLINES .............................................................................................................................................. 5

1. PHILOSOPHY OF DESIGN ....................................................................................................................... 6


1.1 WHAT IS DESIGN?.................................................................................................................................... 6
1.2 THE DESIGN TEAM................................................................................................................................... 6
1.3 WHAT IS A DESIGN PHILOSOPHY?............................................................................................................ 7
2 PRELIMINARY, CONTRACT & DETAILED DESIGN......................................................................... 9
2.1 MARINE DESIGN PROCESS ....................................................................................................................... 9
2.2 DETAILED DEFINITION OF PHASES OF SHIP DESIGN ............................................................................... 11
2.3 BASIC OR PRELIMINARY DESIGN ........................................................................................................... 12
2.4 CONTRACT DESIGN ................................................................................................................................ 12
2.5 DETAILED DESIGN ................................................................................................................................. 13
3 ELEMENTS OF SHIPPING – TYPES OF SHIP .................................................................................... 14
3.1 GENERAL ............................................................................................................................................... 14
3.2 SHIPS ..................................................................................................................................................... 14
3.3 SHIP SIZE AND DIMENSIONS ................................................................................................................... 17
3.4 CARGO CONSIDERATIONS ...................................................................................................................... 17
3.5 SIZE AND SPEED ..................................................................................................................................... 18
3.6 STRUCTURAL ARRANGEMENTS .............................................................................................................. 18
3.7 WORKED EXAMPLE - DEADWEIGHT CARRIER ....................................................................................... 21
3.8 SECOND WORKED EXAMPLE - DEADWEIGHT CARRIER.......................................................................... 22
4 OWNERS REQUIREMENTS & THE FORMULATION OF THE DESIGN...................................... 25
4.1 INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................................... 25
4.2 THE OWNER'S REQUIREMENTS............................................................................................................... 25
4.3 SHIP TYPE .............................................................................................................................................. 27
4.4 DEADWEIGHT OR VOLUME?................................................................................................................... 27
5 ESTIMATING PRINCIPAL DIMENSIONS ........................................................................................... 29
5.1 DISPLACEMENT, LIGHTWEIGHT AND DEADWEIGHT ............................................................................... 29
5.2 DEADWEIGHT/DISPLACEMENT RATIO .................................................................................................... 30
5.3 LENGTH ................................................................................................................................................. 32
5.4 BREADTH, DRAUGHT AND DEPTH .......................................................................................................... 32
5.5 OVERALL LIMITS ON DIMENSIONS ......................................................................................................... 32
5.6 FORMULAE FOR LENGTH ........................................................................................................................ 33
5.7 BLOCK COEFFICIENT.............................................................................................................................. 34
5.8 LENGTH/BREADTH RATIO ...................................................................................................................... 35
6 WEIGHT ESTIMATION........................................................................................................................... 42
6.1 BASIC APPROACH .................................................................................................................................. 42
6.2 STEEL WEIGHT ...................................................................................................................................... 42
6.3 OUTFIT WEIGHT..................................................................................................................................... 46
6.4 MACHINERY WEIGHT............................................................................................................................. 48
6.5 WEIGHTS OF CONSUMABLES .................................................................................................................. 49
6.6 CENTRE OF GRAVITY ESTIMATION ........................................................................................................ 51
6.7 PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF MACHINERY WEIGHT ........................................................................................... 53
6.8 PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF OUTFIT WEIGHT.................................................................................................... 54
7 POWER ESTIMATION AND SERVICE MARGINS ............................................................................ 56
7.1 GENERAL ............................................................................................................................................... 56
7.2 DEFINITIONS OF POWER ......................................................................................................................... 56
7.3 STANDARD SERIES ................................................................................................................................. 57
7.4 COMPONENTS OF RESISTANCE ............................................................................................................... 57

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7.5 FRICTIONAL RESISTANCE....................................................................................................................... 59


7.6 RESIDUARY RESISTANCE ....................................................................................................................... 60
7.7 RAPID POWER ESTIMATES FOR NEW SHIP DESIGNS ............................................................................... 61
7.8 TRIAL AND SERVICE MARGINS .............................................................................................................. 61
7.9 SPEED MARGINS .................................................................................................................................... 62
8 SELECTION OF MAIN MACHINERY .................................................................................................. 66
8.1 FACTORS IN THE CHOICE OF MAIN MACHINERY..................................................................................... 66
8.2 TYPES OF DIESEL ENGINE ...................................................................................................................... 66
8.3 AUXILIARY MACHINERY........................................................................................................................ 66
8.4 PRINCIPAL MAIN ENGINE SYSTEMS ....................................................................................................... 67
8.5 ELECTRIC POWER GENERATION ............................................................................................................. 67
8.6 FUEL SYSTEM FUNCTIONS ..................................................................................................................... 68
8.7 PRELIMINARY ESTIMATION OF PROPELLER DIAMETER .......................................................................... 68
9 ESTIMATING HYDROSTATIC PROPERTIES AND INITIAL STABILITY ................................... 71
9.X UNDAMPED ROLL MOTION IN STILL WATER ......................................................................................... 77
9.Y WORKED EXAMPLE - CAPACITY CARRIER ............................................................................................. 78
10 GENERAL ARRANGEMENT.............................................................................................................. 83
10.1 INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................................... 83
10.2 TRIM ...................................................................................................................................................... 83
10.3 LOCATION OF THE MACHINERY SPACE .................................................................................................. 83
10.4 LENGTH OF MACHINERY SPACE............................................................................................................. 84
10.5 STORAGE OF LIQUIDS............................................................................................................................. 84
10.6 CARGO HOLDS ....................................................................................................................................... 85
10.7 HATCHWAYS .......................................................................................................................................... 85
10.8 ACCOMMODATION ARRANGEMENT ....................................................................................................... 86
10.9 MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR CREW ACCOMMODATION ..................................................................... 86
10.9 MORE COMPLEX GENERAL ARRANGEMENT PROBLEMS ........................................................................ 87
11 CAPACITY AND CENTRE OF VOLUME ESTIMATES ................................................................. 93

12 THE REGULATION OF SHIPPING ................................................................................................... 98


12.1 THE ROLE OF THE CLASSIFICATION SOCIETY ........................................................................................ 98
12.2 STATUTORY REGULATIONS ................................................................................................................. 101
12.3 INTERNATIONAL MARITIME ORGANISATION (IMO)............................................................................ 105
13 TONNAGE ............................................................................................................................................ 111
13.1 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................... 111
13.2 PRESENT TONNAGE REGULATIONS ...................................................................................................... 111
13.3 THE MOORSOM TONNAGE MEASUREMENT SYSTEM ............................................................................ 114
14 THE ASSIGNMENT OF FREEBOARD ............................................................................................ 116
14.1 WHAT IS FREEBOARD?......................................................................................................................... 116
14.2 WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF FREEBOARD?.............................................................................................. 116
14.3 THE DEVELOPMENT OF FREEBOARD RULES ......................................................................................... 116
14.4 CURRENT REQUIREMENTS FOR FREEBOARD ......................................................................................... 117
14.5 DETERMINATION OF MINIMUM FREEBOARD ........................................................................................ 119
14.6 GENERAL CONDITIONS OF ASSIGNMENT OF FREEBOARD ..................................................................... 119
15 FURTHER READING ......................................................................................................................... 121
15.1 BOOKS ................................................................................................................................................. 121
15.2 TECHNICAL PAPERS ............................................................................................................................. 121

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Topic Outlines

Examinable Material

1 Philosophy of Design

2 Preliminary, Contract & Detailed Design

3 Elements of Shipping – Types of Ship

4 Owners Requirements

5 Displacement, Dimensions & Form Relationships

6 Weight Estimation

7 Powering Calculations

8 Machinery Selection

9 Approximate Hydrostatics

10 General Arrangement

For Information (Relevant to Ship Design Project)

11 Capacity Calculations

12 Maritime Organisations & Regulation

13 Tonnage

14 Introduction to Freeboard

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1. Philosophy of Design
1.1 What is Design?
Design and Designer tend to be overused words for which there are many definitions.
However it is not always easy to agree on the right definition. Here are some candidates for
the position:-

a) Design is the visualisation and depiction of form.

b) Design is the mental process which must intervene between the conception of a
specific engineering intention and the issue of drawings to the workshop.

c) Design is the optimum solution to the sum of the true needs of a particular set of
circumstances.

d) Design is a creative, iterative process serving a bounded objective.

e) Mechanical Engineering Design is the use of scientific principles, technical


information and imagination in the definition of a mechanical structure, machine or
system to perform pre-specified functions with the maximum economy and efficiency.

The Designer is clearly the paragon who carries out such tasks. His/her work can be
split into three areas of activity:-

a) Decision-making regarding the physical form and dimensions of the product.

b) Communication to the builder, mainly in the form of drawings and


specifications (Graphics, Text and Computer Files).

c) Responsibility for the achievement of the original requirements.

Often the designer must guide the original requirements to limit them to the possible.

1.2 The Design Team


In this class we are concerned with ships and other marine structures which are
sufficiently large that they are unlikely to be designed by one person acting alone. The work
must be shared by a team, many of whose members will be specialists in one sub-section of
the work. The main duty of the chief designer is then to ensure proper co-ordination of the
team members and to maintain a balanced overall view of the design. This may involve taking
all important decisions and examining the associated plans. For peace of mind the successful
chief designer must have an almost instinctive ability to notice errors and query impossible
assumptions.

In this Class and the associated Design Projects Classes you will be largely working as
individual designers practising the basic technical skills. In later years of the course you can
expect to work as Design Teams where some of the wider skills will be developed and tested.

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It is important always to be aware of these wider skills and to remember that when you
make a decision you should record it and, what is often more important, why you made it, so
that you can communicate it to someone else or accept responsibility for it at a later time and
be able to justify it.

1.3 What is a Design Philosophy?


Philosophy might seem a somewhat grand word to use in the context of design but, in
the sense of a body of broad principles, concepts and methods which underpin a given branch
of learning, it is a meaningful one to use. A philosophy does not determine the detailed action
to be taken in particular applications, but it does lead to the development of theories, rules and
laws and to detailed methods of applying them. These form the discipline of design.

There is no single philosophy which satisfies all situations so the aim must be to
develop a philosophy which leads to a consistent set of general principles on which the
discipline can be based. This pragmatic approach requires that the outcome of applying the
general principles in a particular situation must be evaluated against some appropriate criteria
of success so that the principles and the associated discipline can, if necessary, be modified
for future applications. The feed-back mechanism is an essential component of both the
philosophy and the discipline.

The following is a list of terms, aspects and concepts which reveal some of the general
principles arising in design:-

a) Morphology. There is a pattern of events and activities which, by and large, are
common to all projects.

b) Design Process. Iteration to solve problems followed by feedback of information


from a later stage to review decisions made earlier.

c) Stratification. As the solution to one problem emerges, a sub-stratum of lesser


problems is uncovered. Solutions to these must be found before the original problem
can be solved.

d) Convergence. Many possible solutions may be processed in search of the one


correct solution.

e) Decision-making. Choosing between alternatives.

f) Analysis. Used to establish the characteristics of the product which is the subject of
the design. This is a fundamental design tool because it forms the basis on which
decisions can be made but it is not the starting point for a design. A first shot must
have been made at what the whole product will be like.

g) Synthesis. This is the truly creative part of design - putting together separate
elements into a coherent whole. Probably this is the most characteristic part of
design.

h) Creativity. Inventiveness - obviously a highly desirable facility in a designer.


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i) Practicability. What can be achieved in design is determined not only by what is


technologically practicable but also by the capabilities of the design team.

j) Communication. A design is a description of a product and the instructions for its


manufacture. The quality of the end product depends critically on how well these two
aspects are communicated.

k) Dynamics. Design is not a static process, especially with a large and complex
product. Change in requirements or solution is almost unavoidable.

l) Need. The need for the product must be clearly established before starting
design work.

m) Economic Worth. The owner of the end product must feel that it is worth the true
cost of its acquisition.

n) Optimisation. In design terms it may not be possible to devise the optimum


solution, where the optimum is determined relative to many disparate constraints and
on the basis of incomplete data. The best available solution may be no more than the
best compromise that can be made between conflicting qualities within the constraints.

o) Criteria. The objective and quantitative measure of how successful or how near the
optimum the design is. Sometimes the criteria are subjective and qualitative - the
result of value judgements by those involved in the process.

p) Systems Approach. When a product is part of a broader system (and very few exist
in complete isolation) its design must take account of the impact of the rest of the
system on it and vice versa.

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2 Preliminary, Contract & Detailed Design


2.1 Marine Design Process
The life of a ship may be divided into two distinct parts: -

The period of Construction


The period of Operation.

The owner is most concerned with the second period but the Naval Architect is more
concerned with the first.

The first period can be further divided into two stages: -

Design
Build.

Naval Architects are concerned in both stages but the Designer is most involved in the
first stage.

The actual design process is not a single activity but for most ships consists of three or
four distinct phases: -
Basic Design ( Concept Design
( Feasibility Design
Contract Design Contract Design
Detailed Design Detailed Design

The three or four phases are conveniently illustrated in the Design Spiral as an
iterative process working from owner's requirements to a detailed design. Three sample
design spirals are shown (Buxton, Taggart and Rawson & Tupper). Taggart shows the process
starting at the outside of the spiral, where many concept designs may exist, and converging in
to the single, final, detailed design. Rawson & Tupper and Buxton show the process starting
at the centre of the spiral where very little information is known and proceeding outwards to
represent the ever increasing amount of information generated by the design process. In either
representation it is clear that a series of characteristics of the ship are guessed, estimated,
calculated, checked, revised etc. on a number of occasions throughout the design process in
the light of the increased knowledge the designer(s) have about the ship.

The analogy of the Design Spiral can be extended to demonstrate the passage of time
as the design progresses. If a time axis is constructed at the centre of one of the figures
perpendicular to the plane of the paper then as time passes between successive activities so
the spiral is traced out on the surface of a cone.

This class deals essentially with only the basic (or preliminary) design process which
is considered to be completed when the characteristics of the ship which will satisfy the
requirements given by the owner have been determined.

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Contract design involves the preparation of contract plans and specifications in


sufficient detail to allow an accurate estimate of the cost and time of building the ship to be
developed. It is at this point that the decision to go ahead and build the ship can be taken.

The detailed design stage is devoted to the preparation of detailed working drawings,
planning schedules, material and equipment lists etc. from which the production workforce
actually build the ship. Detailed design, itself, is often broken down into three parts -
Functional Design where each of the systems which contribute to the operation of the vessel
are designed for function and performance on a ship-wide basis, Transition Design which
groups all the systems present in a single constructional zone of the ship and integrates them
to develop the most efficient manufacturing approach and Detailing or Work Instruction
Design which translates the design intent into clear, complete and accurate ordering or
manufacturing information in the format and timescale required by the shipbuilding process.

2.2 Detailed Definition of Phases of Ship Design


Before looking at the specific features of preliminary design, it is expedient to re-
examine the fundamental requirements for every ship. Every ship designer, no matter how
logical and realistic they may be, needs to get back to first principles every so often in the
search to make nature serve. It is not in the least beneath the designer's dignity or intelligence
to write down, in a few lines, as did the renowned W J M Rankine in the middle of the 19th
Century, the following simple requirements for every ship: -

i) To float on or in water
ii) To move itself or to be moved with handiness in any manner desired
iii) To transport passengers or cargo or any other useful load, from one place to
another
iv) To steer and to turn in all kinds of waters
v) To be safe, strong and comfortable in waves
vi) To travel or to be towed swiftly and economically, under control at all times
vii) To remain afloat and upright when not too severely damaged.
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2.3 Basic or Preliminary Design


Basic or preliminary design is the process of finding the set of principal characteristics
of a ship which satisfies the requirements in the ship owner's proposal document. Several
preliminary designs may be worked up, each satisfying the requirements but differing in
characteristics not specifically set out in the proposal such as type of propelling machinery
These alternative designs or some of them may be taken as far as the contract design stage to
ascertain the difference in cost and build time or the ability of particular shipbuilders to
supply ships of the given characteristics. Indeed contracts may be placed with different
designers for several different designs all satisfying the same commercial or military
requirements.

Thus basic design includes the selection of ship dimensions, hull form, power (amount
and type), preliminary arrangement of hull and machinery, and main structure. The correct
selection will ensure the attainment of the owner's requirements such as deadweight, cargo
capacity, speed and endurance as well as good stability (both intact and damaged), seakeeping
and manoeuvrability. In addition there must be checks of, and the opportunity to modify,

cargo handling capability, crew accommodation, hotel services, freeboard and tonnage
measurement. All of this must be done while remembering that the ship is but part of a
transportation, industrial or service system which is expected to be profitable.

Basic design includes both Concept design and Feasibility design

In Concept design the aim is to explore both a basic design and systematic variations
of it in order to find the effect of a small change in Length, Beam etc. with the objective of
finding the most effective or most economic solution. Much of the background data used will
be in the form of curves and formulae which allow simple methods to be used in the
evaluation of the effects of variation. A design variation which would not be economic in
service or would not be profitable to build would be discarded while further variations might
be applied to a design which survived this stage.

In Feasibility design (Preliminary design for Taggart) the most successful concept
design is developed further to ensure that it can be turned into a real ship. The effect of
choosing "real" engines, "real" plate thicknesses will inevitably induce minor but significant
changes to layout, weights and dimensions. The completion of this phase should provide a
precise definition of a vessel that will meet the owner's requirements and hence the basis for
the development of the plans and specifications necessary for the agreement of a contract.

2.4 Contract Design


This involves one or more subsequent loops around the design spiral to further refine
the basic design. The work has expanded to the extent that it can no longer be progressed by
one person or a handful of people. It now involves large teams representing all the main
disciplines - Naval Architecture, Ship Structures, Marine Engineering, Electrical Engineering
and Systems Engineering - all hopefully under the control of a Naval Architect. The hull form
can be based on a faired lines plan, and powering, seakeeping and manoeuvring may be based
on model test results. The structural design will have taken account of structural details, the
use of different types of steel and the spacing and type of framing.
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A firm and reliable estimate of the weight and position of the centre of gravity of the
Lightship, taking account of major items in the ship is a clear requirement at this stage. The
final General Arrangement is also developed now. It fixes the volumes given over to cargo,
fuel, water and store spaces and the areas devoted to crew accommodation, machinery and
cargo handling equipment.

The specification of the performance of every aspect of the ship, its outfit, machinery
and equipment is determined along with the necessary quality standards and the tests and
trials needed to demonstrate the successful build of the ship.

It is only at this stage that the prudent owner will become committed to buying the
ship by the act of signing the contract

2.5 Detailed Design


The final stage of ship design is the development of detailed working drawings. These
form the detailed instructions for construction and installation that will be issued to
shipwrights, platers, welders, fitters, turners, plumbers, coppersmiths, electricians and all the
other trades without whom the ship could not be built. This work is not really the province of
the Naval Architect although a Naval Architect may well control the work of those who
produce the drawings and instructions.

There is of course a clear role for the Naval Architect in assuring the quality of the
detailed definition of the ship and in ensuring that the design intent of the concept has been
carried through to the final stage. This means for example, checking that the routes for critical
piping systems do not clash or that high power electric cables do run alongside sensitive
circuits carrying digital electronic control signals. Other checks would include ensuring that
the correct structural detailing of cut outs, brackets and compensation have always been
employed, that continuity of structure has been maintained and that doorways to
accommodation do not have pillars or similar obstructions directly in front of them.

In traditional shipbuilding no thought was given as to how best to build the ship until
all the drawings were complete by which time it was too late to make any changes. In modern
shipbuilding, partly but not exclusively, assisted by computer it is practical to consider
planning the build process alongside the design process to ensure that the detailed design
information is made available to match the production process both in timescale and in
method. This gives rise to the Transition Design phase of Detailed Design where the
manufacturing information for all the systems in a single constructional block or zone is
extracted from the design information prepared or being prepared on a ship-wide basis for
each individual system. With functional requirements and component positions defined by the
preceding design processes, Work Instruction Design finalises details and material
requirements on work instruction plans. These are organised to suit the production process by
providing manufacturing (part fabrication) and fitting (assembly) instructions which match
the way the work is to be carried out.

This concept and the benefits it brings were more fully developed in the class Marine
Manufacturing.

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3 Elements of Shipping – Types of Ship


3.1 General
Ships are a sub-set of the set of transport vehicles which have the feature that they
carry their cargo over water. The different characteristics of the various types of transport
vehicle can be illustrated in many ways. One, rather elderly, figure “Specific Resistance of
Single Vehicles” shows one such illustration - the domain of each vehicle is shown, as are the
gaps between vehicles. The gaps may be caused by economic factors as well as technical ones
but developments tend to remove them, either by adjustments to existing vehicles, or by
producing new ones. For a new type of vehicle to prosper it must either fill a gap on such a
diagram or have an economic advantage over the existing vehicle.

3.2 Ships
Ships are the main type of sea transport vehicle. The figure “World Fleet of Marine
Vehicles” shows a breakdown of all seagoing self-propelled marine vehicles into a variety of
categories. Ships for transport make up just under half of the world fleet by number but nearly
90% by gross tonnage. The contribution of sea transport to the world economy is clearly vast
when we take gross tonnage as a measure of the relative size of ships. Care does have to be
taken over what is meant by the size of a ship and some key definitions are also given.

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Most ships for transport are displacement craft and support the weight of their
structure and contents by displacing a volume of water of equal weight. Thus the weight
carried is not a function of the speed of the ship, but none the less displacement and speed are
the basic characteristics of any ship. They complement one another to produce the tonne-
miles which can be moved in a given time. Speed may also be interpreted as the rapidity of
turn round in port as well as the more obvious rate of crossing the sea. A Table of Particulars
of Some Sea Transport Vehicles is included to indicate the size and range of size of merchant
ships.

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The displacement of a ship reflects its size for all ship types but a simple visual
comparison of size between different types is often misleading. The Oil Tanker and
Submarine, like the iceberg, when laden are mainly below the water surface; the Ferry and the
Warship, in contrast, are mainly above the water surface. All cargoes (including passengers)
have a certain density as does the seawater in which the ship floats. When the cargo is dense
then it demands a considerable displacement for its support and most of the ship is below
water. Passengers, on the other hand, like weapons on a warship, demand a lot of space and
do not like it to be below the waterline.

Oil Tanker

Cruise Ship

Cargo is usually assessed by its Stowage Rate - the inverse of density - in units of
m3/tonne. Ore represents a dense cargo with a stowage rate of about 0.5 m3/tonne. The
stowage rate for passengers is much more variable, depending as it does on the nature of the
voyage, its length, its cost and so on. Typical values range between 6 and 30 m3/tonne. Thus a
great deal of a passenger ship is above water.

Outline General Arrangement drawings of a number of ship types are shown to


illustrate the relative distribution of volume above and below the design waterline.

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Safety demands that some part of the ship shall project above the water. The amount
that does project must fulfil at least the minimum international standards for reserve of
buoyancy. However it cannot be assumed that the more of a ship that projects above the water
the safer it is because not all of the superstructure may be strong enough or well enough
subdivided to provide such buoyancy. For many years a class of cargo ship – the Open Shelter
Decker – deliberately avoided such subdivision to minimise its tonnage – used as a measure
of its earning capacity – and this philosophy was also applied to Ro-Ro ships with the serious
consequences which are now familiar to all.

3.3 Ship Size and Dimensions


The principal dimensions of a ship are Length, Breadth, Draught and Depth (L, B, T
and D). Long experience, together with scientific effort and a good deal of experimental work,
shows that these dimensions must bear appropriate relationships to each other if a successful
ship is to emerge. Among the factors which influence the relationships are Propulsion,
Stability, Seaworthiness, Cargo Considerations and Geography, including Port Development.

A set of relationships between the principal dimensions for the main types of merchant
ships have been derived and show significant differences between ship types - especially
between “Deadweight” carriers and “Capacity” carriers

Physical restrictions are important and may affect any dimension but in merchant
ships draught is usually the one first affected. Older port restrictions may affect draught at
about 10 metres or 15000 tonnes deadweight. Breadth and length may not indicate a
significantly larger vessel before restriction is imposed on them too. No port limitation is
permanent - they alter as time passes or the port goes out of business.

Restrictions imposed by the Suez and Panama Canals and perhaps by such secondary
channels as the St Lawrence Seaway come into effect next. At present the "Suezmax" limit is
about 180,000 tonnes deadweight and the "Panamax" limit is about 75,000 tonnes
deadweight.

Changes to the Panama Canal would be almost prohibitively expensive and so the
ships must remain within the canal limits or accept that the only way of getting from the East
Coast of the American Continent to the West Coast is the long way round by Cape Horn.

The ultimate limits are set by the main sea-lanes of the world. In some of them, such
as the English Channel, draught restrictions begin at about 25 metres corresponding to
350,000 tonnes deadweight. These limits are hard to overcome but dredging and blasting can
be used. At present this is the largest economic size of vessel built and it may be that the costs
of developing all the facilities for even larger vessels, - say up to 1,000,000 tonnes
deadweight - are not outweighed by the improved operating costs.

3.4 Cargo Considerations


Cargo has an important bearing on ship design, especially on the size of ships. The
size of the ship must match the size of the consignment in which the cargo can be produced,
collected, stored, marketed and distributed. Part loads are now seen as uneconomic.

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Only non-perishable bulk commodities can be gathered together in large enough


quantities to take advantage of the economies of scale possible with very large ships. The
container ship secures the economies of scale for the small consignment and provides a
measure of security for those of relatively high value.

3.5 Size and Speed


Total resistance to the forward motion of a ship is a complicated function of size,
shape and speed among other quantities but resistance per unit of displacement remains fairly
constant if the Froude Number v//gL is constant.

Hence an increase in size makes possible a corresponding increase in speed without


particular change in specific resistance although the total resistance will naturally rise.

3.6 Structural Arrangements


It is clear that in much of ship design “form follows Function”. Low value, non-
perishable cargoes travel slowly, in large quantities in simple, almost box shaped vessels,
while high value or time dependent cargoes travel much faster, in small quantities in much
more complex vessels.

Similar considerations apply to the structure of ships, typified by their midship


sections. Representations of the most common types – General Cargo, Bulk Carrier, Oil
Tanker and Container ship are given.

The General Cargo ship and the Container ship both need large hatch openings in the
upper deck to load/unload their cargo and also require holds of reasonably rectangular cross
section to stow the cargo. Bulk carriers have similarly large hatch openings but a different
hold cross section to restrain their cargoes from movement in a seaway and to ensure that
most of it can be removed by grab descending through the hatchway.

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The Oil Tanker needs no significant hatch opening since its cargo is pumped in and
out. Shown here is a traditional “single skin” tanker. Most newly built Tankers now have a
double skin (and the cross section looks like a container ship with the deck entirely plated
over) to protect the environment in case of collision or grounding.

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From ‘Basic Ship Theory’ by Rawson & Tupper

(Note that in Col 3 (Tanker) of Table 15.3, the percentages for Crew, Fuel & Fresh Water
would be more realistic if taken as 0.1; 4.8; 0.6 and not as shown.)

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3.7 Worked Example - Deadweight Carrier


Using the data in Figures 15.8, 15.9 and in Table 15.3 of this section, estimate the principal
dimensions of a general cargo ship of 14,500 tonnes deadweight and 14 knots service speed.

From Table A , Deadmass Ratio (D.R.) = 0.675

∴ Design Displacement = 14500/0.675 = 21481 tonnes

From Figure A, Take CB = 0.77 and corresponding Fn = 0.2

14 knots = 0.5144 * 14 = 7.2 m/sec

Fn = v/√(gL) ∴ L = v2/g*Fn2 = 7.22/9.81*0.202 = 132 m

v in m/sec; g in m/sec2; L in m

From Figure C, Take L/B = 6.2 (the middle of the range of 14500 t ships)

Hence B = 132/6.2 = 21.29 m

Similarly, Take B/T = 2.2

Hence T = 21.29/2.2 = 9.68 m

Now check ∆ = ρLBTCB = 1.025*132*21.29*9.68*0.77

= 21470 tonnes (A close result!)

If you are not so fortunate with your first choice then select two further values of CB and
corresponding Fn from the figures; then find the dimensions and displacement of your two
additional trial ships as above. Then plot displacement against Length and pick off the Length
which gives the desired displacement.

Fn (design) = v/√ (gLdesign)

and so the correct CB can be read from Figure A and


a check made on displacement.

∆ = ρLBTCB = ρL3CB/(L/B)2(B/T)

Alternatively, displacement may be plotted against CB,


in a similar way to the plot against Length shown above,
and the design value found.

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3.8 Second Worked Example - Deadweight Carrier


Estimate the dimensions of a dry cargo ship of 13,000 tonnes deadweight at a maximum
draught of 8 metres and with a service speed of 15 knots.

Assume Deadweight/Displacement Ratio (DWR) = 0.67


and B = 6 + (L/9) m

Displacement (∆) = 13000/0.67 = 19403 t

∆ = ρLBTCB = ρL(6 + (L/9))TCB

∴ CB = ∆/(ρL(6 + (L/9)T) = 19403/(1.025*L*(6 + (L/9))*8) (1)

Also, CB = 1.08 - 1.68 Fn = 1.08 - 1.68v/√(gL) (2)

For L (m) CB (from 1) CB (from 2)

140 0.784 0.705


150 0.696 0.718
160 0.622 0.729

Hence, L = 147.6 m and CB = 0.715

B = 6 + (L/9) = 22.4 m

∆ = ρLBTCB = 1.025 * 147.6 * 22.4 * 8 * 0.715

= 19384 tonnes Sufficiently close!

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4 Owners Requirements & the Formulation of the Design


4.1 Introduction
A design begins with the preparation of a set of "Owner's Requirements" for a
merchant ship or "Staff Requirements" for a warship. In general the stages leading up to the
request for a new design are the same for merchant ships as for warships with the important
difference that warships are built for a government whereas merchant ships are normally built
for a private owner. The preparation of these requirements, especially for merchant ships,
remains an inexact science. It is based on future expectation of demand in the trade under
consideration and chance is often as likely to make the forecast correct as foresight.

In commercial ship design the demand for a new design usually originates with the
chief executive responsible for the operation of a company's ships. From information which
becomes available on such matters as the economics of operating the existing fleet, the state
of their part of the shipping market, developments in international trade etc, he/she arrives at
the conclusion that new ships are required either now or very shortly for the satisfactory
conduct of the business. With the aid of his/her staff, sometimes supplemented by technical
advice from a naval architecture consultancy, he/she arrives at the operating characteristics of
the proposed ships and the number required. These characteristics will be set out in the form
of a statement of requirements which will form the basis of the preliminary design.

Once the Requirements are drawn up the Naval Architect can start to prepare a
preliminary design which aims to fix displacement, main dimensions, powering, an outline
arrangement and specification. An owner’s naval architect, a consultant or a shipbuilder may
carry out this stage of the process. If the shipowner is happy with the design it may be put out
to tender - offered to a number of shipbuilders - or simply given to a preferred shipbuilder for
costing. Once the cost is agreed the builder will progress the design to produce a package of
manufacturing information which suits his building methods.

4.2 The Owner's Requirements


The practice followed by owners in stating their requirements for a new ship varies
widely and statements of requirements can range between the briefest outline and the most
detailed specification (sometimes so restrictive as apparently leaving the ship designer little
scope to apply his/her skills). The most forward looking owners will have based their
requirements on a careful analysis of their needs or on market research but this cannot always
be taken for granted. Ideally, the requirements should lay down what the owner wants in the
following categories, namely, the performance, availability and utility of the ship; it would
also be helpful for an opinion to be included on the aspect of cost.

The Performance category includes such aspects as: -

Amount and type of cargo to be carried


How the cargo is to be handled
Turn-round times
Trade Routes and Trading Pattern
Ship Speed required at sea
Distance between fuelling and storing ports
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The Availability category includes such aspects as: -

Maintenance Policy - How much afloat? How much ashore?


Standard or Extended periods between Dockings?
What emphasis is to be placed on reliability - is any redundancy required in
machinery and systems?

The evaluation of availability is a recent development in the field of shipping and


requires access to a database of information on the performance of machinery, systems and
equipment already at sea in ships. Although few shipowners or shipbuilders have such
information, it is clear that improved reliability is an essential step in maintaining an
economic and competitive fleet.

The Utility category includes such aspects as: -

Flexibility - ability to change role as in the O.B.O. or Ro-Ro Ship


Ability to load/discharge cargo using on-board equipment
Ability to use canals or waterways without restriction

The Cost category includes the aspects of: -

Initial Cost
Running Costs
Maintenance Costs
Finance
Depreciation

All of these form part of the Life-cycle Cost and a common overall objective is to
reduce them to a minimum consistent with meeting the Performance, Availability and Utility
requirements.

The fundamental explicit requirements which should be addressed in preliminary


design are: -

Cargo Deadweight
Cargo Capacity
Speed at Sea
Endurance

The first two are related by the Cargo Stowage Factor = Cargo Capacity/Cargo Deadweight,
and together they fix the type of ship that must be used.

Stability and Safety are requirements which must also be addressed during preliminary
design. They are traditionally regarded as being implicit to the process - whatever choice the
owner makes about Deadweight or Speed he/she wants the ship to survive for a reasonable
length of economic life and no-one deliberately designs an unsafe ship. However, public
concern is leading to a greater pressure for these to become explicit requirements as well.

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4.3 Ship Type


The best known subdivision of Ship type is by its obvious function such as Bulk
Carrier, Tanker, General Cargo, Container Ship, Cruise Liner, Ferry and so on.

However in Design it can also refer to the more fundamental distinction between the
Deadweight Carrier and the Volume (or Capacity) Carrier.

Any given ship type aims to be best in its own trade. A widely accepted measure of
efficiency is that the ship should be "full and down". That means that the cargo capacity and
cargo deadweight are both at their limits when the ship is at its load draught. Depending on
the range of stowage factor of the cargo on offer this yardstick may be of some value but as
we shall see it cannot be applied sensibly in all cases.

A third fundamental ship type is the "Linear Dimension" ship where the design
process proceeds directly from the linear dimensions of the cargo, an item or items of
equipment, or from restrictions set by canals, ports etc. and for which the deadweight,
capacity and sometimes the speed are the outcome of the design instead of the main factors
which determine it. The Container Ship is an example of this kind of vessel as neither the
deadweight nor the capacity are directly related to the dimensions, nor are the dimensions
capable of continuous variation - rather the main dimensions must be close to discrete values
related to multiples of the dimensions of the containers which are to be carried. The vehicle-
carrying Ferry is another example of this type.

4.4 Deadweight or Volume?


3
Seawater has a stowage factor of 0.9754 m /tonne. A minimum reserve of buoyancy is
required when laden. Hence the least overall stowage factor for a ship i.e. Total Enclosed
3
Volume/Displacement is about 1.5 m /tonne. The separate stowage factors for cargo and the
remainder of the ship are close to this figure. Hence if the cargo to be carried is more dense
than (stows closer than) this figure then empty space in the hold is inevitable. Many cargoes
3 3
fall into this category. They range from ore at 0.5 m /tonne to oil at about 1.25 m /tonne. The
empty space can be put to some use as it allows the cargo to be distributed within the ship in
such a way as to minimise problems of strength and stability and perhaps segregate cargo and
ballast spaces. However convenience in working cargo may demand that it be concentrated
and the strength advantages can be lost. If draught is restricted but economy of scale demands
a large ship and depth remains proportional to length because of strength considerations then
spare space will be automatic.

In the normal manner however as the average cargo density decreases the ship will
3
become full and down with cargo stowing at about 1.6 m /tonne. If the cargo density is so low
that the vessel has unused deadweight remaining then deck cargo could be carried but it
would not be protected from the weather or the sea. This is where the container ship
demonstrates one of its advantages - its deck cargo is reasonably well protected because it is
inside a container.

The modern bulk cargo ships – Dry Bulk Carrier and Oil Tanker – are designed to
carry a range of cargoes with a stowage factor of less than 1.5 or 1.6 m3/tonne so that the
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amount of cargo they can carry is solely determined by their deadweight. As a consequence
they are box like single deck ships with a relatively simple structural arrangement.

In the case of the traditional general cargo ship or high speed cargo liner (now
obsolete) erections were added - typically in the form of Poop, Bridge and Forecastle - but
more commonly recently simply a shelter deck. The presence of this first tier of erections on
the freeboard deck allowed the carriage of additional deadweight but enclosed volume
(capacity) increased faster and the cargo stowage factor rose. The volume generated by
adopting a satisfactory height of tween deck tended to cause a jump in the stowage factor to
3
about 1.9 m /tonne although an intermediate value could be obtained by covering less than the
full length of the ship.

The cargo liner whose trade has been extensively taken over by the container ship
often carried cargoes of high value but low density (including passengers). This type of ship
was designed with several tween decks above each hold to ensure that adequate volume
(capacity) was available to protect from the weather all the cargo carried.
3
If the cargo stowage factor exceeds 2.3 m /tonne an additional tier of erections is
usually required. Such a cargo is rare but one example is Bananas with a factor of 4.0
3
m /tonne and another is the car - either on a ferry or on a "Bulk Car Carrier". Passengers too
have a high stowage factor as is made obvious by the extensive superstructures to be found on
cross-channel ferries and cruise liners.

An exact estimate of cargo stowage factor is hard to make, especially as it will vary
over the vessel's life due to alterations in trading patterns. However it is worth noting that
cargo deadweight can always be gained in the short term at the expense of carrying less fuel
and bunkering more frequently while additional covered capacity is expensive to provide.

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5 Estimating Principal Dimensions


5.1 Displacement, Lightweight and Deadweight
The load displacement of a ship is made up of two components - lightweight and
deadweight. Each of these can in turn be subdivided for analysis and control. In naval practice
the subdivisions are set out in great detail but for merchant ships there is no commonly agreed
breakdown other than the large groups associated with preliminary design. The difficulty in
creating clear-cut definitions of weight groups can make comparison of figures from different
sources difficult and often dangerous. In this respect large groups are likely to provide better
agreement than small ones but they will be less amenable to analysis and control.

In Preliminary Design the following definitions and subdivisions are customarily used:

Design Displacement or Full Load Displacement is the displacement of the ship at


3
its Summer Load Draught in salt water of density 1.025 tonne/m

Lightweight is the weight of the vessel complete and ready for sea with fluids in
systems, settling tanks and ready-use tanks at their working levels. No cargo, crew,
passengers, baggage, consumable stores, water or fuel in storage tanks is on board.

(The Lightweight represents the fixed part of the displacement.)

Lightweight = Steel Weight


+ Outfit Weight (Including Refrigeration & Insulation)
+ Machinery Weight

(Refrigeration & Insulation Weight may be taken with Outfit, as above, or may be
made a separate group)

Deadweight is the difference between the Displacement at any draught and the
Lightweight i.e. Deadweight is the variable part of the displacement.

Design Deadweight (Total Deadweight) is the difference between the Design


Displacement and the Lightweight

In general, Displacement = Lightweight + Deadweight

In particular, Design Displacement = Lightweight + Design Deadweight

Deadweight = Cargo Deadweight (Payload)


+ Fuel Oil
+ Diesel Oil
+ Lubricating Oil
+ Hydraulic Fluid
+ Boiler Feed Water
+ Fresh Water
+ Crew & Effects
+ Stores
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+ Spare Gear
+ Water Ballast *

* Water ballast is only carried if required to achieve a particular trim or


draught/trim combination. It is not normally carried in the Full Load Condition.

Cargo Deadweight will include passengers and their effects if they are carried.

Cargo Deadweight is sometimes referred to as Payload.

5.2 Deadweight/Displacement Ratio


This ratio is a common starting point for a design although an immediate choice of
main dimensions based on past practice is sometimes taken as a short cut. The
Deadweight/Displacement Ratio is used to obtain the first approximation to Displacement for
a given Deadweight. It is often based on total deadweight rather than the more logical choice
of cargo deadweight because total deadweight is a more readily available figure being
independent of the amount of fuel etc. carried. If cargo deadweight is available then it may be
used but as the value will be taken from data on existing ships the designer must be sure of the
figures being used. The data would normally be recorded as a graph of Deadweight Ratio
against Deadweight. The Ratio will vary with the type of ship, its speed, endurance and
quality. Generally speaking, the larger, slower and more basic the ship the higher the value of
the ratio.

DWR = Deadweight/Displacement

Typical values of DWR for a range of ship types are as follow-

Reefer 0.58 - 0.60


General Cargo 0.62 - 0.72
Ore Carrier 0.72 - 0.77
Bulk Carrier 0.78 - 0.84
Tanker 0.80 - 0.86

In a preliminary design it is wise to consider how the ratio may vary from the chosen
type ship and be prepared to correct the resulting displacement at a later stage of the design
process if necessary.

The quoted figures indicate considerable variation in the value of DWR for similar
ships. Among the factors which account for this variation are: -

1) Ship Speed and Block Coefficient. These factors partly account for the variation in
DWR between different ship types as well as within any one ship type. For a given set of
dimensions, an increase in speed will call for an increase in power. The increased power will
increase the machinery weight and so decrease the available deadweight. It may decrease the
Cargo Deadweight even further if there is, in addition, an increase required in the amount of
fuel to be carried. If, on the other hand, the Block Coefficient is reduced to allow a slight
increase in speed for no increase in power then the displacement is reduced but there is
scarcely any decrease in Lightweight and again the deadweight is reduced.

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2) Voluntary reduction of draught. The operating draught may be less than the
maximum allowed by freeboard rules or by the choice of scantlings. Thus the vessel, in
service, is carrying less deadweight than it might theoretically be able to

3) Variations in propulsion machinery. There can be a significant difference in


machinery weight between an installation using a slow speed diesel engine and one using
medium or high-speed engines.

4) Variations in construction method. For example the Ore Carrier requires to have a
much heavier bottom structure than a non-ore carrying Bulk Carrier because of the local
intensity of loading arising from the very dense ore.

5) Variations in Outfit Specification. A Refrigerated Cargo Ship (or Reefer) will have
a greater outfit weight than the equivalent General Cargo Ship and so carry less Deadweight
on a given Load Displacement. Similarly a Bulk Carrier with cargo handling gear is likely to
have reduced deadweight when compared with a gearless vessel (one without cargo handling
gear).

Once the displacement has been derived then each of the principal dimensions can be
considered in turn.

(From Watson, Practical Ship Design, 1998)

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5.3 Length
Length is probably the most expensive dimension to provide and is governed in part
by size and in part by speed. It is expensive in terms of steel weight and building costs and
were it not for hydrodynamic considerations the ideal length might well be taken to be the
cube root of the volume of displacement.

However that is not the case and ship size associated with desirable characteristics for
resistance and propulsion is used to fix a first approximation to the length. Adjustments are
then made above or below this value to account for the relative importance of frictional and
wavemaking resistance and to meet any physical restrictions imposed by canals, ports, docks
and ship handling.

The choice of Length and Block Coefficient (CB) are closely related and are dependent
on Speed and Froude Number. A number of formulae for the initial determination of Length
will be given later.

5.4 Breadth, Draught and Depth


Given the Volume of Displacement, Length (L) and CB, then the value of the product
of Breadth (B) and Draught (T) is determined. Unless there are over-riding dimensional
constraints such as the width of a dock entrance or the water depth at a harbour mouth then
both B and T can be determined knowing a typical value of the ratio between them, B/T.
Alternatively B may be determined from a typical value of L/B and hence T can be found.

Depth (D) may be determined in a similar way if a requirement for total internal
volume is known and an estimate is made of CBD, the Block Coefficient of the ship up to the

upper deck. Depth is also constrained by the need for a minimum freeboard over the draught.
A good first approximation is to take T = 0.70 D.

The final choice of Breadth, Draught and Depth is also influenced by stability
considerations where increasing Breadth and/or reducing Depth will lead to an increase in
initial stability. On the other hand, increasing Breadth and reducing Draught may have an
adverse effect on the resistance and propulsion characteristics of the vessel.

5.5 Overall Limits on Dimensions


For many ships the maximum dimensions are restricted by navigational features of the
routes they must use: -

Depth of Channels;

Size of Canals or Seaways and their associated Locks

Clear Height under Bridges

The limiting dimensions for some of the world's most significant canals are given in
the following table: -
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Length Breadth Draught


(m) (m) (m)
St Lawrence Seaway 222.5 23.16 7.92
Kiel Canal 235.0 32.5 9.5
Panama Canal 289.5 32.3 12.0
Suez Canal No Limit 71.0 (Ballast) 12.8
50.0 (Loaded) 16.1

5.6 Formulae for Length


The following empirical formulae have been developed over the years to help in the
initial estimation of Length. They all come with "standard" values of their constants, but each
can (and should) be fine tuned to match modern design practice by using a particular
prototype or basis ship to derive a new value for the constant.

Posdunine

LBP = C ( Vt / (Vt+2) ) 2 V1/3

Where Vt is the Trial Speed of the vessel in knots


and V is the Volume of Displacement in cubic metres.

C = 7.25 is applicable to cargo ships where 15.5 < Vt < 18.5


C can also be determined from a basis ship

Schneekluth

Professor Schneekluth of Aachen University of Technology derived the following


from economic considerations.

LBP = ∆0.3 Vt0.3 C

Where ∆ is the Displacement in tonnes


Vt is the Trial Speed in knots
and C is a constant = 3.2 if the block coefficient has the approximate value
of CB = 0.145/Fn within the range 0.4 < CB < 0.85
C can also be determined from a basis ship.

In the course of his research, Professor Schneekluth discovered that ships which are
optimum in meeting shipping company requirements are about 10% longer than those
designed for minimum production cost.

Ayre
1/3
LBP / V = 3.33 + 1.67 Vt / √LBP

Where Vt is the Trial Speed of the vessel in knots


and V is the Volume of Displacement in cubic metres.

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This relation must be solved iteratively. Assume a value for LBP and put it into the
RHS. Hence evaluate the LHS and arrive at a value for LBP say LBP'. Put this value into the
RHS and find a new value for LBP say LBP''. Compare LBP'' with LBP'. When the difference
between the two values is sufficiently small then take LBP = LBP''.

It must be said that it is not so easy to "fine tune" the Ayre formula to a particular
basis ship because it uses two numeric coefficients and it is not obvious whether one alone
should be adjusted, or both. However it appears to give initial estimates of length which are
consistent with modern practice despite its age. It is therefore still quite useful to the designer.

5.7 Block Coefficient


The variation of Block Coefficient, CB, with Speed and Length is shown in a diagram
taken from ‘Practical Ship Design’ by D. G. M. Watson (based on a Figure in the1977 RINA
Paper by Watson & Gilfillan). Over the years segments of the curve appropriate to particular
ship types have been presented as linear relationships known as "Alexander Formulae" of the
form: -

CB = K - 0.5 V/ √Lf or CB = K - 1.68 Fn

where K varies from 1.12 to 1.03 depending on V/ √Lf or Fn

and V is speed in knots, Lf is length in feet

v is speed in metres/second, L is length in metres


2
g is acceleration due to gravity in metres/second

The mean line shown in the diagram can be approximated by the equation:-

CB = 0.7 + 0.125 tan-1((23-100Fn)/4)

where the term in brackets is taken in radians.

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5.8 Length/Breadth Ratio


In another diagram taken from the same paper the variation of L/B ratio with length is
shown. Small craft (under 30 m in length) remain reasonably directionally stable and steerable
with L/B = 4.0, probably because they have little or no parallel body and generally low values
of CB. The typical value of L/B increases to about 6.5 at 130 m and maintains that value as
length increases further. For vessels with lengths between 30 m and 130 m the formula: -

L/B = 4 + 0.025 ( L - 30 )

reasonably represents the available data.

A small number of the largest VLCC’s find their maximum draught limited by the
need to pass through some of the shallower of the world’s “Deep Water Channels” such as the
English Channel or the Malacca Straits. In consequence these ships have accepted a larger
B/T ratio giving them a smaller than usual L/B ratio but they appear to run into directional
stability problems at L/B slightly above 5.

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(Based on Fisher, RINA 1972, Fig 4)

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6 Weight Estimation
6.1 Basic Approach
There are two basic approaches to estimating the weight of a ship. The first is to sum
the weights of all the items built into the ship. The second is to employ a system of scaling or
proportioning from the weights of a known basis ship to the new design based on the ratios
between principal characteristics of the two vessels.

The first approach will only give an answer when the ship is complete and so is too
late to be of value to the designer. The second approach is thus the one we will consider here.
Once the first choice of main dimensions has been made these are used to make weight
estimates for each group weight of the design displacement. Naturally the total must equal the
design displacement. If it does not the required cargo deadweight will not be obtained and
either a larger or a smaller ship is required. Iteration may be necessary to arrive at a set of
dimensions which ensure that the sum of the weights making up the ship (its design
displacement) exactly * equals the buoyancy offered by the hull at its design draught.

(* Exactly in preliminary design means Displacement = Buoyancy ± Error

where Error is approximately ½ of the tonnes per cm immersion of the vessel at its design
waterline. This is because it is practically impossible to determine the draught of a ship to
better than ± 0.5 cm thus limiting the accuracy of any weight.)

Initially considering the Lightship: -

LIGHTSHIP = Steel Weight (Ws)


+ Outfit Weight (Wo)
+ Machinery Weight (Wm)
+ Margin

The Margin is an essential part of the weight make up as it allows for errors and
omissions in the remainder of the calculations. For a vessel whose Lightship is a relatively
small part of the full load displacement a value of about 2% of Lightship is likely to be
appropriate. Where the Lightship is a much greater proportion of the full load displacement
and a weight over-run would be seriously embarrassing then a greater percentage may be
chosen.

Let us look at each Weight Group in turn.

6.2 Steel Weight


Representing principally the hull structure: -

Plates and sections forming Shell, Outer Bottom, Inner Bottom, Girders, Upper Deck,
Tween Decks, Bulkheads, Superstructure(s), Seats for equipment & Appendages
together with Forgings/Castings for Stem, Sternframe, Rudder Stock(s) and Shaft
Brackets.
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We will consider two ways to calculate the Steel Weight just now: -

a) Cubic Number Method

The principle of this method is that

Ws = Cubic Number Coefficient x LBD x Correction Factors

where LBD/100 is the Cubic Number

This is applied as follows

Ws* = Ws x L*B*D* x Correction Factors


LBD

where * denotes a dimension or property of the new design.

The use of this method implies accurate knowledge of past similar ships as no account
is taken of changes to major items of steelwork such as number of bulkheads or number of
decks. For a good level of accuracy changes in L, B or D from the basis ship should be no
more than 10% but often the method is applied outwith such limits.

Correction Factors :- Form Correction = 1 + ½CB*


1 + ½CB
½
L/D Correction = (L*/D*)
½
(L/D)

b) Rate per Metre Difference Method

This is a slightly more refined system than the Cubic Number Method being able to
take account of the different effects of changes in the principal dimensions. Once again,
dimensional changes of up to 10% can be allowed for.

The basis of the method is that the effect on the Steel Weight of change in each of the
three principal dimensions can be weighted by different amounts.

An increase in Length will lead to an increase in the weight of all elements of the hull
- Bottom, Side Shell, Decks, Bulkheads etc. In addition the Hull Girder Bending Moment will
tend to increase at a faster rate than Length.

Bending Moment ∝ ∆L
= ρLBTCBL
2
∝ L

Therefore there may be an increase in the thickness of the plating used in the Bottom
and the Upper Deck in order to increase the Hull Girder Section Modulus to resist the
increasing Bending Moment. Overall an increase in Length will produce a greater than
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proportionate increase in Ws.

An increase in Breadth will increase the weight of Bottom, Decks and Bulkheads but
will have little effect on the weight of the Side Shell. Overall an increase in Breadth will
produce a roughly proportionate increase in Ws.

An increase in Depth will increase the weight of Side Shell and Bulkheads but will
cause little or no change to the Bottom or Decks except that plating thickness may be reduced
while still providing the same Hull Girder Section Modulus. Overall this should lead to the
increase in Ws being less than proportional to the increase in Depth.

Typical values of the weighting factors are 1.45 for Length, 0.95 for Breadth and 0.65
for Depth.

i.e. the rate of change of steel weight per one metre change in length is 1.45
Ws/L, per one metre change in breadth is 0.95 Ws/B and per one metre change in Depth is
0.65 Ws/D

A Form Correction is applied for change in Block Coefficient as for the Cubic
Number Method

If a ship of dimensions L, B, D has a steel weight of Ws tonnes then the rates per metre
for each of the dimensions are: -

a Ws/L, b Ws/B, c Ws/D

where a = 1.45, b = 0.95, c = 0.65

For a new ship of dimensions L*, B*, D* the change in each dimension is given by: -

δL = L* - L
δB = B* - B
δD = D* - D

Then Ws* = {a(Ws/L)δL + b(Ws/B)δB + c(Ws/D)δD + Ws} x Form Correction

= Ws {a((L*/L) - 1) + b((B*/B) - 1) + c((D*/D) - 1) + 1} x Form Correction

Example

A basis ship has the following characteristics: -

L = 104.0 m, B = 15.71 m, D = 9.26 m, CB = 0.725 and Ws = 1521 tonnes.

A new ship has the following characteristics: -

L* = 114.5 m, B* = 16.86 m, D* = 10.08 m and CB = 0.735


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Find Ws* using both estimation methods

Cubic Number Method

Ws* = Ws x L*B*D* x CB Correction x L/D Correction


LBD
½
= 1521 x 114.5 x 16.86 x 10.08 x (1 + ½ x 0.735) x (114.5/10.08)
½
104 x 15.71 x 9.26 (1 + ½ x 0.725) (104/9.26)

= 1521 x 1.2862 x 1.0037 x 1.0057

= 1975 tonnes

Rate Per Metre Difference Method

L B D CB

Basis Ship 104.0 15.71 9.26 0.725

New Ship 114.5 16.86 10.08 0.735

Ratio of Dimensions 1.101 1.073 1.088

(Ratio) - 1 0.101 0.073 0.088

Weighting Factors 1.45 0.95 0.65

Products 0.146 + 0.069 + 0.057 = 0.272

Form Correction = 1 + ½ x CB* = 1 + ½ x 0.735 = 1.0037


1 + ½ x CB 1 + ½ x 0.725

Ws* = 1521 x ( 1 + 0.272) x 1.0037

= 1942 tonnes

More refined methods may be used if a better breakdown of the steel weight of the
basis ship is available, e.g.: -

Upper Deck
Tween Deck
Inner Bottom
Outer Bottom
Side Shell
Bulkheads
Superstructure

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A square number approach is probably appropriate for each of the above elements of
the structure, except Superstructure.

For the Upper Deck WUD ∝ L x B with a form correction ideally dependent on the
waterplane area coefficient but practically varying with the block coefficient and a scantling
correction depending on L/D ratio.

The Outer Bottom could be treated in a similar way.

Tween Deck(s) and Inner Bottom will tend to vary only with L x B and block
coefficient, while Side Shell will follow L x D and block coefficient.

Bulkhead weight will tend to vary with B x D, block coefficient and number of
bulkheads.

Superstructure(s) can be treated using their own mini cubic number lsbshs, where ls,bs
and hs are the mean values of length, breadth and height of the superstructure.

Schneekluth quotes a number of methods for scaling steel weight and also formulae
for calculating steel weight from the principal dimensions. Two of the latter, applicable to
Cargo Ships are:-

-5.73 x 10-7
Wehkamp/Kerlen Ws = 0.0832 X e
2 3
where X = ( LPP B/12) √CB

2/3 0.72 2
and Carryette Ws = CB (L B /6) D [0.002(L/D) + 1]

Taking the SD14 as an example where L = 137.5 m, B = 20.42 m,


D = 11.75 m and CB = 0.7438, the steel weight is 2382 tonnes by Wehkamp/Kerlen or 2884
tonnes by Carryette.

Shipyard data provided for use in a Ship Design Project based on the SD14 gave the
‘real’ steelweight as 2505 tonnes.

6.3 Outfit Weight


Outfit can be considered to include: -

Hatch covers, Cargo handling equipment, Equipment and facilities in the living
quarters (such as furniture, galley equipment, heating, ventilation & air conditioning,
doors, windows & sidelights, sanitary installations, deck, bulkhead & deckhead
coverings & insulation and non-steel compartment boundaries) and Miscellaneous
items (such as anchoring & mooring equipment, steering gear, bridge consoles,
Refrigerating plant, paint, lifesaving equipment, firefighting equipment, hold
ventilation and radio & radar equipment)

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The majority of outfit weight items can be considered to be proportioned between


similar ships on the basis of Deck Area i.e. using a square number approach where Wo ∝ L x
B. The diagram, again taken from ‘Practical Ship Design’ by D. G. M Watson (based on a
Figure in the 1977 RINA Paper by Watson & Gilfillan), shows how outfit weight varies with
square number for various types of ship. Note the way that the outfit weight of the passenger
ships increases very sharply with length. This is probably due to the increase in the number of
decks found in large passenger carrying ships.

The square number method is applied as follows

Wo* = Wo L*B*
LB

An alternative approach holds half of the outfit weight constant and proportions the
remainder by the square number. This variation is applied as follows

Wo* = Wo( 1 + L*B* )


2 LB

This approach can be further refined if a known weight item such as a heavy lift
derrick is either common to both ships or is present in the basis ship but not in the new design.
The known item should be deducted from the basis Wo, the revised value scaled suitably and
the known item added back on if necessary.

Once again if a more detailed breakdown of the outfit weight of the basis ship is
available then more refined methods can be applied to each part.

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(Both Diagrams from Watson, Practical Ship Design, 1998)

6.4 Machinery Weight


Representing: - Main Engine(s), Gearbox (if fitted), Bearings, Shafting, Propeller(s),
Generators, Switchboards, Cabling, Pumps, Valves, Piping etc.

The fundamental parameter by which machinery weight can be proportioned is the


installed power of the main machinery, conventionally taken as Shaft Power, Ps.

An introduction to some methods of estimating Ps will follow in a later lecture and


will subsequently be further developed in the class Resistance and Propulsion.

For the purpose of making the very first estimate of Ps for small changes in
dimensions and speed from a basis ship we can take
2/3 3
Ps ∝∆ V

Given that a value of Ps has been obtained for the new design it is possible to take
2/3
Wm ∝ Ps

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D. G. M. Watson has presented a very simple two-group breakdown of machinery


weight in a range of vessels. Their two groups are made up as follows

(1) The main engine itself


(2) The remainder of the machinery installation

By studying engine manufacturers' data he found that over a wide range of engine type
he could express the bare weight of an engine in the form
0.84
Weight = 12 ( MCR ) (tonnes)
RPM

where MCR = Maximum Continuous Rating (kW)


RPM = Engine crankshaft revs per minute at MCR

For a given MCR the higher the RPM then the lower the torque the engine must
produce. The lower the torque, the smaller are the forces produced inside the engine and
hence the smaller are the components and the lower is its weight.

The weight of the remainder of the machinery was given by


0.7
Weight = k ( MCR ) (tonnes)

where k = 0.56 for Bulk Carriers and General Cargo Ships


0.59 for Tankers (due to additional weight for cargo pumping)
0.65 for Passenger Ships and Ferries (additional weight devoted
to power for hotel services, lighting and heating, ventilation &
air conditioning (HVAC))

6.5 Weights of Consumables


Fuel Oil & Diesel Oil

The requirement for fuel is based on Engine Power, Fuel Consumption (SFC) and the
duration of the voyage - i.e. Endurance / Speed.

Fuel Required = Power x SFC x Endurance / Service Speed


Fuel Carried = Fuel Required / 0.975 *
Tank Volume Required = Fuel Carried / 0.95 x Density **

* Allows for 2.5% of the fuel carried being unpumpable at the bottom of the tanks
** Allows for tanks not being filled to more than 95% of their capacity to allow for
expansion in hot climates.

Take care with the units!

A similar calculation should be carried out for the fuel required for electrical power
generation based on a suitable number of generators running for the duration of the voyage
plus a margin for the time spent in port.

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(Both Diagrams from Watson, Practical Ship Design, 1998)

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Lubricating Oil

The requirement for Lubricating Oil is based on Engine Power, Lubricating Oil
Consumption and the duration of the voyage. For similar engines it is therefore proportional
to the product of the power of the main engine(s) and the duration of the voyage.

Fresh Water

The requirement for Fresh Water can be satisfied in one of two ways. Many ships are
fitted with equipment to produce Fresh Water from Sea Water on a continuous basis either by
distillation or by reverse osmosis. In this case it is only necessary to store a few days supply
of water in two tanks each capable of holding say two or three days consumption at a rate of
about 100 litres per person per day. Ships which do not have such equipment need to carry
enough water to last the duration of the voyage at the same daily rate. This would normally be
split between two tanks to guard against the whole supply becoming contaminated. The tanks
would then be filled in each port of call.

Approximately 133 tonnes of fresh water would be required by a crew of 32 on a


voyage of 16000 nautical miles at 16 knots with a consumption of 100 litres per day.
Distillation plant will typically produce 10 tonnes of water from the heat input of one tonne of
fuel oil so the fresh water for the above voyage could be provided from two storage tanks of
10 tonnes each plus distillation plant plus the carriage of an extra 13 tonnes of fuel oil.

Stores

Stores. in the sense of food, drink etc, are normally assessed on the basis of so much
per person per day. The weight carried is therefore proportional to the product of the number
of crew (+ passengers if appropriate) times the voyage duration in days.

Spare Gear

Spare gear is notoriously difficult to estimate. It is very much dependent on the advice
from the manufacturers of all the various pieces of equipment on board the ship and so
accurate information is unlikely until the ship is ready for sea. A fixed weight based on a
similar ship is probably sufficiently accurate for preliminary design.

Crew & Passengers

The present allowance for an average crew member is 75 kg and if effects (personal
belongings, luggage, baggage etc.) are included then the value should double. You should
allow 75 kg for each passenger on a daytime commuter or excursion trip and up to 150 kg (i.e.
with baggage) on a longer-term holiday or cruise.

6.6 Centre of Gravity Estimation


Weight estimates alone are not sufficient to allow ship design to progress - the
position of the centre of gravity (C of G) - Vertically, Longitudinally and Transversely - of
each item of weight must also be determined in order to find the overall Centre of Gravity of
the ship.
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This must be assessed to give reasonable assurance that the ship will be stable, float at
the intended fore and aft trim and float upright. In the early stages of Design Port/Starboard
symmetry is often assumed and the Transverse Centre of Gravity is thus sometimes ignored.

NOTE:- In some ship types it may be important that the ship floats exactly upright.
This is almost certainly the occasion when you cannot ignore TCG. Sod's Law says that if two
heavy items are to be positioned on a ship, both will be placed where they have the greatest
impact on TCG and both will be on the side of the ship nearest to the designer when (s)he was
laying out the General Arrangement.

Two methods of determining C of G can be applied to all weight groups depending on


the stage of the design process and the amount of information you have on the ship.

a) Scaled C of G (early design stages)

The position of the LCG of the weight item relative to a suitable datum position
(usually amidships or the A.P.) is proportional to the length of the vessel.

LCG* = LCG x L*/L

The position of the VCG above the baseline is proportional to the depth of the vessel

VCG* = VCG x D*/D

b) Real C of G (later design stages)

The position of the LCG, VCG or TCG of an item is measured from a suitable datum
on a scale drawing of the vessel or is known by definition, e.g. if the height of a tween deck
above base is 7.6 m then the VCG of the plating will be 7.6 m plus one half of its thickness
above base. As the VCG of the stiffening will be slightly below 7.6 m a reasonable estimate
of the VCG of the deck will be 7.6 m.

If the C of G of an engine is given by the manufacturer as x metres above a datum


level then position the engine in the machinery space, find the height of the datum above base
and the VCG can be found.

The weight of an item may have a recognisable geometric distribution - rectangular,


triangular, parabolic etc. The formulae for finding the centroids of such shapes may then be
useful in determining the C of G of the item with respect to one or more of the usual axes.

As you progress through successive iterations of weight calculations or successive


stages of the design process as a whole you should always consider the use of more refined
and more detailed weight/centre estimation techniques appropriate to your increasing
knowledge of the design - subdivide weight groups, use “real” engine data etc.

In the later stages of the ship design project you are likely to have real centres for the
majority of the deadweight items although the Lightship centres will probably still be scaled.

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Variations or combinations of these basic procedures may be appropriate in particular


cases. You may be asked to move the engine room or superstructure from one location on the
vessel to another. From the given data find the C of G of the machinery relative to one of the
Engine Room boundary bulkheads. If you then move the entire engine room along the vessel
the C of G will move by approximately the same distance as the datum bulkhead. If you move
a superstructure you may have to estimate its weight and C of G, deduct it from the total
steelweight to find a “Hull” steelweight and C of G and then add it back on, scaled for
dimensional change if necessary, at a C of G corresponding to its new position.

6.7 Principal Items of Machinery Weight

PROPULSION
Main Engine(s)

Gearbox(es)

Propeller(s) and Shafting

Pumps, Compressors & Separators

Engine Room Pipework

Air Intakes

Exhaust uptakes

SERVICES

Fresh Water Plant

Sewage Plant

Cargo pumps

Gratings, Ladders, Walkways, Insulation in Engine Room.

ELECTRICAL
Electrical Generators

Switchboards

Cabling

Lighting Systems

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6.8 Principal Items of Outfit Weight

GROUP 1 - Hatch Covers & Drive Mechanisms

GROUP 2 - Cargo Handling Equipment

Derricks, Winches & Cranes


Hold Ceilings
Container Lashing Gear

GROUP 3 - Accommodation

Divisional/Non-structural Bulkheads
Deck/Bulkhead/Deckhead Coverings
Doors, Windows & Sidelights (Portholes)
Sanitary Installations &Piping
Heating, Ventilation & Air Conditioning (HVAC)
Galley and Dining Equipment
Furniture & Bedding

GROUP 4 - Miscellaneous

Anchors, Chain, Hawsers


Anchor/Chain/Hawser Handling Equipment
Steering Gear & Control Equipment
Navigation & Communication Equipment
Firefighting Equipment
Life Saving Appliances (LSA)
Guardrails, Ladders etc
General Pipework
Hold Ventilation
Cargo Refrigeration
Paint
Deck Coverings excluding Accommodation Areas

A Weight Breakdown system with more detailed subdivision is shown below. It is based on
UK Naval Practice and is taken from Watson, Practical Ship Design, 1998.

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7 Power Estimation and Service Margins


7.1 General
An estimate of the power requirement forms one of the most important and critical
steps in preliminary design. It is also one of the most complex processes in ship design, being
influenced by a large number of design parameters. The power derived has a significant and
direct effect on the deadweight which can be carried by a given ship. In days gone by (when
fuel was cheap) it was important to keep both engine weight & volume and fuel weight &
volume to the minimum to maximise deadweight and cargo capacity. Nowadays the
shipowner seeks optimum fuel economy primarily on cost grounds and secondarily on
deadweight. The choice of propelling machinery for a tanker, a bulk carrier or a general cargo
vessel is now invariably restricted to the direct drive diesel which is by far the most
economical prime mover.

The installed power has a direct influence on another of the owner's requirements -
speed. Since severe penalties can be incurred for not achieving the design trial speed, the
designer has to allow for a margin of uncertainty in his power requirements to give the ship a
high probability of success. There is a wide selection of diesel engines available to the
designer but it is rare for there to be an engine which exactly suits the power requirement of a
particular ship. The designer then has to choose the best engine which develops sufficient
power over a useful range.

7.2 Definitions of Power


The power needed for propulsion is the aggregate effect of a number of components
which can be considered in three groups as follows: -

a) Those affecting Hull Resistance, that is the force which must be applied to push or
pull the hull through the water at the required speed. The product of Hull Resistance
(R) and speed through the water (V) is called the Effective Power (PE).

b) Those affecting the conversion of torque into useful thrust which determine the
power to be delivered to the propeller. The product of 2π times Shaft Torque (Q) and
Revs per second is known as the Delivered Power (PD). PD is related to PE by the
Quasi- Propulsive Coefficient (Q.P.C.)

c) The loss of power during its transmission from the engine to the propeller. The
Shaft Power (PS) of the installation is related to PD by the transmission efficiency ηt.

As Shaft Power is usually measured aft of the thrust block there may be a small
correction for this and for any power lost in gearing in order to arrive at the Installed Brake
Power required from the engine.

A further correction may be required to adjust the engine manufacturer's figure of


Brake Power (Test Bed) for differences in air and water temperatures and losses in the air
intake and exhaust gas systems between Test Bed and Service conditions.

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Thus PS = PE /( QPC × ηt )

where PD = PE / QPC and PS = PD / ηt

The following empirical relationship, known as Emerson’s formula, is often used to


estimate the value of the Quasi-Propulsive Coefficient of a single screw ship:

QPC = 0.85 - ( √ L × N ) / 10000

Where L is the length of the ship in metres


and N is Revs per minute of the propeller.

ηt takes typical values of 0.99 for aft end machinery


and 0.98 for amidships machinery

The losses in a the thrust block should be less than 1% of the power transmitted.

7.3 Standard Series


As an aid to design, a number of organisations have performed resistance (and
propulsion tests) on methodically varied series of ship forms. By varying the main parameters
of ship proportion and form which affect ship resistance, a series of resistance result are
obtained which can be presented in graphical form. The designer can then interpolate within
or between the graphs to establish the resistance of any form which has a valid combination of
parameters.

Among the best known of these series are Taylor (and the Re-Analysis by Gertler),
Series 60 and the BSRA Series. Further details of these series and their uses will be provided
in the class on Resistance and Propulsion.

7.4 Components of Resistance


William Froude established the fundamental principles of predicting Ship Resistance
from Model Tests more than a century ago. When a ship model is towed at a steady speed in
smooth, deep water, we observe: -

a) Resistance to motion

b) A pattern of surface waves is produced (and if the model is run at a series of steady
speeds then there is a unique wave pattern for each speed).

c) Depending on the speed, the model experiences a change in both draught and trim
by comparison with the draught and trim at rest.

It is reasonable to suppose that there is friction between the hull surface and the water
through which it passes. It can be inferred that the motion causes pressure between parts of
the hull and the water and that it is these pressures which cause the waves to form. Moving
the hull against these frictional and wavemaking forces will absorb energy and so the
combined effect must be responsible for the resistance to motion.
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Froude tested "geometrically similar" models and argued that the total resistance of
any hull, either model or ship, must be the sum of two components which he called Frictional
Resistance and Residuary Resistance

RT = RF + RR

He measured the resistance of a series of thin planks and, assuming that their
measured resistances were due to friction alone, he derived a formula for the frictional
resistance of a plank of arbitrary length and surface area moving at a specified speed.

By further assuming that the frictional resistance of a model equalled that of the flat
plate of the same length, area and surface finish he calculated the frictional resistance RF of
each model at various speeds. By subtracting the calculated values of RF from the measured
values of RT he deduced the corresponding values of the residuary resistance RR.

He then discovered that plotting values of residuary resistance per ton of displacement,
RR, to a base of V/ √L or speed in knots divided by the square root of length in feet, gave a
unique curve for all the "geometrically similar" models. Hence from the measured resistance
of a model over a range of speeds he was able to predict the resistance of a geometrically
similar model or ship.

Froude's basic principle still holds today although some changes in the fine detail have
taken place.

7.5 Frictional Resistance


The International Towing Tank Conference (ITTC) is a body which co-ordinates
research into ship hydrodynamics. By studying a wide range of experiments in which the
resistance of ships, ship models, planks and other objects was measured and by looking at the
underlying scientific principles a consensus was reached as to the most reliable way of
predicting the variation of frictional resistance of a smooth surface with Length and Speed.
This is normally referred to as the 1957 ITTC Line. The modern method for calculating the
frictional resistance of a ship is to use the 1957 ITTC Line with a roughness allowance
(typically taken as 0.0004) added to take account of the distinctly unsmooth surface of a real
ship: -
2
Cf = 0.0004 + 0.075 / (log10Rn - 2 )

where
Cf is the coefficient of frictional resistance
0.0004 is a roughness allowance
and Rn is Reynolds Number given by

Rn = vL / ν
where
v is the ship's speed in m/s
L is the ship's length in m
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ν is the kinematic viscosity which takes the following typical values: -


-6 2
In Fresh Water at 15 deg C 1.139×10 m /s
-6 2
In Salt Water at 15 deg C 1.188×10 m /s

The frictional resistance is then given by


2
RF = 0.5ρSv Cf
where
3
ρ is the density of water in kg/m
2
S is the wetted surface area in m and may be given by

S = 1.7LT + LBCB (The Denny - Mumford formula)

7.6 Residuary Resistance


The residuary resistance of a new design is not quite so easy to calculate as its
frictional resistance. The coefficient of residuary resistance (CR) of a merchant ship having
the optimum position of the LCB can be approximated using the following formula developed
by Schneekluth. The formula tends to smooth out the effect of the humps and hollows of the
resistance curves. It is based on the published residuary resistance curves of Taylor - Gertler
and Harvald - Guldhammer.
3 4 2 3
10 CR = (10Fn - 0.8) (10CP - 3.3) (10 CV + 4)0.0012
3
+ (10 CV 0.05) + 0.2 + (B/T - 2.5)0.17
where
CR is the coefficient of residuary resistance
3
CV = V/L
and the other terms have their usual meanings.

The residuary resistance is then given by


2
RR = 0.5ρSv CR

The limits of validity of the formula are

0.17 < Fn < 0.30


3
2.0 < 10 CV < 11.0
0.50 < CP < 0.80
CB ≤ CB (Ayre) + 0.06 (CB (Ayre) = 1.08 - 1.68Fn )
5.0 < L/B < 10.0
2.0 < B/T < 4.5

The formula should not be used outside the specified limits.

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7.7 Rapid Power Estimates for New Ship Designs


It is useful at times for the designer to be able to find quickly the total resistance of a
ship in some everyday terms such as pounds of total resistance per ton of displacement,
expressed as RT/∆, at say the design speed, when only the type of ship and the approximate
Speed-Length ratio or Froude Number are known. For example, the value of RT/∆ for a large,
modern Great Lakes freighter at its designed speed is about 2 lb/ton and that of a fast
motorboat is of the order of 600 lb/ton.

Such data for a large variety of waterborne craft, both large and small, have been
plotted in Fig 56.I.

The Admiralty Coefficient approach can give a useful first approximation to the
required power for small changes in speed, dimensions or displacement from a basis ship. It
can also provide a guide to the likely power requirement of a ship at an early stage of design.
The original form of the Admiralty Coefficient is given below: -
2/3 3
A.C. = (Displacement) × (Speed) / I.H.P.
where
Displacement is in tons,
Speed is in knots
and I.H.P. is Indicated Horse Power.

I.H.P. was a measure of the power developed in the cylinders of a steam engine. For
modern ships I.H.P. is replaced by Shaft Horse Power and Fig 2.3.1, a BSRA diagram,
derives the relationship by Dimensional Analysis and gives typical values of A.C. in respect
of the trial performance of a number of ship types.

7.8 Trial and Service Margins


The shipowner's normal requirement is in terms of service speed, although the contract
terms will be agreed on the basis of a trial speed i.e. speed obtained under good weather
conditions, in deep water, with the hull in a clean condition. The difference between Trial and
Service conditions is caused by wind and wave action, fouling and increasing hull roughness.
It is normal to provide an allowance of between 15% and 25% on power to cope with the
difference, with the final choice being dependent on such factors as the paint system, cathodic
protection, voyage patterns and hull maintenance policy.

If the allowance (service margin) on power is taken as 25 % this corresponds to a Trial


Speed which is approximately 6% greater than the required Service Speed since in this region
of the Speed/Power curve Power varies as V4 for a well designed hull form.

The graph below illustrates the application of a service margin to the speed/power
curve of a new ship design. The trial speed is derived from the speed/power curve for trial
conditions at 90% of the Maximum Continuous Rating (MCR) of the machinery. The service
speed is taken from the same curve after allowing for the service margin (here taken as an
increase of 25% over the power requirement under trial conditions). That is, Service Speed is
achieved under trial conditions at 80% of the Power used to achieve the Trial Speed.

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A similar result would be obtained by creating a speed/power curve for service


conditions 25% above that for trial conditions. Its intersection with the maximum power level
for the engine would then give the same value of service speed. That is the power the engine
would be expected to produce to achieve the service speed, at sea, battling against wind and
waves, with the bottom covered with rough paint, weed and barnacles

The practice of setting a maximum usable power of 90% of MCR is considered by the
shipowner to have two beneficial effects. Firstly it gives a slight improvement in specific fuel
consumption. Secondly it gives a reduction in wear and tear on the engine which has the
effect of reducing maintenance costs and improving reliability.

7.9 Speed Margins


An alternative method of establishing the required margin on installed power is more
subtle and involves designing in a speed margin, which implies a power margin, rather than
using an explicit power margin.

The effect of this approach is that the ship's hull is designed to be driven efficiently at
a speed greater than the service speed when the machinery is developing its maximum power.

A ship design starts with the designed sea speed or service speed, determined from the
schedule which the ship must maintain, or from a study of economic or other reasons. To
compensate for having to slow down in heavy weather a reserve of speed above the designed
sea speed, sufficient to bring the ship back onto its schedule, is necessary. This can be
achieved by either of the following approaches or a combination of both: -

i) Specify an increment of speed say 1.0 or 1.5 knots above the designed sea
speed.
ii) Specify a percentage increase of between, typically, 8 and 15 per cent on the
designed sea speed.

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Note:- 1 lb = 0.453592 kg ; 1 ft = 0.3048 m

Tq = V/√L where V is in knots and L is in ft

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(Taken from a BSRA Publication)

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8 Selection of Main Machinery


8.1 Factors in the choice of Main Machinery
1) Burn Heavy Fuel Oil

2) Requires Low Maintenance

3) Suitable for Unattended Operation

4) Low Shaft Speed

5) Size and Weight

6) Purchase and Installation Costs

7) Reputation for Reliability

8.2 Types of Diesel Engine


1) Slow Speed 80 - 250 RPM

2) Medium Speed 400 - 1000 RPM

3) High Speed 1200 - 1800 RPM

The following attributes of the above types of engine vary as shown below

(1) --> (2) --> (3)

(i) Decreasing Size

(ii) Decreasing Weight

(iii) Increasing Fuel Consumption

(iv) Increasing Maintenance

(v) Increasing Systems Complexity

8.3 Auxiliary Machinery


1) Electric Power Generation

2) Systems for Main Engine(s)

3) Ship & Crew Safety

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4) Hotel Services

5) Cargo/Ballast Systems

(1) is carried to provide power for (2) to (5)

8.4 Principal Main Engine Systems


1) Fuel

2) Lubrication

3) Cooling

4) Exhaust

5) Compressed Air

6) Monitoring and Control

Similar systems will be required to support the Auxiliary Machinery. These may be
Stand-Alone systems or integrated with those for the main engine(s).

8.5 Electric Power Generation


An Ocean-going cargo merchant ship will normally have three service generator sets plus one
(small) emergency set.

Of the three service sets:-

One will be providing the Normal Sea Load

One will be available as back up (It will be running in circumstances when loss of
power could be dangerous).

One may be under maintenance.

When a ship habitually undertakes long sea voyages at constant speed then it may be practical
to derive some of the electric power from a generator driven by the Main Engine via the
propeller shaft or a Power Take Off (PTO)

Advantages:-

(i) Main Engine S.F.C. is better than an Auxiliary Engine's


(ii) Main Engine Fuel (Heavy Fuel) is cheaper.

Disadvantages:-

(i) More complex system


(ii) Still needs three conventional generators plus emergency set.
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8.6 Fuel System Functions


1) Distribution/Transfer to & from Tanks

2) Settling Tanks

3) Centrifugal Separators

4) Service Tanks

5) Heating for Viscosity Control

6) Filtration

8.7 Preliminary Estimation of Propeller Diameter


There are two formulae which may be helpful in making an initial assessment of Propeller
Diameter. This may be needed to confirm that the draught of a ship is sufficient to ensure that
its propeller(s) is(are) adequately immersed at all times.

D = 16.2 * Ps 0.2 / N 0.6 metres (1)

Where D is the Propeller Diameter


Ps is the Shaft Power (per shaft) in kW
and N is the shaft revolutions per minute

Alternatively,

D = 0.2 * √ (Ps / V) metres (2)

Where V is the ship’s design speed in knots.

(1) above is generally quite accurate for Cargo Ships, Bulk Carriers and
Container Ships.

(2) tends to underestimate the diameter for merchant ships by about 10% but
may be more reliable in its own field of high-powered Naval vessels fitted
with Controllable Pitch Propellers.

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9 Estimating Hydrostatic Properties and Initial Stability

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9.x Undamped Roll Motion in Still Water

Let φ be the inclination of the ship to the vertical at any instant of time. The moment acting on
a stable ship will be in a sense to decrease φ. For small values of φ,

Restoring Moment = - ∆ * GMT * φ

Applying Newton’s Laws of Motion,

Moment = (moment of inertia about OX) * (angular acceleration)

i.e. - ∆ * GMT * φ = +(∆/g) *kxx2 * d2φ/dt2

i.e. d2φ/dt2 + (g * GMT / kxx2 ) φ = 0

This is a form of the differential equation denoting simple harmonic motion with frequency ω.

Let φ = φo sin ωt

where φ o is the maximum amplitude of the motion.

then dφ/dt = ω φ o cos ωt

and d2φ/dt2 = - ω2φ o sin ωt

= - ω2φ

i.e. d2φ/dt2 + ω2φ = 0

then for a ship rolling,

ω2 = g * GMT / kxx2

∴ ω = √ (g * GMT / kxx2 )

and Period, Tφ = 2π/ω = 2 π √ (kxx2 / ( g * GMT ))

= 2 π kxx / √ ( g * GMT )

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9.y Worked Example - Capacity Carrier


A design study has been made for a ferry and the following basic dimensions have been
chosen:-
L = 106 m; B = 17 m; D = 19 m; T = 6 m; CB = 0.62
This achieves both the design capacity and the design displacement. A suitable hull form has
been chosen from a standard series and at a draught of 6 m the following hydrostatic data is
found:-
KB = 3.5 m; CIT = 0.71

(where CIT is the Coefficient of Transverse Inertia; IT = CIT * L * B3 /12)

From a study of the loading and operating pattern of a similar ship it is estimated that
KG = 0.6D in the worst operating condition.

Check the initial stability of the design and modify it if necessary, keeping both capacity and
displacement constant, to ensure that GMT > 0.6 m for safety while also ensuring that the
rolling period Tφ is greater than 11 seconds for comfort.

IT = CIT * L * B3 /12 = 0.71 * 106 * 173 / 12 = 30813 m4

V = LBTCB = 106 * 17 * 6 * 0.62 = 6703 m3

BMT = IT / V = 30813 / 6703 = 4.60 m

GMT = KB + BMT - KG = 3.5 + 4.6 - 0.6 * 19 = 8.1 - 11.4

= -3.3 m

Clearly unsatisfactory.

Speed depends on L & CB , so it is preferable that they are left unchanged. If B is increased
then BMT will be increased; if T & D are reduced in the same proportion as B is increased
then displacement and capacity will remain unchanged.

Try B’ = 20 m

Reduce Draught, T to maintain constant displacement

∴ T’ = 6 * 17 / 20 = 5.1 m

Reduce Depth, D to maintain capacity ( ∝ L * B * D)

∴ D’ = 19 * 17 / 20 = 16.15 m

Hence KB’ = 3.5 * 5.1 / 6.0 = 2.975 m

and KG’ = 0.6 * 16.15 = 9.69 m


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IT’ = CIT * L * B3 /12 = 0.71 * 106 * 203 / 12 = 50173 m4

BMT’ = IT’ / V = 50173 / 6703 = 7.485 m

GMT’ = KB’ + BMT’ - KG’ = 2.975 + 7.485 - 9.69 = 0.77 m

This satisfies the first criterion.

To check the Rolling Period,

Tφ = 2 *π * k / √ (g * GMT) where k = 0.32 √ (B * D)

= 2 * π * 5.751/ √ (9.81 * 0.77) = 0.32 √ (20 * 16.15)

= 36.135 / 2.748 = 5.751 m

= 13.15 secs

This satisfies the second criterion.

It is also possible to determine the maximum value of GMT which will give a Rolling Period
of 11 secs

Tφ = 2 *π * k / √ (g * GMT) and by squaring both sides and transposing,

GMT = 4 * π2 *k2 / (g * Tφ2)

= 4 * 9.8696 * 5.7512 / (9.81 * 112)

= 1.100 m

(Can you determine the maximum value of GMT which will give the desired Rolling Period
before changing the dimensions? What was the value of k for the initial design?)

It would be preferable to have a method of calculating the required change in dimensions


directly and to be able to investigate the sensitivity of GMT to changes in L, B, T or D.

Let ∆ = constant * L * B * T

Then, taking logarithms of both sides,

log ∆ = log (constant) + log L + log B + log T

and differentiating

d∆ / ∆ = dL / L + dB / B + dT / T that is, if the fractional changes in dimensions are


small then their sum gives the fractional change
in displacement.

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BMT = IT / V = constant * B2 / T

And by following the same approach,

d BMT / BMT = 2 * dB / B + dT / T

Also, d BMT / BMT = ( d BG + d GM ) / (BG + GM )

Now for constant ∆ & L, dT / T = - dB / B

Taking Capacity = constant * L * B * D and following the above process

For constant Capacity & L ( as well as constant ∆ and L)

dD / D = - dB / B = dT / T

We have KG = constant * D and KB = constant * T

= constant * ( D / T ) * T

= constant’ * T

∴ BG = KG - KB = constant’’ * T

∴ d BG / BG = dT / T = - dB / B

But we have

( d BG + d GM ) / (BG + GM ) = 2 * dB / B + dT / T = 3 * dB /B

∴ d BG + d GM = 3 * ( BG + GM ) * d B/ B

∴ - BG * dB / B + d GM = 3 * ( BG + GM ) * dB / B

∴ d GM = ( 4 BG + 3 GM ) * dB / B

∴ dB / B = d GM / ( 4 BG + 3 GM )

Applying this relationship to the example,

for GMT’ = 0.6 m, d GM = 3.3 + 0.6 = 3.9 m

and BG = KG - KB = 11.4 - 3.5 = 7.9 m

∴ dB / B = 3.9 / ( 4 * 7.9 + 3 * ( -3.3) ) = 3.9 / ( 31.6 - 9.9 )

= 0.1797
∴ dB = 0.1797 * 17.0 = 3.055

∴ B’ = 20.055 m
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Noting the requirement for small changes in dimensions then this is a fair result.

for GMT’’ = 1.1 m, d GM = 3.3 + 1.1 = 4.4 m

∴ dB / B = 4.4 / ( 31.6 - 9.9 ) = 0.2028

∴ dB = 0.2028 * 17.0 = 3.055 and B’’ = 20.45 m

Returning to the example,

Try B’’ = 20.45 m, then for constant ∆

T’’ = 6 * 17 / 20.45 = 4.988 m

and for constant Capacity

D’’ = 19 * 17 / 20.45 = 15.795 m

Hence KB’’ = 3.5 * 4.988 / 6.0 = 2.910 m

and KG’’ = 0.6 * 15.795 = 9.477 m

IT’’ = CIT * L * B’’3 /12 = 0.71 * 106 * 20.453 / 12 = 53637 m4

BMT’’ = IT’’ / V = 53637 / 6703 = 8.002 m

GMT’’ = KB’’ + BMT’’ - KG’’ = 2.910 + 8.002 - 9.477 = 1.435 m

This is rather higher than was expected but the method is specifically for small changes in
dimensions. The change in Beam is of the order of 20% which is not a small change.

If we now apply the method a second time to reduce GMT’’ from 1.435 m to 1.100 m we
should find an answer that is very close.

d GM = -0.335 m

BG = KG - KB = 9.477 - 2.910 = 6.567 m

∴ dB / B = d GM / ( 4 BG + 3 GM )

= -0.335 / ( 4 * 6.567 + 3 * 1.435 ) = -0.335 / (26.268 + 4.305 )

= -0.011

∴ dB = -0.011 * 20.45 = -0.225 and B’’’ = 20.225 m

Then for constant ∆

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T’’’ = 6 * 17 / 20.225 = 5.043 m

and for constant Capacity

D’’’ = 19 * 17 / 20.225 = 15.970 m

Hence KB’’’ = 3.5 * 5.043 / 6.0 = 2.942 m

and KG’’’ = 0.6 * 15.970 = 9.582 m

IT’’’ = CIT * L * B’’’3 /12 = 0.71 * 106 * 20.2253 / 12 = 51886 m4

BMT’’’ = IT’’’ / V = 51886 / 6703 = 7.741 m

GMT’’’ = KB’’’ + BMT’’’ - KG’’’ = 2.942 + 7.741 - 9.582 = 1.101 m

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10 General Arrangement
10.1 Introduction
Once the Main Dimensions and Hull Form have been fixed consideration can be given
to the General Arrangement. Normally this will be done by means of the drawing of a small
scale General Arrangement plan. A scale of 1 to 200 is quite suitable although a larger scale
may be more appropriate for small ships. The only boundaries which have been fixed so far
are the hull surface and any deck lines which affect freeboard. The remaining space
boundaries in the ship remain to be fixed. A major decision is to determine the position of the
machinery space. In a light condition the density of the machinery space and the
accommodation, taken together, is greater that the rest of the ship's length. In a loaded
condition the reverse is truer. This is important when considering trim.

10.2 Trim
A level keel trim is usually specified for the full load condition with homogeneous
cargo. This is mainly to make the best use of the available depth of water in port - usually a
restrictive item. Of course the cargo distribution may never quite produce such a trim but it
must be possible without ridiculous cargo stowage and the homogeneous condition usually is
quoted t‹ ensure this. Some designs either specify a design trim or must accept one. There are
ships in which the weight distribution is so extreme that balance between the LCG and LCB
can only be achieved by using trim to make a radical adjustment to the sectional area curve.
Tugs and fishing vessels are common examples where the need for propeller immersion also
plays its part and warships often have this feature.

As ships tend to trim by the bow relative to their static trim when running at normal
speeds, no bow trim at all can be permitted at rest. Usually cargo is disposed to ensure some
stern trim in most sea-going conditions. Steering and directional stability can be upset by bow
trim. In the initial design stages trim is mainly controlled by the location of the machinery
space relative to the cargo holds. Provision of ballast spaces including the peak tanks gives
some control over trim but carrying ballast is a waste of deadweight and may impose
undesirable stresses. Reasonable trim must also be maintained during cargo working at
intermediate ports. In the case of the traditional general cargo vessel this was no easy thing to
do unless the machinery space was amidships.

10.3 Location of the Machinery Space


The most common position for the machinery space in modern cargo ships is
completely aft. Trim problems are severe in general cargo vessels and cannot be solved
without ballast tanks forward to use in the light condition. Sometimes it is difficult to avoid
bow trim when loaded. This location is suitable for, and typical of, ships which carry
homogeneous cargoes such as tankers and bulk carriers, especially when the cargo is denser
than seawater since their weight distribution can be controlled to solve trim problems. While
the best part of the ship is given to the cargo holds the machinery space may require more
length than expected in order to accommodate the auxiliary machinery. The use of segregated
ballast tanks in tankers or a floodable hold in bulk carriers provides control of draught, trim
and bending moment if carefully sized and located.

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In large high-speed and high-powered container ships the machinery space is often
situated in the three-quarters aft position. Although this splits the container stowage area into
two parts it allows the machinery to be installed in a fairly full part of the ship. Trim can be
kept under control with only a modest requirement for water ballast and bending of the hull
girder between loaded and light condition may be minimised.

10.4 Length of Machinery Space


Assuming that diesel propulsion is to be adopted (and it usually is) then the length of
the machinery space is governed either by

1) The Main Engine, Gearbox (if fitted) and Thrust Block


or 2) The Generators

An end clearance of one or two frame spaces should be added to the neat length. Care
must be taken to ensure that there is sufficient space for the auxiliary machinery. Ideally these
should be sited on the tank top, particularly those requiring a solid foundation to minimise
vibration e.g. Generators and Compressors. Flats can be fitted to provide additional area but
often cannot be made stiff enough to support major auxiliaries.

Technological change tends to make the machinery grow in complexity but to shrink
in size and so machinery spaces tend to become smaller over time. However engine
maintenance is an important consideration for the effective operation of the ship. Too
compact an engine room may make maintenance more difficult and even more expensive.
Access to the equipment and removal routes for parts from them should be adequate.

10.5 Storage of Liquids


Once the Position and size of the machinery space has been decided then attention can
be turned to tank spaces. Normally these are confined to double bottoms but deep tanks may
be arranged for additional water ballast in the Fore and After Peaks for trim or near amidships
to control hull girder bending.

Engine Room double bottoms will first be allocated to Lubricating Oil storage, drain
and sump tanks together with cofferdams to ensure there is no Lub. Oil/Salt Water interface
which could leak and cause contamination.

While main propulsion engines will be happy running on fairly heavy fuel oil, diesel
generators normally require the lighter Diesel Oil. This should be stowed reasonably close to
the generators. Ideally, the tanks for fuel oil can then be allocated with a view to ensuring that
the LCG of the fuel is forward of the LCG of the loaded ship so that as fuel is consumed the
ship will not tend to trim by the bow.

Modern practice, driven by pollution control requirements, discourages the use of


double bottom tanks for fuel storage. Thus the only way to have control over fuel LCG is to
fit deep tanks forward and aft of the cargo holds and accept long filling and supply lines
to/from the forward tanks. The alternative of only having fuel tanks aft has the consequence
that a significant stern trim in the Departure condition will be followed by a significant bow
trim in the arrival condition.
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In addition to the storage tanks, space also needs to be found for settling tanks and
daily service tanks to satisfy the needs of the main and auxiliary machinery. These are usually
located within the boundaries of the machinery space. Actually finding the space for them
may not be a task for the Naval Architect but the Weight & centre of gravity of their contents
is a legitimate concern.

Water ballast is required to give adequate propeller immersion in the lightest seagoing
condition and to ensure that the minimum draught forward is sufficient to avoid excessive
slamming.

While many ships now distil their own Fresh Water from sea water a limited storage
capacity is necessary for use when the ship is in polluted or coastal waters where distillation is
not possible.

Holding tanks for sewage and waste water are necessary to avoid marine pollution.
They are small in a cargo ship but of significant size in passenger ships.

10.6 Cargo Holds


The number of holds is dictated largely by the size of the ship and the type of cargo.
Requirements, which came into force in February 1994 for the damage stability and
survivability of cargo ships, have brought flooding into consideration. Holds in container
ships will have lengths which are multiples of the container length (plus an allowance for the
cell guides). A hold around 40 ft long can take either one 40 ft container or two 20 ft
containers; a hold 60 feet long can take 3 at 20 ft or two at 30 ft or one at 40 ft and one at 20 ft
depending on how the cell guides are set up.

In dry bulk carriers the usual of number of holds is a choice from 5, 7 or 9. Five holds
are common in Handy Size vessels of around 25,000 tonnes deadweight; seven holds are the
usual choice for a 75,000 tonnes deadweight Panamax vesssel; while nine holds are often
found in the largest Capesize vessels of 150,000 tonnes and over.

The height from the double bottom to the upper deck will be divided by tween decks
in accordance with the requirements of the trade. Thus none will be found in Bulk Carriers
while Fruit Carriers and Banana Carriers will have the total depth of the hold divided into
tween decks. The height of the tween deck may vary between 2.4m and 3.0m. The clear
height in the hold varies immensely but it should be noted that some cargoes will crush if
loaded too deeply.

10.7 Hatchways
Large hatchways assist easy cargo working but hatch widths are restricted by the need
to maintain not only the cross sectional area of deck material for structural reasons but also
the shelf space at the tween deck levels. The ingenious use of twin hatches, side by side, can
facilitate both good cargo working and the containment of grain cargoes in a general cargo
ship.

The length of hatches is constrained by the length of deck taken up by cargo gear and
hatch cover stowage. General cargo ships usually have the capability of carrying some
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containers within the line of hatches and this will lead to hatch dimensions tending to be a
multiple of container lengths and widths with an allowance for clearance between them.

Flush hatches are clearly desirable for ease of cargo working but in general load line
requirements will prohibit or severely penalise the ship for their use on a weather deck.

10.8 Accommodation Arrangement


Usually the accommodation is sited above the machinery space and around the engine
casing to minimise interference with cargo operations. The result is a short, high
superstructure giving good forward visibility but possibly compromising stability. A good
arrangement is largely a matter of common sense, experience and foresight. Any difficulties
which arise in service should be noted and avoided in the next design.

Minimum manning scales and minimum standards for accommodation are laid down
in regulations. Virtually every crew member nowadays will have a single cabin and officers
may well have suites with dayroom, sleeping cabin, bathroom etc. Automation has a
continuing influence, gradually reducing crew numbers and further significant changes may
take place in the coming decades.

Remember that the accommodation is where the seafarer lives out his/her life. It is
his/her home for long periods as well as his/her place of work. There must be public space to
socialise in and private space as a retreat from work.

10.9 Minimum Requirements for Crew Accommodation


Segregation into Officers, Petty Officers and Ratings is still common in the Merchant
Navy although it becomes harder to sustain as crews become smaller. A ship which had 30 of
a crew thirty years ago would be designed to run with half that number now. Justifying
separate facilities for each grade becomes very difficult.

a) Deck and Engineer Officers. In single or double cabins (Master and Chief
Engineer should each have an individual cabin). Bathroom with one bath or
shower and one wash basin for every six persons. Separate dining saloon and
smoke room.

b) Petty Officers. Cabins and washing facilities as for officers. Separate


messroom (1m2 per person)

c) Engine Room Hands. Separate sleeping and dining accommodation (but


numbers sharing cabins not specified). Bathrooms as for Officers.

The International Labour Organisation (ILO) recommends minimum floor


areas per person in sleeping rooms as: -
3.75 m2 in ships of 1000-3000 tons,
4.25 m2 in ships of 3000-10000 tons and
4.75 m2 in ships over 10000 tons.
(Tons are gross tons; a volumetric measure.)

Where two ratings share a cabin the above figures are reduced by 1 m2 per person
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d) Deck Hands. Cabins, dining accommodation and bathrooms as for Engine


Room Hands. Crew’s smoke room shared with Engine Room Hands.

Many ships offer higher standards than these such that all crew have single cabins
with ensuite bathrooms and perhaps double beds so that wives can travel on some voyages.
An officer’s single cabin could reach 21 m2 with bathroom and a crew’s single cabin 16 m2,
also with bathroom.

The combination of tall superstructures and double beds can be a problem though. The
Master and the Chief Officer of a ship so fitted both fell asleep on watch because they could
not sleep comfortably alone in their double beds near the top of a tall superstructure on a
rolling ship.

10.9 More Complex General Arrangement Problems


The preceding notes relate specifically to cargo carrying ships where a comparatively
small number of compartment and functions have to be considered in preparing an
arrangement. In Passenger Ships and Warships the problems are more complex and much
more specialised. There are more compartments of many different types which can be
arranged in a multitude of different ways. Consideration must be given to passenger flow at
meal times; potentially noisy areas such as cinemas or discos must be separated from sleeping
areas and a host of other problems must be solved.

In warships the arrangement of accommodation has all the problems of the passenger
ship together with the additional difficulties of ensuring protection for weapon magazines,
separating radar and radio antennae, providing clear arcs of fire for guns and missiles and
avoiding noise paths to sensitive sonar equipment to name but a few.

Finding the solutions to these problems is something which must be left to your
ongoing professional development should you choose to work in these fields.

The FINNCLIPPER is designed as a Ro-Ro Freight Ferry with a significant passenger


capacity. She can carry 454 passengers in 192 two- and four- berth cabins. For vehicles she
has 2450 lanes-metres arranged over three decks. Fixed and hinged ramps allow access from
the main vehicle deck to the upper and to the lower vehicle decks. Four diesel engines each
rated at 5760 kW @ 510 rpm drive twin controllable pitch propellers through double
input/single output gearboxes to give a speed of 22 knots. There are three diesel alternators
each rated at 1088 kW and two shaft driven alternators each rated at 1648 kW.

LBP 170.00 m; B mld 26.70 m; Design Draught 6.00 m

The VOYAGER OF THE SEAS at a gross tonnage of 137,300 was, at the time she was built,
the largest cruise liner in the world. She can accommodate 3840 passengers in 1557 cabins
and in addition carries a crew of 1180 in 667 cabins. Six diesel alternator sets each produce
17,600 kVA (electrical) from 12,600 kW @ 514 rpm (mechanical) and drive three electric
motors in Azipods each of which can absorb 14,000 kW @ 140 rpm. This gives her a service
speed of 22 knots.

LBP 274.70 m; B mld 38.60 m (Bmax 47.40 m); Design Draught 8.60 m
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From Chapman, The Optimum Machinery Position in Dry Cargo Vessels, NECIES

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11 Capacity and Centre of Volume Estimates

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12 The Regulation of Shipping


The history of regulation of shipping starts with taxation. Rules were devised to
measure the amount of cargo a ship could carry - its "Tonnage" so that Kings and port owners
could charge tax or dues on that cargo. The next development was "Registration" - the
determination of ownership which was necessary to enforce the collection of dues or taxes
and to decide in time of war whether a ship belonged to friend or foe. The last area to develop
was setting up rules for the construction of ships to ensure their strength and safety at sea. The
rules were required to classify in terms of quality of the ships which were carrying
commercial cargoes for private owners who wished to insure the ship, the cargo or both
against the risk of being lost at sea.

These three activities are representative of the three main subdivisions of regulation -
International, National/Governmental i.e. Statutory and Private/ Commercial i.e.
Classification. While, historically, they have developed in the above order, the Naval
Architect's interest in these areas increases in the reverse order and so that is how they will be
approached in this section.

12.1 The Role of the Classification Society


There can be little doubt that the classification societies have a profound influence on
shipping, ship design and ship safety. The fundamental purpose of classification is to ensure
that all classed ships are seaworthy when admitted to class and remain so throughout their
working lives.

The principal maritime nations have the undernoted classification societies: -

United Kingdom - Lloyd's Register of Shipping


U.S.A. - American Bureau of Shipping
France - Bureau Veritas
Germany - Germanischer Lloyd
Norway - Det Norske Veritas
Italy - Registro Italiano
Russia - Register of Shipping of the USSR
Japan - Nippon Kaiji Kyokai
Poland - Polish Register of Shipping

Lloyd's Register of Shipping is the world's oldest classification society and its origins
go back more than two hundred years. In the latter part of the eighteenth century, cargo
owners, ship owners and ship builders met in Mr Lloyd's Coffee House in London to discuss
and arrange their business. The cargo owners knew that many ships were lost at sea taking
their cargoes down with them. An insurance market developed in the Coffee House whereby
the owners paid so much a voyage as premium and if their cargo was lost they were repaid its
value.

Neither the cargo owners nor the insurers entirely trusted the ship owners who might
be inclined to lie about how seaworthy their ship might be. The people who supported the
insurance schemes, called underwriters, decided to keep a register with details of all the ships

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they knew about and how good they were. Eventually they were able to classify just how
good any ship would be by looking at it and knowing who built it.

When the underwriters began to say how ships should be built both the ship owners
and the ship builders became very worried. After much argument and unpleasantness it was
decided to form a new society with representatives from all three groups to supervise ship
construction and maintenance and to put ships into classes depending on their quality.
Because of its place of origin it was called Lloyd's Register of Shipping and it was the
forerunner of similar societies set up in many of the major shipbuilding nations. The insurance
market developed separately into the Corporation of Lloyd's and set about insuring all sorts of
things as well as ships.

The classification societies operate on a world-wide basis and publish rules and
regulations governing the structural strength of the ship and the reliability of its propelling
machinery. Classification implies that the ship and its machinery conform to the standards
published in the rules of the Society. Classification is voluntary on the part of the ship owner
and the only penalty that can be imposed for non-compliance with the rules is suspension of
class. In general, a ship will have difficulty in gaining insurance unless it is classed by a
recognised classification society.

Classification of a new ship with, for example, Lloyd's Register, entails approval of
constructional drawings, testing of materials, special survey while the vessel is under
construction and a recommendation for class from the surveyor by report to the committee.
Following acceptance of the report by the committee, the certificate of class is issued and the
appropriate entry made in the Register book.

The highest class given by Lloyd's Register is +100A1. New ships built under Special
Survey are given the Maltese Cross (+) before the character figure in the register book. The
character figure 100 indicates that the vessel is suitable for sea-going service, while the
character letter A indicates that the vessel accords with the Society's Rules and Regulations
and is maintained in good and efficient condition. The figure 1 following the character letter
indicates that the mooring equipment comprising anchors, cables and hawsers, is in good
condition.

When the class +100A1 is assigned it may be followed by a descriptive notation such
as Oil Tanker, Bulk Carrier etc. plus a service restriction notation such as Ice Class 2 or
Strengthened for Heavy Cargoes.

Additional Class notations may be added for the condition of Propulsion Machinery
and/or Refrigerating Machinery. +LMC indicates that the Propulsion Machinery and essential
Auxiliary Machinery has been constructed, installed and tested under Special Survey and in
accordance with the Rules and Regulations. UMS indicates that the control arrangements of
the ship allow the machinery spaces to be unmanned during normal operations.

Maintenance of standards is an important function of any classification society.


Periodical surveys are required and failure to conform may result in removal of the ship from
class and a reduction in its value as well as an increase in its insurance premium, assuming
cover can be obtained.

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Some aspects of Classification work are: -

a) Annual Surveys

All steel ships should be surveyed at intervals of approximately one year in


accordance with the rules. These annual surveys should, where practicable, be held
concurrently with Load Line or other statutory annual surveys.

b) Docking Surveys

A ship should be examined in dry dock at intervals of about 12 months. The maximum
interval is 24 months.

c) Special Surveys

All steel vessels are subjected to special surveys in accordance with the rules. These
surveys become due at five-yearly intervals, the first being five years from the date of build or
date of special survey for classification and thereafter five years from the date of the last
special survey.

The date of build of a ship built under a society's inspection is normally taken as the
date of completion of the special survey during construction.

For Lloyd's Register of Shipping, the standards to which the ship must be built and
maintained are laid down in the publication "Rules and Regulations for the Construction and
Classification of Ships". This is regularly revised and updated to meet new demands. The
Register Book itself is published annually and now extends to three volumes. It is a splendid
work of reference containing as complete a list as possible of all sea-going merchant ships in
the world of 100 gross tons or more whether classed by Lloyd's or not. The number of ships
included exceeds 80,000.

Many societies are empowered to assign Load Lines to ships and issue the Load Line
certificates on behalf of many Governments provided they are satisfied that all the necessary
conditions have been met. They may also be empowered to perform the same function in
respect of Tonnage Measurement.

In addition to ships, most Societies are also active in the fields of High Speed and
Light Craft, Yachts and Small Craft, Mobile Offshore Units, Floating Docks, and
Submersibles. Therefore they publish Registers of such craft and Rules and Regulations for
their construction. They are even involved in the design of warship structures.

It is apparent that the classification societies are not only able to assist to an enormous
extent in making ships safe to travel the seas, but also are able to accumulate a vast amount of
information on the behaviour of ship-structures under sea-going conditions. This information
leads to improvements to the Rules and improvements in the structural design of ships.

Individually and collectively through IACS (the International Association of


Classification Societies) the societies carry out extensive research to investigate failures in
particular types of ship and to recommend areas of structure where improvement is needed.

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Having started out as organisations promoting Quality long before the term was
recognised by shipbuilders, many of the societies now offer a wide range of services far from
the sea to industries which recognise their expertise in Quality Control, Quality Assurance
and all other aspects of Quality Management.

They are also heavily involved in the implementation of the International Safety
Management Code (the ISM Code) both in advising companies how to set up Safety
Management Systems and in auditing their success in doing so. Once again this is a logical
development from their origins in promoting Safety.

12.2 Statutory Regulations


Historically, Registration preceded Safety as a concern of Government and the subject
of statutory regulation. However, Naval Architects are professionally concerned with safety
and only have a passing interest in registration. This section therefore starts with Safety.

a) Safety

Almost all merchant ships are built in accordance with the rules of a classification
society. In addition, all must comply with statutory regulations enacted by the government of
the state whose flag they fly and in which they are registered. In Britain, Parliament passes
Acts which affect merchant shipping and, under the Acts, Regulations are prepared by the
Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions (DETR) which is the government
department responsible for the standards of safety of British merchant ships. In 1994,
executive authority for marine safety in the UK was vested in the Marine Safety Agency
(MSA), - now called the Maritime and Coastguard Agency (MCA) - an agency of the DETR.
The investigation of accidents and disasters at sea is organised by the Marine Accidents
Investigation Branch (MAIB).

The regulations are published as Statutory Instruments approved by Parliament and


relate to such matters as damage, subdivision, life-saving equipment, loading & stability, crew
& accommodation, fishing vessels, hovercraft, fire protection, navigation & collision, carriage
of dangerous cargoes, tonnage measurement and other allied subjects. Many of these
regulations derive from international agreements and the MCA represents Britain at the
conferences and on the committees which discuss these matters.

The MCA also publishes a series of Merchant Shipping Notices (M Notices) which
provide advice, information and guidance on many matters related to the construction and
operation of ships.

The primary objectives of statutory regulations are to promote safety of life and
property at sea and to minimise environmental damage. The rules and regulations
administered by the MCA are compulsory and are enforced by the MCA with penalties for
non-compliance set out in the relevant Acts of Parliament. The international scope of ship
operations means there is a considerable need for conformity between the regulations imposed
by different states. Uniformity is sought by means of international conferences at which
conventions are formulated. Typical examples of these are the International Load Line
Convention (ILLC), the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) and
the International Convention on Tonnage Measurement of Ships.
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An indication of the work of the MCA may be obtained from the following list of their
main activities.

i) Load Line Rules

The MCA administer the British interpretation of the International Load Line
Convention and assigns freeboards according to the geometric properties of the ship and its
structural strength, in conjunction with the strength and security of covers to deck and
superstructure openings among other considerations.

ii) Survey of Passenger Ships

A ship intended to carry more than 12 passengers must conform to the regulations for
passenger ships and be issued with a Passenger Certificate appropriate to the number of
passengers and the place of operation.

Every passenger ship and every cargo ship must be inclined in the presence of a MCA
surveyor, on completion, to determine its Lightship Weight and C.G. position for the
assessment of stability. Based on these results the ship's master must be supplied with
information for guidance on the safe loading and ballasting of the ship.

iii) Life Saving Appliances (LSA)

In general, passenger ships are required to carry lifeboats under davits for all persons
on aboard and life rafts for an additional percentage of the number on aboard. Passenger ships
operating in river and coastal waters may be permitted to reduce the number of lifeboats and
rely on life rafts for the safe evacuation in emergency of all on board. Cargo ships, generally,
are required to be provided with, on each side of the ship, life boats under davits which will
accommodate all persons on board and life rafts which will similarly accommodate all
persons on board.

All lifeboats must be built to conform to the requirements of the LSA rules and are
inspected during construction.

All persons on board must be provided with an approved life jacket.

iv) Masters and Seamen (Crew Accommodation)

The Merchant Shipping Acts lay down minimum standards for crew spaces in terms of
floor area, construction, lighting, heating, ventilation etc. Plans and details of accommodation
areas must be submitted to the MCA at an early stage of design for approval. The actual
accommodation is subsequently inspected and measured at the ship.

v) Tonnage Measurement

Ships must be measured for tonnage to establish the Gross and Net tonnages on which
port, canal and navigation dues are levied.

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vi) Grain Cargoes

Regulations are laid down for the stowage of grain cargoes in order to limit the risk of
a transverse shift of the cargo which could cause a serious loss of stability. Additional
information must be supplied to the ship's master on the effect of these cargoes.

vii) Light and Sound Signals

International regulations for preventing collisions at sea require than all ships display
proper navigation and other lights to indicate their size and course. They should also have the
means for producing certain sound signals such as bells or sirens. The lights are screened so
than they are only visible from particular directions.

viii) Fire Appliances

The provision of arrangements for the prevention, detection and extinguishing of fire
on board ship are most extensive. The means adopted to achieve these aims can be divided
into three parts, namely

a) Fire-proofing the ship's structure as far as possible

b) Providing equipment for detecting a fire whenever and wherever it starts.

c) Providing equipment for extinguishing fires.

In passenger ships, fire patrols must be maintained and an alarm and detecting system
fitted. Extinguishing is performed by jets of water or foam from fixed hoses and portable fire
extinguishers.

Fires in cargo spaces are extinguished by smothering with gas or steam distributed by
permanently installed piping systems.

Special arrangements such as inert gas systems or foam discharged through a system
of fixed nozzles are required in propelling machinery spaces.

b) Registration

The other main area covered by statutory regulation is that concerned with proof of
ownership - Registration. The compulsory registration of British ships was brought about
initially under the Navigation Acts from 1660 onwards. The Registry Act of 1786 made it
compulsory for every ship to display its name and the port to which it belonged (port of
registry) on the astern. In addition the certificate of registry had to contain details of the ship's
dimensions.

The Merchant Shipping Act of 1854 reinforced the requirements of previous Acts and
put in place a system of Registry documents, Registrars in Ports around both the British Isles
and British Possessions overseas. The organisation which maintained these records was based
in Cardiff and headed by the Registrar General of Shipping and Seamen.

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The provisions of a number of amending Acts were consolidated in the Merchant


Shipping Act of 1894 which required that every British ship, with certain minor exceptions,
must be registered. A vessel coming within the terms of the Act and not so registered is not
considered to be a British ship. The ship's master must always have the certificate of registry
in his possession on board - in default of this the ship is liable to be detained in port. Before
such a vessel proceeds to sea the draughts must be recorded in the official log-book and
reported to the Customs Authority.

Prior to Registration the ship must be surveyed, measured for tonnage, and the draught
marks cut in, or welded on, each side of the stem and of the sternpost. For metric ships, the
draught marks are numerals 1 dm high placed at every 2 dm interval. At 10 dm intervals the
full 10, 20 or 30 dm etc. appears while at the other intervals only the last digit of the draught
appears. . On completion of the registration survey, a Certificate of Registry is prepared by
the surveyor and forwarded to the Registrar of Shipping and Seamen at the intended port of
registry. This Certificate sets out particulars of the build of the ship and its dimensions by
which the ship may be identified, also particulars of tonnage, and details of the propelling
machinery.

Application for registration must be made by the owner of the ship and be
accompanied by a formal declaration of ownership. If a new ship is being registered then a
Builder's Certificate must also be submitted to the registrar. He enters the particulars in the
official Register Book, allocates the next available Official Number to the ship and enters it
on the Certificate of Registry.

Prior to the delivery of the Certificate the registrar issues a carving note giving details
of the markings required on the ship, these being: -

i) The ship's name to be marked each side of the bow, and the name and port of
registry to be marked on the stern.

ii) The Official Number and Net Tonnage to be marked on the main beam.

When these items are satisfactorily marked the surveyor certifies the carving note and
returns it to the registrar who can now sign the Certificate of Registry and hand it over to the
owner on receipt of the appropriate fee.

A ship may change its name or port of registry under certain regulated circumstances
(and the choice of name is subject to official approval) but the Official Number allocates on
its first registry is never changed. If a ship ceases to be a British ship by reason of sale or
other circumstance then the Certificate of Registry must be returned to the Registrar at its port
of registry and its registration is cancelled. If the vessel later returns to British ownership then
it may be re-registered after survey and will be known by its original Official Number.

The Merchant Shipping (Registration etc.) Act 1993 introduced changes to the detail
of the process of registration during 1994 so that all the recording of data is centralised under
the Registrar General of Shipping and Seamen. There are no longer Registrars in the ports
handling registration. Thus there are no longer "Ports of Registry"; instead the port named on
the stern of a ship will be a "Port of Choice".

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12.3 International Maritime Organisation (IMO)


In 1948 the United Nations Maritime Conference at Geneva drew up the convention
which created the Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organisation (IMCO) as an
Agency of the United Nations. The purpose of the organisation was to provide for co-
operation between governments on the whole field of sea transport with particular reference to
technical matters affecting international merchant shipping, especially the Safety of Life at
Sea and the efficiency of navigation. The IMCO Convention required the formal approval of
21 states before the organisation could begin to function This was achieved in March 1958
and on 6th January 1959 the IMCO Assembly met in London where the headquarters were set
up. The first permanent international maritime body had come into being. In 1982 the name
was changed to International Maritime Organisation (IMO).

Before detailing the activities of IMO over the past decade or so, it may be of interest
to examine the background to sea transport - one of mankind's oldest callings. Due to its
essentially international character, sea transport has for ages demanded a high standard of co-
operation between the maritime countries of the world, but lacked a central organisation to co-
ordinate activities. In spite of the extensive practical co-operation of governments where the
saving of life was concerned, it was not until 1881 that the first international conference on
maritime affairs took place. This conference, held in Washington discussed such matters as: -

- Regulations for Preventing Collisions a Sea


- Saving of Life and Property from Shipwreck
- Qualifications for Officers and Seamen
- Lanes for Vessels on Frequented Routes
- Establishment of a Permanent International Maritime Commission

In 1897 the International Maritime Committee was formed to cope with the legal
aspects of Merchant Shipping. This body also assisted in the work of several International
conferences, including that called in 1914 as a direct result of the loss of the Titanic in 1912.
A draft document was prepared - The 1914 Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea - but
never came into effect because of the outbreak of the First World War.

After that war the British Government saw the need to prepare up-to-date
requirements and as a result a conference was held in London in 1929 leading to the 1929
Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea. In 1930 a further International Conference drew up
regulations for determining the freeboard of merchant ships engaged in international trade -
the 1930 International Load Line Convention.

Following the Second World War, the founding of the United Nations in 1945 marked
a significant advance in Inter-governmental co-operation and led to the formation of IMCO.

The principal role of IMO is the preparation and maintenance of international


conventions related to maritime affairs. Naval Architects are normally most interested in those
conventions with an impact on the technical aspects of ship design but much valuable work is
also done in the area of legal liability. IMO is the international forum in which problems are
aired and solutions thrashed out. Once a new convention has been agreed by IMO it must be
ratified by the member states and then embodied in national law. Only then can the new
requirements be enforced.
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Originally, the same procedure had to be followed for amendments to Conventions but
this was later modified to allow amendments approved by IMO to be implemented a fixed
period of time after their approval. Given that it took 25 years for the full implementation of
the 1969 Convention on Tonnage Measurement the change of approach for amendments was
clearly much needed!

The governing body of IMO is the Assembly, which meets once every two years and
comprises all the member states. In the period between sessions of the Assembly a Council
runs the affairs of the Organisation. The Council consists of 32 member states elected by the
Assembly for two-year terms.

The organisation’s technical work is carried out by a number of committees, the most
senior of which is the Maritime Safety Committee (MSC). This has ten sub-committees
whose titles reflect their areas of interest (See figure). The other committees are the Marine
Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) which has two sub-committees (one is shared
with MSC), the Legal Committee, the Facilitation Committee and the Committee on
Technical Co-operation.

International Conventions

The IMO has been responsible for instigating and introducing the following
International Conventions: -

- For the Safety of Life at Sea 1960 (SOLAS 1960)


- For the Safety of Life at Sea 1974 (SOLAS 1974)
- SOLAS Protocol 1978
- SOLAS Protocol 1988
- For the Safety of Life at Sea 1990 (SOLAS 1990)
- For the Safety of Life at Sea 1995 (SOLAS 1995)
- For the Prevention of Pollution of the Sea by Oil 1973 (MARPOL 1973)
- MARPOL Protocol 1978
- On Facilitation of International Maritime Traffic 1965
- International Load Line Convention 1966 (LL 1966)
- Load Line Protocol 1988
- On Tonnage Measurement of Ships 1969
- On Intervention on the High Seas in cases of Oil Pollution Casualties 1969
- On Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage 1969
- On Civil Liability in the Field of Maritime Carriage of Nuclear Material 1971
- Establishment of an International Fund for compensation for Oil Pollution
Damage 1971
- Special Trade Passenger Ships Agreement 1971
- Safe Containers 1972
- On Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (COLREG 1972)
- International Maritime Satellite Organisation 1976 (INMARSAT 1976)
- Safety of Fishing Vessels 1977
- Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers 1978
(STCW78)
- Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers 1995
(STCW95)

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- Maritime Search and Rescue 1979


- Salvage 1989

(Note: - A Convention on the Carriage of Passengers and Their Luggage by Sea was agreed in
1974 but has not yet come into force - again demonstrating one of the weaknesses of IMO -
the length of time it can take for a sufficient number of governments to ratify a convention.)

While the Conventions are negotiated and approved at specially convened


Conferences, the Assembly approves Codes and Resolutions which provide guidance and
technical criteria on a wide range of topics, some of which are mentioned briefly below.

Safety of Navigation

IMO has put in a great deal of effort into introducing measures and policies designed
to improve the safety of navigation. Among the most important are those which concern the
compulsory carriage of navigational equipment and the principle of ship routing and
separation of traffic at sea.

Navigational equipment such as: -

- Radar
- Echo Sounder
- Gyro Compass
- Radio Direction Finder
- Satellite Navigation

which until recently were carried at the discretion of the owner are now mandatory in ships
above a certain size.

Considerable effort has been concentrated on two further aspects of safety of


navigation: -

- Measures for regulating traffic in confined waters


- Revised International Regulations for the Prevention of Collisions at Sea

Radio Communications

A wide range of operational initiatives designed to improve or reshape the existing


Maritime Distress System was studied. By making use of the INMARSAT network of
orbiting satellites in space to give global surveillance of the maritime broadcast bands a
Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) was introduced in 1992 and takes full
effect from February 1999 for ships of over 300 tons.

Life Saving Appliances

IMCO & IMO in turn have developed standards for the testing and approval of life-
jackets and requirements concerning the life-saving appliances to be carried on air cushion
vehicles and on mobile offshore units engaged in exploration for hydrocarbons, as well as
those traditionally associated with ships.

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Search and Rescue Manual

As a guide for masters and others involved in incidents of distress at sea, IMO has
prepared the Merchant Ship Search and Rescue Manual (MERSAR). This contains specific
instructions on the actions to be taken by the vessel in distress, by those participating in the
search and general guidelines on the organisation and conduct of such search and rescue
operations.

Guidance on Training

The training of masters, officers and seamen is an integral part of assuring safety at
sea. In 1983 the IMO Committee on Training issued a "Document for Guidance", proposing
syllabi on various topics which should be included in maritime training programmes.

Subdivision and Stability of Ships

This is an area of constant interest to both the maritime community and the general
public in the light of the loss of vessels such as Herald of Free Enterprise and Estonia.

Proposals for new subdivision regulations for Passenger Ships based on the probability
of the ship surviving a variety of damage conditions were developed many years ago but had
to await the development of computer power before the calculations involved could be tackled
on a regular basis. These proposals took into account the longitudinal subdivision commonly
found in passenger ships and were alternatives to the existing requirements in SOLAS 1960.

From 1992 these proposals apply to cargo ships of over 100 m in length which are not
required to comply with any other subdivision and damage stability requirements.

Considerably enhanced requirements for the stability and subdivision of passenger


ships were introduced by SOLAS 1995 following the loss of the Estonia.

Safety of Fishing Vessels

IMO has developed simplified Stability Criteria for fishing vessels from 12 m
registered length upwards. It has also co-operated with two other UN Agencies - the Food and
Agriculture Organisation (FAO) and the International Labour Organisation (ILO) - to develop
a Code covering the Health and Safety of Fishermen.

Tanker Construction and Equipment

Studies into the construction and equipment of oil tankers from the point of view of
preventing or minimising pollution by oil in the event of stranding or collision were begun in
1968 following the catastrophic effects of the grounding and break-up of the Torrey Canyon.
These studies not only considered the problem of oil outflow in the event of damage but also
embraced comprehensive investigations into the economic implications of tank size
limitation. The technical factors involved in outflow limitation include the use of double
bottom or double skin construction, the arrangement of tanks and the use of segregated ballast
tanks.

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The IMO Maritime Safety Committee has recommended that the maximum¡ size of
tank in the largest tankers should be limited to 50000 m3 for centre tanks and 30000 m3 for
wing tanks. This would limit the hypothetical oil outflow in the event of collision or stranding
to 30000 m3. In the case of normal tankers with two longitudinal bulkheads, the capacity of a
centre tank and of a wing tank will be limited to 30000 m3 and 15000 m3 respectively.

Further international debate on tanker safety followed the grounding of the Exxon
Valdez on the coast of Alaska in 1989 and the resulting oil spill. The United States of
America unilaterally imposed its Oil Pollution Act 1990, demanding double skin construction
for all tankers trading to U.S. ports. IMO has conducted a wide-ranging enquiry into
alternative means but has not settled on one ideal arrangement.

The Carriage of Chemicals in Bulk

In view of the increase in the sea transportation of hazardous or noxious chemicals in


bulk it became apparent that there was a need for international measures to ensure their safe
carriage. The Maritime Safety Committee approved an interim recommendation for existing
ships of the tanker type carrying dangerous chemicals in bulk liquid form.

Fire Safety in Ships

Fire is one of the most serious hazards facing ships at sea, especially passenger ships.
IMO has recommended a series of amendments to the 1960 SOLAS convention for existing
passenger ships and a further series which would apply to new ships only.

Marine Pollution

The British government convened an International Conference which resulted in the


International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution of the Sea by Oil 1954.

Responsibility for this convention was transferred to IMCO when it came into being.
The 1954 convention dealt only with the deliberate or operational discharge of oil from ships
and did not relate to pollution arising from maritime accidents.

The 1954 convention was extensively amended in 1969 to cover the following topics:
-

- Prohibition of deliberate discharge


- Prevention of accidental discharge
- Powers given to states for dealing with pollution
- Provisions for redress for damage caused
- Methods for dealing with spillages

At the 1973 IMO Conference on Marine Pollution the main objective was the
complete elimination of wilful and intentional marine pollution by oil and other noxious
pollutants coupled with the minimisation of accidental spills.

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Administration and Enforcement

While it is clear that IMO does a tremendous amount of good work it is also clear that
obtaining agreement to all its decisions from all its member governments is a major problem.
In addition, even when agreement is reached, implementation of the decisions is a matter for
legislation by the individual governments and may be delayed in many ways.

IMO has no executive authority to police the operation of its conventions. Again it is
in the hands of the individual governments and their maritime administrators to provide the
determination and the financial and human resources to inspect ships and detain the
unsatisfactory ones until they are made seaworthy. The most effective means of enforcing the
conventions is for ships to be systematically inspected before they leave port by a
representative of the national authority - Port State Control. This has, however, been made
less effective because of the lack of a mechanism for the ready international exchange of the
outcomes of Port State Inspections. Thus if defects are noted at one port it is not easy for
another port to find out (a) that they exist and (b) if they have been remedied. The shipowner
can easily deny that any faults existed in his ship and it is difficult to prove that a defect may
have been present for a long period of time.

International action to enforce standards of ship safety is presently heading in two different
directions: -

i) Increasing survey activity by individual cargo owners and ship charterers to


allow them to select the ships they are prepared to employ.

ii) The formation of regional or continental groupings of maritime administrations


to make a concerted effort to find and detain sub-standard ships through
efficient Port State Inspections coupled with an internationally organised
database detailing when and where a ship was last inspected, what defects were
found (if any) and what action (if any) the shipowner promised. Such
groupings now exist over a wide area of Western Europe and around the
Pacific Rim.

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13 Tonnage
13.1 Introduction
Tonnage is a measure of the internal volume of a ship and was originally introduced to
represent its size or its earning capacity in assessing port or harbour dues and the charges for
certain services rendered to the ship. It then became convenient to use a scale of tonnage to
set requirements for manning levels, provision of safety and lifesaving equipment, etc.
Shipowners usually consider it an advantage to obtain the minimum tonnage for a given ship.

The word ton originally came from tun which was a wine cask and, in some cases, the
cargo capacity of a ship was measured by the number of wine casks it could carry. In the 13th
Century when tonnage measurement first arose the most valuable cargo and the most
profitable trade for England was wine shipment across the Channel from France.

The system of tonnage measurement used in the UK until 1982 derived from that
enacted in the Merchant Shipping Act of 1854 and is associated with the name of George
Moorsom. The rest of the world then based their schemes for tonnage measurement to a
greater or lesser extent on the Moorsom system.

Initially the Moorsom system was quite simple. Gross tonnage based on the total
enclosed volume of the ship represented its size and Net or Register tonnage based on the
volume of the cargo and/or passenger spaces represented its earning capacity. The unit of
tonnage was a volume of 100 cubic feet and although called a ton bore no direct relationship
to the weight of cargo which would occupy that volume. However, through time, it lost its
simplicity. Complex rules developed to determine whether particular spaces were included in
the gross tonnage or exempt (not included) or deductable (in the gross but not in the net).
Some of these rules encouraged the building of inherently unsafe ships – the “Open” Shelter
Decker – which had no permanent means of making watertight the transverse bulkheads
above the tonnage deck. The spaces bounded by these bulkheads were “open” and thus
“exempt” and not included in the gross tonnage. Unfortunately they were unlikely to
contribute to keeping the ship afloat after it was damaged.

13.2 Present Tonnage Regulations


The Moorsom system was superseded by the Universal Measurement System agreed
at the 1969 Conference organised by IMCO. This system came into force for new or rebuilt
ships (and for existing ships by request of the owner) in July 1982. It was not until July 1994,
twenty-five years after the conference that the new system applied to all existing ships. In the
UK the system is described and enforced by The Merchant Shipping (Tonnage) Regulations
1997, S.I. 1997 No 1510. We will first consider these regulations and study them in detail.
The previous system will then be discussed in outline because an appreciation of its working
is helpful in understanding design decisions made in many existing ship types.

1969 Tonnage Convention (Universal Measurement System)

The conference aimed to find simple ways of providing the two measurements which
tonnage was supposed to provide - Gross Tonnage, representing by its size the demand a ship
made on Port or Harbour Resources, and Net Tonnage, representing by its cargo or passenger
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capacity its ability to pay for services rendered. The resulting measures were not to result in
too great a change to existing ships and were not to act to distort the criteria of the ship design
process.

When the new rules were established it was intended that in general the existing
tonnages should be unchanged. However two types of ship, small open shelter deck cargo
ships and Ro-Ro ships did suffer a significant increase in both gross tonnage and net tonnage.
Passenger ships (without Ro-Ro capability), Bulk Carriers and Ore Carriers were awarded a
significant reduction in net tonnage.

The provisions of the Convention came into force on 18th July 1982 for new ships,
converted ships and ships changing registry and on 18th July 1994 for all ships.

The two parameters used for the measurement of tonnage are still called Gross
Tonnage and Net Tonnage but are dimensionless numbers and so bear no units.

Gross Tonnage is based on the Volume of all enclosed spaces in the ship.

Net Tonnage is generally based on the Volume of the cargo spaces. In passenger ships
account is also taken of the Number of passengers carried in two categories – those in cabins
with up to 8 berths and those carried in larger cabins or without cabins.

All volumes included in the calculation of Gross and Net Tonnages are measured to
the inner side of the shell plating, i.e. moulded dimensions are used. Volumes of appendages
are included in the total volume; volumes of spaces open to the sea are excluded from the total
volume.

The Gross Tonnage (GT) of a ship is determined by the formula: -

GT = K1*V
where V is the total volume of all enclosed spaces in the ship in cubic metres
and K1 = 0.2 + 0.02*log10(V)

The Net Tonnage (NT) of a ship is determined by the formula: -

NT = K2Vc(4T/3D)2 + K3(N1 + N2/10)


where Vc is the total volume of cargo spaces in the ship in cubic metres
K2 = 0.2 + 0.02*log10(Vc)
K3 = 1.25((GT + 10000)/10000)
D = Moulded Depth amidships in metres
T = Moulded Draught amidships in metres
N1 = Number of Passengers in cabins with not more than 8 berths
N2 = Number of other Passengers

Now the factor (4T/3D)2 must not be taken greater than 1.0000
the term K2Vc(4T/3D)2 shall not be taken less than 0.25*GT
N1 and N2 shall be taken as zero when N1 + N2 < 13
NT shall not be taken less than 0.30*GT

These rules now apply to virtually all ships.

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(However you should be aware that different Regulations may apply to Fishing
Vessels and to vessels under 24 m in length.)

Excluded spaces are defined as those open to the sea and not suitable for the carriage
of cargo.

Cargo spaces are defined as compartments for the carriage of cargo which is to be
discharged from the ship and are to be permanently marked with the letters CC.

Alteration to the parameters of the net tonnage formula that would result in a reduction
of net tonnage is restricted to once a year.

Segregated Ballast Oil Tankers

Tankers with segregated ballast tanks complying with MARPOL 1973 may have the
tonnage of these tanks entered in the tonnage certificate. The tonnage of these tanks is to be
calculated according to the formula: -

TSB = K1*Vb
where TSB = Tonnage of Segregated Ballast Tanks
Vb = Total volume of segregated ballast tanks in cubic metres
K1 = 0.2 + 0.02*log10(V)
and V is the total volume of all enclosed spaces in the ship in cubic metres

Deck Cargoes

Where cargo is carried in any uncovered space on deck the tonnage of the space
occupied to be taken into account for the payment of dues where goods are carried in spaces
not forming part of the gross or net tonnages shall be determined by the formula:

TDK =0.535(mean length*mean breadth*mean height)


where TDK is deck cargo tonnage
and the mean length, mean breadth and mean height are measured in metres

Definitions

In the context of the Tonnage Regulations, the following definitions apply: -

Length is the greater of (a) the distance between the fore side of the stem and the axis of the
rudder stock or (b) the distance measured from the fore side of the stem being 96% of the
distance between that point and the aft side of the stern, both measurements being taken at a
waterline corresponding to 85% of the least moulded depth of the ship. In the case of a ship
having rake of keel the waterline shall be parallel to the designed waterline.

Moulded Depth is the vertical distance from the top of the keel to the underside of the upper
deck at side. In a ship with a rounded gunwale the moulded depth shall be measured to the
point of intersection of the moulded lines of the deck and side shell, the lines extending as
though the gunwale was angular. Where the upper deck is stepped and the raised part of the
deck extends over the point where the depth is to be determined then the moulded depth shall

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be measured to a reference line extending from the lower part of the deck parallel to the raised
part.

Moulded Draught is the draught corresponding to the Summer Load Line, or the deepest
subdivision load line assigned to a passenger ship.

These notes provide an extract from the Regulations sufficient for the work of this
class. For professional work you should be in possession of a copy of the full Regulations and
any amendments.

13.3 The Moorsom Tonnage Measurement System


The old tonnage measurement system required the calculation of the gross tonnage
defined as the tonnage of spaces below the tonnage deck (the second deck or deck below the
upper deck) plus the tonnage of spaces between the tonnage deck and the upper deck plus the
tonnage of closed in spaces above the upper deck plus the tonnage of hatchways. As the
underdeck tonnage (that of spaces below the tonnage deck) was measured above the inner
bottom (if fitted) then double bottom spaces were excluded from tonnage.

The net or register tonnage was then derived from the gross tonnage by making
certain deductions. An allowance was made for the propelling machinery space, master’s and
crew accommodation and working spaces such as wheelhouse, chartroom, chain lockers,
anchor stowage, steering gear, donkey engine, pump room, boiler room, etc. The deduction
for the machinery space was intended to include space occupied by coal bunkers (now
superseded by fuel oil) and was the subject of a sliding scale calculated as follows: -

1) If the tonnage of the machinery space was greater than 13% of the gross tonnage but
less than 20% then the allowance was 32% of the gross tonnage.

2) If the tonnage of the machinery space was less than 13% of the gross tonnage then the
allowance was the actual tonnage of the machinery space multiplied by 32/13.

It was possible to have certain spaces below the upper deck exempt from tonnage
measurement, such as the space between the upper deck and the second deck. This exemption
followed from a court case in 1875 involving the S.S. Bear. The ship’s owner claimed that by
having a small opening in the uppermost or weather deck, the space below the weather deck
was not closed in and should therefore not be included in the gross tonnage. Ships which
satisfied this requirement were known as open shelter deck ships.

The resulting internal arrangements were not conducive to safety in a damaged


condition. Although the upper deck or shelter deck above the tonnage deck was regarded as
the strength deck of the ship, the space it enclosed was regarded as being open if a tonnage
hatch or opening which was not capable of being made watertight was provided in the shelter
deck. Bulkheads were stopped at the second deck or if they continued to the upper deck they
also had openings not capable of being made watertight.

These shelter deck ships had a very small freeboard measured to the tonnage deck and
in the event of damage they had very little reserve of buoyancy, risking sinking with only one
compartment damaged. Should an owner decide to carry the bulkheads watertight to the upper
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deck then the exemption in the tonnage rules did not apply. Thus the tonnage rules
encouraged a design of ship which was not as safe as it might be. Many ships with non-
watertight bulkheads in the tween decks were in existence in 1939 and during the Second
World War their increased vulnerability was recognised. As a temporary measure the
bulkheads were made watertight to improve their subdivision.

In the years following 1945 steps were taken to amend the existing regulations in
order to eliminate open shelter deck ships without removing from them the benefit of reduced
tonnage. Eventually ships were measured for tonnage in both the open and the closed
condition and the decision as to which applied depended on the draught of the ship. A tonnage
mark was set on either side of the ship at amidships to correspond to the draught which would
be obtained if the second deck were the freeboard deck. If the mark was immersed then the
closed (higher) tonnage applied and if the mark was not immersed then the open (lower)
tonnage applied.

Paragraph ships were designed to gain an advantage from certain paragraphs in the
tonnage regulations and their impact on other statutory requirements. For example a ship
exceeding 500 gross tons was required to carry a fully qualified radio officer.
To avoid such requirements, many ships were designed to be 499 gross tons. Over a period of
time designers became very adept at interpreting the regulations so that a ship of increasing
cargo deadweight still remained under 500 gross tons.

These observations principally apply to the British tonnage regulations but similar
anomalies were found in the rules of most other nations. All of these rules (except for the
special rules used by the authorities of the Suez and Panama Canals) were superseded by the
1969 International Convention on Tonnage Measurement.

Bibliography

The Merchant Shipping (Tonnage) Regulations 1997, S.I. 1997 No 1510

The 1969 International Conference on Tonnage Measurement of Ships by E. Wilson,


Transactions RINA Volume 112, 1970 pp357-390

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14 The Assignment of Freeboard


14.1 What is Freeboard?
Freeboard locates the load line on a ship. It is the vertical distance below the freeboard
deck at side to the load line mark. It represents the minimum amount of the ship which must
project above the water in its deepest operating draught in order for the ship to remain safe.

14.2 What is the Purpose of Freeboard?


National and International control of the loading of ships by the assignment of a load
line guaranteeing a minimum freeboard is intended to “provide overall protection against the
sea.”

When the last (and current) International Convention on Load Lines assembled in
1966, the following criteria for satisfactory freeboard were in the minds of the delegates: -

1) Prevent entry of water into the hull


2) Possess adequate reserve of buoyancy
3) Provide protection to the crew
4) Have adequate hull strength & stability
5) Limit deck wetness

These can be placed into three categories as far as regulation is concerned: -

1 & 3 can be satisfied by go/no go decisions under the heading of conditions of


assignment.
4 is normally achieved by ensuring that the structure complies with the rules of a
recognised classification society plus some simple stability criteria.
2 & 5 are left to be dependent on the geometry of the ship.

The purpose of the freeboard calculations to be discussed later is to assess the geometry
of the ship’s hull so that the minimum freeboard can be determined.

14.3 The Development of Freeboard Rules


Freeboard was first considered rationally about 1830 when Lloyd's Register evolved a rule
of thumb relating freeboard to depth which gave a reasonable measure of safety. At this time,
of course, it was the safety of the cargo which was the matter of concern rather than the crew
or passengers.

However overloading remained commonplace and continued to be viewed as an increased


risk to the cargo. Eventually concern over the safety of the crew led to the British Government
passing the Merchant Shipping Act of 1876 which required that all ships be marked with a
Load Line but did not specify how to determine its position. This was the Act that we now
associate with Samuel Plimsoll.

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In the mean time Lloyd's had evolved a calculation for freeboard based on the tonnage
coefficient (Underdeck Tonnage in cubic feet divided by the product of Length, Breadth and
Depth). In 1886 the Board of Trade stated that ships marked in accordance with this
calculation would not be detained for overloading. The calculation was brought into the law in
1890.

The rules were revised in 1906 when freeboards were reduced. A committee investigated
Load Lines in 1913-15 following the loss of the Titanic and considered that the reduction of
1906 was justified. The first international conference on Load Lines was held in 1930 and the
views of the 1913-15 committee and two others, which had met in 1925 and 1929, were the
basis for its consideration. Hitherto the purpose of freeboard was simply to ensure a reserve of
buoyancy and that was all that the rules sought to impose. Under the International Convention
agreed in 1930 the assignment of freeboard was to be dependent on the ship having adequate
strength and being well constructed and maintained. In addition passenger ships had to satisfy
requirements on subdivision and intact stability.

14.4 Current requirements for freeboard


The rules were once again thoroughly revised at an International Conference in 1966
when subdivision and stability requirements for cargo ships were introduced. The rules
embody basic freeboards which depend on the length and type of vessel. There are two types
of ship - Type A and Type B. Type A ships are designed only for the carriage of bulk liquid
cargoes in tanks with small access openings closed by watertight gasketed covers of steel or
an equivalent material. These ships are entitled to the minimum assignable freeboard. All
other ships which do not meet the definition of a Type A ship are considered as Type B ships.
(Passenger carrying ships are assessed separately with the minimum freeboard always
dependent on the final waterline after damage – a so called “subdivision load line”. The
determination of the subdivision load line of a passenger ship is governed by regulations
made under the SOLAS (Safety Of Life At Sea) Conventions.)

Clearly a wide variety of ship types come within the category of Type B. The freeboards
assigned to Type B ships are based on a tabular freeboard which is greater than that assigned
to Type A ships and there are corrections applied to increase or reduce these freeboards
depending on the watertight integrity and subdivision standards appropriate to individual
ships. Ships whose watertightness and subdivision are particularly good may qualify for a
reduction of the basic freeboard set out for a Type B ship which effectively grants the ship a
Type A freeboard. This is referred to as a Type B-100 ship (The basic freeboard of a Type B
minus 100% of the difference between the basic freeboards of Type A and Type B).

Other Type B ships which cannot comply with the most severe subdivision requirements
can be assigned a basic freeboard reduced by up to 60% of the difference between the basic A
and B values (Type B–60).

Having decided on the type of ship, the computation of the freeboard is relatively
straightforward with a number of corrections being applied to the basic rule freeboard for the
length of the ship. For the full details it is necessary to refer to the official version of the rules
In the UK these are presented in a Statutory Instrument (S.I.) supported by a Merchant
Shipping Notice (MSN). Only the Principles of the corrections are discussed here.
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a) Flush Deck Correction

The freeboard of a Type B ship of less than 100 metres in length and having
superstructure of less than 35% of that length will have its freeboard increased. This is
because small ships without superstructures are thought to be more vulnerable than similar
ships with superstructures and so should have a greater freeboard.

b) Block Coefficient Correction

Where the block coefficient CB exceeds 0.68 the basic freeboard (as modified by a) above,
if appropriate) is increased. CB is calculated at a draught which is 85% of the least moulded
depth of the ship. The reserve buoyancy above the load line should increase if the displaced
volume below the load line increases.

c) Depth Correction

The depth (D) for freeboard is defined in the rules. Where D exceeds L/15 the freeboard is
increased. Where D is less than L/15 a reduction in freeboard may be granted if the ship has
an enclosed superstructure covering at least 0.6L amidships. This is also concerned with
maintaining adequate reserve buoyancy above the load line.

d) Superstructure Correction

A reduction may be made in the freeboard if the effective length of the superstructure is
1.0L. A percentage of this reduction is available when the total effective length is less than
1.0L. These are set out in the rules, together with corrections for the length of forecastles for
Type B ships. If the superstructure can be considered strong enough and large enough to
contribute some reserve buoyancy then the contribution demanded from the hull above the
load line may be reduced.

e) Sheer Correction

The area under the actual sheer curve is compared with that under a standard parabolic
sheer curve whose forward ordinate is twice the height of its aft ordinate given by a standard
formula. Where the height of a poop or forecastle is greater than the standard height then an
addition to the sheer of the freeboard deck may be made. Where the sheer so calculated is less
than the standard then an addition is made to the freeboard. Once again this is to maintain
adequate reserve buoyancy.

Where the sheer is greater than the standard a reduction in freeboard may be permitted if
the ship has a superstructure covering 0.1L abaft and 0.1L forward of amidships. A
percentage of this reduction is available if the superstructure covers less than 0.1L abaft and
forward of amidships.

f) Minimum Bow Height

The bow height is the vertical distance at the forward perpendicular between the waterline
corresponding to the assigned summer freeboard and the top of the exposed deck at side. A
minimum bow height is quoted in the rules.

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14.5 Determination of Minimum Freeboard


When all the above corrections have been made to the basic tabular freeboard, the
calculated freeboard will set the maximum summer draught for the vessel. However if the
resulting bow height is insufficient, or if the owners request a draught less than the maximum
possible then the freeboard will be increased again. The requirement for a minimum bow
height is meant to help keep water off the deck and improve the working conditions of the
crew.

14.6 General Conditions of Assignment of Freeboard


Having established the geometry of the freeboard the following aspects of the ships
construction must be in accordance with the rules in order that the calculated freeboard can be
assigned to the ship: -

1) Structural Strength and Stability


2) Construction of and Openings in Superstructure End
Bulkheads
3) Hatchways closed by Portable Covers with Tarpaulins
4) Hatchways closed by Weathertight Steel Covers
5) Machinery Space Openings
6) Other Openings in Freeboard and Superstructure Decks
7) Ventilators
8) Air Pipes
9) Cargo Ports and similar Side Openings
10) Scuppers, Inlets and Discharges
11) Side Scuttles
12) Freeing Ports
13) Protection of Crew

Type A ships require that special attention be given to further aspects of their
construction:-
1) Machinery Casings - To ensure their watertightness.
2) Gangway and Access - To ensure the crew can safely get to all parts of the ship.
3) Hatchways - To ensure their watertightness.
4) Freeing Arrangements - To ensure that water does not build up on deck.

A Summary of the Subdivision Requirements for the Assigning of Type A, Type B,


Type B – 60 & Type B – 100 Freeboards

Type Length Subdivision requirements

A Less than 150 m None


A Greater than 150 m To withstand the flooding of any compartment within
but Less than 225 m the cargo tank length which is designed to be empty
when the ship is loaded to the summer water line at an
assumed permeability of 0 95
A Greater than 225 m As above, but the machinery space is also to be treated
as a floodable compartment at an assumed permeability of 0 85
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B+ — None
B — None
B-60 100 m to 225 m To withstand the flooding of any single damaged
compartment within the cargo hold length at an
assumed permeability of 0 95
B-60 Greater than 225 m As above, but the machinery space also to be treated
as a floodable compartment at an assumed permeability of 0 85
B-100 100 m to 225 m To withstand the flooding of any two adjacent fore
and aft compartments within the cargo hold
length at an assumed permeability of 0 95
B-100 Greater than 225 m As above, but the machinery space, taken alone,
also to be treated as a floodable compartment at
an assumed permeability of 0 85

Damage is assumed as being for the full depth of the ship, with a penetration of 1/5 the
beam clear of main transverse bulkheads. After flooding the final water-line is to be below the
lower edge of any opening through which progressive flooding may take place. The
maximum angle of heel is to be 15°, and the metacentric height in the flooded condition
should be positive.

Bibliography

The Merchant Shipping (Load Line) Regulations 1998, S.I. 1998 No 2241
as amended by,
The Merchant Shipping (Load Line)(Amendment) Regulations 2000, S.I. 2000 No 1335

Merchant Shipping Notice MSN 1752 (M)

The 1966 International Conference on Load Lines by D. R. Murray Smith, Transactions


RINA Volume 111, 1969 pp 1-20

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15 Further Reading
15.1 Books
Practical Ship Design, by D. G. M. Watson,
Elsevier Science Ltd, Oxford 1998

Elements of Ship Design, by R Munro-Smith,


Institute of Marine Engineers, London 1975 reprinted

Ship Design for Efficiency and Economy, by H Schneekluth,


Butterworth, London 1987 (First Edition)
(There is now a Second Edition - 1998 - but it is rather less useful than the
First Edition)

Ship Design and Construction, by T. Lamb (Ed.),


SNAME, Jersey City, NJ 2003

Basic Ship Theory (Volume 2), by K J Rawson & E C Tupper,


5th Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford 2001

15.2 Technical Papers


Some Ship Design Methods, by D G M Watson & A W Gilfillan
Trans. R.I.N.A. Volume 119, 1977 pp 279-324
(Also The Naval Architect, July 1977)

Economic Optimisation Procedures in Preliminary Ship Design (Applied to the


Australian Ore Trade), by K W Fisher
Trans R.I.N.A. Volume 114, 1972 pp 293-317
(Also The Naval Architect, April 1972)

Engineering Economics Applied to Ship Design, by I L Buxton


Trans R.I.N.A. Volume 114, 1972 pp 409-428
(Also The Naval Architect, October 1972)

Computer Representation of Numerical Expertise for Preliminary Ship Design,


by A H B Duffy & K J MacCallum
Marine Technology, Volume 26 No 4 October 1989 pp 289-302

Ethics and Fashion in Design, by K J Rawson


Trans R.I.N.A. Volume 132, 1990 pp1-27

The Evolution of the Modern Cruise Liner,by S M Payne


Trans R.I.N.A.Volume 132, 1990 pp 163-188

A Comparative Study of US and UK Frigate Design,


by L D Ferreiro & M H Stonehouse
Trans SNAME Volume 99, 1991 pp 147-175
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The Application of an Expert System to Ship Concept Design Investigations,


by M Welsh, I L Buxton & W Hills
Trans R.I.N.A. Volume 133, 1991 pp 99-122

Optimisation Techniques in Ship Concept Design,


by A J Keane, W G Price & R D Schachter
Trans R.I.N.A. Volume 133, 1991 pp 123-143

FRV Corystes: A Purpose built Fisheries Research Vessel


by B. J. Kay, D. K. Jones & R. B. Mitson
Transactions RINA Volume 134, 1992 pp 33-52

A New Danish Fishery Inspection Ship Type, by D. G. M. Watson & A. M. Friis


Transactions RINA Volume 134, 1992 pp 53-72

Marine Design: The Multiple Criteria Approach, by P. Sen


Transactions RINA Volume 134, 1992 pp 261-276

On the Variety of Monohull Warship Geometry, by W. J. van Griethuysen


Transactions RINA Volume 134, 1992 pp 277-298

The Management of Warship Design –


The MoD Warship Project Manager’s Perspective, by D. J. Andrews
Transactions RINA Volume 135, 1993 pp 1-24

History as a Design Tool, by David K. Brown, RCNC


Transactions RINA Volume 135, 1993 pp 41-60

Preliminary Warship Design, by D. J. Andrews


Transactions RINA Volume 136, 1994 pp 37-56

On the Choice of Monohull Warship Geometry, by W. J. van Griethuysen


Transactions RINA Volume 136, 1997 pp 57-78

Advanced Warship Design, Limited Resources - A Personal Perspective


by David K. Brown, RCNC
Transactions RINA Volume 137, 1995 pp 163-188

From Tropicale to Fantasy: A Decade of Cruiseship Development, by S. M. Payne


Transactions RINA Volume 135, 1993 pp 25-40

An Engineering Approach to Predicting the Hydrodynamic Performance of Planing


Craft using Computer Techniques, by D. Radojcic
Transactions RINA Volume 133, 1991 pp 251-268

An Investigation into the Resistance Components of High Speed Displacement


Catamarans, by M. Insel & A. F. Molland
Transactions RINA Volume 134, 1992 pp 1-20

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Resistance Experiments on a Systematic Series of High Speed


Displacement Catamaran Forms: Variation of Length/Displacement Ratio and
Breadth/Draught Ratio, by A. F. Molland, J. F. Wellicome & P. Couser
Transactions RINA Volume 138, 1996 pp 55-72

An Investigation into the Effect of Prismatic Coefficient on Catamaran Resistance


by A. F. Molland & A. R. Lee
Transactions RINA Volume 139, 1997 pp 157-165

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