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M EC.H!AINIICSOFC,oM PO Silli E SlR,I!JCTl!

JRU

All. Lilcreaseun theuse of composlee .iliJl~le~ria~:!I .in main!!' are,asoiF engille>e,ri:ng has ledto a greater demand fOI.' engineers versed i.n the die.s!Jl;ll Q:[ structures made 1~:om ,S:l!Icn materials. A~:~.bCHiI!l~l m:rme:rolils boo!J.i::s, offer i.ntoodil.lC"liOllS to composites, few d.el:rumslra~e ad/va:flred! eencepts or emphasize structures,

Thi~ book adio1:reS!!les thatneeollJy offel'i:ng.u.uCll.e:nn aud en~~lleel's roots for JeslgJIlillll pra.c~uca~. composite structures, 1I.1he~.omL~ is on fiiw:r"!r·eI!Ilfcll.'.cedi COin" poslres oCompm.edi o( fibel.'.~ embedded! in.;:11 m,:n:r.iJ.L Amml;g the ~iDP:tCS or Inler-esl to the de:l!!luer are &tre:s."'_',s;t:l'aill I.'elationsh.ip~ i{)l' a wkle rall;ge:af anisotmpic matel'i:l1c.~~ bendltng, buddi:ng, audvibraricn of plates; bending, torsi Oil, buck" ~i:ng, and. vibration of solidi as wdlOlS thill=waHied beams; :S~leUs: hygmlhemlal sl:ms~es a:ndi sualnsr finlre elemeat fQir"llm.~atio:n; am:lff:ailme ·criteria_ Ute em" Ilhasis is on ana~}'8e& thatlead to meth.oOds c3llp-licable to a. variety ~ff 8tl~I.ICll!ll~al design problems, Theespresstens r~C;:l!Illtl.llg fl.-mn tlle a[laly.s-es are elthe .reao1ily usableor can be t:mn:!ll,:M.edi .unlo .:1 oomrutel~i;ln;!iorithm, More than ~mo mllJ!s;~:l'a." tions, 50 fl.!l~ty worked pmMem.8, an.d! materialllmpellties diat:;l . sets ,me-included" Some kll0w.le~e or oompo5>illes... differentia] e.q:I.l'~lt~.om., al101 matriix al;gebra. is h-eUp;ffiLll bur not neG0S!!lar}', for tne Emoll:: is .s.·df-cc:mlaille'll

This oookw:m be Cliff: great practical me to ~rad!lilate students, researchers, and pl.'actidtli\l e~flg.illeers seeking to :!cq:nil'e aclv.:mcedi ik.llmv:~edge .of tl'le mecih~ni.c:s o((lo:mpl:}8i~es; and! ·of t~le applic:;ltions OfCOI!I:lpos.iM materials

Ll.Sz1.6.P, :Ko~t;tlr is Pmfes8Q!r illlhlf-.Depa:~tment .of Aochii!edm:e atthe Budapest Un:ive~~sity .a;[ ThGg~m}log}' ;:;lncl. BC(lIwmie&

Geo.1!ge s.,. $pr-illger is Pa:1.l1 Pii\lO~l Pmff:e:!lsor of EngJl:1eer:ii:ng ill the D-eparnnent a~ AenJmnll.Lt::£ .:mdi Alltl)Omll.lltk~ at Sta:nfurd! Unlve.rsLty,

C".:Aw'E'lJi.I DGE U14l';',fi:RS IT'! :PRB'SS

Ca.mDddg~" New YOI:!.::, Melb'Liill,rnf,> Madr,id, Cape'Towll, Sin£'ilP,or;e~ Sao :raulQ

Ci'Hnb['i~ge U niWfsit,y p[~\Ss _

TheE.dinbl!1r-g,l:) Bui,ldi ng., ('.ambr,ld~ (;E!2 ~:RU, Uilit-e>dRingdOln '

. ' . .

Publishfd ]11,~he, United StaieS' of Am,f;f]Ca by Cam:b:rird~· U,lliv~,r:s![yPu~1'is> N,e\\i' Yo:l'k www.(.a.mbrid.ge .. erg

lL~fofm,,:riol'l on [h;L~ 'dde~ w'\1l,rw.ca;mbl'idg~,orW'jil&O~21801652

'fh!~ book lis in Go.py.ffghr., Subject to S'[anJ.[ory expept:to!l 3nd.~o the J)orovis:~QIl. of reifi'i'an,[ c:o.ll.ecrtlve l~c'£n~j'nga:g[lfe'men:Es,. [)e rep.roduc:~I(lon ,of any pan may 'tak~' place wi,rh.all1t;the 'w~:itl!e[l permis~i,cin'Qf Camhr]d;g~ Ul'lil".ersity Pl'eS(S'.

[~,8N·[3 9'78-0·511.;05703- g eBook (M.ohe Reader) [ScIlN~]Q 0·5] 1·\1-5703- 2, e:Book (Adob-e :Reader)

[~,8N·[ 3W.a-h-S2].,BO]6)',., ,2, :hardback

[ScllN'-lo 9:- 521.~0165,"6 ha[-dback,

Catll,bridge UlIlive,r.s'ily P1';e...s ba~ Ii:o~,re~p'on.si~il i~y fr(}r rhe per.!li~rellC<: o~r. 'acclllra.,ey nf L"lRlS Joi: fXJ~[l]jal Of' thi[.d-:pan:rill~l::m~t w~~itfll r·efe.rl'et1 w in tni:s' ~aqk> ,\l1d does net g,ua~~ntee that ai'll' co'n~~l1!t on ~l!ch 'Welb~!~es is, C;:Ir ,!",iUre.m.ain. aaeu~t~9'[ 'ap\prop:[1a~'C'.

Contents

Pn!fjjCf;

Lir' '()/ .sF,~()J,~

1 Inlnldur:tlon'

2: Dlspilltce'tnelltg, S1raln~\ and ;Stres~e!l' 2'.1 :S,t:mill,..n.hph~meHt RelatiDl!is ~t2~U!tlibdlilm .Eql!lalio:ns

;u. ;S'l:r~p":St~hl.R,e~;:MiOl:lShips

2:U Gel!iel:<I!II], ,AulcOOih'Opk. M~I~e.dai :0~t2. Mo:tun:Jfunk Mi"1;ter~.a.~

23.3· Qnholropi!C:!'!ifare:ri:al

23.04 iir'!.~ill ... ewse'ly Is.Qtoopic M:Mel:ial :2:.J.:§: ]sot.o:pk.i'!4l,iterkii~

2A .E'H.a:nec-Stfainc Corn.cliiJtiol!i.

2Ad.:Pree· End. - Getlera]~y AI!i!sO'lwj1b:: Matedal 2:.4·~2~ Free 'E:n~ ~ MO!tyQCI!~:lic ;M;a:tel'ia~

2A'3, .Pree·Bm:l ~O:r,th.Qtl:Qpie., Tr.aHs~'el'.S>e'1T loot'l'opie,

'OT Isotrople M;;;I.~el.'.ia~.

2AA;iBl!Iih;[Il.EI1L1lS ~ GEi.nera]ly AI!i:is.otoop.i~ Mlilter.ial 2A_:S!Bl!Ii~hr~1 EllL1lS -Mem~I!;nk Male~t'ia~.

2,4~6!B1!IiH:·[n E!'H:lS~· O.~thQu<opic, 1l:.:ans.ve.l·se:~y lsotl'-opi.c, or lwt.I:flllic M~.1!eI:b~.

65iPil.a;Re"St1'~ ·Colldij1:~Q'tl

2Cj'~ 'H:Y[\r6thel'l1IlOl] ~hralln 1I1:id :f;lres.s.es 2.Jl,l 1Pi,a::n~"S.ltain.Col1dltgo·11I

2::ci2, P)a:ne"S.I~:e¥l 'CQ~:tdi,ti;i:m

2.1 flollm:lial:j' COUi:l:i.ttCfM

2:_80 Cont:urn.l!Ilty .Co~ld:i~.i!ons

:1;91, . .stress -aud 'Stmi:n. TitallSi'ar.matl1ll!is .2~U. :S't:I'~ 1:tan's:fJJI:ll!!!I,tiaGl

29~2 Sn:alll T:raI!Bfu:t'mafiol1.

page X.b xiH

Xl 38 44 47 41 41 4S 49 So' 52 53

'vi CONUrn:S

2.110 S~raill ,E.ne:rgy 35

2-.~ (}J Tille lit7j: M.el~loo 55

2:J I Sl!llnll1lar~i . .5U.

:;t Il·JNole on rhe Con'l!p:tiance and StB'fne:s.<; Malrbze.& %

3l.amkrlated ,Composl,res m,

SUlamin,a;te Codie 63

.. 'I: . _'. '.' ,; •

3.2 SI.ri1:ness MatrlQes Qif 1'lnn Lamll1~t$S tiS

3.2"i':Il:1e $ig,:ui'tical'l.ce of the.lA). [.8], ilirlill [.Q] Stiffl1ess. Matl:ipes n

3.2.~" StiUlle&S' Matrices· {Ol' .$.ete:clBi:l Lamillate~ 74

4 thin Plate'S ~~

4J GQ."'CI~.ni:l'Ig .EqlYa~iQ!t'Is '90

4, t.t. .i3:oum:la:r-y COIHit~:i:Q!ns 92

4,1.2, Strain E31ergy '92

42 DeWleClitm,of R.ec't:mgu]a;f Pliates!B,

4.2A PiIl![eoBelldiillg and .. [H·Pbl1c.Wadl8 9.1

4.:t2, ~CIll!:lPlales. '94

4L23 &ullilply Supported Plates~, Symmelrical Layup' .t OLl

4L2A f'U,l!Iteswilhltlum-fll Edges·~ Om:notrn.f!'i:Ci and

Symlll'f:tdcOII.u,yIJiP 1m'

,4;3 :B'Uck:li1'lg. Pi~ R~nglil:~a;r P~atci<: 114

4· .. 3.J S,~mi'P~':Y $UJ),PPI'te.d Pl,ates - Symmetrical L~yup: t 12.

41..3.2;, [:,U;:llit'es.¥>'idl·au~Iit;JfiI and $~mply $IJ!PpCF.I'iWcl. Ed~es~ Ort.h.oti:Qpk

and, Sy.m:~nf:tlricall.ag'i1p lIB

4.3.3 P1;l11testmth Ollie ·Fl~e:.e lidl;ge -0rtbottoptc and

Sym1n,e,t~~ic:!l. I.,;:!.yl1p .t24

4a:,"'P~alteswi.lh Rot;<ifi[Q!r1,a~y Rofj!ltra~I1i:eJEdge:~- 0.d:1)otrnp!tc;

and $f.mmetil'ic:;l~· :u.ylJ!p , 127

4L3.fi L011[lPlates 132

4.4 .Jme 'Vili.rat~.olll ofRecta~lgun,a •. Pbtes 14!

4A:d Lcmg 1'lM.es ~4[

4.402 S1I11Ip'~y.slllpponed·.P:rate8 -SY:lmnetdcallayu.p l44

4A3 r1alte!i:wirh Bu:u!t·]i1 :linel Simply SlJipu:mrtf!cl. ~Edges- Onhomropk

and Sy.mm.en'icOll l><lYup 149

4.5 :aY',grotne.m,a~ Effects lSI.

~.:U Change ill '1hl.dme.~s[liI!lN,! HyW'Q,thel7MilI~.Eff~GB 161

,4Ji :[I'jaJteswith a C;:;lIT::I!I~~!'QI.I" an EUtp:iitial RO:~~ Uij,

4.7 _]Uiter~aillliUi!.a!.' S:tt:e<sses 166

5 Sandwlth PM,res liI5i}

5J GGver.ning Eqlllal1hJI~S no

.s.i.r .Bou.L~t1ary O:md.itkl!t'Is 172

5.:L2, StminEne:rgy 113

5.T.j) S,t~l'tlless M:2IJtriees a;[ Sa'ndwich Plates 174

5.2: Defiecri.ml. O'iRlf;cta11gU:~ar $alll.diwkh Pla£e~] 7R

S.:U Lq.~1!l F.'.lattes 17&'

$.2~2. Simp~y $upporte<J Saml!w:ich. tila~e:;;~ 011:1'I0[1\Op[(; and

$Y$1n·of,h:.iCOl!l.·.uYlllP 1&2.

53. Bueik:lingdif Recl~:ngl]~ar Sandwich Pblt~cs S:U ill...cmg .!P:'~:M-eg

S:U:. 'SintpUy.$IlPpol;led P~ale8 - o.r1!houlJ.'pk and!

Sllt!nm:bt~,c~j 1...Ol.}'1LliP 5.3_3 'Fare Wl:in!i::ling,

5A~e.V.brat~QI1 of R~ci<BJ1gll~,~:r $;a:nch\'i.ch P~ate.s 5A~ltOiflgrJ'Mes

_~A.2 Simp~.}' S~.PPQl:'ted. P~ate:s ~ o.r1i~Kf.l1'l'J<rk~n.tl S;YIl'lme,tric~I .Li}'iLLp

B BMm!S

6J .. GCf'i.remiu!:'l EqlJ!atlQIIS

6. LliElollt'lelal)' Coud'uti:",t'ls 6 .. 1.2 S[(rfl1t"1es~ M~il'ix

6.1.3 Comptiance Matrh

6, 1.4 Rep~a:ceJ~le:llit $rifIll£.'Is.es

62 Reotallgl1~.<.l[l~ Solid me.ilI!I~ .$Il~jioc~ed tQ F\:1!::i<ll Load

a.nel Belld~ns

6,2,,1 li}isp~,aiCe:m.e:tlts ~ Syn;Ul1etMC<!I~ l...:a.yup 6.2_2 D.ispLOl:(:e:m.ent& ~ UI1Sj'IIilnelri:ail LaYlllp 6.~.3· Sl'r~es and Straills

~3 T.nin" Waned, Ope:n.,;Secrklil. O~~th.otropic or S:yl'J;linMriC.li:~

C'i··os~<:;"6ctiQ.1l Beams SEbject:ed tQ·Axi<B~. Load a:ndl.Be:lldi.f1g 6.:'tl [}ispbl:e:me:nt!l: of T".BeaIl1~

632- .li)ispbiCe:me:n,l:s,·of t·lliJeams,

6.3.3IDisp~,~,cffin.ent~ of Arbi,tra'l)' Cm.s.<i·Sectiiilu :S.e'a:ms 6.3.4 SU'esses '<ltld) $tra!tllll

(1;A l'hil:1.WaUe~, C~osed,Sect~(m 0.rlholtmpii:: !Beam~ $![Ibjecl'fld to A;rda~ !Load! andtfl,ew::Hng,

t'i_? 'fbts-ron O.I ~Th~n· Wane.d He.~lliIs

6.5.1. Thill Retot-all~l!Ibl'O',O~s $ec~.ol:t 65_2 Opt:ll·Se~km .Orithcil1'Q,pk :Bean~·

'M._3- CUosecj..;SecotkmOtr:lh.otropJeBe<lms -.S~ng~e CeU ~5A CUosed.;S€%:;tjarn (hlh.otrop~c B,e.:!Ims - M.ultice~:U

6..~t$ Rest.mined! Wa1'p~~g - qp~n"Se.ctio.f1 Orl.hClttr'opift .Beams 6.5.6 Re.S"I.r-a!nedi. Wbl.·pi'ni!l-Cb8ecl...:se~ti,oll O'rth.{j.tl.Q~}icBeam8

.eUj Thil:1" WaUed! Be,ali:i'!O WftU:1 .A:Ji'bi,tr~:rlr' .tay~} SlIl:fj:ected to

A1I::ia~ :L!'Jm:l,. Bel'tdi'ng, and T01,.SJ.on

6.6_1 iD.ispl,acem.e.nlS of. Open". and! Om::®d~S;edia~ Beams 6.6_2. Sr.l'esses a:m:l :Straills !Ll Open· 8ln"d! 0lJ1j)se:d~Se:,ctkm Beams 6.~.3 ('...entOOl,d

6:6,4· Rema~,n~dL Wbl'i}~llg

(;,7 Tro!:l1lv.e[1le~.y Loaded] 1111in~WaUeil..Bf::anl1l

6,],1 ·Beams\!lti1.li.O.rl.tml'mpk LWUp 01' w!t:h ,Siyrmn.e,lrica~ Cross Se~~iQ:~

~. '7.:2 'Be.nil.s \\Ii~h Arbilrar)i La.Y1iIP 6.7:.3 Shear (len~if.r

,fUt Stiffe4led 'lJt~n"'Warbed. Beams

vii
~gs
iss
IM
]91)
t%
]%
.~91
2m
2()3
205
:203
200
:!1O
210
211
213
2.14
2.17
217
:211
22ij)
2jJ
:243
248
2.4&
250
251
260
::::{,!
2M
265
261
268
271
~Jl
274
21t
200
2S3
2:M viii ODNWENJS

fL~ .Biu.ckllhgatB.b<lm:s 2'90

6". 9.1 Bt:am~ SiLlbjeqed 1:'0 .Axra~ .. Load (Bel(liu:al-J'Ol:siOllaJ

B.1iI~kl)i1lg) 2;91

6.-9,2 .La.~e:ral,_Thr!1t(}.llaIBilld\:HI1I~ o[OrthotiJ'bplc Beam:l w.~lh.

Sy.rnm.6t['.iC<l~. Cross Seakm 2M

~. 9.3 .tocaJ Bl1cik:th~g JOO

6J.O ·B~e.Vib:rait~.on .ofltleams{F:le:,::u1·a"-" Tm;s..ional Vibraltion) 301'\

ifiJDJ .tl-GiLlhly SYff'HlflBt'.ri.eaf Cross Seo:liol'lcS 3,m~

iIl.ln.2B.eams. wi.fh.Symmnetr.ic:al CooS!! Sectiolls 300

6. UJ..l1 Beams -with, 1l.rns.y.m~II1J.et!l:k~1 O'MS $MtlOIlS 309

{lJ 1 SUlill11,l:!:ry ]I 12

1 Be-<!ms 'With .she!lllIDelclifmation ~ 13

1.1 (iov.e·rnf:ng EqI]~tio\lfIs.' .~14·

7.1.1 .S'tiraill"::::Ol's.jliaoomclll ReJa:lio:nships Jt5

'7.1.2 Ro_rce..;Stmirn Rel:Hicm!:lhips Ji IS

7. l.3EqIil.Hllllruum 'EqiLIali0!l:l~ 310

7. Lit SI!lIIm~21ry o'~ Eqrl!latiom:. 320

'.1.5 BOIil:nwry ('_.OndllIr~.n~ 321

1j, StiUIl.e.'!-§es:a;nd!.eO{nlr~:~al~ee8 afBell!l1Il1l 32.1

?:;U Shear Stiffl1le:ss~ Ilhd CQl'ril.~)lia~lc:el ~tThil'i~'W<ltled!

Ope:n;Se:ctio:tl Beams 322

7.2":2. ShearStiffl1l:esses itud Caf:apliallC:es QfThilld'Wa]led!

Closedl,seotlQlt·Beams··· 325

1.Z.j S.li:(f.nes:le~ of Sa.lfIdiwicil Beam.s 3206

'.3 Tra!llsversell' waded Beams 32'9

'7 A . .BiLlOldill£ of Beams .'334-

·7.'¢.1 A~~a:n,y LAaded! .Beml1s. with lD:ml~y;Syf:nl1lu~;l!:ri~~ 0'00,8

&e.odol!is (Flle"lW'al. and.1bl':!:iO'nal. BiJckl~ng) 335

1 A\':4. Arial~yLoad!ebl B~lnIlSwith. Symmen;ka~olr. UfH;ym~€JU'ica~

Cross $ecdQtlis fF.~e;KI!I"cal.-TQ1~S,i0-lIal Backling) 341

'7 A.3"bie:ral,_:·fu~&~onal B;i_~c.k~:~l1Ig,. of Beam:;: with SYlmlietrical

Cross,Seclian .-:145

1AA $;ILIf1l111:Hl.1i'}' 34fi

r5 Fre~ ViIJrll,t~on Q{lBc<llins ?i47

7.:il aeam~ wlph Doubly Symrn:terrlca] Cioos Seet:UcmlS' 347

7:5.2;Bea~~ whh S}'1'm:netrbr:al or UHcs,ymmetrkal Crm8-Sectkm~ 3S"IS

7;5.3 SUll1m;JJ:~y 359

'A~ .EffeCl of S-hear Demrmatiol1l 159

a hils JM

SA S,he:l~1S -Qi~ .Re'l'ohnkm wi,ti1.AJr:isymmelri.{;al Lo,a,ding 3'67

8.2 Cy~il1ldrkal. SheJLs 36fl

8.::1.1 MemJ;ll'ane ll1eary ~~68

8.2.2 .Buih-Irn.Eoos :1i7j}

'8;2-.3 'l'elupe.ratme - Btl!]t.i[n En.dis 379

fL3 $pr~n;gbac~ 3·00

:il~:U Spdl1l~11lack.oOf CY.~ind1'ic:!l Sb>l}lls 3·00

8.3.2~IJJb1tv 4rved! ~hdls 3M

k4 :SlIcJkllnKlw Sh~h

&4. n !BiIJr*lll1g 'of Cy~if:H!l.er,~

.!I Fhile Efeiue·nt Analysis

9.:~. 1iIu1~.e?DI:nIl':11$iQmL~!EH~e:nt 9J: Plate :E1!el1l:l~t·

9.5 B:eam E;Ue;m~t

9.4 S~ILIb.~a:nlun2te

9At 1 Site!} L .E:~:em.ell1~ .of[J] dille. to JIl;·P'ilml:e Str~e;s

9At2 8itep.,L, B.emeIlH:' of [J] tillS to Otl~coJ·f"~alle

NClrnu.~ StrfMlse.s

~Mf.3 Step 3. E~e;me:nt~ of I 1]1 due to Oil1l~f,P:llil1'le S~lf!,Otl' .stresses,

9.4,,* ,Step 4> The Stif(ndl: M~u:iix

1\0 Failure ,~!

\'HH. .Q1il ad'r.Ol,tki:bilul:e :C!rite:ri 0.11 Ut'lLt Ott~lott:';'p~~ M-.at:e:;ia~

U11.2, 1hl'Ilsverseiy rsatoop:tc. Ma(eria! U1L3 lsot:ropik Mate.r~2]

UUL4 :Plml~t~:a:in anclPlane;.:Strt:s~ O):ru:nitiJ).~s Ul.L5 F'roporliGrnaf b"lac1:rng ~ s.tress RaJti.o

Hf2: '~Mal!::imll:rn.SJres~~ Fatul:ure G[ure~ioll H'D,S! "MaxJmll:tl1I, Slf::lhri" JF,;aiJu:re Cr~,lel'ioTl l1{)AP'Rate w,uth a HO:Ue O'r, a' N j;lktn

]11.~"1 .Plate l~U(lu Cif(::Ill.~a:r HQ]e la~4.2, Plate:.wuth a NQti:~l

1(1.,43 01arac~e:rr:istic um.~th

111 MI~hanlts

[.Ll Ri:Ii~e 0;[ Mh::fnn!es

lLUl lou~itllilj~nal Ytlll~n.g MOO,t1lu8. El 1 L ~ .. 2 T~:an:Sl;'e;r:se Young MOOIl.~1l8 'Jk

1 uj tongitll,dinal $llear. Modutll8C1l 1l.]A '.frans ... erse Sh~ar :MQ:dJ!l~:t1S, G:;!] i.1Ll.5 loJ-llgiJlldinall),plillsan tatio II!:! i1LL6 l'~:all:!':\;erse .~isool1- Ratio '1'2$ lLl.7 1~leHn3~ E~pall~im:t [:oefl1fcienn:: 11 .L8 Mq.us;_~]]1)e E);pa[l~~001 Coel:fi.cirenl8 11.1. 9 Til1Brmll~. Oo<ndllrn:v~ty

rLI. 10, MOiL\~t~re m~[lfIs:h~.ky

rLLIl ,Spe~iti~ Heal

:Q!l.Z'MOdiffeol "Rl!.!~e ofMlxtl]res

tUI, Note' en tlie Mkm.111ech~nlcil Mo~el:s

.Appendix A .. CmsS'iSecl1ollall Pm,peilties ofTih~'Wailerii OM'ipDsiteBeams .AliJpendlx,B .. B:ucklqLDads and ~I f~ncill;S GUiJrllilatmpi~ Beams with ':Sherar Detilnnaflim

~ndlx 'Il 1)iPi~81 N:aten~ Pm~Ie:l:

;ix
3M
3m
39:5
3%
397
397
~,9S
400
<1m
'1m:
4Q7
411
413
414
l!1O
421
l!'~""
'L,.;:::;
423
,U5
'426
4::30
"~l
434
·4.34
43t
4-36
438
1139
439
44t)
441
442
443
445
4.46
447
44.8
448
449
453
<1M
<1M
4.&9 D.e ~JIiI::[e<lsed, l!.I:;e· ·af pOnlposit;es i.n aerospace, :~and,.andl rnuHbne a:pr~ica£~~;ms has [e;5<I!I~ted if! a.gl·owill;g demand (OF .engine!lls"e[~edl iirqhe cLe;r.1ign of ~rru~tu{es nlllde ojfib.er-reinfo[ceJ compos.ite m,aleda~8, To ,!Oati'sfy t.61·is d~lIlld,<lmli lotn. l[~uce' en!l.l:~.eeI:;: to the subject of com!po~irt:e..';i nl.IDlelOlli~ ~iCelienil. texts have

~ . ~ ;-.

been lCH.!Ib,~b:hed d)eaJirrg wi~h. UUl ln6ch3:~k;s. of cO!rnp.Q!l~:~e~ l1mse texis d!e1ii with

thG!Ie JliiJaaa;me,nt3] aqJ'fllbts needed by en,gin.eer,s Tie.W to the ·s;lIil'ljee~, . .our 11001{: ::Jidd!m ss es uo:pkg, not .g,e]!.e:[a~ly ro·vered !by existing texts but thllJt are [Hwes!lllryJor diesigmiingp:racctiC'.!:!lst:rllilctme~ A.mOlJ,g: the lopicsun 'fr~]sOOok of specilliil1;tel'est to the desi,gne,I"',ibut .lbt u-S'lIlIUY arenot '~[IJ,clll.idedil1.;st~.d.al"dfrex.ts,>liest:~~s,..st:raun 'l;~bli:ion'Sh]p~ (d~ a 'w'ide '{lIl1ge' of IInisol:ropicma,terii~ls; b~nL';Ui]1g, budd:ing, j'ln-d rlhratiQn .. of );!late:s; '~nJ:hig. t":'l1!l.oIl,bliiddillg,. and vllbm,t:iiQIl or. sol:idi as. w~!~:'"s lhin·wllUe.d beams] sh.e:I!ls,;.hygrotllelm,a~ stresses 'a,n~ ~.tr~DIlS;_ l!]jJd~miile element

. ...

fO[miula:~io.[I" The materlal hi pre-se[ltM. ;in slifli,de"l11 det.a~l to ~nable. ther:-elil!dier

to foHow the de\i:e~Ollm~nb ,~e:lldun~ to the-tinaR results, 'The e~"'llr,,;~:umts ;resli~Hng from' the- analJ:ses are ~it~er T<l:3d:ily,us<ll:Jl.e OPC.HI be translated ln~o .3 :OO][lpUler, a!,garithm.Thus., thebtIDlt should be·u.seJu:1 to stllide.'tl.ts lnll'id researchers ms~.il'1g to ac.q:l!llm k:nOw.Ie.d;gB obonll.e oUhe· advsnned COIlL:::E:p!::s ofthe meehsnies of COlllp.OS· 'Ms as· well as to engine'ers e:t\gage.odl.Dn~h€! d~~mi or structares made a[ cOI11:posf~e ma!t:e:ria'ls,

ThEiem(.\naslis.is on IInal:ys,esJbum On £'I1m:1al11fm~all C9'n.l;:epts -~h .. t ate .a:ppHcaib.l.e !Co a variety .(lit strue~l!u:a] design prohl,~ll[l<S.. .In p[:e8e[lUing(h~ ma,fe,ria~ we have: .s~dvedl to fol~ow I:~.e. outline !Dpmmonly used ~.rni. texts d~,alll1g 'i\.]th the 1linll~.ys:is o[ stmctiures m,adie of i!>Q;~mpi!c Il1IlIterials .. \'Vf;- have iGollsi[;iQIIlSily om~Ufj<!L §1ITJ]phiGOd ap(l_rO-l.'l!rnes, Test.results .are celtllJinly of value to the eirl~in:eeL H.owever,. fmoo;m· pos.ltegr these' mmRy lippHy Qn]yail'lder~pedfk: ·d[,c'llms.I!..'lnte..~, and call1.wlreadiiLy be ge.nef"l3iiiz.ecli to d!HierilJllil materials .a"!:ldl dj)ffere;rlt.3p"p~reations,. We Im.vei"indud!"edf maJ.e.:rill~. properties data tG~.elp~he d.eSug<lel"~donn clI~cu~:lti.cms wuthoutthe need t.e sea:rch the .ni,t.e;ratum,

The: h.~ok ~l;. seU~ooJ;"iaij[led, Ne~~I111eless.,th-e.:re.1Id!er wuUfi.ridi,t he,~;Jl'fl!i~ to have ~ fu;id~.g.rmrnqr i.l!l:iIl)I~h;ill~CS and hux)i.m~.iJtes and! 'some kllO\"ledg~ of dfift'ei;g'll[~a,~

.:!:i

xii

~quatiCi]ls and! m::ri:px algelb-ra .. We have m.acdie an e.:ff-ort io keep fh.fl notaitipnaSL!Bnl" ~b[m i3iS pra.cticahle a:ndireasomibly cOi[l!iistefl~ with ac~r:~ed! usa.g.e, Theprhrelpa] s-}"mlbols :lI!:e 8ummilrized in a.~ist of: ·s.YI!ribols.

We' are gra leful [0 Proi-essor ['stvan 'HegedJiis rDr !his IJOni&1riiiBiti ve oomme:n'ii<i, We. thaek Dr. R.ita. Enfis., Gal:irie1l.a TaIJan:, ~Yld: Arli.l.6 J'Fu2llHc .for 'proofreading pO:"IiI::upns of tbema.l:li1.iscrip1., ~abri-ena: t'arjfrlll for ·pl'epai'i'n.g tlleiUust;tatlorus,. and. ETEc:AUi:so~ .. al!dS~:r.aha:re~~<in{Qr'thel:r b,elp in. co~.u:pmng the·~n.d!~x" . ' .

L:iSZJ16 P. KqEl.ar. B"i~dape.~l

Geo.rge& Sprililger 8tlmford

Ust 01 S.ym.bo.lls:

We ¥Ia.Y~ used, whe.re"e;[f"O\l8i.h~.e,IlDtatioll s~a,nd!<liIlj jja~I,as.tk;ii;ty; 8truG~Ili,ral aMfty· ,s.1is, am;! cm[JiPQ~ife materlals, We tried ((;ra.vood dupliicatkm; 1I1~holLlgill tihei'e is same repefi~iol1 aHhose :~mibols thatareused o.!1iy lQcaUy: In. the ~l]owiflg ~ust We h~lVe:. 1lO~ included 1I:.limse- sy:mbQ~s that ]Je[~lli]J; D[I~ to 1-!tIenoc.alditi.cuss]oll. ,EJ;eJmv:, we ~ive a. ",c:r'lba~ d!eisc:r~,]'Ft~on of each symbol. a]ful Wihen .appropr.ia:te, tlil.e numher of the-equation in. wn:i!oolh.e::sym!bol]s .firsr~ u~d.

Latin l'ettsl::s A Ai~

[AI, .A'j [aI" "(lit [BJ, Elzj [C], c., ~] C'-

lL.'~'_'.~ '_ q

e

[,OJ, D,j I[D]",. Dit

,D'w

D, .. D;.D Ilot]" t/;j tl., d\. JI!

s; &,'El [E] .EA.

............

.£1

m~

li;; F.j.

lIrea

~e!m:i·~e stiffness <of 3[I~SQitwpk~arn][!a:te (Eq. 3.42~ tensile stiffness of aJlIminllte f'Eqs,. ~na, H9)

laverseof.tbe IIA] 1l1a.tr:UK. for s}'rn,W:liet:r:l.cIa.mumlles (Eq.3'29) stif['rrI.e:E..~ of a l,m:ml!!i3:te (Eqs; 3 J 8, 3.J 9)

3D smfrie~s m.atrll'.:.]1'1 the. J[;i, X2" x~'ooordiiria~e:~y8tem [Eq .. 2:22) 3D- ~t~ffness m.atr!x in t'n!E: x:,, Y. zooord)inaJe system [Eq .. 2.19) m.oistl!lt~,~:m,loontratlQl'l {Eq.2,1:54);:-Core tihk;J-[Iess (Fig. 5.2) beI1d11]!j stiiffnel!is of ~ll<iminllt:e (Eq:;. 3.18, 3. J"9}

j-e:Q:u~d 'b:e;OO-lI1"g, shffnessQ.f a.~lIrniillaite [Eq, 4,1)

bendiing; :'lt~ffl:lfi!l!l nf .aTlisotl'op:icI1I;mi'til3,te fEq. 3.42)

pal"lIIT1.ec[en. (1:1ibl~ fi2,p-age -122, Eq. 6.1::\7)

inverse o[ tile [D] matrlx for ~~mme:rriCRI ]a,n[]l1l1,t.eS (Eq. 3Jp) d)istllnces for sandwich plares (!Rig .. 5.1)

Ytiul'Ig~sm.rrd!ulti .11'1 the Xl, X]:, Ji;:31oom:di~ate's]'stem {Table 2.5) s:tiffFIe ss rna.tri" inf11.e .!FE.caklJiLatiCll!l~Eq. 9 .. 4~1

t.el'l~;i'Ie stiffness of a h&.'lnl KEq., 6..8}

bending sdi!f.fne8s, 'of !1 b~IIm.(1;lq,:td!)

w<1IJ;p:i[lg sl-iiff[l!E::'!s of a beam. {Eq, 6.244)

srtrep:gt'll paramete:rs i.n the ~u<'ldraHcfaH,uI'ecrite[kin {Eq.H1,2),

",iii

1,'1 fi' fir j,,;J.:n f« 'Lb; Gn, 01:2. &~ J~ hi.,hl.

LeI.i.E."



kbf I", l~

1.11 .K.

tons..'tants 'i~. th.e quaa!rat:OC'i'.lIU!!u::e critedon .( lEiq. 1 (1..25) f.r"'f!qu.ancy (Eq~ 4.190)

E!iJrly(orces pet unit ·!o'oh.l;nrl;~ (Eq_ '2)'3)

~ll~~U mod)ulUiil tHl.e.)[h X1" J~~ ,oo·i.~rdi.naie sysJelrrb (Tabl.e 2_5) lorsimml stiffness of II. beam CEq. (i .. S)

p.~a)tf:~rnckfl.e!i8

clh.tanoos. o~ the bottom and! lop surfaces of 1:1 pi..1t~ from the mer.ence plan.e(Eq, 3.9)

polaF radius of'gyr~tion (Eq. 6.340)

~n;verse of [he m:lr~edll] ',stilfneS!s IrIat:r!ix· [1:1 {Eq.:9. 16} ]"Illil.uber ·of layers in a .Ia.mi[late,n!;lmber of wall. ·.!l€:gmen:ts"

's'tl!ffiliess parameter 'of i ._plate (E.q~ 4, ],S3) .

rota~i.oml!l .. spiilng ccm:st .. ant CEq, 4, H}1l} eguinl'.'I[entlen,gHl f.a"ctm (Eq. flJ;40)

m:inuiD1lsi'olrns' f.I![ ,:1 plate

~en~tn;lI!Il!l][lb:er ·ofooll~ in a :mul,tiice:~~beam (Eq.6.221) ~oad 3Ild E.'lilnlrel.oad (Eq, ]0.42)

JITi,alf :ltmddf!lig.l,el!lg~h [Eq. 4.142); ·half bl!l.dd:ing len1l:th correspon.tiI:iin,g: tn t:l!!e~()west bt!(::k~i:!lg_loaJ arc a·long p'~ate (Eq" 4.173)

fue.CUldting and iwiist: 1~,Qill[Jjent~ pel" ulii.t :l"engtThl. acting ,on. 3. ~amiil't1te {Eq.; ::t9)

Iiln:r::O~he[[11al m.o·i:nent.s per 'llnit~e·ng;til. {E:q, 4,247} Itll~,f!.dung I])DlIlJiellt8 adi1~;g on a beam (fi~ 6:2) fuum.om.f!I1UlcE.ing ON ,:1 be 11m 03.,q,.6.2-n}

'un-plane forces P€T uniiUI}!fgth .acti:rag on a.Iarninate ·CEq. 3.9} in-plan.eOOll1l.p:re;st<i:Eye, fo:rces· per IJIIn -~eng~i1I (Eq,. 4.Hl9) ,I!!y;gl)(]i~herma'l forces per ·u.niit ;lCin~~ih (Eq .. 4.246) fu<ucklingloo.d afll,uHi,axiaUy loaded p~lI)te [Eq. 4.141)

axia] form :!Ieting o.n a beam (Pi!}· 6.2}

bL!i.ckllUp lC!~d and hudd.lng lo:.."I.di due t.o be.ndillg dief'or.m:a:tion (Eq".63~7)

Jtt:1!i.ckling load ]n.tdlex-:;;; and J.-Y planes, r;espedively (Eqs:.6.313"7.7.110)

huckling loo.duDlder 1i:o,rsioil,al. buckllIlg ,(Eqs .. 6:3:3 7. 7 JJfJ;l sJiffi[le~'ill matrix of' :1 beam (Eqg. 6_2;6_250)1. \ViJt:h.ou~~ bar [BferS" 'to '~he'centfo:id; wIth bar.to ·3:0 a:ritJ;itnu.ny chos.e'fll cOQrdiillate sys,~em

ttansv;e.r.se load per 1!.I,]lll area; d!istli.n.ce between. the .origlFl. and rrh.e·ta[lge:rarr·o[ the wan a.f a beam (Eq;.·6.19n}

.aKia~ and transverse loads (per ~nH leltgdh) actint;l- till a lirealil. (Fig. 6.1); s1!Idace. forces par unit" area ('Eq .. 2.1.66 ~ 2D.plan.e.stfe'S;"S stiffness matdx.in the Xl, ·X:.! G)QQfdfnate s.ysh~m:I. (Eq.2:.134)

Q.; q R

R

Fl.", 'R!', Rxx

[Rl.RiJ

1[£0' s:

.' - .J ~ :. J.}

,~~, Sll. 812

f

f~ T~ IX, ] It] [ 1,;.] [7;;]

.~ r~, tb

U U

II il]

HI ,:1;1,):., l(~

2D pla n e-stress sli:ffness I:J:nJtnx'in dle i, y ·c_oor.d:un<ll,t-e :s,ys~eJm. fEq·!.12G}

iJucldilllgload :resuhill!;:in lateral buckliin,:;: (Eq, (359) shearfi'iow ~Eq. 6.1'89),

stifi'nes!> parameter (Eq::t46)

stress nl!~io (Eq, UIA2:)

radii ofmn:!lt!Ulell' of a s.n.eU. (Eq .. 8_1)

oompliance ma.~r:h[ IJllde,rpiane-sh'ain.oondi.t:ion i~~iI.e XI" xi: cdO:[dl.ln~te .s;}"s~e;m (Eq, 2,79)

corll(pl.li1,![Ice;n111.ItI'i:\[ under lP:l!rne-sl>l:aiwoo'I1dition inib.ex, }i cQo;rdinah:;.iystern (~q. 2.,.(i5)

3Doo:mplrnnc:e IIJ!1itnx in t~e Xi, ~l, Xrl ~ruilil.ate system {Eq,1,23)

. .

3D ,oornp.lianc:ema.ui'l( illl 1i:h.e Xl y .. ;:;' coordinate system

(Eq, 2,21) .

shea."!" s.ti!ffues.s ofa beram;i, j "'" z. v, w (Eqs,. 7J3., 7~]6) sheai stiffness of 3 P~:!I.te., ~, j "" 1, i tRq. 5J-5)

sliiea.t c(Jmp~iallce of a ·liJ'fl<lini l" j .""" z, r, w~Eq.;7 -~&) teTII"lj]le. s.tre·ngtlis: (Eq. lTIJ.3.)

coinpressioll stretlifi~liis,.{Eq. 10'"13)

s~ei\l:. ~tU:]lglhs: (~., 1.:Q.15).

t.Qol"qu~acMng em. 11 beam (Fig,.l!i2)

;resh"ajnedi w:!llpil!!g~illduee.~ 'tmqIL!lf. (E.q,o~2.35} Sll.iim- Vemmt ,torque (Eq, 6,239),

20 stress t[<lm~f(J[ma6onm3tr;h;: (Eq, 2J82)~ 3D stress tr<lllllforn1altnon 1l13tr:in( (Eq,. 2,179) 2D solrain tT:insfm:mation mail:r!"x (Eq .. 2J.88) 3Dstral;1iI traru;:io,m'I·1Ihan.mnatrlx (JEq. 2J.:&5} t~rqm;,~oad lIcfing an. al;le.llill, (Hi!} fn)

t.nlo]meslles of t\~ top :111d bettpm f'a.2esneels (Eq, 5 .. 26) strain en~rID' (Eq. :2"200}

di;<ip~<loollle,n.~ :ill the J[; d.iiredio[l;varies wHh the Xi and )" Goo.rd:iinates olliy CEq> 2...5a}

tt"

dL'!]J']:1rem.e:nr~ of the l"efe:[~nce surface in the x di:r'Bot:Don . dL<::[l']<I~m.e:L~:ts,']n the ;t:.l.,Jtl, 1l:uJl:.i ;ti diredioll' di.:sp~aooll1ent :in the y d~[eetiol'l; varies wi:~h the.x and Y' ·?o~rdunate::,o.~ly (Eq,. 251)

'i'-{l-h:Ime::9;"f'fi.lbers, ]l_:la:frrix, aad void

o!lt-of-p~a.l1e ~.\oe:~l:[J(;m::es rer unit I.ength· CEq,SJOY transverse :s:hear :fcmrei. acting Oil a. beam. (Fig. 6.2 J dl:sp.~a.oe:meI).t :in the ]I' diirediQ[I

dL<:pb::elme]l~ Qiflhe reference. ~'urfu,Ge in the y dl:mDtion YQ~ume frad]on ef fibeE~ l.fiailrix, and! void

xvi

[W], rwr

tl! 1~

til'" :It!B~ tiJ'S1

Yo" z.:

The, z". ;'b IJII:~i,

Gree:k IleUers:

[a 1, (iij Ul.i~ -,xij

fil r~ .. , Ji";: ]I:r;;', Yr,:;; Y'I''''

n~, JIl:'!, n1 Llh AT

[.'i]'!!f

l:J'j 6x'l "_,.

;e;:!n ~ 1\~ .~ z' E'i.,';:l;, of.:; .''::I.~ ~ f;1~" '}r~~~v of,,·I1I, E:~" hot • v",,,,,"~

:x. ::0. ~ J< -. r:.xr

dl.s~~<Ire'me:n!t :in thef ditf>C,U:on;v:llrie!twit:h tb.e x and y cOO'.rdimlte:s olliy" (Eq .. ,2;S2)

cmnpli"<lnrenlatri~ of a. beam (~. 6Xi''), No bar r~fut:;S"M~he t;enll.'o.id;Oar to an al"bitTa[~ly cihQaen OO:c!rdilU'llte s.y.st-em deflecti.aimi~n Mle Z, d~;reot:irpn

11jUl.KimUlll de:~_eC!tl.o.n,·"i[lj fihe.:<: direction (Eq, 429)

defi.<:octaoNl, of the reference surface in the ;r dire.ctiotll. de:~,edao:.rIis due '~o bending and fi.ffii,ear defornt!l~ions (E,q .. '1 J~5) eoordinetes cf;~hecentraid!~f abeam (Eqs, 6.$4, 6.73) c(]!Q:rdinaiescffrh.e ,shelll"oomer 9f a beam (Eq, 6jlJ.) coordinates c,r :~h,e top and bottom snlrl.ace:s: of~b,e ,ldh F!a~i" .in, <1. lannnate {Eq_ 32V)

t;I!. ,para/meter d!e;c:!Ji.bing shear d~far"mllfiQn (Eq .. 7J:53)

ii, pammet:c;r ,d!e~crlb~[lg shea:r d~Io:rmatian, i "'" ~"',. t, N, (<J

(Eq,7.244}

oom.F,~i,:zu;liI;:'e."matr:i;'l1 ·of e-larninate (Eq" 3.1:-3)

p<l.ran1e1te[s de:ocdfuiing blJcJJed shape oEa shell (Eq.1lL7'8) OO~lI'r~i.allliGeS for closed-s.eet~Ql!1beams {:lEq. 6,156) thermal el'Opan:S:Fon' ,coeffl.iDie,n~s (E.;q,s, 2.153, 2., 1.58) 'p:3:ramefer.ll ][1 illI.e d:uspl.ace~;ne;nt!l·of a 'cyl'ind~r [Eq, 8.]0) 'eom]Y~iaUl,iGe m.atrix ofa laminete ,(Eq. ':k23.)

coimlp,~i.afl,ce. Qf s..ymmetrUcaIXfosS-lleciti.on heams {Tllh~e (i.,2) c:ornp,b.l~ce of dosedl'fi€!j)tionhea..ros (Eq" 6..156) luoistl!lreeKp!!lnsi.on coefl'id&lits~.n the x, y, !directuOfi5i [Eqs .. 2_]54, 2.159)

p:r--arerlyof tale eross.section (Eq.,6360)

£near 'Strain. en a beam inthe x-y aad x-t plaaes {:E.g:. 7.2) enginl.eering she a. :s:~:r.a:i[l inthe z, )";. !: comdl:nnatelly;s~em (Eq .. 2_9)

~ngil:Meering;:shean' strain·itn the, Xi. ~2, X3 aoord.tnale ~~1i:e.m Dhal!l:!1,'e .. in tfuid:ness (Eq, 4282)

temperature dm~ge (E.g:" 2-1$3)

c:orn[}~i,aF!ce mafihi of a ~~mi:nate~Eq" 3.1~)

oom.P'~i,alilce of dQIS.ed-;sectionhe~n~s(Eq. 6.:1.57)

ai\i'ern:ge :strilifl:dn a sublami:nafre (lEq. ~J_4)

e!1gi:n-e,edl1~ norm.al stra,iimll:l. ,fhe .Jt:., ;y, z 'c:o.ordji:Dlate ;s:yst~ en:gl:Dl.eeringnQl:rn,a:] strains iin 'tile Xci. :tl, x]: ooord~na-te system 's1rai[lS oHhe.;re:ference 8u:£1'aoo

hKgl,oth~rm;!ll str"llnS iin a .b.m.inat.e·(Eq" ,t'2:51iJ) parameter of re5traillf (B:l;-. 4,1:52)

pOlar moment of mass, CEq, ,6.41J)

FJJ, 'l) 0. I!! < tli,~,

k\, Kr• ,t(~.y ~I, &1f, hit l<:',t , I!r~( , Jt:"y

k, ."I'm')"j

~.r),~ s,r

HI' f"". h,P~ Pl. p~, {J'l

p"umf" PL, Pm I)

'11~;i< a~IH ~~

(i

1:r:21~ tt~., f.'~ I 'l:"y<:".1";t;:, -:ty,t X,T;:;'_X:$

w ,n

i:.aJ

Wi:l.w'~'

ply or:ienlaOon

rate of lmst (Eq, 6.1)

rate of '!tWist dull. to Dc.&nd:ing lIn.d shear deform;at]on [Eq, 7.5) cm:va,1:tJI:res of the n::f:er£t!ce surface (Eq. 3,g}

hyglotherrila! clI':'I,a,trI:i[es of a~~mErmtce (Eq" 4.250)

I~ild par:,m;ietf!J" (Eq, .4_lOOJ;ll:Fl!u:klil1g ~O:ad p:Ir,~nU~rre:r

(_E.q" 4J.21 }~eigen".a~,ue (Eq. 4.2~j)

pa[1im,e~,er,'lin t]),e',ca]cL!I[lIhan, .af natural, frequencies (E.qs,6_398. 6,,400; '7;2OG)

Poisso[l's,mtio

ooordil.na,te~ attached to tnewaU efa,ibeaJ[1l (Hgc oj 3} parameters In fli:Je eXlPressiol:ls of thebllll::k:hng iaiill'ls'nf p~a,t:a~ with, rot3tiol:lal.~yrestTail:led edge;s (Eq, 4, ]51)i

potenti.al, ena'Tgy: (Eq_ :1204)

radfus ofoo'r'i'a.tl!l:renn th~ j--z, X-i,.3,l!ull.l-Y pLa:ne:s(Eq" 2-.451 i:ad!ius of CU[JIaitunhrr the X1'.,.J(~ , x.I-Jt:J, arid ¥l-i!!"2 pl,~.nes

d!en~rtks of C:O.l!I]posl:te. fiber, arid matrix mass per unit area a!"pe[ unit :le:ngtli

normai :Hres's!f;1lUIl Hu: jtr, .);1;, J(~' 'CQordi[lale:'systern 'I1rn:m~[ sfresses iin the x, t', z coordiil:late system average stress

S(liI.ea!r~tre!lSBgiIl t.h.e ~[, X2'. Ji'cl enordiaate sys:te:Jitl

S(~e1Jjr stresses in t:he ]I' "jl, .l' coordinate sysre:m wrntl.1JiI!!l'af!:he non;nalof 1I. p~.~te iiil the Jt:-,(a'Flllil x-yplues. [Eqs .. '3.2, and .5J.)

fPtat'Jo:nl'oHhl<: crt!Bs seetlou o.La b"earrdn the.x-.v and x-.(: planes (Eq~ 7.i)

angkQf NJta;t]oQ,of thecross 1'iectl':on about 'the be;am :axis (~wist) (F~.g,(i3)

benCiing stiffrless of lHlIli.I!1'iYI!Ilimet,ric:a:~.lrnl~ plate fEq. 4.52} potentlal e;L~£'1'gy 'of t.he e![tema:~·lo,:ills· {Eq, 2:203)

circular [reqllency (Eq. 4J 90J

circular f[eqo:~ncy of a bea.m due to· bending '1I1l'd sheal' defQfmaiion (Eq. 7_.198}

ciroular frequency af. a, free,~y v:ii~ra/tin,g 'be<lmin f\he. ](-1;;.and i!t~ planes, respec.ti'rely CEq, iU~g)

y]mul.ar frCiq;uellcy af <li free.~y. viibmting be<ll:llll!lIICi:er[arsioool. 'oiihmtnon (Eq.6AOW

d!ista:flces between the newan,d the oldreference SIW.HOlCeS (Eqs .. 3A7,,6.].OS, 6.107, A.3)

C:IAPTEIR. ON&

IN! thisbonk we (OCI!lS on.nlti.fir-Lehdo[ced eO[llpO's:ilte.<i ,compQl';ed ·Qf fibers embeddled!:.in a n~atri'x, l1hefiben; may be sJlor,t,or ]ong, cont!FlJuo!l1.s or di:st':ontim]Oll&; and :ma.y be l:rI. on~ or ,][1 nlil1.Ulple. directions ,(R:;:,. L ~l S",e:h: mater~,a~s offer ad/vantages 'ovetc:Q]!yen~iQI:la']isotfopies:lru1)tJU[ral :rn~:~edal!l s;u<;h asstee], 1ihlmi:!)m.n. and!.othe~· lypes ~fmefill These a,d.v.antilge~'.i!ndud!e !.llgh .sfr{ength,~qw weigM, and gCbOd r~. tigl!l.e amI COl:[Cls,10n re:si.'5,:tan~, hI ;;lIddino,n, hyduln,girig the il[ra:n:g~,ment~ 'Ol: (he; :fioo[lj,. the,p:.QP·eJ"ties of the materlal.can Ire, taiIO!l'ed to mee~ the req!il:urements of ... ,speciiic design,

The 'ex{:ellellt: .:p:rope'[~"ies of oo:mpos:i:res. are achieved by Ua.e favorable dll.liT· ac~£dsti.ts of the two mJijO£ con~Htlil.ml.I::S,[Iamely' thefi!be:r and! the ma!trh::" In low-performsnce cOIllPosites;. the: reiinforce:ments,.1l!I8U,:I1J.yin Ul!~ FOrni of s'nQ[t or C:~ap'ped flber~ (ol:'p:snide:s),prpv.ide some sti:f.feHi,F!g but '''''ery litUe ~t:relfl;gth. imi[[lg~the~_o~d lL~qlli:!niy :~.a.r.[~,ed.l\ly th~ matrb;:, In high;.1pei[fo[mance: composites, continlil.~llis.f1ber8pi"q.vlde the desinifu~e ~liff:ness arid stre[lgf~., w~e;[;ea:s"Jbe.matrix. P!Q,ri~;h~s:pmtectl~n:' and! ~uppp~~ t'o~·'tm.e 'fj~eI~ an~, impor.ia;nt1y, l~e~ps redii:st1iful!l~e. the iaaif from bDoken to, a4j~pant in)tac:t:~h;:~:

·U!l!i~difr:~lirn!iaillan1~I1liI. ~ ply) WOY~Q fshrtc ~lbi~illl~ 'WI:;IlVC,)

FU!lur~, ]J.: C[).m~!t~ .mlull:erhll ;5>,st-eln!'C

'WG'ill:;n'~hlric ~tril!lxjal WO::IIIVCj'

1

L~I!l,ill:ll~ fo:rmin~ ,R lSmlJIllIltt

. .' ~ ,

F't,E;ure L1~ :L8m~!I1>1:tedi flI-mrQ~lj;e,

The 3,"f,r;a:Dlge:me;n1,t of. tHl,e ,ijbe:I::S -ill a, sh'uctll.!lre lis, .gQve:Hu::cl, pythe ~l[llct~lIir"lI:~ reqllJ:iremefits 'an~ by t~le wmce!>~ used [0 fu;bl'l,'Ca'~e the !pilirt" Freq,uently,lhougb. Dl,Qi~ llVways; COl!lJJposlte, st~'uctl!l:res are 'n1ad.e (If th!,f! ,Iayenl called ,~a.minaf:, or Jl']ie~ Witllrn, each ,hlminll, Uli~fiben may be 1I1~~edlun the' same direetialll t!lmi,diurectlol1a.~ -P])', Hg;tJ)o €loJ: iin drlff~nmt diredi.ens, The laUer oon~;gI!.u;3.~ion ll<;,p;mduredi, for eK3mple, by well.'\1~:ng t'he~,lbe[8 illl IW,OO[ mnre '~l:rect:~on!ii (VilOVI!l:nl f\a,br:i.c}1h.a lamina· m3)' also (':mr~in short fiber:s el:1lhe[O'[i.elltoo,in the&amf:. d.'ir;ec~'ion or llI.lsh:ilbut:ed l'andom~l(. Seve:r.!l:~b.lill'ina.e arethen comblned into 11 lamina,le t,o~o:rm the desin:J, structure (Fig, L2i)"

'The mechanical a!nd[ rherm.al rehalvio:rs of 11 s,rru,cllrre depe,nicl (Ill the ]Jre!pert~e!l oil t.rfefibel'!ii II.JU] thecm<lhi" ll.ntd.mIl. U~,e &rn,Qliirlt and orienl;lltl,OI1-S ef uhefiibe[S, 'In, this' bOQk; We eonsider th,e diesigfl, st:e]J:S, from mlcmmec.lI,ank:s (whicll td;es :into account th1W,fiihe;t .uu.l nlarrr~K 'p:rO]Je;[~ies) tbreugh :mllcmmec]lanub.<! (which~teats theproperrles of tful.eoompOllii.te) til structural 3na.]ysi& n,e:.eg~eps are m,!II8tTIl~edl ]1.1 Figure ]3..fQ[ a, struetuse made Oinca'minat.ed oCQruPlJlli~e..

'- :1.01, '1!,1J:, ,',ix'

I

--- Flb~['

II .S~R!!",turajf ,lI.mily~b

e

mspllacements" Strains., and Stresses

we. GOOls~d!e[comflosii.te llIIate'Tuails cOIl:sJis1ing (lIf'Dt:;Imlt'lnuollS or d:~SCQntnnIliOIl.!l~. fihers enllbedcled ~'!l, a.n13tI:.l!X; Such.a co.mposi1ei~ .~e:te[oge[le(ll'lls, and the ~prropeItiies' V<llFy frol11.poinJt topoint, On a £i<.de tl:lal ~lar:ge wiillh[espec~ro the fi/hier diam· eter, thefiber and :matrix prqJemes n1ay ltfe averaged,. and tlle Iuateaial. 'In:a:y he treatsd.as hQtr:I(~g.e;nieul.!!,~, 'fil!S assllm!pHO:!1~OOl:llmonly elll!pioyed. in ]l1:acrnmecnah· kal ,analyses: o:frompos:ite1l,is. ad.o!pt~d Jl;l,ri. Hence, the mateeial lS!.1liJnsicle:r;ed! to' be quasl~hQm·Qgene.al!ls,·w.hkh·imphes fha~ Ute pi-Qp~.m:i(:l.s a~tak:e;rIi.~Q hffthes~m.e: at e~eryp'o.int These pcop'e.rt.i!es ,areUlP{ the ~.a;nle 3"sfhep,ropert:iies Oif ~ut!:lerthe fi]:J~r o:r the nurl:!,:.ix: but are 11 cc:mibil'!ation oHnep:rQJpe:r[~es of tn~~llSt·i~ue:nts.,

[I]. {h~s 'c:ha,p~e:I;, .equeatioru- are preseated fair cllJDtilating (he di~pi~ac~me:Dlts,stresses, <If1dj:;:t[lI~IlS. when t~.e {";trl!lc.tnre undergoes only .s.maH dei'orma.uiom and the m;a!ter:i,a~ be'have:sin .a linearly elill;siicmllm'u~L.

COI]UnuOlllIs.fi1J..e[·l'ebd1:!'fI::;ed oompmlitel]:I'l.ateri,a]s (and SlLrlillctUl;es~~l1ade of such ma.t:e:r.ial~} ol'oo!l)have: e:asHyide!ltlfiOllib1J.e: p.!:eiffuedi d.i!re:.ction:s assoclated w.ith fiber ,Qr~e[lt3tiol'l:s ol',!l)'nim.et.[y 'pi~anes,. It is l!herefore:oo:lil.ve:ni.m~· tQem·p~o~r~wo. cooidlnate ,systems:' alocal OQotdiil'l1lte: system .aii&ne.d:,. 1I.:t a ]JO]nt, cither wmtl:l the fi~[llOf whh.:lIx.e!s orsy:rilm.e:ttry, anda g~oba~C<'.!'IJ'[diM.ate is.~.te:n'latt;liI~hed fr<!.a!bieC! referenee poimlfr {fig. ~:;u}. In tJllls book theIocal andg,loba~ Garte:sian. :mbrdiinaje sJ'~'iem~ a~re de!;~'~~ted! reS]Je:cti!ve~y by x~ , ~"2." X3 lI,tl,Q Hl.fl Xi _V,.Z :!Ixe~. hll 'the J[, y, Z ~rections (he displacemeuts at apoi:n:~ Aar"8 'denoted by il,W, W; and .i:1!I tile X~." X11,.J['lI di;reGtiDms by 'U~; !~, U(3 (Fig.. 2:2),.

[I] tbe .x, y,. zcoordiinate system lhe.l]inmll.~ .~[eS:'lCS are deneted by (I", ,iJI'y. 1I1'11C)! ''';: "I:md th.e shellir stresses by T'y,<~ "'x". 1IIul t.<,. (Fi~ :1L3), The .GOrre8po:n.d~:ng nerrna!

.' . .

~ndlshe::lir straiIls, are ,~", .~ H f, aad Yy<, y.~, JI~y. Iespectuve;~y',

~n the Jt:L, X'2.. l'J CQ{}rd~.na~e sy~~ein lh~:nC)[l!lJilll stressesare den9te:d by~!, 0':2, and O"l,andi the shear' s~re~~:es by ~; ::rl] • .and!:rlG; (Fi~ 2.3)~ Th,e; Qo[re,s,po:niiiilg nOFm~1. ~:~.d shear :!l~mi;~s are ~b ~2~~:il, ~'nd r:z:~. ]lB. r,L2, resp"ecflvel}",. The s~,;m,oo.~ ]I represents ,gngineer:ung il).ellts~'[li:ill thaU~ twice ,tire te'rr!sor.ial.s:h:ear.s:lT;Iin, Yu ""'. 2¥,j' (i, j ""'][, y,. Z od, i= r, 2,.3).

illS PIJICEMENTS,' STR:A.INS, JIIl!il:llJSfRE!SSES

Astu::ss :i8. taken to be :pos;itivewhe[l "-it acts on .II posltiive fa~e in the. ]lD..'lW'l>og <!I:ir!lcrrioiIJL AooordiIlg to this definition; all tn.e stresses sll.own:illl .. lFl;gum 2,.1 are ]:hDllitiV€:,

The ]ue.ceding,:stFesS and.str"3i.n 'notllti",o'nll, ref.e.fie.ilI to as engin.eel.".ing l1otaUo:m:, are I1sedtlilro~liIoll:t thisbeek. Other not.allions,.nms~ Il.ot::l.b.~y~en~ru":1~ andcontrad:edlnol:aiHo:ns, can lreql!l.e·Ill~lylJ.g found. ,n tbe :m~'[atu(e;T:he s.tLe;'S:ses, amd str;3.iiml in dl:ffereid nobl-Ions "are aummarlaed 1.n Tables 2;J lInd.2,L

2.,1 Strain-Displacememt fI~lalions

We·'m]ls<i1iller 3. 8X kmg ~.e:gnlel!l't. t~.lalt undier.goes a dlilinge irileIl.g.lh, fh.e new I.e:nglh [I.ein£: dan:01i:ed!,h~i'' il..J::"From.lF'igtl:re 2A it is Seen tha;t

( a!~.)

!l +. .il..x' "'" ~)[ + ii, + ih ~ji ,

(2J}

w.n.ere U and u+ ~AJt: are. the displ:me,me[lts Q!r po.i.liIts A. and R. r"€..sIP'IIDtively, jn [he J" di£ec.tio:n .. Acooi''di~-gUy; .fhenmmal strain· ~:n. ·the .x di.rectimds

il..x/ ~ .il..x ih~

'€,t· "'" . 8Jt - [Itt: (2;,2;)

Siml.UlIdY\ 'in t'~.e y- <ll'ldi !" d!.ec.U{llls the.normal strains are

iilt!'

-=""",.-

- iily

ihu !f'~ "'" Az"

(2,,3)

5

For ~[IgiUia:[ {she.ar) defun:n.a}io[l·tl;te te'!J];sotia]!ilileairi$.trai![li~ the ~ye:m:.agec;ll::n!lge in tDl.e .l'lnglce "between lWOU1Jlltuaily ~~n.dk:Iil.~a;r l.lnes (Fjg~4: .. 5)

{2_S)

(Ui)

1 (. iJ. 'I ... '~ . (h.,t ) .....

fi.·""'~ -+- .

x}' 2:' .1:!f 8Jf

~n .a .Eim:~~r manner w~ obtain the 'lQ.Flow,ijn:g. e':XpJ"~s,ijo~ far the "'~. and! -E'.t~ :romp'ol~e:niti .qt the te:flsori:a.1 shea:r st:rn:ii~:

]. (.' ill, 1 . a.w .. ,' ) ....

fi.""--+-"

.t.._ 2.' a~ .~X·.,

x. y, z ·cOO1'diiil;a~e. 'sys:r~m
Tht'lllo.fj<l~ s:JreMi a:~x aery a~~ (r~~ .IT,,~ a~!,
,E:n:~;lt'leeritlg S:Jl:e~ a:r Uy (.f~ ~c·~ 'l"1f;! ~jl
COi"l~~a~lt;<l,.ifIl1UlitiQ!fj a" ffy G{ 'Q"!!), l!Ty a:~
XJ:T~l, Xc; coor~htiMC system
T~ru::~ria~ stress 1:)"11 .:I'll ''''.."3 ff-ll <T]~ aJ2
E.i1.gineeti.nfj; stre¥l. ai, tJ!"2 "':3 T\Qi3 1"fj :r]~
COfitrue;ted:il:O'l:atiOi1l 0"1_ I'Yz O"':l ..:r~ !l'5 a~ 6

MtmnllliJdUin

Sh~:n strain

Thbk!'2.2,.. :Stb'aili'i nCita.lllDi1is'~e ~l!tgiM~~ Md ,nt~1iitra:tl.e!l rnlita.ti~ she;IWS1rallll's aretw[cerliil'!, tel1sorial "Sf1iearslr:aiUi)

x" )" z.,~oOi(dijj.ali ~y.S,terrn
TetU;:oti.:il1 'str.a~ri e.-:i':l I~)J ~~~ 'O!'.i'~' €..L~ '(.,
Et'I&lniU:ftt'l_g Urraili !!::.:.: I!'~ i~ l!"»l r..~ i .. ,
'u:u'IUfitl'ed ;1;l,otiliHorl ~~1i fEr c". ~q !':.!"' 'fEr;
j,~b .:til" X'~ (;"(jt~di.fi<ljte sll:!!bem
, ,
Te_ru:bt"l:al S!~taitb ~H ,!!,2') c~l .!!'~ e'IJ Ie:~~,
Et'I.&it'l~Iit'i!):·sMaiil E:I I!"~ "C1 ~ r'n· ¥li2
C'..:onUatled iIl6taiHmr E!I .i!'2 c~ "'~ !!'"~ ,"~ The .e.ngi[lee.ringshea;r :ltrai!~ are tviiise~he[en50d.d sh,e;u strains:

a'l;l .n'!1tI

Y)J",""'~,.~ "'" 8; -+- . ay

,hi fhlJ

Yx.,.=·2iE",·",,· ~.+ _. _.

, • Hz ax

~h~ il':w

" - 2E;' - ~ + -"

,"]I - .IlY - a)' . ;ll1'

(2,HJ}

(2.11)

In the ¥1 "X2., xl ,oooIdi:na.te ~yfltem {h.e 8t[a]ti-di:s]J'~areme,n:l relat"iollSnups: arB also,g1vofln.by Eqa (1"2}-(2.4) and {2..9)-(2J ])with ;!f, Y •. Z'.rfip,l.aced b~CIt:l> Xl, ~', ~he S,UbOO11pts: .:t:, y., ;.q.y 1,.'2; J, and !~,. l:I, 'w' by.I:.tL' 1~.2:' l;l.:~, '

. '. .. -'. . ...

Th,g eqiu!i~i.lJ.rl:Rm eqaatlnns -a~' a.pt:}:int 0 are obta.ined by' oo:n8i~[il1~ [o(ce aJndi moment b:alallCJe.<;. on asml:l.ll Ll.X"~J'A~oobi:c el.eI'!IlfMn loc1I!ted af pcJnt 0 -. (The poOint 0 is. at' tfi.e l;e'Ote.:r ·of (he eJ.emfi'nt, Fu_g, 2',6") We!1:e.Iate tfle stresses at one fare to dl.o:se at the:oppci;sltefare !by the 'iF1Iy~Qr'·seriell., 'By llI~ing; only[ne 1il'sl te[lil':af the Taytors<er:ies, {9"~ balaace in the.x di.'recJ!i,Q;II!1iiv€(S

.(. !ill:x)

-~tl..:l':Ay - "fc.T.8.J Ay - or.!!~ A,t Ai +~i[ + ~ Ax ll..>1:i'l:J'

( '. ih"".. ')'.' . (. . [I.·rRt: . ).

+ T~t + ill: tl.z, tl.:JU~.y + . t'yx + ~AY .. A.xA,z·+f..A'rAyAz "",0.

(2,,12}

'Y'

11'

It

A

B I

where .f" h· inehod!y fo[cepel' 1lIrI"il '!lQlum.e [rl the .t d.][eciioTL Afte;r si:mpli.n.cllHon, this eGlilJilI~~On becomes

.~D'.x 9'l:1I~. ~·T~t. ,

.~. + -~ + ~, + f~ "" o.

,(lJ[ 9yfJ'l

By 'sim.ilaI .arg.umel.l:ts"the eql1[~i.birillm eGlUat~ons .jn~ne: Y and z dkec::ti.6ns ~a:re

1l't",. ~.~ ..

'iLt: +. ily'+ 1I.z. '*" f.~. "'" 0,

f.!i'f.x<o a'f~,~. a,,-, '

-+-- +-+("",0.

:h: ily fJ:ll;'~< .

where fJ! and f~ are th.e oo.dIy 'forces [le[lini~ voilllme hll.~he y and z di:rectiGlflS.

A moment balance aboar aln IIX:i'S parral:lerto )[ and passi:rlg1hrolig,A thec:eflfel' ('point. O}gi.ve.s (~g. 2~7)

f2.l4)

(1:16)

FU,S,UF~ 2-1:, S~re&~~rm~lhe ILl: liy,!ifcl!lhic el~m~Ert~lmt>l:l?Jl'Cari]J 'ri;,~ moment balance Ilib(~u~,lm 8~h P,81:811dAD ,I8I11J ;P'M!~illlg: throl.!l~ ipec~lil::t"{prn[l:t tl),

BYOl1litthag. higher mde:t 1e;rm&, whkJh vanfu;:hJ!I 'l.b,e limit 8.,l[ ...,. O .. .Ay""?' 0, 4z ~, 0, tthis e.qua;frion becomes

t2.17}

{l.iS)

Byviirrue,ofBq~ (':1..17) and (2,,]:S)J,.,tllie three 'equiliib[illllil1,e~ii.at~olls:(Eqa.1J:~ 1.1~') contain six unk:n.o:WniS, ]a;al11e:~y, tile t.nree no,TiITI1l'II stresses (~,t, (fl', od ,and the. ~hr-Be5t(e3r- stresses '(::rJ1;;, <:t~,t,t,l'.).'

III the XI, Xl" X§'i coo:rmml:te s.Y8le:m the equthitlrlul!llequatiol1.~' are .aisogi,ven by Eqs, (2.B)-(H51Iwith x, Y, . .z l"ep~lIood by. Xl', X2, J{'3 andtbe cSuitlscripts x.y, <':'I:!;i' 1,2,3.

2.3 Slres&-\stralm lReJailimlilship&

In.a composite lnaterllll th.e6ibe:rs may 'b-emiemed ~;Ill,an a:rbttr.arcy ma,]l:ne:r" Depe-nd'illg {!Ill (hean:ange:meill1tsof tille6ilbe:rn, tb,e-ma'i:e:rnal. may ~b,a'\i'e di:ffet:enNy ]'1:1 different dl:[ectio:I'IS~ Aooordi:nlIg to their- behalli'IIDT, co:mpO&1tf:S may be cheraeterieed '38 ge[ler:all.y .. nisotropic, m.otl.odink,a[~howJi~~c., tr:amversely'!sotropic, d:r :isotro:pi.c .. In the .[olioov.ing, we present ih:e ;slress-<sl[a'i.]lrela:llldn,shiil2s for ,these t¥pes of materials IJITded:ln~a:rly elastic 'OONdiillcms,'

When there are llO synl'metr_y pl,;:me!l with: respeet to the al.iwnment ·oflhe fiher,s the, material :lis, Iefe'freJ ~,o as. g~n~raH:y ani8Qtro:p:i~ .. A :fibe!r-re~:nf~rced comp.'o'Sile, lllla;t,~<ll is, f~t exam!ple; gen.eral1y .ani5ah~pic wh.ell the fibe~:s :ar'6'.aI_i.gned iin trn~-ee UlQ]lorHlOgori'a]_ directi.(~ns (Hill, 1.?).

U SlrRESS-SliiRAIII,II RELJ:TIONSIiIIIPS

.. , ,"'.

Pcil':age],leraU.y lIInhotm!p1c lineady da8tkm<llh::ria~:, in. the: X",.}" z..gl.dbl!.~. coor:~ dlll<lte ~!l:lem. th~~fre8s-.slrai]"l :reJadollShips are

e,t "" C\~.~.r +- ('1201:'y + Cil~" 91- C):~y!~ -IF 'Cl_~yx< +- C1fiYt·! {j ~ ."" C"ll.~.t + C.:u€ \i + ·C2]1~~ + :C24r.~ + C;!!~ jt~< + ('16ft'" .;. "" (\l~" +ClJ:~~' +- C33(~ '-iI~ C~4 r.:,~ -Il-C8,S r,,"< + C]f1'Y.r~ Ty. "" C~:[g~ + C42~y +Col~~.: of. C4ill':'N + C:4;5Y~~ + C4~l"·.o:y <x<:: "" C":sl~,t +C5:If<l' -IF(\~"'.:. + C5o'lJ'h +" C_~:5y,t. +:C~~JI' s: J' ''O.<]! "'" C':;l.~~ + C!'Q~y + C63(,; + CIl4.YY1: + Cfl~,y_X'i_+ CfilY"'l\'-

(~J9)

(.I'x l;ll Cl2 Cl3 Cl4 C]5 elf. ,;~.
rfJ. CoN C:!:2 c2] C24 ;C2~: C:2!!, ,r;y
IO"-i c~~ ('3.2. (:.;'3 ('\:<4 'C3~ Csos (,
- 'C41 C<12 C43 c~ C4~: c;u, >
'fj~ I Y.Jiil
l'~.c I (7SI. C:>:2 c~ £':5"4 c,~~ C_~!5 ~Y.r.<
1:x~ _«61 Cfi2. (:'6'3 C,:14 Cfi~ C~fL }'n where Cij are iih,e e~e1J.leJ!ts of the stiJlne:s.s,mllhix rc ] ill: t,fue .. ~,. }'; Z 'ooord!iHiit~~ :Siy~'l:em,

,[[Iv!1:l:Siion ofEq, (2.20) I~lldts in ti"!e faHgw.ing s)~r;ain-snessrel.atioml:"pll;

~.x SII Sl2 Su £14 SIS S!~ (1"",
~.Y' 52l 822 $11 £24 $15 SUi !:If
I Sll. S!2 Sjl :$M S]$ Sx.
".t; ! .(J" (~,21)
._ S;~ $4;1 S,,:~) £44 &,fS S4Q
}'Y';:;' -Z:~'I'I:;:
f.x.:' I SSl 85:2 S51 S_~~ S_~!S S:.n .-Z:x..:
_Y:'y ,- S(j\] Sfr:], £{I]. Si64 S~ S1io!'i -r:x.]! where ,S'i are the .eJemen~s of'the com!pj:i3I;1ce matrix (8] in ,tile J(, y,~',coorcl!iPla:te 5,"y$~em and are: defined in. TaM.e 2.3 (p.a~e. :nO):. In this table, tests-are m.]lstratedi thet, frl. princip~e. ,wuidprov:idie means <if de[egl'mrn:ing_.t'he different (lomiPJ.~a!nce n1at:!ix. elememrl::!k

1111

In the ,t1;',:l:1; j"~ ,eoorcIJifiluesystf(llll the she8~tl'a.l:1il :relilliion~hi,p:;;' are

rn r~ .... ·, ... "_1,1,,., Ct2 Cl~ ['vi CI~ O .. PCs·.· .•. '.-l:I>.,'l ~i

0"2 ""2. C1:;:, Cl3 024 (:1:5 '-2" ~2,

0:1 Yl;L C}2 C3~ c_~¢ ~!Y5 ""~,

t'lJ "" l,61 C~2 CA:~ ~~ C45 CII',- Y2:~

<'1'3 .t'_~l C~i2 C5.:~ C~~4 C'iIS CSf;J }'13"

t't'! Gil Cr;2 C\'1::l ,Q,~ c~ eM _}'!2"

Wlleire.fh 1I1'efrb,e) ~lemen~Qf tl!iestin~e:st"i nla,tr,~K [el]n the 'Xl~, Ji:)2,' x':!, ,cOQn.1i[lll:~e ~y~fre~l.,

By iirnrenuhg Eq. (3,22) We obta:~n tbe f,dnowi:l!'!g~h:ai~~~r1:lS'8 re.l;lt~Of1!S,h,i!~~:

""1 Sll Sl~ Sl:l ~\4 S~.5 &t~ '1!'~

t=.a 82:L $22 52)1 ,$24 ~¢s S:w ":.:'

, h :S'~l, ~ 53} £34 S:'L~ 's3fi ,ij!j;

-

.)41 S42 $'4:1 "~ 54.~ S~

~ ~

J8ble.'2,3. Thee1e1iiiieli'lis QU]lIe oOfilpNarnoe 1Mi:8~1ij! t$~ iilll1l1ie'X,,Y, 1:

Milrdl'rna'.e svstemt The 'e1~eli'lt~; S~ (MfJlJroot baT) iilI'tlne xn '~~"'~ , oorndl~~len;;vstem ,alee Dhill'lj'~r;I ~re,p:lao~g,)'~ Y; l"tly), 2:" ;1:101'1 tlrue rigSilt.:l1laoosliiles otllile e:.'!;gireSSi~llS,

5:'1,1 = e./'r,x :S~1 ,= edrF" 'S:H=,e,/ax

841 = y~~}~", 551= :y,z/a.,

S~I ='f'h/G"

$1.1 ,= >: ~irIy Sz:;: = eyi~~ :5)2 =".drr .•

£«~= YJ.~jay ~2 ='I'",~/ay Sr.~ = ;r" •• /a,

~l; = ,,)!/a:~ 82. =;:d~~ ~~J == ';;~!(T~

£'43 ='l';rV:~~ S~ =y,,~./rI~ :&ira = r",.ja ~

10~ ;~,T"

,~I>l ,=,€~jTy~ ,.'i'2.4 ,= e~l.Y~ '~~ =,edr'f-~

$15 = eJ ... , S2~ = eyt<;,." S:!S = ~"ix.

;!!:.~ ='Y.Jdr)i~ S!<I ='/'!<dLJit £&1= f,,:./r,!,,!

S:t.I" =,/,:y,.I'i« S:ij ="1:<:/<"" S6$= 'YT,/f:..

5\~ ,= ;:',): •• ,y 526 = !:yjr:",y S:l~ =" s .}";<]>

~,= 'Y-~d"~'!, $:1Jj =r.T.lf1y S~ = 'YifJJrXi/

Ss:v $~", ~5.j &1 Sfi4 .Srr.~

wn.f<re Sii 3Fe the '!2:lfement~ of the comg:;hanCle:l!ll,atfix' [SJ if! the XI j Ji~,< .1'1;, ,ooord!i[l;ite sY:Silem.

as nRESS-SilrRll!ll1 RELAT.IONSIiIIIP,S.

'11

Pi:!;.u_[!:f2_9: ml!rst'TiI!tlons'of'fiih!:r-reiilforoed m~nooUl!1iicm~kri:tk:Th;~ nh.e:F'~ 8re enl)' in planes plll~!n.eI. tQ ~I-Ie- ilC!-X;l: rh!l~ ~t s)'Mm~lry (i.tliJl). DfI!l'Yp~r.r~-!ildkl!l!~~'- to thl1:_ phme uf :!iymmetr:~ (.mi:dd.le), ami! un ~ne pb:ne of :sy.m~tl)' and p~rpe:nilki!~I1!~ to,.:be- plane o( s;imm~try (bGiI:tQrn)_

~,t is evUdfJ:lt_fl:'om Eqs, (2"_W)-('2J3) thattibe'eo:mphllnGe m"hh r S] 'is ilhe i,nve[~ of tJhe. stiffness 1J:1:ll.'trUX [C]:

{22A)

~:t can be ~~{}wn (see S,ection 2, 11,]J fnat [or an dastk ][I[<ltl::rl'a!llhe stHfne~1l aud ,rnm,p;.~i;aHce. ffi;}triCe..~ are sl(l,n:menica,1 ~:!l, both the ][; ;!I, 'i.: and! ~l:!, J(2,.l'1l ,ooordiiHa.le !;'-ysl:,ems as J'OlnO'i~,

C;j''''' Cji i; j ,,,,,.1, 2, ---16- (225)

Because of this,~'Ym[l'lfJtr¥, irn IiIDU1.ll:le_[S1 ':lind 'the [C] ma;ttke~'only 21 of~he' 36 el.em.ents' a:reundiepen(lenL

,,"Vhen there is .a.symmetry pln.til w.nth, rer.pe>ct' tn jthe 'll~igl!l:ment ofthe Jifu.E!~\ J~he matmi:!'lll i~rerer;red! to as monoclinic.ExamiPle~ 0'1 rnLO'n,ocHnk fi~.IreiMfillCecl oom.~ifes !I;~E :sitrow!n i1!l.Fig~i'e 2,9.

Pot.' 31IDOnodlinl.c material wesp:ecif}' ttite ,co1rrr]iance [5J, aN,d st~{fne8S l (:'] m~;hice,:s,'in. an Jl:'j",X2, ]['], coocr~i]'la~esy.sJem ehosenin $uch a way t.na.t xl, and! Jl.\-2,ar-ej in 'tIhe 'p~'!I;ne af sYn1m.e'l:ry,where~~:~]; ]s perpendlculat to tlli,s ,iP~anec

~

. .

2 :r;

. . .r> b nil: {d',syflljTIei;ry

F~.~.urre 2.10: 'The IHJ(rm<lL~lT'c!;.S (I] ~8i1.1= ~h~8n~I";3:rD ')'J~ in 8 ~'t;l'Icr~JJy Imb~lro:p~€ .m~t~ri81 (ldl') ,~'ncll no.shear l>t£8~n in ::I mIlErl·[)Cl~l'Iiq material (rlgb L}.

The ele~en~s of the cO:nlipl:~lInoorn.aErhfm <I [llan,o..;:i:Unjc m:at~r.ia.] areebulIi:n.oo. by'l:nodif-YJ:flg 'tJ]le compliance 'ill,atrix of 11 genera.my an:iisotr.op:ic,ttl:ll,rer.iat We ·ob~rve thatin a .genemUy alni,sctuJlP1c l!IlIateai<1ll. 11 normlli stress 0"1 causes an m(I:,.o{.plane 8heaiL1'itra~11 Yn (Fig, 2..1 O~ef:tJ, blli~ rn. a mO!1ociJ:~Ili.c. ma!ll::~·l.lill ;Sllltje~tedl ~o ~. imrrnal stress a'! (f.i'! being inthe plal!le of~ymmeu::¥) tl)~ o!Ut.of.~~:lIne s~.B!ar ~,tr.ai[l -YI~~ ]s zero {Fig; 2:J.Od~t)" Comequent".ny,. fur a rniJqinodink:. mate:rilll'~he S5t eilfuT.lell:tofUn: oo.mpll,ancemanbt ]szeto. ·By.sim:iil,ar .argumellts !teall beshowfllbat

Su.=' '~!a::L =.0: ~'l = "(13/fTl =; n $6~=Y12If}:1

T~ble2.·A.. The eleJ1lllerlts'of Ith~,.oompmMee IiMlri!li: tin IIMMlliIimic:

IlfilMeri'a1s, f,i:J:r ortlm~rnpl:c, tramJi!lvernel~ ism~apllc,aml ~sm~opl:c .materials .~.~~~~.~~.~~~~.~.~I

D"~ 0'" i '~-:E5l~

712- .~

~

,"""""

S!IJ = ~l/fli

S~~=e']:r~

:5']]= €d&!

-:5!q = ~J Iff'); :5'22 = ~2J'Ja Si.\~ = e~!ai

S:U = ~da3 'S~~ == €daijo S~~. = E~!,j3

Sj<! = ~I!q~ =(} S2~ = ~2!rl~ == o s"" = E~lr2~ = 0

Sl.~ = ~I!r~~ =0 ;S~= ~~/Tn = 0- s~ = ~.:"fru3 = I)

S:lf. = E:i !r~~ S$r.= ~1/r~2 S~fl' = r='~l:r~2

~~.=~/~= n ~ =!'H(.rT:l.=; n .~= :rJ2/fTz

S'l~ = }';'tl!!!f<:l = 0- .~~''= "Yldf>1'=" 0- ~ = YJ'1!U3

"~~ == ~tt~~ ,~¥== :rB/~~

~ = YJ.tI12'~ = 0

~5= ,)'.U!FJ.~ .~~ == }'J3/1;'1'~

~ = Yiz!:r'i:~ = o.

S4,-. ='"¥ZJ;!~JZ"= 0 £;~ = "i"U!'r"E = Gl ~= :r:1:i:!'Z"J2

::t9 SllRESS~S1i1RAINI RELAlUlNSliIIlPS

:for a niol1odi]lifcm'at~:~:al tbe. ~l:; ~, S_~2;Si.13; $~3; Sl!4" ~ .el.em,enls are, a~s.ore:m_: (S:unte the cornp~ia:Fu:;e :mini·il( IS ·:;;yITu:ndriclIi the elri:menl'll Si.II,. Sl~.; S25, S3~., S]5, ~ ~. 1iFe. a~.~o .rent:) Thie.e~eme]"l·[S of~he cd:ITI)pll.ance· nl;lJtrtx are~iste.1ll.!!Il Tll!b'],e 2A

engineer.illg e.ol1.<iI.:.'tnt~ ·d!efined!in ta.lil~e .2.5 .. lt~ Tables 2..4 and 2:.5 the.lype~ af. test~ a!re a~110 imushat:e.d tHull, at" leasrln .p!l"l:nciple, ·iX.:mkl .provude rlfl,e. elements of ·~he :com.p]iafliCe._lill1iitrix and :lm..e ell.gIneeri."ilg ·oonst:ants, The··l'e:lati.d:nships between ·the elOOnerits of dleoom.p,ll,anre matrix.a]ld tlil.e engill.eerlng COllsta'nts are s:.h.ot'I'YI.ilt Thble.s Ui and. 2,.7"

The nonzel·O and' .z:e[Qe]eme.:n:~!l of uh~, compl:iam:::e M1atrilX can· btis:~ibe 'seen when the m:atrIX: ]8wri.t~'fin i~.~b,e fo[m

, S'l S~·1 SIS- 0 (I Silli,
&I~· .nl Err o (I SUi·
[8] 'Si~ Sn .s:l!;~ n (I S_%
- : {~26)
0 c (I ~~. .s:~5· Q
a Q.' 0. S4.~. s~~ (I
s· S21l. $3~ 0: tI .S6.r;.
_, J~ T~~~ 2.!i. The Mgifileeri:l1lg ccm:'lt(lli'itsf6:r mooool'lnl:c l1tila'l~a1s. For orIi1iO'lr;cipIicJlillJrls.Ve~~ !s01!l'iipit, ,ami is01!~:Op[c 11fil~~S.t<18 =t>t:l :=!J" lIlt ~.v.B~=fI~ V;st =Ua3~.{)'. V~5 =.1154, =0

Yourlg'&mMuilug i:tt the JrE Jilrecliol!l fuism:t'l's "[alto iii the, 1I1-~ pl1ine [\}Uisoo>~ :mb.o iUl fue,. ,tl""X~ p:l.111e rulSSOitt piliramde,t

Young'~mo.dlLlllilg':i:n, t!he '"2 t1JirecHoll fuiss.om's "[alto iil.l~e ,1/tl:-XI: pl1li\e ~:i.!lSQ(t'I>~ :mb.o iUlllie. .,t;!-X":l p:1.2111e fuls~.Oii'I pilirametet YOlln~·~modu:ll.lg.ifi t!h.e _:I) dJirellllQI] [\}:U;S'{l(t'I>u~lio in i.L._e.. ,trx~ pl~ne fui.ssorntsmli.o iil!:he. i{l-~ plant' ]?ai!~o:t'l.p<):r.amil::~er

.EI= <1:if.~l jlH =~!:_2!"·b "'1:3 =, -e3!c·t :"~6 =, 'r'ltf!~I. .&= ",-j.~z !IJ:ll =~!il/"2. ,~~ = -~>!€'}_ :t'.i!r, =, f'J:l;_fEI"

£'1· == a~i.,~ 'i':lJ = -el.!c·:l -'l.i'j2 .=, -':',2/"J ~!':lfi =;·l'l'.,/~J

$he0.t t'I\Iodl,lihl~ liJ1' l'lfi.e Xa-J!}pl.aE1¢ .~i£scr.tl .. :par.~mete.t

v~ = ~/n.J; "~~= "'Yl:>!_rp.;J,

Sil~at :n\;[)dlJ!luS'i'll,t~e xl-xlP~ane P6j,sSCh'fi loram,ete,f

GU=·-r'Jo!:m, 1.-'H =, rJ/'r;}

:GI~ = ·TJi!'i'l2 '!l6., =·e,jyq,rt;~ = e~/rr.~ Vi:;; =. ~~/)I~2

Sh~a~ :n\;DdillllS i'll,t~e XI~,1!t p~<lne ~i.s~o.tI p;lil"am.e:te,f

r.a.l£S'OO pal:'am..e:tf:.1'

.~jss6:t'l p1it.amet~

I~. ~... r"" ·1 '" a ~ fl· = G;~ '~~, r= .. ,. L, ,i,

Tlrble 2.6. ~emernts ilf'ih~ oolilp,1iance Iitilfltrib:: ill'lterms il,ihe eiiI'Qilil:'eerl~, i(XinsIMls tbr ilM~~i'lilic mareri\alls.. ih.e e:llpt'e$sll;!ns area1SD \laNdfor il~MlrWic:,lh1lr~s'!nH'sely ilGlropr:e" Md"[t5iOlr:O«limli'l:'flltel'iial~ w"dh Si~ "" ~1 "" I~; ~ ,,,,, ~~ .... (1,. S:l6 "" ~ .... iO, S~5i "" s~ "'" o.

S~i. ~"I./.fFJ=.;!I(~L"'d= rl;-' ~~I = cdc) = "'2/{.E,cu) = _ '~.~ S~I= E]jC'J = !5~/{1::'L~~~' == -·~l~

. \. "I

s!] = Elfcl = !;l/(EiElJ == _'lL &2.2. = ~U'}. =·~l!(.E:!e~,) = t . $u =s C3/(F2_ = ,,~!( &"2 ~ == _ ¥; s,~ = Ell"" =. "'I/f&,,~~ = -.~

,. ."~ .," ~1 ~i.

.S;z_, = £7./Cf3 = e.z/{ E';JEc] J = - -:. S!:j = E~/(]}, == !53/( ~El1 == is~~ = {}

:s~ =(}

5"" =1}

·.st~ =,0

,$;]~ = 0 5l~ =0

s~~ = c,[/r12 =i!'I/{Gm)ll2.) = ;;~~ SUo =' E2fTli ='?1:"/(Glly!2}'= ,~ S36 == o?j!T]~ = ~j/(G!:l.Y12.) = ~~

j'~i == () 5~! = {)

c, _ / '( r.'_ '\ ·:i~ :'l!1 == 1fI~ "',I =rlU· . .:1a'E'] I == ·.Iii'l

S<t~ ==~J

:S~l= 0

8(.2= v4fJ'2 == ·Yj~/r&IS..z) =* £1$ == {I

55j ={I

Sffi = JfJ2j.:f3= )'Jl/~.E-"f3) == "$'

5<14 = Wi/Tzl = }'i.1!{Gici}':-3)= ~> $~, = YB/T'1..l == lm/~G:l~~)'=;lj iSn.!,=O

~ = Y:13/r]3 = )li.1!(G.qm}= ~~. Sf;s = J'l:l/~B == »:If( GI :WU} == * SiE == tI

'S!l5 = ()

SSr. ={I

·s~ = yaUt)1 == Yk21(OU1I'J2)= di!

The stilfne:s.s m:atd.;,; i~ olbta:~ned br.illve:rting the.,oom.p:nance mattix as fo:l~~Jw~:

ren CI:2 Cu 0 I) ,q~

£'11L ('22 C2]. ij 0 C~f!

[C.l. "": C.".~:l.o C~ CJi] (I (I CJt.! . (2 27~

'-' {I 0' C"" 4~' Q: .', ' i

l Q {I o C<l!.~ C~~ (I

elf> C':z,& G'~~E. ~ 0 (~.iiq .

. Eec3luse tlli.e I[S] and ~C]. ~.natlk;es,aresymimf!u:ical (Eq,. 2~2:5) Oldy B.·of the elements areim':fep.ende!Ilt.~'T:a·Me 2,,8)-

When tihere are 'tl1re~ m1l!t:llIiII.~[y 'perpendimlar symmetry [planes; with. respeet to the lIiu~iIllnenn .of the fibersthe maserlal is referred tQ. as ortbotropic {Fi~ 2l1)" fuarnpUes of 1?,~tihotmlPic fi'bel"'Te~[lfor,Df:d~colnpoMtes a [e.sJ!lDw[I.iin !Figure 2,12" For' linor,tlhbtn5picffillte:dal. we':!<pE!'cJfy' the s.t'ifmess and! complial1ce matrices-inIhe X'l, of,2, x.'!'comdJV[lates.-ystem. G;f;finedij]1j S!li:Ch 11 willy that the ilxe;s<are perlPelldkubr[ to the three pUlIl:Ies of ;!l.y:mmerry (Fig;. 2.11)_

We apply 3. uerma] sfr[~S'f1l ~F1ill:" ::;UJl Becausee, is hI fne X:l..,Q[~ sYWlm.f!~ry (orthot:ropy) :pl~ulc[!I~ ol1i:..of.Jp]:;line ;slille;lr' sfrains are zero, (rL3 ~ l"z3 ",. OJ, and.

Hi

Table 2,,1. The ooqliiBooe,fiI,atrYil(i!S ill 'i.tmilS ~'tne el1lglnoorl'li1g ClmstaJilts "Of llIiiooocllnlc, O[tfru)'lrtlpj~,!rM~~rsel~ ~sot~plc, ,and~sO'~opl\C Ij'IilllteliaJiS"·,

_1. !ill. .!::1t 0' I} ~
i?1 -I':l - il," a~'~
I.i~'l: 1 'tin (I ti I.i~
e, 'Bi ~ Gjt
L!~~ .~ 'I U, I) !'!t..~
[SJ ,~, ~I 4. ~ Gn
0 0 .J... ,~ o
"i!im '.l~~
0 Q, Q I'·~S ,I '11
0.3 G]J
~ '¥ ~ {I I} cl;-
- 1--1 ,q~
i 1'~,1 I~~ (I< {J '11'
]j' Et: - .n'L~
_,,~ 1 -~ 0 (I ,(I
i-'; E1 E]
"J~ j.!ii:~J :I, {I fl .0
[S]= ,t;j ~ ~
0 D D tk I} ;0
D D 0 Q' t- :0
Q 0 Q 0' n .t,
" (,~t
.!.. .-~ -~ 0, 00 Ij}
:f:"g 'l1
lit:: :I, ~ () ";(1 n
fO, 5i El.
-!!¥ -!# J. 0 o {I
[Sj= ~I "-I: ~
D 0 () '2{I,+~) 11 {I
~
0 Q Q Q, J fi
·~,f~~
0 .Q Q Q {I l
G.i~
I ... ~ [I 0 0
B Il ]'
.--=.:t. I, -!. {I Q 0
~ 7i! s
" -1-'- ~, [I 0 Il
[SI ,= -~ --r ':i?
o 0 o ',2(l+"~ Q o
.If:
0 Q {I {I ~ 0,
I} 0 tI 0 g 3j,u+,,)
-5-' - because ",):i8 1I1.s0 in the Xl,-X,l ,symmetry ptaae .• 'the ».2 := 0 ;snear straln :is zero, Thn~i:mpltC:!il that &'4,. 5'l,~; . .s10 are zero, Hy sim:il3f argumelf)fus~it C:1U be 1iful,o-wn tn,al for'an {J[~hotwpk maltEn,11lth,j;l 5'24, .82:>, Sg, S34, ~~, ~., 54s. ~6, S~~f, e~em'f,nts ar€> ~Iso zero, Aocmd~[j~, the iXJril!pHal1te matrfx ]s

:sill Sn St3 o [I 0
8'1:2 ~22 S±3 o [I 0
I[S] Sl~~ ~2:i, ~J3 flo 'G} 0 {2;28)
""
0 {J 0 .54c4, (I I)
0 fJ' [I n S:~5 0
0 o 0 0> (I .Sl.i;,_ The elemel1~s of tbe ;com:r~iatu:e m~ll'ix are Iisted in 'Iable 2A. In terms of the 'e,nill~n.eer;i~lg .~nstanfs, theooID!p:Ha:ri~,m.l.'ltd_;{ is ·guvi:::FI in 'Iah]e 2..;7, D,e sti:ffl.less'

T~bll! 2.8;. The non2'er·(I eJllifjni'he,etirngiDooslanl.$,ftJor InMooOnl'C, .omo1iKi)pl~ hrliS'llf.~sBlljliiSOlmilic:) ud i!S.ulr~iq m:tel1a!~ (if "" iF~, see TilDle! 2::7}

rlioozet'c"e:n!li jlffil ~ing ,6lI1lS'1;lin:lJ'i:,

Ti:li:tl.,~ver;sely isotropic;

E~ (=:=.f:) ~,i: (== v}

li:u,&,1::1 G'~~, G;:;', Om

111~,l'i'. '~!l 1116.1J~, ~< ~_..,.

Eu,~, .E.3 Gil;. Gi~, G]2

~!2., litl., ·i!Zl.

lEb EI c;h

.& == E2,. G~l =,',"G~z

g •.

G;n= ~(I+~.) ul3 = 11m

'&! ,=. £1 =, E; 11lJ .=. vn == iI

G;~ = ~~ = G].! = ZJ:I;")

P't.FJ,UIT~ :1::1 2: ]nltl~.tr~lirilJ~ (!>ffih~r"r~II"I'i!ltc·~cI":~F~holmpiol>·cm1l1pD.~~~~S:'Tbe fibcri> · .. re'[}~~t:nl,eclJ in three m:i:i,tually p'~r;pei:J~CII~ill: directions Qefl:); dilc-Jiiber.5 are 'li:i!!i.1rlbul~clJ Cqjilliil~~i il'l the +0· and -fJ di[~di1J<liH:i in .~ml~ JlIiIF.~!h::~.lll· th,Q ,q-.,!l_ plane (rl:s;rr9-

17

G1 j- -', ',;r,t

'<1- i : ----;>

1_- .-J

.

E'~g,ur~, :LB: ,Pi.. norma] stress "'I lIPfl~lcJ in th~ J;;I'-h~ 8I}J''Cl-~ S)'Jl'I,[11e!1)' Iil.IIJn~~ oi;,a!rt GTtim~ro;pj~ n'Liliterilil,

~iffn,ess matrix :1l)e
reU Cl:2 en (I 0 ~
eu C22, en (I o '0
Ire] lCf c!:~ C:]~, [I ,Q 0 {2.,29)
- 0 o C~4i o (I
0 o tI c,~~ (I
(I 0 P Q o ,~ [nlh_e [Sl iln,d, I[£'J ~lII!a1r"kes of,the 12:'n1Jin,Zel'Q el:e,ooents only 9,are in,1:!lep,:ende'llt (Tabls 2"8). EgiJi!ituon.(2"2.9) ci!iJ:t'be' wii,ttell~.n the, fOoflJll,

[LJ

1[0 (I 0]

" 00, 10 0 (,}

1[0,.' • 0"., 0, ':]

I {I f.I .0

o TI Q

'fie sl1bmatr~~ (L] ,.Ul.d [kf], at"l ~venin Tabl,es 2:9 and 2JO If:l!:erms of the en"J:!leedll" ·conSltaf.ltR

EI. ..~ .. .-

With [h,e tompl,]lI,llre'!I:lT.I,i!l'.hi;tgjven-by E~, (L28)., 1I:!e*;rill~tressrtHatioii,shi!ps

(Eq" L13)lgecom:~

(\l ,:s'I.:L S $u '0 {} Q 'G\"l
12
(1 .811 S.u .5'2:], 0 o 0 'i!1'l
i $11 ~ Sjj} [I 0 (I
(} D'3 {2,31)
1 - I o {I o ~,j 0 (I 1
JI'iB , 1"2].
Yl.~ I o 0 o (I .5'~~: (I In
,}'I1! o (I o (I o Sr£6, 1'tl 1iht~ eqU:1tlOl~, ilhmW! :1U i:mpo.rt:tu,lt ,feMJuHl 'Qlfo:rthotrO,p;iic .m:ne[i3.~s;!)mne[y; lhatno:nnll~, stresses do not [lFod:u(:e ~!hear de fOI 1lT4'lti".ons· w:hen tlITies,e,BtI~S&eS UIl) iin.the Xl., Ji'i,2" ,rf; tn:tllOtmpy d:~recUm:l~NCi~e., l:i(lwevi3([,t1;ialt :no[!Ilal stresses applied! in. the Xi y,. Z d'ilections (,wh]dl. dO.11otco:indd!.e winh. tb,~ Jt\],.J["l, x3 orthotropy dhecfiol1s) restrll ~:FH.he1Jjl" d.do:rn:HI~lqIilS, a~':iiHI1~tmtE:dI 'in H!J;!l!l'E:. 2J4,. Til t&!i.s case (111 tb.e J[, y, Z C1.1>OrotmIle ~y:'it!l;m) nO[le of: tbe elelll.ent~ ·af ttJeCb.rnp.Ha:nce snd sUfhle;<i~·meClitJ;kes.i1i zem,

1&

Table 2.9. The [[] $:i1i1ma.tri:l: In ~.~2,30lt\:it!lrlhl!lt~~c, trllnS1leJ5~L'i is:ot:I'!:IlliG,

aoo is_~c mMertal!s·· .

1.1

] -11

fllbl(la.11l. ir~ [M} Subma.tfb;)!rn 1!Q,~2.3!l1 for orthQ1r;Ofl[.e, tal'lSver.sely 1i5G~o~i~ iIfiId.i~1IlliC iMre~:!IfIl

OFthnt.'lmpioC

r>q~ [1'

(I

f,' 1(~+") {i

.• . o~

~'

1>'

Fug.urrl:; 1J4; 0"[Hi.o:tt0ri\[;;~8I'ed8!. :!llllib:jcr;t!::d 10 !Ii I1brmll~ !iit~ 'rht:re Is 11") inc81:" strain w.h·ciI ~ih!1<~"n:~s LIS· i1ippliil'clJ h~ .. OJ]e ~JfAn~ .:o:rt!iloh;,[]'PY .sUrecliu,n:> ~!d't), hli!HI1I~e h~ 5!h~r strainwhen the :d·i:Cs.~ ill:!Jl(l,t almig 811 pr(h.mrrpF,ry direction (:rV¥n~)..

A tr:a!l'ls\'e:rse~~( .isotropl.c nla'tedll~ has three planes of ~}>':IIIinu:ll)' (f\iig,. 2 . .11) andi, as slLIih, i~is nrthetrople. llra. o:i:le of thep[anell of!iyrn1nell:'y the :mllt:e,i~a;Us t~ea:l'iHhls isohopk. An.exa/nlpil.e O'ltru;r!sve;rs.e~y iSQkopi.c.maot.e:ri'al is aoorn~~te reinforced 'wifh :C1J'E1t~llll~ms·'UnklJireclioIia.lfibe:[-8 ",'uth al~ thefibers aligned .in the Xl d:il1ec:'l:io-n (ry'1} '2J.5} .. rn. thhs.c:as.ethe'l!lY.1te:rialiin·tlil.e p~lIne perpendicular to the fibe:[S{llr;![} p~a[le)~s' treated as Jsotroplc ..

For ·a. t£1l!lJ:S'versely :isotropic material we specify·theS'tH~nes~ and. compliance ntlilnc:e:s :~n an Xi., ):;2:. x,J 'coord!inll:te sYsleln. chosen in. such a W;lIj' that. tfui.e axes are pe!rp:endiu'ef!l]ar'~o the 'planes ofsynnrnetryand! x~ t<i, perpendi.cul,aT to the~~<Ii:1e of isqtrop¥ (¥II} 2l5)"[u tlllg ooorilllinate. s}'1!·t:e.m, bec:a'Use.af Hll.a:terial sY1ume;t:ry four" of the .Poisson ml:i('ls. are .Z~[Q (L.'!~. "'" ~!M= :1)~6 "" 1)4&. "'" 0).. Puithermcee, because .of isotropy t:llIfi folil.o'iv]llg enginee:ri:ng. oonst,a~ts are. related:

(2.32)

. lh

G, ~ "" -:;.-:---.,-

- 2(1 +~)

(2.34.)

Equ'll1"ion~ (2.,32) ~[Id Q,34}, tll\!l;fHhir witill ~ill!i ~xpI:e.~;<j.iiOM in Table 2 .. 6 (page. ],4), y.ieJ.dJ~¥eDp.m;plian~ nmi:l!:i[l te>II.l'l:!(ofthe gl).gi]Jeer)nf,l eDin:statl~~ The

'1 E. P.hj;lOlI, Bl'J[UJ",enp.I'g .jfedl<JIli,c:s· af SOlhf.r. rullticc~H!liIJ, BIIJliLl!WDOll'Cl:iff:i, NL~W JClrnq, 19'!.M1~, p:.15·1.

:rfl'!iI!l,Vls aregi"ren in Table 2_7 (page 15). 'illlle z~roand!. llpnrem d.e:me[Ils.o;f~he corn.p~il~~I,Ge matrixare

S'i.~ 5'l.;l: 8.1.2 f) f.I -(}
S~2 5'1:1:, SUo 0 [I '9
[~'] S'1~ S:n $:u [I [) {]I
_ 0 0 (j l{Sn .5'23) (I 0
-
II o (I f) ~ tl
(] o (I 0 f). Sm& {2.3S}

The stuffness·m.atdx is obtained b}'inli'ertfing .tlile .oom.pVhfllce.mll*rt~, The zero and noneern elements oftbe s;tiffness matrlx are,

rCa c C]:1 {I >0 0
E
·Qu!: C;u en {I o (I
[C] leu c~ c:21, 0 0 (I (2.36)
_. (i' (I n _c~~~ ;0 (I
z
Q 0 {]I 0 eM 0
(I (I {J 0 0 CIlfj_ In 1€D1!S ·cif the. e]!Jg][Ieerilig con;s,t.an"i:s, t~1e ~d.ern.ent!l qf tbe stjjffness. matrix: are gioveu'by Eq. (130}.

In bDnl!! the oomp.Vhtnte 1I1ld stiffness matrices, of the 12I!lo:rl:z;er.o e1em.ents O!l:l)';y' 5 are ]ndiepelldJent (Th.ble 2.8,pas;e, Hi).

[]"I <1[1 ]i'otropk l:nateriaU fr~le[e are no ptele:r.re.d. dire.ctim~sillld!: every .~'~1Ine-:is a. p'~3neQf llymm.etry" ful'eK!lll[Ifpl~;.~ cQll'Ipos~fre I;Qnl<ll.lI1:ill!,l. 1IlllI'~ mJmib£:I of raniJlO'.mly Qf'le.ntedfioors: ibdmves;in an isptmpic m~[I[1eL Fo]' :an lsot,mpll: Hl3t.gdll.~. lhe cQo.Hilin~:te .sy~tem utay bechnsen arJP.i,tr~rl~y, Here, we pnesentrhs co.mpl]~[Ice and the lltiffnes~ mlj.~r.uresin 'tib'e Xl, )i~·"a1!1~ Ji:300ordl:m!I.l!lce}ystemL

Because of material .symmetry f:Otlf ofthe PoiSllOI1 rafios.arezere (IIJ.I'; aa l'2i'i. "'" !J_'lfi "" !I~ "" OJ. AlsQ, because ofisot:ropy some ·of the e:fI.,gu[lee:llin!l: 'OOlllsi;!l!I~ are. related as f-oH.ows:

Ej ""'. Ei "" &. -"'" E :1)23 :"" Vn "", 1!~2. "",. II

(2.3'1)

O.38}

Equa1ti(,JIJ:!l (2.37) and 'Q33),. t(lgether wUlvh the expresslens in Tahle 2.6 (pa:ge 14)" gftli',e tlil,e .~mpH"ncelil'HrUK :u'n t.el1lil!lOf l!heengirr.eerinl~ CO[lSt3[1TIl .. 'iIi":he

·2.3 51lRIE5S-5TRAI!itl1 RELATI!lIN!iIillIPS

2.1

" S!,;l $12 (I (I 0
I's:; SU SL2 ,0 (I 0
I[S1 "'" Il'f SI,l S~TI [I fJ o
0 (I 2{Sn - 8;l2) [I c
0 (I (I 2(Su - 812) 0'
,0 {)I ij [I (I .2{S:Li-Sd
(2.39) The ,stiff.~.es;s nl3,lldx.is o'Millne.d, by lrivt':IiI:.irng Ul.e complimremail'bt The elements of UU~ sHffnes;s m<ll,t~tx are

eu Cl:2 CIa 0 P (I
(h, en [1.1 0 P (I
Ire] en Cb :C1I (I >0> (I
_. (I 0 o Ctl.·-C12 o (I
-2-'-
(I 0 o (I .(_-I:i,-CII~,. (I
.1 .. t=g~ -C:I~
(II (I (J I) o ~ [11 tfTffit!),'\lf tl.~e e]lgimn:::rlin!:l,oo:nSI{arlls., .the elemeuts of ~he,.stnffl1eSil matrix {I:[~ gi.'!fen by Eq, (2.-.3ii).

[noo~ll the .oompii.ance and st~ffness ][Ia;trires, effhe J2~.QIIZew e&en':lents nn~y :J are ]l1diepelld,el1t (Ta.b~e 2,8,. p1ige 16J

2.1 '['XiliIIlpl.e. C{Jlcil{(j~,e .the elemt:Jtt~ ofilw iil:iffiU!ss. and ,compfianlGe malr.i'Ct:$ ()f a gr:aphite epoxy !mirifrer::l-iar!l1l p.l}: The, 'f!ngi;f1,e:eri~r;g constants a;rlt given t1-s El := 148)( 1!Q9['Vlm.2• £2 "'" 9~Mx Ui>J N!mI, G~2 "'" 4.55 x 109 Nlm2.W'12 =0 it3.a~Jd vn"".(t6.

Solu~iotl .. !Fo[ .8: tmn~",ene[yisOlmpic Ul3:te.'!".iail[he 'OOH!lF@hmce matrlxis gi.vel"i 'in 'f1ilble 2~7 (pall,e l),~Mrd ·:f.Ow)"By subsfrihltin~. the en~iUleedng cQIlstantsEnto the expres:5lioill:' iin Table: 2" 7,. and. by "lliIsi[lg ·t'h.e ,oolllid.iition thar 1.J.,:j! E; ."" Ii j.i I Ej (see Ta;bJe :tg, page 16) weobJai.n

6 .. 76 -2.[11 -2AB 0 (I 0
=,2JXll IO:HJ =02..18 0 0 (I
.-:2..03 -62J.8 lO~}lS I) (I .0 jjli
I[S] w-H_·_.
- 0 o 0 331.61 0 0 .. N
.0' .0 0 0 21~t78 0
~. LO 0 0 0 ~219.78 . ~ (2.,.41 )

matci'K
, 15:2.47 '7046 '7A6 0 0 0 I
I 7A.6 ]5.44 9"411: 0 (I 0
7A6 9A11 l:M4 o 0 o ~N
rCl ""'. [Sri - ! I In-,
o [I (I 3J:il6 U 0 I :m1
o ij (j 0 4",55 o I
0 {I {I {} 0 4,55_ There :he drOl1msta~lce~ '''v:h~n the stresses and! strains. donot V8.lY in :1 c~rt3:~n d~;ree~ion" This ,pin:~tiQn is de!'ii~nated.by ,aii.ther tlilex~ or llil.e z axiis (Fig, 2.J.6) .. A[J:thougn; '~he 'Sjresses and 'stl'altns: 'do ,[Iol ,'a:~ a,ilCElil.g )(1; (or z), th,e;y,may 'vary ]n p~al'les ,p-erpend'kl!dar to th'e,x1' (or f) axis, This"co[ldltion is ref'Elne,m to as plain.€>~triin C(l'FI.d:~tiO]1J.,

WIra.e:n pla:i1e.~~rain' condition ,ex:usts 'l,l!l a. body made, or an iisotr9pk nll;lteria] the x~-a.c1. (~I: x>-y) p,~al.~es':f.If the cra~;Sf-c:i.iioru Fem.ain p~ilI[le and! perpendlcular to the Jt;~ {(lr i)o,axis, in a bot]y made of 1I1fi ani8otrop:ic'rn.aterl,.aIJhe~ep~<I[le8 do not n.eD!':s8<llf1ily temlll,n p~:a[le:

PI,an:B:.~l[ailil condUtioll,may exu~~ fal' from ~,lile eoCQges in. 3. ]o~ b~,rwi,th constant ill'O,liS section wn,en bntbthe m~lClTl,al. prQp,-&Titles'andi tfue applied~oads 1.'lI::~ un~:f:arm

f-r -t~~~t+! I' ·"'·r· Body I

ForDe

t+-

.,777'7- "TP:""7"':m'"'7'l""

H,~lm~ 2,17: Surfaee and. body l'u:I'~!ITi;;J:l'mlry be 8pp'li~ under p!~1Je;-str8~1l. oDIliHHiOOl, The !!ippHeJ f8~D~~,'rnust hClilJif8rm ~l!DE$ tk~[}ngy~~din~~ .. tlxli· andruus] b~ in equl~~brium ,fm' eaeh i~s.I1!elJ~,.

-c:»: r~

F1(~um2 lK '~bJe, eon, sup~(~r~!:l~iQ.T '~trr_ucili[n 81l81yzed!:by plane-strain amdi~fon_

along the l,o,ngiti!Winal ,uri's and, ]n <lIddiit],on, the leads <lire I !I, e:qufHbiullnlon any p:~a[le ~egmenH (Figf 2J7)~

Vi,l'ben the afm:eme!l'lUone.d!p,III,ne<"$tmi,]l cam:iJit]t1n exi~'l:s, lhe three·di:mensIDmd anal}l!l:is s:umpl:ifie~ 'CQI1~iderab~y"For a:1!1 h:D~[~~,C' m:de4Ja:~.~he FI.oI'rn,al straJ:fII, ~J (oJ" E<)~[l the 3ix:~~l, clir-fJctlon (~3 Qr z:) and! the ,ou~.Qf·rla:ne ~h,ear ;<>1rai[ls YE{ aad Y21 (01 l",,<; aDd 'r'y,) are H:m,Pm:'~,btlir.Iel:n:fo:[ced cmnposites tbe;se StF3[1]S, are not nebe:ssli:lily zero." 'No"me~h,6!e~s, as ,is d~.cu~8dHn this chaptl!i:r, p1ane.strainoondittian intm,cj!uCt1S s:ilJ:l[piUfic.atio[l,S- t!l'Ia~ fad~i!ta:t:e the a,V!,a;~YS1~

()gqBJ.«lry. 'The eross sectloll -p~qJCIldk;~~a[ to tbe a;l{i~, and. th.e material [prop· -ertiet'ii rnULlstnot' vary ,al,ol:lg the l,ength.,B,Olh ends of ih.etJ.ody may 'be buiiU .. ln or may he free, or one end:mllY b-e buiU .. in ,dlIl.e the other one~s free ~Hg. 2..18). \\-Ihen oofrbe[lds ar-e built-ln, I:~.e lotlgitudl:!n.al. axi;s, (Xl' or z) remains 8Jt:[3~ght 111m] itsle,'n;gth fe;miilins.-com;~a!nt "Wne:I!I;one orlbqfrlil: ends are free, the lcm:git~di]1al i!lx'is 'rIlliynsoom.e 'ClUVed.' and! 'its..~ellgth.]l]ay chaQge_

Fib'l!f' ari,'en1atitJn. On the basi<: o.f Iifuerarue[):t3.1'~on, the fu,ody~s a~la'.yz€:di as g¢ller~.~I.y-a]l:US:(UFOrk, mOI'l.Cldi'nic, tirthO;tropi,C, lra;mver,S1ely ilsotrgpk, or .isotmpic. (FIg:. 2J 9}

Tf:m~""L':rs'dy" i.!;[t.t~pic

~;

~!

~ Lhlj

.(ien6J:li Hy :!iniSi;llrniJl.~.~

24

ng,ure i,1O:, ml!i1s~rrmkm~, of !li!J;r,~';3£e' iIlml :ooJy for'D~S' tml!l!l m,ay 'Dt::'<l[lphcd. UlUJI![' pblii~~tr.!!;n I)lJlildilioa:!_

hi. addition H"~he"Ii~r .a[rllIl;geme~t;:. shown la :Fiigu[€l2J9, tlil.e cOnl!p:osi.te may co,nt3lnany co~bil'ia:ti~h,of t'!he fi~; irra:ngemeFl:~. shoW[! i:il_[MsJlg!u'r~" 1fulB ]mpor~:l'I.tra,c~ is that~n;:e analys~!l must be pe:rfol'lnediai:%ordifnj); ,to tlilemos;t ,romp~ex:fifu:ea:ana.ngeme:nt i:lk'i:uaJe th.eboclJy, A body t~.l:a:tCC[lta:~n~t~t]ea""to'Ule ge:l'I.eraIJ.y anl~ohuplcfibe'r aI[r.an,~e:ment IllllSt be treated as !j~l'I.eraUy an,isc)tmpic:,a-~dy .Iilat cQn!1!ists ,of nlQDodin:iic, ort~ohopic, and t:ra'Elsvers.ely,lS4J,troiPk fiber arr1lngements must be t[eat~d:asmCl!tlodink::< a. bady that-censista of or th,Qtropl:C aad tramvel'lleJly isotropic .fibeir 'lII.mngem.entSl mnst.be.jreeted as. QrlIilQlt,yo,pic-_

FbI' ][J;onocil:uili.c, (niil:otl'Opk, :lI1(!d tranwersely kfQ~r~~~m:ateirilll~ t~le ~m;;}ly;s;rs siimpiifies co:n;dd!~ral:dyw.hen one;,.o:Uhe :mah::iJal s."i'n-iimeb}! planes, tQ~~dde;s, \¥Hh ~he pl.an.eo( phme~tmln.

Wads. N;()ii'mliLl,,[~n:geJltia.Jl, a.n'd a,:.\:~ai f!J[ces., may ,act: ma.~he, :mr(aoe, ~h&bmly fo[!=esn:ul'l' ad '[\Il,])8;n.el. and :njJom:tal to~h~ I.pngufudil'la:~ axis (Fig',2-W},. 'ill'!\ese.

Axiill

2.4 PlANEc'-iSfRAINI,ODNOmON

fJ= fao.t/.A

1.1

lfJ.. = f x",,~dA II

M..= fjM~dA

JI

f' == f (yr .. , + :Hlo'J .. tlA

'"

fJ=jG'];dA ""

.lQ~ = j'xla.ylA

IL

£1\ == f x':l~tlA

JI

f = f(~ZH+ xI t"1.~)'1..'1 ,I

<lippl~.e(l force.s (k!.ad\s) may [lot vary along the~e[lgtl~; In adld:itiol:l, 11>1"1 axial fan:e, ntome.nl, aad torque' may be a..iP~Hed lilt the e:n~. (Fig,. 221J "!li'he for(;e!labtlng pe!rpendiimdar ,md pata~le1to the .loI1Wtu(]i[la.~.aj{L<: ~r"B r-denedi ~o a~~I1.pbLl1e and ,mil-of.plane.

~ -" - _'. ". "_ .

Each .of the_]oadls: shown iniFi~l!i.H!S 2:;2[1 and ~Ul may a"clt "i~l cm;lll:Jiin.atioill" .A,s

s;~ated P{e!yl.QlIISly, '~be on[l/' :req.l!:iremeI1i~ ill t"ha~ fhe iCilldi~!be i!li. eq;ui]ilttrllll.1Il1. oneach ~gnTecnt (flil!} 2.17) efll11.eb:oJ.y,

The end lOlldsshown Jn Hg,ure 2.:21 'are t;e]aite;(j]~he to t~e. stresses 'lb.,yrrhe expresslons ~'ile[l ill Tapl)le·,2JJ,.

W'lilentwQ "Or more 'types ·of 'lnads are'appl:ied, thestresses ,an,G. strains can indep.e:flde:Elliy be 'calcu~ a ted for each type of to.acl, Th:e's,tre~8e~ 'lind :strai;ns thus obtaiFlm.· ar,e thea superimposed to :obm~n. -thefina~ Ieslli~t~

_Di~p.{[J£{!m"Jiit~. :Plaine·8trliinconcl!~h,o:n. requires thll.rr th.e strains do no(]l[vary :!I1Q[lg 'the .1.Q!lg~tiUdi.ml.~. ax:u:l Thus, ]11 the ,f~ y ,:1: coordli[lllt:e .~-ys~em we ha~'e

8'£-"_ (I at"'~ _ [I .1.;..: ~ (I

a~- (1.<:: - Jj'z

~B_ (I fl,}'",.... "" [I ~_tr,Y~_ 0

CI.r - Bz . Hz - "

(2;,.43)

The fa~lowing di:spLaoemellhl 8;aH~fy these 'oollditEOIl~'

" . ]...,

!.t, "" V (x,JI} - C1},l:- 2C1'<O'

1 ... '", u == V(:t,y) +- Ci.l'<:: ~ z-C1r

U! "" W (x. y) + (CzJt: -+ C~y + C4} z,

where V.V, a:ndW are fu:net:ipn~ t.h.:ii d~:rc:nJ 'only Oll..l: .and y, and Ch C2c, C1, amlf C4 ar-ecQ[lsta:nlts: 'Pm ~]!rIlIl:~ di~la!ce:mCUits'we·hne.fh.e fQI~m'l'.lnilll"e:~~,ti€ins:lilips.J:

(2A4)

1 (l21~ Py ""-,fj,~'

(2,45)

:i_ S. (Ie L~~hruiils:kH, TfJ!eIJ'Y:!' of-.~d.'l/;id~,.· of ~11.JIfJi1-f.iil'ropi~ .B()ajl. Mi{ .PUblisDerS. J\..lQ~oow, 19.8'1, .!:t. 11M. ~ T ·a:. 9.. M'~D" Ai~ilft SI~!Jy!j,!i~Rf{'}l' Ej!f;uJet!'iiJ'jft)~ltrll;jm.~.ld Goi.timi Ha[s,j)C,[flPr=. Jd§In WHGy'& Sp'I1i!'.; N~w Ym'll:, 1999, p. 2&1~

DISPLACEMENTS. STRAINS, .A.NlliI S,1iRBSSES

':1\1

PigLlre 2:22: JHu~bilii1JiIl, (~" ~n~' rotations oi' ,l~;e elern~f;I:t~ pifHl!nd'. Vi;hfl the .r- <Incl. ~f'€IXI::~

11

wn.ere 'E'~~8 the :s<t.m,i!n: ,lIlong the hJngitJUdi.nal axis; l/p_",; 1/ Px --a:rf: the ctl.n,'atU[C.li of die klJl,g~tiUdhlal ;}Kis if! the J[-Z 'and p-z planes, [~spedii'\i'e.~y .. By vj]Il\ue of iiI¥,,/il;:; "'" 0 (Eq.: 2A3J, we have CEq, 2,U 1

f)h~ a;2~1

_' __ +- _'_,_ "'" R

~J(l~ iilxil:!::

Wedef.if.le

i) m :~ (::) ~ -:~ G:)·

(2.,47}

A:srs, :il.Uusfrra:tedi~ Hg:me 2.:22, (j represiD.fu:: HIe ra'l:e oft\yust.of thecress ~ectiion~ The CQ:rIsmni;s .u,il.' .Eq,. (2AiI) a.re determllleJ' as f'Oliows: From, Eqs, (2A7) and! f2,A4) wehve

cf.l;l' iJ2.l:i

fl' -'-.""----" '''''41.

i:lxl1z a jiB:;; '.

PromBqs, (2.45) and (2A4) we w.rite

~'" "'" ~w""C

'< ~::. 4

1 f.F2J1

----, _,C,

p ... " - ',1-..:;2 - J_

1 a~!r

-·"",--'"",C~

./';t, (J~ ,"'

We, Cain now wIi:te 1he displ.acem,en,ts 118

" , 1 1 ,.:1

u"" U(:r. y) - Wyt - ~PJ'T

I 1 _]; tI "'" V {x ' y} 9-- it'xz ~ .~ ~.:l;. ,

" ' 2 ;0"

(2.49)

I~ r "'" W \Jf, y) + {..!,,;r + _!_ y + (.~) •... ~~

\P:!I Px

IiJ:uise:"l:e]l!rE:s.e,lI.1!: fhe mHo\\!;i~g five def.ci:!'rn:atilQ]ls:, (F~~"023}:

i Planar - pJalles perp~nd!ic'ula[ u:rt,he lo";giiUldinal axis r-ema;til1 p~lIill! and perpe,!IIiC!Ii~l..ar to U~e ~s

.' "Nonillillfaar -planf;q:lel'pendicular'to tihe .IDllglt<udiml.] l.'lKJS de(ul'm. out ef ih.e plene

(252}

...q

'"'".

~"'*

\~V----)

o ~.=-_:'i: ... ~. / '- -

'. ' ' .....

~,

-:

--.1:

- '\r

~ r~

i I

, , i

\ I i . '~I r

-i

.~~ .,~

-I~' ~

-liN -I ~

. .;.

It ~

II .~

'"

..,

-le

... 1('>1 i

II

~

~
$
~.,__
0 .;, :;
~ ~: Ii
'" .. ~ .
'"' ~
~
:i ;';'
;;::, t 0
II I, I
Ol "'" .~ ·' Be;~,d,i!ntli,- Ulle ,S'lr:ai~ht longl:tudJina~ aixJxoooomes 'CIl.lPV~

~ AKi:aJ - the ~tra:~,ght 1e,]Igitudi:llal a"]!;['fimaiI'l:S,SlT,a~~.ht aad 1l~~de.rgoeiS axial donr:l:li:tlon

• Angular -"planes"perpe~ld!icula.r wtfuie, .~i;:mgi1:lIiIdi!nall.,.axis rotate ahout tlll.e <1xL~,

The ,!l. !lI,lit}oornpone'lil.ts o~the .dtsplacements cor.FespD]],d:ing b:i each ofthe dre.fm:n~af~on:!! 'll:e shown in H.t';l!tire 2,,21.

We a:ga:iJnL!!8>B [h.e :!', }'~ ,1OcQOI.rdlmite system: JDr ~e:neral1y ,anisotnipic materiab, .FBt.r mO,nodi.nk.,.o:rln.a~mpk:, tra!l~verseiy lS!OOTjJ,p1,o, and! i!IDilTnpk~mate[~:a[s we use lhe ,)11; X',2, ~ coord!imde S)'Sitem." vfiJh. Jt:~~beillg a.]ong the :J.Q:rlg~tiUd~:Ela~ a'ltiill 1.1'f' lhe fuooy (Fi1} 2.J6)" III the 'Xl" J.i.2'i.,X3 COOn1rlllll.tesysiem, '[he d!sp!larements are

, ,

(2.53),

tv.fuJ.ere E;~S',UIl~' eJoTliilatian·of tn,'f' ~WlgitL!!dfnal1bm~ l! Ih".l./,ol are-the c.JUrvatL!!:res. of this -ax&s ire. Ute J[i-Jti,~· and! )[1-X3 p~llrre:s, reSipBct!ye:F:y;. 1lI npresents the ;rale of t.'Ilrist 0'1 the cross s.ecilon,

IIl,lhefo~,~oWI]!lg, 'we present tile eqllil.ii:lu;Ul1ni eqluaiUon~ thest.raimi...dl:ispliu:;el,l1I.enl [eI3tiOli~h'ip.b, ~.ncl. frh.e St[~";'E'~(ain re~atio]l;s11i]JiS. wnen the afon'lm{l!rtti.o[led cond~tiO:ils. ~fpJ~Tle.:slr;Iill are :llat~l'di.eid .. l1he all~]yse~ ~fe a.pplka.fu;]eii:J [e~~Ul8 a.yay fram the twoendls: o:~ the body"

We treaf proM.ems in tYi'og;rQup;s:~ (i), w.nB]1. one or both end's" aT;e[ree and! (iif) wlle·~llbo~ltii. endsare bu:iU.iffil(Pig, 2,.18).

w~ oo:F!;sidJe~ a.,gelll.eraUy anisotropic 'b.ody'oVl.frh o,[Ie,otb(lthe[lds .IT-re, This b.;;ldy ][IlIy!ill.Jlde~Q ~yery de:fQrn"LatiQTI shown :l:n F~g:ure 2,,23, and the diSi.l'lbcem.en~s are the sum.' of a!lpo.&Sj;l;Ile displacementsshown ][1' lliisijgl1r-e,., Tne: slrains are U;tell oMaine.d [l'·om. the strail1-di~Iilllce;me~'lt relationships ,give:n by£q'S.. (2,.2),..(204) and! (L9)-{2.n)fly l.nLm:iludrrg Eq~.~ (25QH252) WI": :have

su

'f:J!'''''''--

. ax

(2.54)

(2.56)

(2:.57)

,Piig~r~ 2-24" '(h!:,~tr~~~li .oo.mrar!~l1it:s toot, arpC8~ intb~ !!=lljl.!llibrriltlm ,t::quat~[J(f:\lilillm.d.err',rlal1ic=>-s~r~li1I rnll.oiJii.iillJL

Since, the .:;tr:a.ln ,c:omponems a:reil!!d,e]J~ctr!ide:n~ orr. the stress C@mpO!Ilf:nts are aho [F:I.1:i1.flpendienl of z, 3.nd we have

(2,5:9)

~2.61J

The five, stress <OOmpol!!.e'll Es a:",tf;"r:rJ" !',.~" 'I'x:;:,:t:lila,~lIfl'Flea[in. th;ese~qil1i,]i,bri~.m ,equ~Ho,ns.lI[e miUstr~te.eI in Figm,e'::t2A,

Fur a g:e:neraUy .al1isahopk~.II,1ltef;i::.'1;l the sctress'-$tra]Jl n:laHOl!lships CE.q. '2:210) filay he.writteniill p,n;j::ItiailuriJ! lm,m, as fullows~

I,;; I I eli C12 Ci4 Cl5 C~.'iil
! :c\~ en EN c!.~ C2{j,
- Cl4 eM C4ll c ... ~ C4:fj
I l'Is C15' Ce; Cs..~ C~I
<"Z"
fx_~' I CLtT' ~k C46 CSfI, eM
I - _,r;;:;;c u~ = l~~:~

I '~:r I e,
~y, ('23
I ~~;: I '*' I~: E:<
, ]I",y IC~fi, b~"(2)

I { ..

1~' .. 1'

c:" C"i y;,

JlJ!~ Yi"~

(2,,63)

wIl.e:re, wereeall, E"~ is {Eq" 2.j:5~ 1 1

'E~ ""'. -l; + _:_ Y +~~ , (2 .. M}

Py- ~{),t

The Slmnesg·~~n'~x r:cJ is>rh-e inverse of the.,co:I'rupJii<lnDe mJnrh [8]. d!ifineCl :1[1 Thlb"l.B :::t3 {!page 1.0:)" The_stmi~ . ..."Stress:".rll'laitio]lships, are £ifu;tained iJy liITv.ei.'[!i:ng Eq" (2J"i2.) .as: fono\~

I ~" I Ru RL2 R14 RL~ RL& Il:1:t I·SL3
~}' I RL2 Rn ~.:4 .l?-J.s lb..1l rYy C~~
I Rl: Rz¢ R44· Ri~ ~ti 'C34 (2.(ij),
Yy< .- ·r)l< ~.
1 r~36 ~
y,~ I NL:'> R15 ~:> R~l> ~~~ 'F,~.;:i
r:.y ]?·U5 R~ ~ R';fi Roo '~Xl· I C,f>.
I wlen::· R.j (i. j ."'" 1,"2. 4,:-"5:,6) a;re the in~p;~:ll[le. elements Q·f nl.e ,oomp~L;ince m~tJ:ix Ill.nder phure-s<t.fll:in oon,d~lia[tc,aikul.aled Nmll th:erel"i~lomhfp

RI I Bn Rl4 Rrs Elf, ~12Rn R2lI R2:~ R,2fj RI4 R24 ~ .R.t~ ]t6

R~5 R2~ 'R45 ~5.S R;_~t;

Rill R2~ R4ii R.56;·&lfo

I ~I] en Cr4 Ci$ I 5~2 C22C~ Ci:>

i C!<lC2.4 C4.;1 C~s· I c,:s :c~~ C.G C_~;i

I Ciili e2f. C4Ii ·';:510

c.... 1-1

If I

C'MI.

f4ii I

c.·' ·1 ;>6.

Cbti._

(2.:66)

V{e cO[lside:r abody nrade ,oT"3. monoclinic mai-el'ial(fig" 29} ~Hjh~ne plane oi' Inat.N.illLfiY!nII:m~try cQl"Uldrling w1it~ the ]fl-Xl plane .s"h9\VIIl in .. 1Figl!l:re 2.'1:i'i O)l!!Ie or both, ends Qf thebOOy <Ire free, The di~iJ<IoGenlt:.nts r~!iulting..£rom. ,~pedfied. ]oad~ are sllmm1'1:[lz.ed :1["1 Figure 22it

111.'"Jmml! .trmd", The loodyr~'~ubjle'c::ted eo tn:eil[l.p[lIne iOlfrd!s,s,now![IunFig· II.e; 2.2;0" Under tb,e&e load!s t.h.eiJodc]'nnay undierg,o emly 'P'~lImll:, lJ.end:ing, and axial deformatiom (Hg., 2,.15): A:cpmdinllly~ Eq .. f2":53.) reduces-to (see F!~ 2.23)

. c.· ]"]2

u~. "" U~ (.r.E, X2 ~ - - -x.: > 7th·

. i ]]"2"

Il2"" U2\XI,oX:2)- 2:-$1.

PI

_(.1 .. r , " .. ),

U:l = .. ' Xl +-:-Xl, + €:~ . x_~"

Pl. PI. .

Thestr;.l!ill,.dl1ipl~aOOnle:Hlit iela.floD!;.hlps (Eq!t 22:2..4, ,2.9-2.11) sh~w til~aj for:

(:1"lfi')

the.se d~~pbre,nlen~:s th.edr.ains are,

alli . ~{;)''l;

E"~ "'" ._, - €2 "'" ---

!:Ix!. a~l

1. ] ._'"

.E"~ "'" -Xl +-J['l.+G

:N,- PI -

Y2:1 "'" 01 yn ",,'0

~ui . :1'U2

1"12 ""'~. + -;-.' , .

. ",X:z ..,'J[I

~2..69) (2.70) ('2.71 j

~\ >:!l

\ ./

v~_:· -"3:

. -----~--~- '\'l

10·' ,

I .:

/ ~ ~

{ /_i

, -~ .••..•

i-- '

(2.72)

Fur.th~fmoFe,si[Jjce t11e stu:a.iin and stress ro:mponent$ liTe :ind!epemlfent of 11:], w:eh"ve:

i:la:>i ,-.-""",0 ..

iH:j

Wifh the.~ stresses :[here~~ev.aDlt eql!lHiibl;ilIql equlIIHmls. (EqJ", ;2.JJ andl 2.14) _. in title :tl'.'![2iA':~ .coon::lina1les¥£:teul-·"eduoo 't,o

~1Tl a'rlZ

=e=e- + ~ +/1""£1'

i.lXj, i.lX'2

(It'] a-

~ +-,~ +fi:={l-

0'%1 . .0;1[1 .

(2.74)

{2 . .75}

Tbe steess compone:n]ts, 1l'1, t'I1, fl2,w.liliclil..1Ippear in the eqU!iJ:~~:)Ti,tln'J equll;ffioDlS, are ~,nli~tmtedfin F:iigure 2.24 (top, rig:M) "

By.sll!bsH~lldh,g Eq" (1.70) intnEq, {2.21:) andf bylli,tW~zing ]:\q. r~C_?nwe ol)ta,l!n the fo~:~ow~ing stril;SS;..iltraill rel:lIliIJIlsJhl:~ (o:run.;p[an,e loads:

I· ~I [C,:,',1, i C,12,', G, :,ifi",] 1,1 '.:I 'I, {c •. "".I~,I"

iYJ. .' ,,,," en C'11 Cu. ' t:2 ,+, ',C1.-, , E'Ji

!'.~2. C](~ C~ (:61> I rL2. C~!!;

, , :-. .

(2.76)

p.,77}

\w.h',!l.:re(,we .recall,,~3 :rrs, (Eq. ::t69)

:11, '" ,,1 ...

:(~ ,"", -Xi -+ -X2 +<"],"

P1 ,ill .

(2.78)

] . , .

&.1> .. ' d'1 I I C!J

~: ([d-Id'}

''I'fuie.r-e Roj {i:', i ""', 1. 2; 6}'31'ethenn.plane eJlem£'fIGl'i oh:he oom:pl~anbe m.a'rrdx il:l the Xl. 'Xz .cQoM:inaore system. calculated fromth.e rebri:io[lship

[R.I.I

Rn

Rtf;

(2.80)

a:4 PtANE:':S,IRAINI OONllmON

.). \ -..-

Out-<f!.fpi(m,{! l<J(ld~. UehOOy is subjected 1:0 the olJlt-of.Jp~:ane[(}~d!$ ,s~O\VTI In Figure 22(1,- I]1!U:!i.e;[ theseloads 'the bc!<!l.y may undergo O:lfItYllo[lp~imiu ·lIl1d angu- 111]" d,e,tmmaHO]lS· (Pi!} 2,25), ~nd the,dL~p:l<lo(:emenlts·(:In the X], ),(2, .x,J mord!h~~,te SY~1em) are (sre·.Eq" 2:..53 and F1.1l, 2.23).

l~J "'" ·-jJX~''i:3 ~ "'" ?li-X.1:Jfl

(l,SI)

E"] "'" {J: e:~ =.0,

~,.~

}'13 .", -,' - + ~,l':i i':IX"2

Y12·::=:::O,

(2Bl) (2.,83)

(2"S4) (2"g5)

On~'y }'n" .and. Yb ·"1IKe ]Iol.12ieNi Ctu::rEs]po[ld!illgly, th:B only neneem stresses are '<L::l ll:ndf'1!3" Thi!lli, t\\ro of the eqiIJi.~ib:li.ulfl1r equations, (EqiR 2~]3 and 2,,14) beeome triv:~~i, ?l'n~l:the JiTlirdi (Eq,:tt5J -in t.he· X_'l ,.:q, .. X::i ,ooord!illa~e s~stem - i~dure!l. to

(2,,86)

The '23,Ln srress components, wh:ich.lIippeilll"'"in the Bq!l!l.]I:lbdunl lfl.:qllk"lltio]l, are iiilus{rated. :In !Ftgum;t24 '(oot"l:om; ri,ght).

Fmm. EqK (::;L22) lind. (2,_27)we obtain. the [oll.e-wJng ~tre:!lS->\S:~TlIill :f!d3tlon~hil?"S {or-: O'u:~.of-pl.a~Eloo,dls::

{2.:S7)

(1,8B)

EluI O:;xiNJ loads .. .Axial. ]o1ids are applied at the ends (Fi~ 221}. Und!er-~l!.iIch loade the badly may undeIgQ 01'11.)' ~1,a:naI,Ib.eiF!cliin~ and axial dernrm.atio!]s

~2.91)

(2.92)

the~t~a"il.l,..dlsp:]a.Of;nle.]"I,t,equi.'ihriu.rnf:a.l,~di str;e;sS-:8t!:3:ill rda;t;uolJ!&hips .a[~. t.1iI~ same as: th~ glven by Eqs . .(2:Ji8)-(2.8n).

E.mf TnQf1#mt.. . .A"lJ.e;nd:ung. 'J.II.Wlleillt is appli-ed at .ea.cJh encl. JFig. 2.2J.),. Under ~hi~~.o\lidii"llg the 'Dod}' may und!gr;!;a only plaaar, bendiin~ and'and1li1. defnrrnafians (Fi~.2.2:5), a.nd tn.eci'ispl.acellllents al!e (seeEq .. 2.:)3 andiAg." 2.23)

II]. "" (2... Xl + _.1 .Jr.:2, +=3)·· •• X3'

"p2 PI .

T.li!i.es.e .disp'~~eante:nts "lire. the ~.:nl[J,e 'a;~ tij08e fin)n-pl:ane lo.ad!!O (Eq, Ui7). ]~eIliCe~ ~he s.·b:a:ir.,..diip~a,~me:l1It, ,e.q~umb:riiun~, '~nd! l;~ress ..... ~~:rll~hrebtu~m!lfui;np:!l ~[£ {lTle Sa.~JI·f a!l' thoseghiem. by ~s.' (2.Ji&)-(2..80).

't.orqrte.. A iQrql!l.e is aprpHed. at elloh. end (Fig, ~:t~l). Undei t;hisIO:icl'tlfi"e b.odY DillY I:mde;'go.~nLYrr!o1!"lr!lanar amqi ang!utar Q.efQr.maHans. {Fig~ :J;.2.:5}, aCid tlil.e dssp'~llcem.el1l.~, are (see Eq, '2 .. :$3 a.will. Fi~ '2.,23)

'nie~Eicliispbi!celllle[l'ts are Hie' same as those for' ~iUt-of-pbne loa,ds(Eq. 2JU)" Henee, diest[ai.m,-d.i!!ir~~cem.e;ntt, . equi]iibril!ll.iirI, and. ~lresS:-!ltra!irr!. re.!~h~~.~lpS are ~he llam,e.;,!s those giVen ~y Eqs .. (2Jn}-t2 .. 8~)",

2 • .4,.:1 !Free. ElIld- OrtthOhrilpiC,l1"mlilslIl3il's:ely' IsotropIc, or ltswr!ph:: M3J~i~

When a.·~ .Ie~~sl aile ella elf the.~.yisJr€!e, .the" expres¥usms;given inc Se·crriPJlr:2 .. :2L2 are also ap:p~itahl.e·tQ bodies. treateG,as o:rfroo.l:mp£c,.Ii.Tan;sver§e.lyjsotropi.c, hriso,tropiG !pD:gv:ud!ed tliat (fine of the 1l1at:-el:!al ~y.mm~tu:y p~atles coincides wEth[he Xl~X"2 plane, si"luWIl!n·EigJ!.lr-e 8:J.6 .•. Fm such. bodies t;he :Collcm~ung siwupl:ifica:trlo'[ls apply: .

. QrthdlnJp.ic

'1h:m~l!t!J'"Sely' ~fWtro.piC G\~ "" 'C:Ni= ~(j. ",,·0 CUi'''''' ('12"

C16 "" C2tl "'" 'Q~6 "". 0. ~l~Ci~.

I

Cl1l> "'" 1: ~9n ~ Cl~)

en""" Cn = C,2-

(:L96)

Rl,~ "" ,RUJ "" tI R21 "" Ri~

&'0 "" 2(Ri~1 ~ cRt:?}

0:.97).

.2 •. 4 .• 4 IBI]JI~~ln Brlds - ~l1laf3Jl!f A'lilisotropTc ~ajte~lial

"\!hen botH! e!'l!ClISi of Ii; jilener!li;ny· ardsetropic body ~[e hlifl,Mn {F~i\l. 2.18}, i[l .• plane as wdl as otit-ot-phme~oll:ds.lJl]Jay be OlIiPl?l:ned~Fi1} :2;;10). The ·boo.y IDlIy.und,'er_go QnDy P~<lJ,lllr and nQ;]l.p~amu; d~JDm:lat,jQ!ls (Fig; 2,23)"H,mvever; t:~,e lQ[lgitudiinll] axis of the: lJo.diy remaias M:[iiI.iigibt (1/ fJ), """ l!p~ "'" 0), Us I.en_;glhre:mains. constant ("'i"" 0), ·a:nllll the D00dy does [lot :tw.ust (1'i' "" 0), The'peJmj8~i!ble de:rb.nnati.o.ns are l;L!lmma.l'lH:d. irn !F~gme 2J:.6 <InC! the dispbc:eme'i'lts 'ar~ (see: Fig" 223)!

These d'isp.b.ceme:nt!l are the sameas, the. di~ll.llIcem.eJl.kghen lQyEq;s.. {2..5Q}(252) faa: a body 'lAiifh fr&e;e:nds, wh.en :if ,o.v, 1 !t~i. £~ " and'~ <Ire set eoqulll.~o ~:£1Jc nuS, the ;st[ah~.-d:ispI3il;;em.'&nt;frbe stress-straie, .and the e_quiJ.iibrll!lm· eqeatlnns 1IIre ohmined by .:.ett1Iag 1/ fly; 1 /P 'r- , ,~;, ,and. ft equal to zero in. the eq,uatuons of Section 2.4:1" The sU1Inn-dis:pI1I68.ment mlillti:orus IITi ips (~~, 2_54.':~\571 become

au ~:v

"'.r "" - £ -, - (2.99)

ill" Y - 8.,

£< "'" 0

ilW

)/)'< "" --;rfl!y

(2..HlQi) (2.101).

iill! (.IV Yxy "" '-,c - + -_ ..

il)1 ax

TI~e eql!i:ilib:r~,umeql1B,:lIi.orlS arejdeiiltk:a]'Wi1irr..l2qs'"{~t59)-(Un).

~f.omlif~i[}]] L['JiJIl.·~

.FIi!l~r~~ 2.16: ])e~formaiJ{]m; .o:fll 'll~n~nll~y 8I11lsotr[}[lic biJdy' under p~8]J~-!>tr8ili wmlhjo!l f0F illiit-e,l!!-iii,t ~Jl<l.d:;.;. OI!LHt-1Il eil1id~.

, i'1 roo e12. z, CIS C"] r
I ~
(f~ C'2 C'l2. Cz,i C1~: ~". .r;, .••.
I::: - £t4 C24 CoM C4Si ,C4i> . Ytz
CIS <22.5 CotS Css ~Cst; Y.;:.
1:~Jl CI~ C>!>f> CoW! l\;Ii' C{if> . :r..~1 If:y

17:; ""'. fG"13 ~~~ z, C.3~ CJ~] Y:J'~

Y'.I'~

:r:.,y.

, li.x .Ru Rn RL4- RIS R ] or:.· I
ie
~:~ Rt2 Rj2 R~ J1s ~ W.Y
r~/.i: "R\"4 Ru ~ 1ts ~,:; fcy;: I .,
Y'l RLS ~ ~~ ~~t> Ro6 'rJi::;
jI':O:ji RL6 Rw ~6 Rj!:\ ~, 'r~.J (2J.05j

2.,1.15 IBl.liI~-Jn 81J'U:ls - ~ttDJ'~¢liliilicMajtinaJ~

We consider aol:lodymade of 3. mD~oc:~i!lk;mateiial wilil.the pl:i1ne.ofnl~le[ia,~ s}'mmet.ry ~~:i!n6d!il'lg.wUb the Ji:l-~2 p~ane~hmv!l in .Figure- ::U.O, Both ends of fthe'bp?y are EI'Ii.l:ul.~··]n" Th.e~ongitlllfillnllhx:is of fne bodYTema:ins. s:h;ai!ght (1/ py "". 1./ P,. "'" Oh ]ts ,]engt&ii.lre.mlllln.~. ,m-!r:ISlallt (6~ "'" 0), iIl.Nd the body d.QiBS. no!: tWlst (0 ",,~O);Iil~nce, the !bOdy may IInd.erga on~y phulI[[ ancli ])jiO.nphmlll" dgfarm'.ll;tiion'S (Fi~, 2J:3). The de{lJ\[ma:t.km~re~lidt~:llg from. specified :Doad!! aite. s·iClm:maOzedi.iI mgliJIe 2.27.

Fi~~m: .. l,:47: ,Dd'c!~:;J~i[lru;; of!:!. mqn{ldlm~tJodrl!lll!:I~[ plillu~,-~ITilim; cb!l)ldl~~il!l.i:t}T ;cljHti"~IT~ 10~d~;

m.tih-!I!i C~d5. ... . . .

'ilj~plJ;melo.(ld'$. 'Titre. .lJ,ody issubjeded to 1:h.ei[l .• plane ~,Cla.dJS "fililoWIl, in RigUT'f:" 2.20. l)nd,e;r theseJoadsIhe body '1II.lldergQe~ pI3:!l,al: .aefoi"ma~iom; (Fig,. 227), and the di~'P]aoeliu;:r!~ are (~e Eq, 2,53' and .Fig, 223)

Tbese du~pla.cern,el'lt~a.re Ule sa-me. as: t;he dh:pilu::ernell[s ,of II .. nooy wIth :f.r..ge ends w.uth J/p2.I/,o)],::imid. "r·s.'et e,q:ua~tto zero. in Eq, (i_67},nm~ Hle straind~sp.lace:m.ent,~he ~tre:ss-t'd.n~n.,,a:oo, jtheeq,u~;~ibriul!l1l eqlll.atiQIIS are oltttal:ned 'by settiflg 1/ Pl,]! fL a[J!d~f equll]~o Zero in the equlI,tiom of Secticm·1,.t2, The rtrain-di~Jllll.cement rela.tiol'llihlps· ('liee Eqa 2,6&-2·_7].) a:r:B

aV1 aUi_

iOl"'" -- E;:I""'--.

!ilx·~ ; . .11"2

£,~ "'" n

(2cI07)

Yll~.o. ]1:1],:",,0

fH11 . ,'H:J2 n2.""-+·~' ax:)! . &Xi

The·eqli:il~bdum B"'Il!Iaticms ·aI'<ddenh~] toEqs, (2.7.4) lmd (2.,75~. The stress-st!'ll]n relationships {Eqsc 2·,:76 llnd 2,'j'7j become

(2.108) (2..109)

(2c11.o.)

I· (.1'1,) [ell

~: .. ' =~:

C1:;! C2;2 c~

c .•. l.~.] Ii ~.1 I

C;!I> '·1 £1'

C~I'> 11'12

- , . . ~

(2111)

·""-I['C

""- .·U

s ....• lD .• ] II. <ai.' 'I. ~6 'I~Riofn I

(2113)

The iin"pllllne elements o'f t~e~.mp.~f::mce m;ltir~ R~j are d.a.finedl.in Eq, {:i.Rr:J)r(}lJ;t-.(J!~p1{lne loatl's,. The blld'r~s sll.lbj~dedi~o dllI:t.;o;("pla:ne I.oad!snsihow[li[l :Figuee 2,2,0. Under th.e!i6 ~!J,acls the ·ibody :may lIInder;go il",J!n:~y II.CH:I[pl.a:nar defcrllilatiom (Fi~ 2J:1}, and tille dlspl;acemen:t~ (~n. the, Jt:i.,')[1:; ~~ooel'dhlate system Y:3i"e (see Eq~ 1.51 and Fig,.'2:~23)

(2114)

These ·d.its;p,lacel,nentll are the~me as- the d.its;p]aceJ.nenfrs of:!. oody- wi,th fr..ge ends wii:~h 'r,\I set equal to zercin Eq, (LSI)" Thus, the stru.]n-di:spl.a~mell~. and! the 's~te~-:li~Tain rela~ions as we;][ as .til.le· equilibrium equ<liHan~ can he. obtained by ~1l~.fI,g (I equal to rerq.~nth,e eql'ia~:iOl}s of S.~ctiol'll~4r,.:t The~tmi:n.-J,]s,pbl{]emenl

D.ISPl1IGEMENTS,STRAlN:j, .jUlmI SF.REiSSES

E"~. ",,"ttl

E"J :=10 ~HZ~ jI"!:,,,,,.~

. r.lX>2

jI'!.2 "" £1

(2J15) (1"lt6),

(2~]_17) (2J.18)

The. e<tnl]libr.iiI1lTl equation i!lidenUc:al tnEq, (2.86). The stress-straia tel,a~io:mlhips (see Eq, 2..87) are

2.416 IBufla~li'i Eliid~ - Ortl\lM:i',~pi(l., 'fr'afiisV~'fi'SI9ly IS(!1toopit, or ~mif(ipi~ Mate:!(iaJ Theexp:rc-ssJ.oll.<i given hl--iSi2Jo!]on 2AS for IDOOlQCIJ:iinlc bodies wilhboth. ends bllIlilrr.;in are .a:ppliJcaMe to bodies treated as. orthotropie, lr'1llf.l"s;yel"sely:i~.otro!pk, or;i;SoITopic provldad tl:m.~"One.·af the I1l:l[erial ~ymme~l:n:ypl a nes colndlil.e:s.,yrth the Jt:.L-;r.1[l;~~u~e s.n.{)Iwn iin Figur.e 2.HiUoweyer, J:Q;r such bodles (h~ slimplufiC3'.[iom; given b;y Eqs, (2.~:'i)~2)n) must-be .timplo,YW.

2.5 IPI .. e-$l~ss: COlilIll[~i(l1il

Ulid!el ptane-stress c.~l!llci[iliQn one. o:f lh.enorn~al stresses .and EH:i!frlli PIlIl1i:.af.plane shear s1i:i'"esseS' ,are :i\en:L'i,Ve selec:~ the ;normal sness·to. be :re,ro Infhe [ (or Jl)} COQrd!_il1a~e direction Jind tb.e out.or.plane ~hea~ strt:!'Ise.i'lc to ~e zero iil ihe :x-y (or XI-X2) pLa'1:e (F~" 2"2&)

(2"].21}

Plane-stress cOl1diiiion may approxinnlte the' ~t:res.~.e:sin <li thl:nfll.reI-Ieinfbroodi. com]lQ<lifue p~~te when. t~}efiber!,}are p,ar;illel it~ _the.Jr-y .plane, and (he p1a1:e ·ils h:iad.ed by,force.s along t:~e;edge::l·!;1!iI.ch. t~.al the forces are parll,llal'to the p~a[leof ~he pl.ate aad :3;r,e d~~tr:il;mted I1ni:fO:rmlyo\i'er ;Um: thl.cknesli (Pi} .. ::t29). De p.la:n..g. s·frre,s:s. GondiHon does I1JJt pmYl.dl.e the stresses ex~cHy, n.o"!: even for this.H!ll.n.pb.te p:r-oMelll" Nevei[~hele~, fm:mall}1' tilll.tl wall stn.ctmes:it~.s a l:Uleful. aEJ!Pro[l{ima,tu(m~, yieJIdh~;g answers w.ithi:n.[ea~~nable accllf[~'I!'1"

LC

With thcsb'p'ulaHor.ls ofE.q.(2,.12,].),~he eqlui~ibrlllm e.q!!la.~o[lli (Eqji.. 2..1.3-1.15) become

:9O:1'<1f 1ft'I._ -iI. t: "" iiJ

a,x $:l) "

(2dl1)

(Zf23)

(2:.124)

(2125)

ne dements oFthe coal1lpUan(:e"m~niK .. $;t jl:regivel'l.":iIl Table 1.:3" (pi<lge lQ)~ The ~1:r-g~tr.iil:l rellltI:Q]lsil.ll:ps a:re'obtll[l!l"flJdi [Tom Eq . .(2,124) ~y inveesion

Qi~"" Q22 Q6

(2~116)

w.here Q;jare tbem-plane e~,i:mle[lts.of the shfl'!1e.s.~ matr.~K In the.z, J' ,coordinate" s.ys~em under pl.a.ne-=-stress oo]!i.d:iti.o.n:

(2J.Z7}

The. ·!j,l.reflll...s:~niin and Slra~l!l""'i!!~reSlS relationships 's;iinl!piify <oonslicl.erahlywhen the fiber pne3;lta[!ml:>-- a.F~ suohUui~ the nl1i~erial canbe h:.eatl::a a~ rn O:Ul.o~I~niG {H~ 2" 9' },. 'odhpt[op;ill; (Hi!!:" 2J 2), .trans~~.tlle~yDsQt'ropi~ (Fig, 2:~15),_o[' ]sQ.tmpr~ In. the foJ.k,w.i~g we.,oo]ls~,<6[ pmb[ems 'irl'ilolyung the:sema.!t:eri;J,[ types and Use a;!1i Jt;l, JfQ, i3 .ooo:n:iliinate syste:rn WJ,t:1il HI.e Ji::h Jt:2000:r-dinates b~ing ill.ollie. o'f tl~.e:. symmetl)! planesand Jl]. being perpendicular tQ thi.~.p:~1i;ne~ In Jtihi~ oonl'd!ina:~e.system., under p~~an.e..str~s. co;ncliitio:n, we have (Pig. 2.28,ri,glit)

(2J.28}

Mant1i-;lirJic maj;g,.iaJ~'. By 'S:Ubs~tiUtf:ng Eq, (2.,128) jnto Eq, (2.)-3) aTiia by· emIl~Oyir!g tile OOnliP1.!lInoe malliixof .111 nmnodin.~c ma.t.eri.lIl .. [Eq" 2.2:6), we obtain

(2J.19)

With the S.tipiUlaJions hlEq, (2~:]28), t.lhie equi~.ib[[lLIm equations (Eqs"'2:.13-2. 15)

in the ,r], Xl, Jt:73 ·ooordi.nate sy~temooc:om.e

aO'l a>~r2.

-:--,+-·-+fi""'O

ax!. 1-Jl;'2. .

1:I:r:l.l a .... Q2,'''- ... . __ - +-~ -. +- J? "". u.

HC](I. .ro.X2-

By substil"IIi.~ill~.Eq.·_(2J.28) ][IwEq, (223), we ohtlil]![I the f{)l~owi:ng stra]Il-SlreS!l

(2J.32)

,[h.e e&em.en:b' of the ,oornpUi;mu~e mll~riX. s,j .a!tegiven In Tlllb&e :J;~ 7 (page .15)" 'The s'!;[of;OIl-lltr"Hn rela.HQ\]lships l1-reQblaine>di fEomEq, (213.2) by inversion

41

w:~e'r~' Qii are ~hei]l':p]a~.le e~.ei11e,I1ts of tll.f!> stiffness mattix. in U'lf: XI, Jt:"2.ooord!iIl~:frfl sy.steI'l1~~~~e:rp!J.~l'le-s~tre:ss =1il~:utlP!!l:

The expr~s:!ons p:.res~:nt..gd!in this ·~~tiQ"I1·ror ~Q~,OCI~l1ic m.at~ria~s a~o ap!ply toodh,Q~[Q:pdD, ti"a[lSve~e,~y L."iot:ropk, ,<lndisot.mpic. nlllte[i~:~~ However; for dl.e~ tyres df materlals thiEl sti:f.f.ness a!!ldoom.p~ia;"rlil::e I'llalricesfllrther SJn1plify., <I~ .shown below.

OrtilIOJNJp.ic. Fur an ort:hotmpiG fl1a.te;r.i1l1 il"ne'"f:oHcwi:n;g e~emel1ts of the 'OOInp~l.ance mahill: are zero ('faibl.e L7'; ]J!S.~,e]5)~

Rj'f!, "'" S'2fi.. "'" 0.

Als.q,. f1'On1 T:a!l~e'" 2:7 lnv:ebve

(2136)

AecGn;l)ill:g~y, ·I:"h.e elem.en.ts·of th.e stif.lness matdx [Q] in te[tllcsof: the eE"!glIIeenng OOllst'olll.ltiS a:re(Eqs,. 2;J.3,5, 2.,137; a:nd 2J.33)

I[ BI

1)

[ '(fJ "'" I .;,>,~.E,

,. I D

o

I

0]

[I .

0:12,

A· woven, i;lt .fila:mentwOillUld~ hl1i'e~i.s o.rth.o~rop~c when 'rrber~i!i··tf!e sam:el!llllnlJbe;r~ffiibe:n;~ in tile +Ehnd .... FE) diireCll.o]ls jn t~Ui J[)-X2 plane (Fig .. :~t30} .. fo:r :S1Li~h ~ iayer the ~Ie.:mel.ds of t:lile stirfft~~~ '. m,lltl'ix all:e calcl1ljjt~d! [!Jam

where (Q~:j)~ and (Q,;J..::~;}r-e the: elements offh.e stiffness matrices afpHes anented :in t.he +8 -ami ~e 1:fIurect"iol1:ro, mSJlecti\iel.y,~ The ele~e'n~s of the stiffness

~

~)

.C,", .' " .•. > :'" m·.

~ ... "."~~,' :2

, " ", -,,-

.~. '.

'ilil

+JB'

F'ig.iIre 23@: .A. 18y~r c(lmhthl!l; !lJ'L'j]b~T~ in libe' +(~. :~ml·- ~ ,dlt,[,cG~kms.

42:

DISPLACEMENTS, STRAINS, A:NID ST.REiSSES

Thble,:2.12. J:remenifg ~I'nl~ wffiness,ImlMrJiH: ofa V(li!lf!fI tftjlen,iilh t~fibers: m-ael1lied il'lthe ±a ~ireOiiCjlis.

Qf;,,",n =.co'! Qi I + ,y'I"Qil + 2;o::2.<l'~ >( Qt2 + 1 Qa;) Qij",m == ~'~'QEI + ~~ th~ + 2(:2,-\"'1 Hbl + lQ$;) at:,," = o["~~.2 ((111 + 'Q:l2 - 4~~ +(dl + ,\'!)Qh

. .......""...,n . ~ ·.2 rn. +"Q. "'Q') + [. 'J. .~V 'n"

~r.l\. =C~ 'VI£U' :r.12-·L, f1."\C""'-'~' ""'.."

QiJ"''" ==~}

.~n·=Oo

mllui:x.[rI the €I dlTei:,!io:n (Q;;)9 are ObtalllN by the tTarlllla[fUllI.atio:n described :in Seotion von and StlllnmarJzed in Tab~e:U ('piII.gt 7ij)~ The e1entents (Qii}-Q aee cll.nclldatedfuy repladl!lg €) by -FJin Table; lJ ~.By pe[form;jF!Jjl these. steps, we obtajn

I" l . .' njj,,,,,,,,,· '. 1: '". ., 1"'; t'.J'e . el:eJlu::a1f., ~i; . given m al:JJ,e i, ... ..£"

.T~all:ilreJ'Sely illotro_pic.Fo[ a l1::i:UlS:VC!P.lely ~.S"ot:m[pic ·materia!!. we hay.g. {Table 2.7. paige: 1.5}

(2j4i) (L142)

'By 'Sllbs:UtllltUf:lg the"Se\i'a~ue8;. togethe.r- w.~lh '[he eX!p[e8~ioIli~~n Table 2,7 (page 15),Jilto.Eq" (;2J.35),we obraia the [·almlltrix in terms of the eJlIgim::er. ]l1g o(JIl:~~ant~ The results '''lIe ~dif.nticlll. to thO-lie of Eq, (2 ... 139)"

.lmtropic .. For a!li isn"~m:.fIic:~ate:rj.~1 thefoUowingrti!~3tims.Mpll'ho.ld{Tlllblle ·X.7, p..a.ll:e 1.5)

$2'1 "",. SI]

SH "", S:t3 "'" .$1.1

,oS:16 ~ S~, .:= (I

Sii& """ 2: (.s:ll - Sn)"

(2'J43)

Qn.= Q.u

Q~~ == ~ fQil - Qd,

E '[1 Ii

['2)"" ~ II 1 •. 1- 1.1-

10 {}

(2J.4:l)

2:.2 .l!:x~lnplla'. ~'c.!ltme Ihf! ,l!;lf!~i:e:ruS oftlw sr.iffm!i~ j'fUf1.'I'iJir of a. gr:apJi:ite epoO!fJ' lIHi· :iUr:ecriOJM,l ply ~~mler p.ri1'ne-J~tre$S' (:onditionl'fhef!l'!fjllJ,~ri~lcgcmM"l1llt~ .OM gil.'l!lH dS E1 .:=: 148 x lOll'Nlmi2, £2 "'" 9,.1i5 x 1~~Nfi'fl2 ,G,:l:' """ 4Sj >I: 10"} N/j~i!-., !,!n "" (q, and 1!.2J "'" 0:6.

(214~)

The elements ohk.e Call1p~D .. nrematr.ix are given.in Exlll.np,]e 2J (pag:e.ll). By slII.liNltDtuhn,g these ·.¥a~:ues into the. exiftr-e.ssJ.o[l lIbmre">w ob;~i:n

I[ 6' . .76 IU2] ""'I -2 .. 0'3- 0.

,

-2m WT63 n

2:91 ·9~7] e

0] N"

.. S< .. 1

e 10-.- .. '.

. '. l'

4.~5 .1).1

,(H47)

1l.1iI::.i$~!ff:uJesSl!Illltri.'\': may a~~o be~:~Clli:~a.t.edby Eq, f2.139o') with the e;ng~nee.ring constants "l:ln.d W.~tll D, "" ]= . ;~ ~Ii "" ~1994,. Equatlon (2..139) gives

, ,

,[ .EI,

ID

[Q]"" i ~~~~

I lJ o

I

,f}] . N ..

, "!I'

.'fl.' '. . 10'~ ..

4.55 .m

(2~ 14.8)

2 .. 3E",:anI~e. EsJ.i!'t1at~ 'tJ~e pilln~-S.tre,~1i stiff!u!s.~ tJ"ul,ffix lmd .~he.. jgJIg;ine,l!fi,'~:g coii,· stcmi~ ota (!.4S) wt..!-ien:pif:fJ'lc rll)f(~" m(1¢~ of graphifp fibm lind epowy .re;.~itJ..

SIiI]llitjon. We. ap(lTol;im,ate; th.e: wt)ve.1!l.·f!!.brl.cltly ;lliayel' HlI,adte:cif ~ne 4Y a;nd one -45<- p;~y:Th,g pn)perties .oUhes.e IP.Hes.lIrerllken to ~ th.QSe of {h~ :graphiite epoxy ul!l!~d!i~di.(l'!l,a~ ply giV:f.1!lln· 'Bx:!lmp"~e 2,2. De ~tiffElel$;;; 'rn,atr,ux: of a plynlade .of t"bl!s ma;te:dai under p~:me~s"l:T"€-;Ss. cond!i,t1.cln' i~ (Eq, 2,147)

[14K87 2:_91

[Q] "'" I 2,. .si 9.71

(I 0

0] N

n lO'll' 2."

4.:55. Ill.

(2149)

We obminthe s,fiffllessm<ltr.lx o·fthe wov~n fu.lt!iIi10by--SiUlblllHiJtiT:l~ the elements ~ this ~alr:ix: into the ~xp[e5:sio[l!l in Table 2" 12lfl~~e 42) w.ith e "'" ~5° .Tberesult is·

""""""fi: 3·6: 5" ']' Oi!l 'N J 2

'!i,;!':t:!: "" ... ,J x,. '1m.

...,:±4..~ ~~' JOI" ,,~ .. '10i!l' · .. ·u ... 2 l?u "" '11'21 ·~":J_.'IJI ,x . ',,,,m.

_{2,150}

o ]-1

n

~t5

~4~L86

o

61JH o

CI ] ~

12m~

0 1(1, - .

N 26.1.9

AnllllI'f;st[ain~cl OO]f,lPQ~!te m,1i)i',dh.afltge beth it's size aind ~:haFte wJl;en th,e temperatureis increased or decreased IHlifo[m~y hy 1J.. T. Tht:ooJiJ.'es~olldil:lg slrailllS in I he. jt.; Y's Z eccrdlnare 8y3ten~, <lire

~: "'" 'li~i1T

T -

Y"JI "" a,t,:l1'il T"

Sintnal'1.y; moisture l:nsi·die,lIn unresnafaed oomip.os:it:e 1;1Iiu!>es a ,cJhllJlge :~11 :s:iz~ ami shape. A uniform, m,6is~u[e-ooIllceHtmth:m. ,;;;ll:l the :n1<literilli resall:b in the ~:ollmv;in,g stnl~.n:s:

p,J.54)

Inside a,dry ma~e:riill] tile m.DustU[e 'OOlll,celltrati:on e ill .%efoOc In .EqK (2J53} and! (2J 54) a llild i a,re the l;em.pcetat<ui'e' and m.oisture ,ex:pan8,]On ,ooeJfici.gn~s, respec~ively, (Note tllatii ,a'nd! #~fG.~~o'W t!'!.e s.a:~e trm~sful'm$ior.l[lllei as str,ain's, S;~c~ion 2'.9"2.) J:I'I '~UL u~ltest~1Jjl:mioooomr~itedlij~ ;str~ln:s: ]nduced 'fuy unikil;'m t~n1paHrUre and! mbis.fru.re'cl,lsttiibuhol1ll. :(re:ferted too as hYl!}lr9t:fu.e..nnal SiTa~l\s) ale

FOI ll!;l~l'Iera.ny <'Il'Iisouoj;ll£:. material, !n. t~e J[, Y. t coorcl:ul]:alte SystBl'I!l,. the.

E~r3!ill-str,ess(j3(lat:i()Il!~hips .are: albt:r~l'Ied. by Qom't;iniug the hygrot~e.rma];st!"a:il'lS (Eq, 2J55), wi,th the t::['['I3;~~iJndllJ!recl tjtra:im (E'q, :~L21}:

f .. Sil $12- SB S1.>I Sl~ S!ili (Ix 1f.~t
.~
c'), S2i1 £22 En 824 $15 S2<1 t'f'y cgbt
I '-1'
S~I. SS;2 S.u S~4 SJ!) S~ ~t
~'I. I (.f~, + E'z: {2..15(ij
- $'f1 S"'2 SoH S44 $4:;; Sill:'! I r"U
rJl~ !"~.~: ,!!1Z
S~I S~ 8~1' 8.~~ ~:i!5 $5<; I 'h~
}';tl ~A~' r~.:
r .. y £61 Shl SM Sfi4 S~, Stfj. r-"J(.:. ht
, r~Ji where ~,t, ,' .... , li'xy are fhe 'llCll1l1~ .s~rall1S l,n 1:hel)()][Iipooiite.

Byin:ver~~ng Eq, (1.156) we,ofuta:il'l the foUowIn,g stress-stradnreJation&hiiPs:

Ci:2 C!2. Cl'2 e4.2 C~2 Cf.2

CL~ (\4 Cl~ CI.6 C2.~ C~4 :C2~ ('2Q' C:t~ :C~<I. C.1j~ ('3D C,f.!:C~4 z, C.,6 CS3C:5~ C5~ C;~~ em C;:;4 C;li~ r;i.~ ,

6J.== .ihLiT

r 1m:= (I

E'~ "'" ~2'c.·

h"J! := (I

1 r;i~ I'C2~ 1'(\1

- !C~I

lesl

I,Cril

(2.157)

P':OT<li Ilumodink I'Ilaterii!, in the XI.,. Xi; xJ~qca~ooordin:ll:~e s.ymiem <~g, 2';9) temperature <I[1dll1(l1ishIF.e:~Q :nQ~il'lcll1c:e Qu'G:"'of..;pl.allle :i&i.ear strains. Ti1IlIs,l:he temperature- ll[ldmaUS'[l1re"i.'Ildl1lced strains are

'~l' """ '[i!t.T Y2~ "".01

, .. <; - '" tL1'""" U

€J:= u;;;&T rl~ := aut.T

fi.l ""'~""c

Yl'} "'" i-14t,

(2J.%l)

(2..159)

where a: ana ~ are the' tem:~erztl][e and m.oisture exp,II!1l!!<:ioncoef!flciel'llts, respectively" in tbe Jq., ]t;2i. Jt:}· coord!il'la~e syste:m.( Q: 311cl. if :wllow tne same transformation ndes as stralns; Section 2.9.2). The fiygr:otHl!:rI:mal strains an

I ii!

'""

I (!{!

I Ei~ 1 o

I 'i{)

I ....

·.Q't2

fi~ F~ ~~

{} . c ..

.0:

;tr12

DISPLACEMENTS, STMlNS, ArII11iI S1IREiSSEiS

I CI"] I f.~ fhl.
I I I 1
(.1"1 E'l ~.hl.
I 2.
~ ""'I[e] if,;:~ E;.hl.
3 (J:J61)
I :~~ I Y13 0
YIJ [I
11'12 1]112 .vN wn:ere [C) is prescribed by Eq, (2"27). Note t~,l'[~ fl, _, _j jl'L2 are UU~ (lCfllal str,l'[~m; U[I the composite.

By ]Ilvert.iing Eq, p.lol), we obmin nile follmv.Hng strain-stress rela.·liomhilPs:

£'1 £,"n CI"!
I I
£2 .oM (.1"1
,
~
I £} £"" L'I)
]. [8]
I~ I} -
tin, I
0 Tn I
YL2 y]t.~ ·r~.l (2.1.62)

wh.ere [51.is preserlbed by Eq_ (2.215)"

[[I nr.iJlOtrolPlc, triIl!l$ve:rselyisotmpic. and isotropic ~.liUIfreria.~s te-mpeIa!itl!ire anel mQistll!lr~ do ncrintrcduce hl. ]lIJ" lIndi n.2 shear strains, Thus, fm these types of maJta[uals the temperature- a:odmoistll1re-indll!lu::ed StI3.lHS are

£'r "" :oflLl.T ri; "" o

. .:.~ "" ~l( r~ "" {J

~i "" a~.!lT rl~ "'" 0

. ...,.,

.~~ "" file

fJ"'" a3t1T Y?~ "'" 0

{2J.63}

€~ "" #3C ]It! "" 0"

(2J.64)

Fororrhotmpie,l!ml!ls'!!£:r.rely iillo~m:p.iic, and ]SiQi~:ra:p:iemaite;dals the stress-strafn mlationllhulP~ givel!l. a!b,ovB for m.o[lodin:ic materialare valid (Eqs, 2J.61 31!l.d 2" 162) 'i\futtl 'f~~ "" (I and the I[SJ and [q matriees ~lJeci~.ed in Sections 2,.:U and 23.5 [see also Ta.h~e 2.13),.

Materia!.

Gener .. ~~.y

;~il.i£Q~mpi!D MOlioclink:

OfthoU(J,pk Th:n~¥\t)r,sdy

1ll0!lropic [~&t[opic

....,.. ~ -...,;; .-,.

Co!I.CI'1., ~~, 1l!:1.!

....". ~ ..._.;

al,. ,a~, a.3

~ I 'I' ,a2 = a3

1lri.ehyglotherma] stress-strain re]"ltlons:h]plllllU"u:!le;[ RJ]<Il1e·st[1linoond~.tioIl ean be olt!~<l!i:!led by ma:k.iingthe fQ\~Low.ing slLiootitutiQ]lsinlhe S~Ie5\S-srrrlIinre;b~:iQn:ship5 (wirhOl~1 hygroiliefilluill effeets) give:nil} Sedlar! 23:

(;, ~ (;i ~. 3'" tl..T - p,.c:

JI"j ~ f';j - a;j.L1T - P'jC, i.", j

where the subscripts if represent x,y, <'; and 1,2.,3 in the z, y, .. ~' arid XI., X'loX], ,cooTdJiml'~e syslems, .respec~ively:

ne. hygH'therm.:i~ stress-euada re,lillt.ionships under plaae-steess cQ[]!dHioncan be oib;[ai:Dled byre:p:~lIc:illg t.he sbaim.,., and f'ij I:n. Eqs, (2 . .124) and (2J.4.5} by those giveninEq. (2.165)"

'ifo obtain soilllliom to the equiUbr:i.1!IDiI., stress-straic, and strain-displaceraerr; equa.U.ol'ls, eit:fui.e:r Ute .dIisp~a.cem.e:~d or the :l!'pp:~iecl. fD.TCe must be :s:pedfied at every paint on 'l:h.e surface" The re~lItion.~,hiip~be[weenlhe diispl.acemellls and [he stmim aregi.'i,i'en by Eqs .. (22)-(2A) and! (2 .. 9)-(2JJJ .. The :sl.lJrfaoe forces ]:Ier I:mj~ area are rela:~eodi~o the stresses, a~ the surface as f;1J:J.Iow~.

We consider a ~nllU '!lQ~llme element All (Pig:., 2.l]J. .14 surface fOl'ce perlll.IDIH area p (w.ith. eornpeneuts Pt, /Jy, p.) is npp~i.edI. 0[1. tbe A A. surface of this element, Farce ba.lanooi[l~h,e Jl direction gives

G

._4

FU.~IJ[t=' 2.3]: Co:mPOi!iiCliil'5 ofllh.e slillrrraced'o:oce p'DJ'llihe l!..A,sll1rbiOe and the !iltr=~~ Cilii ~nl'!: onc. bAC, '~Rd ,OAB 5ur(ac.eE.

DISPLACEMENTS, STlUINS, .ANlnI SliRESSES

z

To A

1 .

PI "" 2&A ("I.il..;::tl.)I + 'f."l!r.Jt:l!r.y '*' 'y<,£l.xLl.Z) •

III N}e~i:mi:t, when t. A, .il.x,. A}I, il.z .1:0 to zero.Eq, (2.167) becomes

(2J.68)

wh.elre l, rri, ~;~ are the diirecHoill cQs<illes of tli!,f;IlQ[mll!l vector ofthe boundary surface (FlO!} 2.3:2) as fallows:

Si:mi~lIri)'. we have

Py "" mO'"J + l'f:N)I -+ j'l!'zy p~ "'" I!~O'< + h~, + Ji!:I'I'y<'.

(2J.70) (2.1.71)

When cemnosites aremade o[~1I!m.~nated 1,:Iyers,perlecl fuoiUldingus assumed be~weene3ch~lIyeL Acoo.rulngly, 3lthe interfaces af.irillo 3dnll~lll~lIiyen. the normal S;I:[~e.:sare equid. the out-of-plane shearstresses are equal, and nile d!usplacern.ents are equal, nus, a~ two ad!jaiCenUa.Yi1LS, de;~,oted! byA: and k+ 1, we hllve (!Fig .. 233)

(eJI;;1 ea, t O"J~"Tl. I.:! (l:r.)k,.1 == (ll),H-!.1>

('.,~h-;t = ('I~)kH.1> (I.:i)ik"t =={l')k+U,

(2 . .172) (2.173)

Th,e :!i1Lll.mcdpts t a:fild. fu· :refeT to the tap· aud fuo~~om of lI.~lIYi1r,respech'\le~.y .. The contirm.i!ty condiitiions irl.~erms of ~I:rains ean be obt..'li:~.ed from th.e prec:ed:~llg disp]a.cemenfr=ntUnuity cendifions (Eq. 2,,1'7.3) t.ogether wHhEq~ (2.2)-(2.4),. {2 .. '). and! (2.1J) as fQ~~.mv:s:

U Slitl~SS .A.Ninl S·fRAINI JR:ANSFOIIIMATlmNS

k+1

49

Fig~re ::L31: Th~ stresses at the top :!I!mii.lmM!offi 5~rf9iDeS of tWri aiija,,'eot 111!)'~!r:!l ihut musk milltcho ~!ll '~8~:i5ry ,;:om:~!liIur~r

The (/". oJ" 1",t ... stress ,HId t:ffiI,e ~<, }'''i'' Yr,' strn]n GQ;LI[IPQ]!I.e:nl~ are l,lOll1eces~:n.ily oontln!1iDlliIS a.~ong two a.djl<liCent surfaces.

We aol~sidlg[ two Cartesien ccerdinare S},st-emll wuth axes p, q; rand 1:1, q',. r. Th.e erlenrarion Q;f the [primed ccmrdu[J.aterys;tem. "lI:~thre:SiPecl~o (he uniPl"i:med ceerdinare system ]s given by t.lhle nine directiDI!l eeslnes (I'll, 1':u, r~l)' (r12" .!"z2, .r~1)' (1"~.3, 1':23, I".!c~) siPed~edun TabJle 2,14k

The nm:ientlltDon 0.1 the psirned p', q', r' eoordinare system. with respect to the unprimed coord:ull1l!le sysmem p; q, l' can <Ilso be speelfsed in ter.ms of tlhl:ree

,~

nii'l ~'J<f

'I' r.lZ = (;()~ QJl~ r:l1 = ffIS noM 1'J.2. =.i:;OS Ur~

j'H = {;D~ Q)!j1 1<1. = cosQ~p tl.l =, oos f1;,.f'

j'13 = .to~:f.l"" 11~ = COS:>lp t].J .= (1[~.S fj"

DlSPUI.CI:lMENTS, STRAIns, .lNlnl Sll.RBSSBS

'l

B'

r

angl.ell EnJp, Sq, @r (Fi:!} 2"34). nes>El3ng~es areconsecutlve rntanons oHl1mpri[ITJ.ed! coordfnase syslenii. about th.e p. '1, r axes, asIlhastraredtn Fi.g!lll·e 234. Th.e lI[1~es 8.,!l" (~q, @\ aile pOlliHvein the couaterclockwise diirection.

The 9 .. " Gq, 8r alngies are :rel;ll~ed! to the direction cosines .ltJ.y the f'Q~lovo':i.ng expreS!:iiOml4~

8!'f ~ Atan2( - 131> Jr~~ + rill

®, "" Atll[l2(r~n/ cos' Sq, rH! cos €I'])

(2.1.7:5)

AI:an2(y, x} ."" lan-l ( .•.. ~.) ..

Ji:.

when x e- {}

(Y')

At .. 1.n2(y. x)"" lll[l-t :;! + J1'

\Vh.en €I']' = 90", then 9, and e r lIre

when Jt:< O.

(2J.78}

~he ilInpr.hl1ledi ·roord!in3le!lystem by the trll.!1Idal].nati.o:n
I 'i1~, I 1,;,u Tr.i2 4u 7;.M T~iS r;i!5 (I,!l'
I , 7;21 T.m T".23 L T~:2~ r~ 'if'1
(1"1 <T~
(1' 7;.'1l Tr.S2 7;,:~ 1,;,34 T~s~; 7,;']15 ,r'1r
• ! (2J.79)
t:i - 7;"1 Tr.<11 :r..43 'T,,44 T:~4~ 'l,;.41i
I l''Ji'
I qr
':rl 7;Sl T;,.~2 T".$;.~ 7;:54 T~.~j 7;,~!5 1:1"
IP
cr' l7;('1 'f.,,~2 T~63 7;o:i~ T~fi6 4~ 1"
p.q .I!"I 41 l. j. Cm.is;.I)~N'J[lID:ri"'I' to R'ed)eJk~ {.!'I1'I!dJmri!C3 m.lrt CaPflI'rJ1). lUG c;dtiti.OR. AGd1~~II-WCS:h~y., It~adi~&;.

MMSJIclllGC"tI~, :~'!M'!I., rp.. ~3-5i:i.

2:.9 S1fRES8 .ANllII SlRlWill TIiI:ANSFo.RMAUONS

Table 2..15. irrn.esU'e:l:llnimsfoflfilwUJlc:iiI. l'I'IIalric es
(J 0 {I (I ()
{I - ~, ~,2 2l.·.",s1' (I 0
s, ~
{I , .c~, -2t"p!!>'(' (I 0
[1'1]1 = ~~v
o -{'pp .f~~'1' t~ -,r;~ (I 0
{I I} Q {I cJ1' -e\'p
.0 I} 0 ;[I ~'.I' .cp -
, {I " () 2c~lt,t {I
(_.- ,I:;
~
{I 0 (I {I {I
[ t.,~] .:rz 0 ,:i {I -2c s; i()
.- ~ if 'f~
{I {I 0 til n -:\''l
{I {I Cl· , {I
-{: .\. {'~'\:q -l{~
'I".~ ~
{I o 0 !.!iq {I {>
~ -
c; ,. 0 {I en 2c!~~,.
~~~;
,~;i ~ 0 {I Q ·-2(_·.,~;
c-

[t;]1 0 u '1 {I D 0
=
0 (I 0 Cr -a,. D
0 (I 0 ~~.'f' t,. 9
-il·~j;1" 411~r Q o en .c; -:I"; ,CI' = CiUllElI' :\'.r> == sln G·.I"

C~. = GO~e'r :i''I = ~in fl'l

t;,. = COl> ,e·. ::1, =.sil1l.0.

Equafion (2J.19} ,ca.I1 also be written as G" ."". [1.;] G',

where rt~ Jus: the tr,IImisf{]i[l,uatio:n ][latrix, which may be expeessed as

(2-180.)

(2-1:81)

where [tIl, [t:I], [t;] are g.ivenin TlIMe 2"]5. 'J1lU! s;ubtH::rip~ ,~ refers to the stress trans:fo[][laJiion, a:nd thehat on T l:nd.i:c.ates lh,IIt a.~ISih stress .cmruponents. are being trensfarmed. 'IDle soperserlpts [1, q, and. r'refer to the Hansfo[][latkulIs, about the p. q, :a:UDd. r axes, respeotively

Plal,I8--S.traiJt almpJlUJe-slre:ll'$. Under IPl.ane-strai:n and plane-stresscondirlens we are inrerested alJll.~yill frh.e stresses illfrh.e P-li and [f'_qt p~8oI}es,. In t.hl,~ ease thessressesia the prhnsd coordi:inlllte system <lIe obtained! from the srrre&Sesun the ui1pnmed coordJil1a~e system by IQJ~atio;n about the r -1INi:;: (see H~ L35 }.as. fol.lows:

c"" cos:€!

Equatien (2J.82} may be written 80S

(21&3)

(2-184)

· '1'

Fi~l![r~ 235: RIilLlti~m of the ooor.dimik ~~'~k:m around the r-'.iI:1i:k

The !iLl!lb;cdpt <Y refers 10 n~eS;lreS!l tl'a:~sfDITllI.m~ioll,. aneli T 'i\futhm..il a hal·lndi· cates that only the H!l:ree il1.pl:!lne stress oO:Ll[Ijpon.e:nl~ are t:ra:nsfnnl1l.edL

The ~tra:unsull the primed cnerdluase SY5iI:em are calculated from the srraias inthe !lI.np:rimed eeordinete sy.~:le:m by

~J 7;:1.1 1;;1.2- :r.:r:l 'T"M To[s l;"l ';::1"
,;::! T.li J:21 7,;23 7;,M 1',;25' 7;;2~ ~'l'
'l
~ 1.: ]1 1._12 I~3.3 Told! 7;]5' ;'::J ~ .
• F
Y~r _. 7;; ~I 7;<l1 7;;l!.g 444 445
I y,tF
I r~r 1;51 '1;;_~1 :r.~~ T.~ 7,;,5)5 7;;_~D VI"
:r;J.If 7;61 T,;~1 :r.:!'t~ T.~ 7;.1>:.~ ToM YlJq (2J.85)

~vhelre~he vedor.!!: represent'S el:l!l;iineerhlg s.t:ra"in~ The strain tmnfifor.l11a.t:uonmranb: [t] app~ie,s to el1glneeri.]lg strains and thus is ]lm~he sasne :1S the stress trn.lI)srnrrn.a· ~IOIl L'I.1l1trb:: rtl. {Thmo[I<'d strains tram form by tlTl.e siilm.e tm:lIlsfmm':H:im.llll1!lItrix as the stresses.)

The u-,a'nsfonnaliarlm1l!hix [tJ ma.y be ex:pressed.as

(2J.87)

where [71'1, [t'l 1, I[ ~r.l1l!re ~ven l:n. Table 2.1 6" vhe s'lllb!lcrip~ srefers to the strafn ~:r.am:f.onn1liholl!. The .ha~ em T indicates that a,[l six st[ainoo'lIl1!p(mem~ are transfanned" 'llIe superscrlpts p, .1],. ~ndrrde[ to the tr.ang[o[ma.tial!ls about th.e p., q~, ami f-lIxe~,[e!lpec~'iydy.

P.l'QIMt·~I"Qin QlI,d p.lal.I'jj"'StN'~~~. U nder plane-strain and lJolane-stress. condificas we are interested onlym fhe s~]"ainsu[l the p-q amI! p'-g' planes, '~n this. ease ~he str.a]m~l:I~he p:rumecl. o!lo·rohute sy.slem are obta:ined! fra:m Ul.e stra:imin the 1ll1!lp:rimed coordiillate sysunn bym:frati.ml.aboll.n t!he r··axis (~ei Eli!} 235) as foHows:

I.·~~! I. [. C.,:

';::' := s:

'l

r;.o.rr -2cs

2;.9 S1i'RIESS.A:Nlnl SiiHAINI JUNSFOHMATil:DNS

sa

r"1. Q {I {I 0 {I
[I , ~,l 0 {I
,(;~ '» cp:r~
() ) ~ 0 o
[1tll = '\'~ s" -'('p"~'.r
{I -2cl"l'~ 2cpJo:n ,c~ -.li~ 0 {I
l'
[I Q o [) '(:p -~!'
[I CD [I [I !!iJi C.P -
2 () 1 0 CD
(f ~'~ ,('q,I'.j
0 '1 o {I Il 0
[tr] '(~~~ 0 2: o -c~.r'l 0
= ~
CD 0 11 '(''I I} -&1/
-2t'~'1'~ 0 21.''i'~'1 [I . '-'I'~' 0
,(;~
0 0 0' s I} cg,
~ -
1[; .. 0 {II @ C:r!J~l
~
_-:J ., 0 o 0
s: c~-: ·-l.:f~·r·
r
[1;] o o '1 [Jo 0 0
- {]! 0 0 0
'(.:r' -.:.!I'P'
{I (:J, 0 s, "'"r 0
-2(;,:5'. 2('r'~' 0 {I @ i; ~
- ~;- Equation (2.1.88) may be written as

('f< = {;O~eJ' ,1;'1'= sine~

('~ == cosB~ .J''l'=:gl:tlG~

,(',. = ()O~ {i:J. :1', = SliIiI.e.

The suibscript E refaTIi~o tn.e ;~tmi:ra tTansJ.atnna.tlara., Wuthoul a.h,lf[l, T i.vu:!I:uc:ates thet onJ.y the t:fui:ree in-plane strain. ,oom]pone:nts are transfor.mecl.

Th.e st[e~s-;:iil:raimi rellltion!1Iil.]p!l iml. tlil.e unpr.ull1i.ed. <lind! primed ooominate systems are (Eq" Z,22}

G' ""'" [q~

! [C"~l _),

,(7 ",,"' .. '!:.

(2~19n)

To obtain t.ne relation between the smlness mat[~=.~n the Ilm[!Jl'hned II C] and! pr.im.edi [C] comdinate :~ysten1ls, we mli.l.~tip:.~!i' both sidles of tibe stress-strain equa!l~.ain.in the l!.lmprimed eoordinate s),Me.'mIby [t~ 1

(:U.91)

lIt,,] (7 "'" I[t] [C] [t ]-1 1[1;,] ~ "

~' ~

.. 1("] e'

(2192)

By c:ol'[lpllri.ng EqR (2J.90) amici (2J92), we see tfuiaJ 1h.e elements of N.le ~ti:ff· ness matrjx (qp Cb. _._, C;_'}in tbeprimed (fl, fl, r") C(lo:ruhr~,ate sy!;~em ami

the elements of the Sluff[le~s matrix (ell, C~.2 .. , Cfi,) in. t:he unprimed (1', q, r),

coordiinate .:;:ystelF.I. are related by "l:ffiI.e expresslon

The elements of~he campl:i:mcemlll,trlx (.${, T S.2' _ . -, ~ )iu the primed (12', ii, r') cocm:!i:unate s.ys~em and the demenlS anile o(Hnpl~.ancennata:ii:x {5'1 L. S~.2'· _. a 5lifi.} in the unprlmed (I', q, r) cooriJluna..te system are obtained hyimrerti[lg Eq, {::t193} as [oHaws:

(2-.194)

PltiUJ€-lflrtJWiS' (nldpl(J,u.e~trnill cDll,rlitim.!'s. Under plane-stress a:n.G.plane. strain ,ool.ldituolls we are interested in, the .sti:fmlfi!ilS: a:nd ·oomp~i.an~ matdcesie the p-q andp" -q' planes,

For pbne.stn::ss, the e:~e:l'I]}ents ofthe stiffness matrix .i:1II the primed and. unprumed coordlnate s:y~lems am <Ii aad Qij, wl~ere i, j "" 1, 2,~i 1!herelaUall:!1ffi1up between Q:j and! Q'i <Ire gi'le'rl. by the trarus:r:Or:mJ1I!tion speeified by Ell (2.193). The resadl is

(2-J,96)

The elemenrsof U'l.e =~lJ!plg.anre matrix: il!!. the l!m.p:rimed 'oool'd!ina:te~}'s.tem.am obtaine,d by .S:~I.liI:ila:[ reaoon:ing aed are

are

[C,.' •• 1 .. 1 q~

q~

{2J.98}

(2J.99)

,vffil.ere [I::r ] and. [T.jllre given ibyEq .. (2.1.9ri).

J1II this!iBctuon W'e. defilJle three parameters useful .. ifl. the analyses of :pla;tes lIndi beams, These arethe strain ellergy,Hl.e pOilemial of the eNttlul.a1 fO[OBS. lIml [he 10l1l1 p'urrenti,al energy,.

For :I .. li.lII.e:ady elastic system, t:fuJ.'B s~r,aill ~;fI.e:[gi' of volume V lill d!eI'ined as

If'fj- .

U == 2, . . c' (~;rfTx -+ f.yf'f:~ -Ii- f [ff~ + Yyz·;['y.;: -+ }',,~r:T:;:+ r\~ 'r.xy} d Y.,

Thill expression can be wr:i:~~enlls

\Vith thease oJ lhestresf."-'~trlllflre]lIHollS,fulups [Eq, 220) this expression can be expressed inrerms of Ul.e .!1t[,ail.l5., as foHQ\'!IiS.:

" o!!~. If!

I Y

,E:'z

Yy;::

I Yx< ',r~y

. fill,

where [C]~slfule sHffness matrixin ifuJ.e x, y, l ,roordiina:[e system, The strain efle~[gy IJllJEt be posi~~ye. (U :> O)fo'r ,any nonzero strain..

The pute:mllia.1 of the extemal fercesis defined as

n"", -fIr (f"',,!l + !]it) -iF f<t.JJl dV - If (p!"ll + P,.!! + p.;-w) dA (2203)

where, wereca.II, f~, [y. f~ are· th.eb-od.y£o[ces (per LU~it volume) and p.t, i'r, P<. <Ire the 81l11'i';u:;e farces (per unit area),

The rrO'lalpQtEm~ia.1 energy of the sfllte:m is

1r.~ = U+ Q ..

2.1 0.1 TllJi1~ R!liu. Meih(Dd

l

I;~= E ii;{i~i ;-1

J

U "" L: Bjl!j i-·i

.1(

llIJ "" z::: CktlJr._ .. ~,..l

(2205)

DISPLACEMENTS, STIMINS, .A!illD SIiR~SS~S

The displacements !ii, Vi' ~wl<a[~, oo]lvenisn1~~.y chosen known fll.llmtio!lls tli1al ][IlJlll llllt~sfy til.~e geomdr.ueal. boundary cond!iHon:;p, whereas A:. Ri. Ck are yet 1!!n1K.nown constants, AQoord~.nJ!. 10 the prim:ipteof statl.O:n1.ary potential e.ne'rg}', at eGl'um.ib;riunl the potentlal e:lI'Isrgy (lEg .. 2"204} must satisfy t:fule conditions

~""'O (lA,. '.

i"", 1 .. , .. ; I

1:17f",

~B. "'" 0, f ~ 1,. -" , J . [

1hr

." "" O. k: "'" 1, _" _, IC i:lC~,

The constants are :providled! by the ~olutiol:l of~ffilere equetjons,

(2.206)

Th.e equHUbriJUIJI eqnatioes and t.h.e sH:re..~iS.-stFll:i[l and stmin-d'isplillcel1l.ent relatiDnshi!psp[~en~eclun lful.]!i chapter <lire sammanzedin T1Iibie 2.17 for ge;n.enll.y anisotropie mareriale andjn ':faMe 2.18 fur l.no:n.odink: marre;rlab" Eqil1i1ltion!i for odli1.o~Ta!pk:, lrm.l!i\i'l'H'sel.yusotropk, and i~otm!pk: matter.iill.Us arethe same as for monoeilink ml!.~ad3~.!i (Table 2;,],8) .... ifrh d~e elements of til.lll stiUness a:n1d oo;mph.anee.merrices slmplffied 3ClCQ-rdl:ng to Eqs, (2..95) •. {:;L97)

The. unknowns of.i:nte:m~1i fo[genenny anisotropie materiajs <lire summarjzed in Table 2.1.9 lInd! fOol" monodi:nk, o[rrhC!tm~:dc:., transversely :u~ot[0p'uc. and isotropic ma.ie:r.ulIh iln 'I'lIM.e ::t2D .. ~frus evident that 'I!i:nde:r plene-stress and plane-strein coniJl:iti.o:uls UU~ number of unknownsis reduced! and the eqjiationa are s.iJm/pl:ufied"

hI Nl];S seetion, we gi\i'eproofaf t.fuI.e :iimporla[lt statement tillat r:fule ctml!phanre 11l111!tIix (and CmliS-e-qu.eIliUy its inverse th.e stiffness matrix} m.1lisl bepm.iti.ve d!efinite.; <lnd! sY.Illm.elrlcat

WeooHSia.er a. small cube made al·a.linea[Uy e~,asti.cmllterillt This inihllHyslressfree cube is defnrm.ed!" nllil:rung thns defonnatlou the Internal elUII'ID' {in~hus case, the strain enermrJ d.la.]lge~ Since ]nil:ually the cube is stress free, the d!e:forma.'l:ion reslii.Dtsun a p08irr~ve cbngein the ~t[.ain ener.g;r (flU lI!!I U » 0). 'Ihfstequirement may '1!J.e espressed as (see Eq .. 22(2)

» (I when

-fx "'y f:s

Y)'.1:

Yt.;: r~Ji .

:.p 0_

I Y"'i

I r~i

I

'.')1-,,)' ,

~L-. E. Ma!!I~m .. t:rJ17()ti!r,)Ctm.r.1 ta thl! M:erharljrs of a Ca.rutimu:wJ.M'edirm._ ·fr.GnHc~-HilJLI, :E:IJglc;wood Clm:;... ~,.r~1'! J'~[~O~_ :1 96!l_ n 292.

2:. 111 ~SllMIMAR.1f

201.3, 2.14. :;U.5

2.2.0

·Ill!rel.':-t1~m.el'l!jIQliL~1 Pllan~-Ili:rill:ln

Free end B,lIi~~-in e.:nl1s. F-"lail1l,e~shess

2.5'9, Vm,2,,61 259,V;O, "2,.61 2.121, 'LI.n

2,2,23,.1.'1 •. :2,,9-2JJ.

2..54 2·.562,,57 '2.,99 2JUl, 2JQ2, 2,2, 2.1, 1JJ

::Ui2 2J.o3 2~1.2(j

i!i7

Table:[,18. iJ"li1:eel1l!J!11~joJ1ls, fm a.moMcli11lic: ii'l'ia.tdan"Rl.e eql!MtionslN ~l1tU:dIOpi!l)J tr800ver:sel.~ IOOUlllPio, alMillool'ropill liII1Ia.temlal\5: ame tiileS8TIrile as 'r(l~ mll[flool;lnik: malll<.ria~slll!l~1rI t~sliMne-ss aMClOIi1lPII~lIi'Ce ma1!fiiu~erl1iiie:mts S:lm~lilied ,M: 3pellii~led illll EQj5. {2.'9.5H2:00l.

P1.flne-llI:r0.in, :[ree end] Incpbne :JiO~dI

End 21xbl.loatl EndmGme:tiil

Ollt-6f~pla[i)eI01"Ld Torq:ue

Pllane-ili't'21iil. l'llli~tcin ~nd!s Incpi<1Jlle load Ollt-<lf~pla[i)elo;:~d P'lall,e-csUess

2.&6

2.74..2..75 2.86 2X~(),2J.31

1.2,2.3. lA, .2.,9--201 .• ~.

1,68,1.'71

2JG7. :2..1.10 2.f17 1,2,B,1.11

Table :2,,1 gl Time I!tI1lkll110WiiIS ~11I tltLeeql!l.8liiU1ili'l. fo~ !Q!$llmtUr ,Miso'tmp:lc Ilnateifials.

mspl:;lIlemenb

1'J'.f'~ fl."'i] IIT~

O[ Y-l~ r.ll~~ Txy

P),flnt-llI:r0:i.n Free end

ll., I:.!, W.

!i:'x, I~~,~ ~~ JI:v.{,. :r. ... ~~ ]1.1')1

!i:'", .~~

YJC" y .. , r"J

(f.li~fl:J

l'jM:~ T.H~ 'JT,,¥

2:2.0

2.76

2.U.l 2.tU.9 201.34

DISPLACEMENTS, STRAINS, .A:NlliI SlfREiSSEiS

~I:o E':b E3 ¥l:;,. i"Ij, Y!l

Titille '2.20. [lire 1!J]l1«il1:lW1fIS in tlitoeeql!J!lil~illil1lsmr nUlli!l:IoUnlt" Ill1il1lnll'opl'c, traM'ii\ersel)! 1~Ii'OiIlic:, amd [tSfIli'DlPi~ IiMber~al~

PJane-Sl:r~ifi,f!ti':e entll lii-'pbne i1l0t11

End ~xhull(md End 'mOrntt'lt

O!l~-<lf~p,lalle load TOfqrue

Pbne-Slt0.l:tt, bujn~-iii antll~ .I.ii-pbiie l(i0..t1 O!lt-<of~p'l:all.e load Plane-stress

ll:l, .t~! fl.~

fl] •. ~tl

'c.1 ~ E~ ~ l'u: 1"23,. :rl3 lObel, Y.Il

1'23'1 il~ "t, "2,".12

The !preced!ing ~neqmlHly requires tlila~ [C] be lPositiive de.fi[lHe.~ ~ColTespand!~[lglJ, lIS], [C] arid [S) must aha be positive definile.) Th.e maanerin wn.kh. we Cillml. determine w!het:n·e;rm na~ reI 'IS posiHve definite is dlUrlCl1ssed subsequently (page 59).

Firs[ we show thill~ the camlPluance nlatd){mllstt be syrn:metr!i.cat To tn~,s end! we lIpply .IO<ld!~ ][1 four steps (Fig. 2.36) to ourinHia.ll.y stress-free cube made of <In elasticma;t:e_'r.illt

(a.) A t.enlsilelolld p (perliilllita.Te.a)is a.PlPlieiiJlun the JI: dliredion .. As theresuit of this load! a; "" P ]s the onl:YI!l:Oil!lzero!ltressull the material. The strains are (se.eEq. 2.21)

,IT -.;

.0£_" "" J2;lp_

The work is

~V" "'" r~ (jxd~x + 1·.···; {f),J"y ea. ~SHil:.

u r=:» 2

(b) An addlitionlll te,]lsile load! P is a.ppHed in tfue y d1irf:CUOiLII .. Tbestresses ]n 'lhe m,lIler.ia:1 become tJg "" I:'fy "" p, a:nd 'In,e ,cclTespo:nd!in~ :!>tI'a:~!1s 1IIre

1l_1i .. Ii

~ r =.;o2LP -11- .o1J;2aP-

The work is

~ E,Kmy!l2i~,. Ad~i2'Jel!'d E!i!iilJe/N'11J{,', MalJI!eIJJali.e!l 7th Ed!iJ1iml_ ~clJII Wikylll!: SOOl~, New York, 19'!B, p.40r7_

+

r

D

Jp

(lJl

+

-t

r

D

ip

hi)

(c) An. addH]oHal. eompresslve Ioad pis app]i,edi 111 tbe x d:urect.km. De stressea il:l the maJlle:riI1ll.lbec:mne 0'" ."" 0, Cf:r "" p, and tltm eorrespondii[lg strains are

'Ibe.wcrk IS

(2..213)

.(d) An additional comlPressiye Load P~g applied. in the y d!urecti(u 1'ti!e stresses ill the materlafbecome (,11" x "'" 0'.1' "'" 0, a.l!Id. the aCl'r.res(polldi]lg st:rauns are E'~ ""E; "'" 0 ..

The work is

(2214)

(221S)

(2216)

(2217)

'fiI!.llS, theoomp.li,al~.ce matrix of 11111 e:~astk material [S] {and. co[re~lIDl!ldungly [e]. [q •. and! [S])mus1: be 8yn~meU"kat

Nex:[ we discuss the cOllcliU.Q]!s. t~.~lI,t ensute .:1 com~l'lia:l!llDe nlatrux.is poo:liitive d!e!finl:te. A syrnll[Jjetrkal matriix lis pmi.tive de!~:n.iite .vlil.e.:n each of it's eigenva:~ues IS F08iltiy€;. 7 11I1.t~, to delter.mi.ne wl~etlil.eI" or net the matns.is pooH:ive definite we must examine, the e]ge]lvalue:s of th.e ('Xlmpliance(QI stiffness) n1alrux.

For o:rUmtlopk, tI3.l!Isye[Se.~y isotropic, <lnd ]so~:ropk ma~e[uah; there.ls a sbnpier method fur dde:r.mi:l!ling wll.~e,fh.e:[ or I!la~ the comphauee (or ;r>tilfnfiSs)una.hiix

7 E Il. Hjidil:!lmmlil, Ml!tfrm~ at /!pplN!iI M;atl~emi2t.rc~, .2~rl "dititln.i>rl!J1ilj~I'I!!!iH, E..J!~B~I'!!Xid! Otffs, N~w Je;rs;cy, 1965. p. ~&

D.ISPlJI.CEMENTS, SmAlNS, .ll'illnl SlIRBSSBS

uspm:utive definhe .. The :s.umpl.€!r method utHhes the cendttionthat the matrix :~~ pt1lSii:li.'I,fe deflni.le when e:v€!rys.:uM.etermimml of the main d~agan,a~ is pmiti'fe.~ For al:l Qrt~lohopi.c materlal the compliance matrix ]!l (Eq. 2.28)

$L! s S[J. (I n 0
.E
:5:L2 5'22, .823 (I (I 0
[8] Sb S:n £\1 0 (I (I
- (I o Ii) ~ (I {I
(I o Ii) {I S_i5 (I
(I o ill {I n ~, .£I., "" S'u :;.. (I D~:= .l44 :> (I

fh "" 5'1:1. :> {I Ds :.:::: S5~;> (I

.~""S33>O Da "'" SfJ,6 > o

Sn.··I· :;.. 0. 813

.5'131' . o '.'

:;.."

S;13

8u 5'l:2 81,3
DI.!3 - S:t:l 5'22. Sn > 0 (2.221)
8'13 Si1 5]3 wh.€!re I I denotes tn.e de~e[mim!]d .. Since the!l[iff'Ules..<;ma~dKis theunve.rseoUhe com.~:t:~i<l:nu:e matrix, accQ[djng to the ru~.esQrma~Fi.xi:n'\'er,f,1!on the elemeeus QiUhe main .diia!l:Q]1I,a:~ ofth.eg~ifJn.essL'lllltdx are

HI] ell"" '--. - DI2J

(2.222}

C:l3 :;.. 0,

and, at th.e same time, Dmus p{)Siti.'iIe,.Thu~ ther.eqL!!:~l'emelI~ :farpositive definite- 1!I~USmg~ when all t:]ue.e ofthe fo:Uowing oCo:ndilions are met;

!III

tn.€! elements of t~}e main d!~agoin,a] of th.e compliance matrix. are pooHhre (Eq, 2 . .219),

t.h.€! dleternl]ll1mt of tb.eoomp~i,a:nce matrix is rosi.i~'\i'e (Eq .. 2.221.), and!

t.n.€! elements af the :mai.n d!iagm~,al. .of the SmfueSSMlItl'i:x are 'posi.Hv~ (Eq. 2.223).

The ,same con,d:mOill1S a.prly fur tmm:verse~yu~otmpk andisotropic :m'lllte~rual'l,. [hherdeva:nt elements oftbe compllance and stiffness matrices are rresente.d! iin

,M E. :Kmy:;:cig,AtI\',mcetl E'J'gj~r.t,·erj118 ./W,aIJJem.al.r.::s. 7th edition, 101m Wriley &: Sons, Ni!:1'1 York. 100:1. p.4(1']_

E~ :>,[1

-:1< 1'11: < {I.S

']hliSve,tsdy ~mh'opir.

tenns ofjhe e:ngln!ef-dng constants (see 'Thlble!i 2,,7 and 2..9, pages 15 and 18) the prece.d:ung ·c:a:L~d)friom canhe eKj)r.essedilll terms of tlll.e engineering eenstants; De{ a His Of:t:l~'B 1Ilgebra!icrl1lanirulmiom :aren.Qlt gi.venhere. The results are summllrized in T3D]e 2,,21" ~

2.4 .1E:-!(a~l1!p!I~~ The engin.ul'bl'g con.sJi~nl.,~ of ,(1 gral}nitl! ep.o;][y !luitiir(!cJion.ai ply {I,l'e,gi"1}eJl'CI'$ .E1 "" 14B x :]O~ NfJ'n!, B1. = 9 .. 65 x lO~Nlm2, G~.2 "" 4.55 x lilt'" Nln.r2, 11~ I ''''' 0.3, tlJ'UI1!2]'= 0.6 . .Def.e1'tnifU~ wi'! ,nher 01" not t:hi.~ set: of c,r.mstffl:rt,i i"~ wiHd,

8otutilMll. There are two wlIIys to find the answer to thisproblem.

Me:tnod i. l1~.e oom.p]ianremlltrixis fECI" VH)

~i76. -2.03 -2 . .03 [I (I I}
-2.013 ]03.63 -62.18 (I (I (I
~2Jm -6:2.18 103.,63 [I (I I} ,
[S] = ! ](I-~:l. m-."
0 0 (I 331,fil [I [I N
0 0 (I (I 219,78 [I
(I {I f.I () (I 219.,78
(2_224) {UJ41'7

0.16:58

Since every eigenva.~ue is positive, the spBdfiedJret of en,gil!1i.eeri~.lg constants :us vlliUd.

Meth,od 2. For II tran!>verselyisO'ttopic material th.e ellgineeril!1ig OOIl8t:IU~&<i :must satisfy the inequa.M"ies ]n Tab.~e 2.21. In terms of. the enginee.:[ung conslllntS[ne!Ofineql]a.~iUes are

(2.22S)

DISPLACEMENTS, STRAINS, .A.N11iI SliREiSSEiS

01"

[1,09.:: 153,

Since the imi.eqL!!l.al~.ties are sllth:fi.edi, tm..e speci~.ed. set ofengij.neerilllg con:~m;1int!l is Ya.lid.

Let us nowassume tllal 1;';1:1 "" ft3. Inu:his ease ~!'12 "".~ 11.21 "" 4.601. (see TBiblE 2J~, page 16}, .and thecompfiance ma~rU:1:( (Table 2,7, tnird mw,page 15} us

6·.76 -3Ul9 -3HJ9 0 (I (I
-3t09 10.3.63 -62.Jg 0 (I (I
~3l(l9 ~6;t18 100.63 0 0 0 ,
[.s] 10-12m- ,
- [I {) (I .33];6] (I 0 .. N
f.I 0 [I 11 2]~q8. 0
(I 0. Q 11 (I 219.78.
{2.227} 0,(1714

0.1.658

0.2198

03316.

One of the elge[l\la]uesis neg:al~ye; hence, the spedfied set of enl~~nee:ri:ng constents 'is .imralld .. We .rellcliD. tn.e same m[ldl1sionif we me the im:q'ua.li~esgi."en by Eq, (::,t225} since two of t.ne. ]nequalitnes are (rIot satisfied;

21.2 ~ 15.3.

J1hJS e;KlImp&eUUlL.~trates t!i:l3l·ca:re ;&noliJ]:Dd! be taken to use proper v.alil!;:s of~he P:oiisS!oll ratios. The VI;!: and W\!:IBoinlloonratios (referred to as the major lind minor PbiDS!iCmr.ati.QIil) must nQtibe .illte:rch<l[l.ged,

C:HAPTEIR.THR!H

Laminated Composi~es

COilrupo~ites a:rerre.qlli.e.nuly 1.l1ia.d!e aUayer,!l (p~ies) bonded toge~n.~r to Jo:rm. a.laa» inalte (Fig. 3J} .A layer lJ[Iay co:ns,ilsl oJ .~hm~ fihers, unidirectional contiaucus fifu..grs, or woven or bra.iid!edfii.fuer:s embedded .. in amatnx (Fig!'c 1 J and. 1"2) .. A layer ,oollta'iinillg WO'I.'€!n or braided.fibers is referred tn as, fabelc,

AdJja.tent Il~ies 1l1lvnngHu:l same ]l1ate;riial and tlll.e same orienl~lIt~.Qn arereferred to as a ply g.roup" Since tlilepmpert.iies andthe o:ne:l!ltatio[18 lII:e the same across the rl.yg~\oUP, a p:~y g:ml!Jlp may be treated as on.e Jayer.

An JI:, }', .~ o:nmlogoll1lal. 'IXH}rdinate system. is used In OlIllail.yzung .Ia:mimite:ll ,viilhthe :l!': coordlllllte being p€![l'Iend~r;U1.~lIr to t:iTlep]:me of the laminate (Fig" :12)"

The orienratilo[lls of eontlnuous, Ilmid nred"io.n1l1 l'llies are sped:~.ed! by~he 1In~e B (in degree) with respect 10 t.1!!.e z-axls (Fug" Yl)" Tille .mg)e @ is positivejnthe mm:ilerclod:wi~e d~recliol.l. Thellllimber of 1P~:ie8 wit:lil~n a.lPl.ygrol!l[D' is spedfied by aIilIl!lI.liI.eTlclll. subscript. H][ exarmp~.e. tihe lamiaafe cOI.~sishng of unldirectlonel pl:ies andl~ho'i\1]l. ]n H,gure .:13 'is designated as

'Ibis laminate contains fout riyg[ol!Jlps,~heffii:rst conmining~hr00e pHesunrhe 4.5odegrfce direction, th.e~,oond cOnlain][Ig£mn p:ll.e!l ira. the O.dlegxee diDlectioll, the third contai[l~.Ulg two plies in 'tlil.e 90.degree dl:reohon, the fourth containing one p~y :in the 6Ood!egn~e dl:irecUoll"

Symmetriica~ lamma.te. W.iTI.~Ill. dIe .~<lm.ilnate hi s}'][IlmetT.ica~ with respect tnthe mi,dl.p~lIl.leut :is :refe[rsdi to .:1 s a .. symrn.etr.lclll. lalll1iina~e, Ex .. :mp.les of. s;m:meui.ca] la:lfI1Iil.lafres lIire shown [iii. F'iglil:re 3A Tbelaminates represented in .Figlll:re3A, are

F'U.llgF~' 32: The x., )'. ;;:·l,lIimi:o.ll!!e mD:Fd!in.ill~e !i;ys~elll., '!l"rIe XI, .X'2, -t:l ply coordinate ~y:s:tem, and the ~Iy iIIn.~lc.

I)

45

45

F'U.llgF~ 33: I1~~dpH{}JII [If (0(: ~:3.yl!l!p ill .iI 'l.illm~lJiII~~ mruoi."i~l1ig (jh.midurt:;~DiClIl8~.p~ic5 [~-'hl!1 t9C1:.!!6{)).

I 45
-45
I -45
I 40;
I 45
-45
I -45
45 -45

-45

(jo

-45

-45

[451-4.52"45),

-45

-45

-30

30

90

45

45

45

-45

-:10

-45

4.5

[ 45/-45/301-30],

1-452/(111/ -451] !!!! 1[-45:d(lll. [45/-452}45:2./-452/45] ~. [45}-452/45}.,

The!J!i!I.oocr.ipt 8 indicates symmetry about the l.nud!plll:rr!.~

8alan'l:ed.1aminafe.. In balanced l.lIilllinates, for e'\leryp~y in the +t:-) ·dJi:rec([on ·~ITI.e[e is an iid!gntical ply ]n tn,e - 0 Jl.i!rediion" Examples of balanced Iaminates are shown in Hg!ure 3S

CI'I»i!j,·plly 1aimiillate!l .. In.cross-plylamleasesfibers are olllyi]} frh.e n· and 90.degre,e d!irecrriom (Hi!} 3Jil C[Q&soiP'~Y laminates u[iay be :symmdrUcal or unsymmetrical, Slince tlTl.ere ]s no di!J!~linction between the +0 and -0 and !between the +9010 <lnd! -90-dJeg:ree directicass, Cl'O~s.p~y~1iI.l1dnates am balanced.

Angle.ply ~3m~Date. Angle-ply laminatesceusist of plies jn the + ~J lI:nd - 8 direc.Han~ AI.lg~e.plylll:mina~eS1may by sym.metrica.~ ar UI1S}!i].'I1I:metrica.~, balanced or uabalanced. Examples or lIngle.plyI3n:in3tf.'j are shown in Hg!ure 3.,7"

rr/4Ialnllrna.te. 1r/4Iam~n<lt.es CQIl;S,]S;1 otpliesln which [he flbeIllllre b!1i.1.~.e 010,45., 9010, aad -45-d!eg;ree dimcHon~ The number of plUes in each direcHonis the same (balanced laminate), In addifion, tJ!lf:la.y~p' ]!S also sy~'l1imerrr.ncat

ThDn laminates are c~,a[,acter~z.:ed by l~mre sfiffness matrlees denoted. by I[ A], I[ BJ, 1I!nd I[Dl.hl this ooduon we determine these matrlces for t:1TI.]n, .bt laminatesandetgoing s:mllII defnrmatious. T~.e aln1l1yres are based. em the lamin,ate pl.ateth.ea:ry lI[1dJ 1I!re f.o:[Ill1iIli:~1I!too. u:s;ing the ap:pn)xima;t]onsrl.lat the stm.i!ns v.uy .linelldy aerossthe

o [9~/Od

FF=1 ~.

[OI9~J~

-4:5

-45

45

45

-45

3.0

-30

-30

-20

'~3ilnin3,te~ (out-of-plane) shear defornlatio:m: are (!leg.ligibIe, aad theoar-of-plane n.o:I"Il~.~1 stress rt~ and the s,n.aar stresses <x<. <]!~ aresmall ,mmpared 1;.V[[h the inp~aile ,,_., t7)1, and t'ry stresses, Th.e:le app'miK~m,aliollsi~.nIl\~Y that. t:h.e st:resll-I!t.ra:un relationships mulier plane-stress ccmd.iitiol'"ls :ma:yoo aiP!pi]ed~ Th.e J[, }". <:;. refer 10 a coorci'inllt:e s)'ste:m withfrhe x a:lITldy c(lOrd:illates in. a ;su~tab:~y cbosenreference pbl'le, a:nd:;:: is :pe;rpen.d:mel!l.~ar to t.ffiiisrefel'ellce plane (!Pi!} 3Jl).

Freql!l.eLd~}', though not ah",,ays, for convenience the reference p~alle.is. takento bethe n'LUdpl,al~.,g ohhe~am~nllte. Unless the ~.lIm[nateussymm.et[iclll. w:~th respect lo the :refere,ncep:~a[le, t:be[efe;re:l!!IlCep~ane 'is ]lot a. neutral.piane, and the5'~r,aim in ~he reference plane ,are not ze,ro under pure bendmgThe ;si:ralfls hili. lh.e reference p~alle ,are (liEle Eqs, 2.2, .2.3, aud 2.1 1 )

(3.1)

wn.em !t and .t_t O1!re the. x, y ,oompo:llI:m.[;S. Oil the djgpl<le!1!ment and the :;:uper,ocr.i.]!Y~ (I refers to tbereference p~'!:lITIe~

We adopt the Kirchhoff hYII:mtihesis, nllm.e~}';. tn.al nO[][l~ls to Ine[eferem:e surface remain normal and <$t.nugllt (fig .. 3.:9}. Accord!illlgUy, for s:mlln deflectioll!il lhe ang~e ofretafien of t:Hl.elITlo:rrvml. ofthe reference plane X.tl is

(3.2)

wn,er{: we ls the out-of-plane diisplacement of'th.e reference plane .. I1J.~e total d:nsp~acementtin t.he JL, d!irectiolll is

aIL''' !l "" 11." - ZX"''< ."" j1~ '_ ':;-., .-'~

ih

8imihuly, the tot.a~ disp,llIoome:nt~n the y d:iree~iol:l ~s

ilw'" u",,·tf"'-z-·-. -. fly

(3..4)

:3;,2 S1fIFFNESS MATIilIGES I)FT,"IN IJIM:lIN'lIlES,

67

By diefini.tio:n, the strainsare (Eqs.. 2.2,23, 2JJ.)

Substituting Eqs, (3.3) 1l.md {3..4 }il11:o these expressious, we obtain.

au" ~lw<J

~x "" '-, -., - ~'-. ,-,

liJt: l1o'l::'-

il:lID 1:!2UJ'"

~ ""'--<':--

r ily 'fiyI

iht' (h!" 2iPlilP

rx'. "" _'_ +- -- - :;;:-_.

.. ay ih ady

(3Ji)

(3.'7)

where ~:, '''';, y~:. are t.lhie strains in t:he reference plane fEq. 3.1), ll:m] 1(". ~)" and 1(ry <Ire th,.g eurvamres ofthe reference fi,la[le of th,.g plate (!Fig. 3.10) defi.l!!.f.((I . as

2IJ'£w"

I( _._.--.

J<_"- il~a;!l

(3.8)

The in-plaae forces and :mome:I!It5l3:ctiing oua SUlaU element .an~ (Fig,.3JJ)

flL

Nt:= f Cf",dr. -[,~

""

M~ "" f ZXJ;td~

-/111

1iI, Ny:= I r7ydz '-~Jt;

lit

N~'jl == I 1:~.;~dz -Illl

(3.9)

ill

Mb, "" / m~iiz '-/Jh

J'rt

Mi·), "" f z<xl'dz,

-::1111

lJIMJiN'A1:m COMP981lES

Defbrmed' Rl:'fcrenc~ .P~8n~

li"ndcftlmLeQ R~fhrn.c<:Pbm:

p,; = JL+k-jJ, -f.,

"xu E~L~

Pi!:!J.m: :3_1{l: Th~_ curvetures K", Jl y, >LDd iiI)1 ofthereference p~!!in~.

wh.erfc N and! /IIi are the .in.'.p'~lIne forces lI[1dmoments (perlLll:rl.iil~e[lg[n.), and hi and! hi!> are t'he dli!it<'lm::es ('rom thereference IPl,ane to the plate's SlIrhlOf;s (Fug, ],12). The transverse shear £'Grces (per ulIit~e[l!l;t:lil) are (Fu~ :3..1 1 ,right),

lr,

Vt= f'f~<J:(: -Jq,

J'r,

!!y= f 'f}'.d~, -XI'IiI

(3..10}

We IrlOwrecan~hat far I'JllI!I:Ie,oStress cond!ition til.les;~:[eo;s-strai[lrellltiollslil:upsfo.1' each po/are flEq .. :;t ].26}

p.ll}

Fi.~.ur~ ,t.ll: TILe in-p~~m) (iOreCli acting Oil the ri:fr:;rCJlc~plimi:; (ld'l} and thr:; momcnlll und ~mjf; transverse shear [m'(~-l> (rigbit),

!l;,2 S1IIFIHiI.ESS Mit TRICES 0.F1::HIN IJIMIIN'AUS

1691

I" :

k'

.

f1b' :

l

(3J2)

wewrite the stress-etreinrelafionshtps fOT a ]il~Y as

(3.13)

where ['QJ.is the stiffness mat~uK of the p~y inthe )[-y ,cuoru[rI,ale system" The elements of ·tlhrns~mfTleR;. ma.h'b:: are obtained frol.l1ltn.e elements of~he :stHfneSli matrix [Q] i~. the Xl -][2 comd][Iaie ;sysieIu b~[he in.Flsfoil]l1Iatio!lll given by Eq, (2J.9.5}" By replacing [Q] and i[-Q"] by [Q] and [Q],respeotivel.y,lEq. (2J.95) yields

(3,14)

where [[,[0,] and! [:T;:J are g;uven by Eq .. (2" 196) and. are reiterated lbe'~ow,

[ " ~''1. ""] [ C' sl ",]
IrT~~ - 92 cI -.2cs [~] - ~J c2. -c.~ (3.15)
-c,~ r::s c,Z_S2 1 -2cs 2C9 c.2 _.7"- and e "" CO~ €I, it =: sin EI mln B defined i:n!Figllm .:t2.Fm an Qrlholn:Jpk ply the 10C<"lloool'dim,atesJtl. ]['2 nein t.ne onhOlmpy d:irec:~ionli :Fm t]1l.Tmye:rse,~¥isotropk p~ies these local 'oo.ordi:n1.a:les are ]l'.lI[,a]l.el, a.~dP'f'rp'e:n1diC:II!.I1I:r to thefi,'iJe:rs (Fig. 2"H}" For o:dh.olTOpk and tramveneDy ]smrrrapiic materiels the elements of the stiffness matrix. i:n1.tn,e!llQoo~ coordinate syste'm aJre. gi.ve.]lun TabLe:'U in terms of the elements of I:n.e $;Ufflllil];ss.lIIilatdx .i[ll:n.e Iocal coordinate sy:~lem"

TahIe1 .. 1. ihe e1enmei1lts oUhe[Q] liIlaM:<OO am olhonp:lt nr"rsl1li'l,V1er:9iely ~sl)l.fOplt IlIJllfienl.eitil illl 1!Ii1e +S dlirecliafl {Rg :3.~

Q'H = .cAQ:u + .t"Q22 + 22,\,:;'; (Qil + 2Q«>)

Qu = ~·~QH + c"Q.12 + 2c2,\:l (Qh + 2Qi06l

OJ:!; =t;1,\,1 (QrI + g._z - 4!Q'r6l + ((~ + ,\A){ll:l: ~ =c2s1 {QrI + Q~ - :£Q:d + (2 - ~:2V QCif, Q]6 = ;:',*2 Qll. - ,\:1 ~1 - (;:1 -?'j. ( Qlj + 2, Q~(,)) Q~ =t'S(N1QU!. - ,f.Q:u + (0:2 _l2)(QI] +2Qr,[,))

1:: = ,cos a s = .s:in. @

lJIM.liNill1f8ITI COMP1I1SIlEiS

1"

[.1]"" I @,rlt.

.1>,

[B] ."", /t[Q]d:t -4-

.~,'

[DI= f r [Q]dz, -~

(3.17)

(3J.8)

'n

The elem.en:t~ (If tiliie:se 11[l~t1"ice:s are (i, i "'" 1" 2, 6)

tn,

A;i"" I Q'idz -lrjo,

rr,

Dii "" f ,rQ,Oldr., -!t;,

~,

Bij "" jrQ'i d'Z

·-/Jli

(3J9)

The fA], (.8], ,aw,d [.D] nil,a~:doe:!l are the sh:f.f:ness matl"lceS of the .Iamina.te, and rQ) isthe stiffness matr.YK (d~be,ply: S]ITc:e [Q]is cnnstanr across eaeh p'ly,~he, ]nle~rals in the equations above (lEq. 3..19) may be replaced. by :!iI!i:mnmtionSi (Fig" 3.12,) as [0110'\V8 (t, j ,,,,, 1, 2, 6)~

s:

Air"" E{Qiih{~k - Zk-d

1<00,1

1 K

Brf= ~,2)Qii);,{zi- iLd

1i-'iI,

when .K lS 1th.e total number nfpHu (Qrp~y g[QillliP~) l:L'I.the ~,alllill1ate;.<::b~_l arethe d!usiances from. the.referesce p,11Iiillf: [0 th.e t.wo!illidaces ofllTl.e ki:h ply; and (Q'j)k 1I!re the elements of the sfruffn€Sll matrix ofthe kfrh. p.1}';

Wnth tlTl.e pII::cedJililll, definl~iom of the s~iff'El'&~1'i.marrk€!s, tful.e expressions ferthe in.p~,ane IDFOBS lInd! maments (Eqs, 3.]6 ao[ld!l U}beOOll!Le

Nt An A1'1 Au; En, .81.2, ~"l t=<>
s:
Nj, AL:! A2a rbr; Ell 81:.2 f:h~ t=''''
, :r
N~JI I Al!~' ~~ A.r,r; &"~ B'M1 ~j r;
I [3.21)
Ji,(t - Bn .81:2 BHj nel D.Ll
K
,t
M,., .&.2- Bl2. B!fi HE IJu ~(,' ~J/
!lifxy El.1> BNi 8&;. DI~. ~ l\t; Kxy, The vectors [Jilll t.~'B ]eft lIlIId TiglTl.~ITI,awd side :repreS>B:Iil[ generalized farces and: s[rains, Hereafter, we 8imp~y refer to these as forces aad stra:unR

By in",gni[l!ilEq~ (3,,:21), we cMa.iin t:lTlestHll:ns and curvatures iln teTI!l1!S1 ofthe

i[l.pl,;me fDFOBS lIincl.mom.e:n:t5::
E:"; I~ll C1'lZ al~ fill {lu. PI'" N
,; .,'J{,
if 0 ~n Cl'22 ll!',2~ fill /J:z2. {1JJ Ny
y
r:~, [' Ci]f> CI'>Ii~ 1%1 fJf:i'l fJfKI »; (322)
- fhI 811 8u 8.!a .M.
Kx . ~u fk;1
~)' ~n !hI flal 8n 822 826 .My
J(:xy /310 jh~ fiM SIr> 81fl, 8(f, M:r;" 7.2:

I1he [a], [fil, a,[Id 1[3] matrlces arerelared ·~o the I[Al, [B),and! [iD] ma.t:riceslby
r~!] Ot'12 a!~ f311 fj12 fi~~l Ali An AJi& Bn Bi2 .iT
(1:'12 0:]2 a;ta {J2! fJ21 /31r. ALl. ~I A2Ii B~2 Bn till;
I ~'!~ 0I2Jil aM! (jr;;! ~'l ~:I , AIr; ~~ Aati, B~,r, Bl!!! &t.
- I
l~" tJi!:.~ fJ~~ ~c .912 Bn Bu. B.'16 D.i.l. DL2 n"J
11
fJi2 fJ12 fJfi1. 812 £.12 S2f> J BJ2. &2 .Efu:. ni:! ThJ. fb.
fJH~. fJ'l!!! fJf1<i 816 8.2£ ~D. Bin BUi .Btt; DMi {), n.r.
_D 3.2:.11 TIlle Sigliliflcane®f the [A], [.B1, andl [0] ::;,tiHliles:s iMatnces

Th.e I[ Al, [8], and [D) matrices represent thesdffnesses ·of a ]~~111:~Ila;te aIllid describe [he response ef tlle ]~n1l:~ni!l:te~o .i[l-p~.ane fnrees and moments,

4j are t.1i1.eun.pl:l!U!.e sliiffnesses that relate thein-plane forces N.., Ny, N.xy to the in.pllll:m:: ce:fo[mat]ons t=;, t=;, }':~~,

Di.; are tline bendii[l!t!; :stiffnesses ~:lhIattrelate the mIO'IrUentsA(., My,M~y to the eurvanues It;r, fly, 1C;r:y'

TabieU. Ul!l!5'lralionof t~ ,oCl!!lpl'ln~tefM A1'6, Dtt6,.~B' B~1.812' BE'1Iror oomp;llsite m8Jterlfll~,. Wln;en the elementshDWfI ln tlfl:e IMlC:Q1um.Is reroJllfnere is, iii(i ~I!fjlll:mil. (il"lrneoo:t!l~l:ii'i~ termAZIlI i:l2Il,lb.,BZ2c:aiiiliie' IUl!l!5tral:ei'il. iiii Iii silfmllaJr Iml:!tftlner Dy :I!Ip;plylliiga t~roe· N~" 8l1ld a momernt. My i",tiliie y-zpl\BnEfJ

.E.'ItelifliAlll-flIUlltr

N T-·"--··r N

~ I I 'il"

'40=: :.~

, ,

--,'--------- _.

E.xtellsi.m •. -t,,"'iiit

~a::ujr

N~"7 /-_--N

'~'.£.~ --<L_/" _,.,r

_.'''1. r-o-----.-.---- -, N

J.I I "t J"

~' I~.

i. --_._------ _,:

___ r. _ ... '"

'i_P- c-;(

J~» __ ---/< M~

Ai L. r- ------7·~ N

. "s:... .... T

'<I- ,'. . " _

.. ' ..

.,:;_ __,r

N"Z------Z;'.- N~

.oE=.,' . . ." -+

,:, .--------,---.,,-;_- .. ~.

or .,' ". 7- ... ~.'" .... 7 ... · .... ~ .1".,

~/ . ,. / ~~

- .; ._~ __ • .____ .~_._~ I

i!:xt£!t!;5CXIJ.-o:!Klkms5rm

~.' r. r--------r-' N.~

,~''t ~,. I I ':J:

"E-l. __ .,._., , _; ~

T~ble 3.::t nl!JiStraiiO:lilO~_r:Mpmn~ rerll'l'ls A12,liIziha.i: liiIiIay ~e preselfiii IlMIiI iln oompo,site ali'OOl ilil iso1rop:ic mate(lIIls. VIIh~.lhe e1elil'lelil1:s00!ll!ll iln titre last ,COlli Ii'II'I III is zero.,ihere is filII oO!lllptllll!1J,

..,r-- -0;;, _ .....

·~;i·- .. -,;iM~

B,'i are tbe jn-plaae-out-ef-plane cOIlll.pUi[lg!1'rriffUl&sses diUll relate t.lineun.plane forces N~., ~" N~'!j to the curvatures Ie", .Icy. K~.'f .md! the moments .M~, My, M:.y tnthein-plane de:fo:fiI.l'l.alioffiiS E";, E";, r:J,""

Exarniaation offhe 1[.11], [.8]., lIndi [D]mat.r:i!ce.s &1in,Q'iVS tlin.at diUerel1l types of coupHngs m,a}, o~m lIS d!iscllssedlbelow a:ndnnU5;~rated in. Tables 3.2 and 3.J.

Extell;.'ii~1te~ir iI';.~l!Ip1~Dg. V!,liheffii. tbeeleenents AI(" ~6 are "UlI.ot .rero,.in.pl.ane no:r.mlll. forces Nil. Ny causesheer deformaflon r~" and 11 tWl8nrDrCeN,~y causes elongations inthe x and y directions,

8elll!il!ing-twis~ '(".!1I!!IpJ~og.\vIin.e.:n~hg elements DJiIi, fh6 are lll;O:~ zero, bendJingmo. me[l:t~M~, My cause twi~[ of the laminate K~.~" a."UlId a twiillt m.ownentM .. y causes ,oolvlIrrlilre.<iUn the x-z allldy-<:: p,~aneK

R .. dciElsio:n;-twilst 1I!o.d hf:n:!iling-l!lti.e1l!r cOl!lpJii1llg.,Whe[l the elements Bu., JJ2fj are m:Jil zero, .in·:pj_ane~Qnn"l forces N~, Ny'c..."luse tWl:st I!:xy, and rendHI1g. moments .M .. , Myresl!ll.Dt in. s:hear d!e[orma.t~on rX~"

[D .• ,pI1l!1l~1!I~-I~I.piJall1J~ I;:OI.ll([l~iBg:. '\Vhen tline elements Bij are not z.e!ro,in.p1.ane fmces N:r. Ny> N~y came ol1t.a(-pKlIne deformaHons (OUi"VlI:lllll:res.) of the laminate, a!nd! moments At"" M~, MXJI c1I!me i:n.'.'P,I<lne dI.eJO:m1ations:in the x,-y 'P,lane.

Tille prered'ing four types ofc\l'I!lI.piing are ,c~a:racted~1i.c of oor!il1ipm:~te materials lInd!do not oceue i~1.linoHloge[[lem.l8l;sot:ropi.c materials, 'Ilhie foIJow.i~}g 1wo ml1pHngs OCCI!II:n: in both OOll!llpO!o1~te and Jsotropie ma~e:r.iail.s (Table 33):

Rxtensio.D-eXtcosiltn: I[OI!l[plii1llg., When the element AL2 IS not zero, anormel force N .. causese:lor:q;ation.in tlhieydihecHon ~~, and anorm,ll] rorreN_" 'CI!:IlII;seselong,a.~:ion ilcl the Jt:ci!urecrrion ~~_

.8ei!J!iI!ing-beodiiog: ,t".!1l!!l.p:l~og. ·\VIi1Ie.n[nedemellt DL2 is not zero,. a.l!J,e:rlil:l:~ngmom.enl .'14" causes curvature of the la:mina.tel:n. tihey-.<: pl,:me Ky. and a. bend!in!l; moment My causes curvature of th.e .Ill.mi:n;l!:~ei.l!l ·ttlTl.e ;1[ ... z plane JtX"

IAMHil!A1iElIiI COMPOSIUS

3.2.2 Stlif:fness M3Jt.rices for Seleded lamin3Jties

.fur ce:rta:il1 p~y a.H3f1gemel1ts (~a}'il..lps), some of t.lhieool!lpli[l!1,S desctibed do not OCCIlI]", .al~1Ill the [,.41,. [B],. [D] matrlees become si:mpl.er;

.SYllnlJetric'Ili'lamilult,t:. In a. sym.metl'icaj[~<lmi!n<lte thepl.y located :11 ,<1 rosman +~.is .Ide:nt:ical to the. ply at -z" CorrMpD'flcingly, tlll.e sl:iCf!.l~S matr.nK [21 of~he p]ya[ +z h.ideUlt:iic:l'I.] to lh.e s~ifm.e.~slJ[latrix of. tilleplY:lll -~:

[111 (.z) "'" [Q] (-.~) -

Bysl!I.bstnllltiflg these stnff.l'Ie~llesnnto Eq. {3.,18), we find that: the 1[.81 ml:mnx D~ zeree

Thus, for a s:ymmelT.ucal.I.aJJ[liifla~e there is no in-plase-out-of-ptane eoupling, andBq, C12J)reGl!I.ces tn

IN I [A

" ·11

::yl ~ I ~:.:

(327)

W.h.en the l.amiinllteis gym.lIl1!eh"~.caj[, the compllaaee matrlx .IS gefl:8;r.al]y expressed .. as

'[

an all

ai' a" ,ali; Q\26

a1.6]

fJ:."21>

(J:1j6

dl~]

d~. I df,6

(328)

[a"~ au .,,] [AU All A'T'
(j'I.2 au (jI.fj, At2 An A2t.
-
ALe; .k. AiD
(l'lli, alii, ~'Dii,
[ d" dE d"] [~:; J)n ~r
d!2 d:n. d~ - Dr: .Dz.&.
dlli. dr];~ ~. VI!!! .D2~ ~ (3.29)

(330}

'15

TIUl relaflonshipshetweeu "l:l~.e strains alld Cl]r!,i'a,t~res, and! Hu:: forces andmoments (Eq. 321) now.sil.up]Hyw

1"1 ["" a~.l a,,] r'l
~; - Ill:l a'2'I {j2f' Ny.
pOI a~~ aM
xy al~ N"y
1"1 [~' dn ~:] IM'I
::~ '. - tin 021 My .... "
dl .. ~ d1:.~ tiM .Mxy (3.32)

.Balan€:ed ,'lilllJillat~. III 11 balanced l,ami~.ate, far every unidirectional !ply :~n the +€1 directi.o[l (1.liI.easuredJ eeunterclockwise f:mnil.[he:ll: ceoedinate) there.is an ide![lHc:a~ p~yill the -{~ diredi.oll" Tm..e elements of~he sUfflless mll,trb:: [Q] are gi.ven in 'Iable 3J (page 10)" Prom this table ,\'e deduce t~a:t UtEl e.~em.e'mf~!l ofthe f,'iUffnes;s matdces of !pUes in the +€I and -€I c1irectl.oFls arerelated as fol:~.ows:

Q. I (+®J "" Qi I(-®)' QI2(+®~ "" QI2(-®) QI~(+®)o:"" -Ql~(-'Ell

!bl(-t'&' """Q'22i-9i

- ._

Q{]fi{ toR} "'" Qi'iIiol-e)

Qlf>(#t.~ :=-Q:2-IiC-i,'l')··

(3.33)

BY!>I1!.b;tituHng these e]ement!l into. the ex:p:resSl,o.]lI. of the stiffness m,03tr.ix :~n Eq .. (:3"20),. we find! that

(3.34)

Theseractureof t.~.e!>tinness m,aftdxgi.v:en III T1i.·itJ~e 3A sm..ows that th.ere is; [10 eKt~~~ialil-&l!iellr coup-b.g l:~ .a IJ..a~anced!~am:in~te (Table .:tS) .. (Note that ALOiI ~m] ~fo are zero .o11~yin[m..e ..x-y CC!>Q'ruin.ate sys,te;~n)

EJen1i.a'!l.~~ Aw lImd Ala arezero f.ar symmetrical and un.synnlii.etrica~.~am.]l1a,tes, Co:n:rnspondingly. (or s}l]J[tmetr&c:a~ lbal.;Jill!oBJdl.~3m:u[la,t,es. the aMi and tl.:l£ e:lem'B:nl~ of the oo:mp.II.<l!ll!ce;lIIlllh:iK are zern (alf. =: {l a.ud ~ "" OJ. However, fQrlll[lsj'ilnmet:rka.~. balanced I.lIm:un1lleS noue oJ the e.lem.en~s or: the compliallce lliIl'Llrh:is zero (see lEq .. 3t22).

()rtil'ldr:{Jp.ic ,li.:lmilulie. III mfrh.ot:mlPlc~arnil1ate;s we lI!reiniereste>di, in twomulUlIUy perpendicular cl:~rec:rrii.ons.,. called! or~ho[[opy d:irec~i.ous, in the plane of the la.mi[la.~e... N.orma.l. forees <lmdren.clDng moments applied in th.e!>e dtirecli.ous do not eause sihea:r or t..viis~ ofthe :~lIm:~l1l1te" Hence, there. areno ex:talils.]oll--l>hellI. bendiil}~"lwist,. :lmd gKtensicm."~wist c:oup.~in.gs"

A~am~n:olte lS orthotropicwben e\i'ery piy is orfhotropic and the orthotmpy dll.· reetions i(:.oililoid,g wi,th t.li!.e J[ :lind! }I diirections, Hl!Jer·:r.e:i.nf.orcedi plies are orthotrnplc ullderthemi~owin:!l, conditiom;

•. wne.lIlI. the ply is m.adJe of ilIlll.cl:irec:frional. fllbers ,andi lI.n the fibees are a.~ip.ed mth Ollf: of the laminate's orthotropy directions tFii~ :1.1.3);

IJIM]IN'AF.m COMJ:liOSIUiS

Table 3,4. The [A J, 18], [D] mMces tor tali'lltlnatei!i. WiIil.eli'lll11le ~afll1liln:ate lis
$~metr~llall~e ['8] mam~ Is ZeI'oD., Cirnss,p1V Iaml11laies arreortho,tl0p:lc.
[Aill [8] [8']
5)'I!Il:rne:t[ica~
[~' All A,,] [: {I :] ['" Oj2 D"]
All .'b ~2~ () [ls~ D2z D't1>
~~ A!& Af,6 0 .~~ Du, ~~
Bal<1i!lcetll
['" AI.~ 0] [~' .B~2 s,"] r~~ D!2 D"]
~i A2:l (I , 1112 iJ.!2 iJ~ ~i Dt2 [)TJj,
o 0 AM B~6 B:Zo!I 11M LDit; 1)21, DM
Orl'hQUf.lpic
['" An "] [~' Bn : ] ['" IIll: , ]
A.12 Al~ o .BI~ lk2 [~2 Du {I
0 0 Aoo 0 11 Ba !11 (I . .D.\i,
[sOItropil:
['" An . ] [~' BI2 . ] ['" Ill! . ]
~l I~Ll {I .Bu JJa {I Dn, IIJI {I
{I 0 A]'I~A.I! Q {I .It]i-·B;~. (J {! J')'i-Du~
~ - .! -
QUilsi.,iso:[rnpk,
[ ,", .41:2 . ] [~' ,Db B"] ['" lJJJ2 .D"]
~2 JI1] {I BI~ B21; fJ20fj ~2, J)21. D't1>
{I 0 :1J.J..;~_ &~ By, fJ~ Da6i Du, DOl> Table 3,5. aoup1ilreQ~ ili1 sel'enl:'ed la.lililiool.eS ("ifIiIliO il'MamlS !ha,UIrte limdL~a.tecl el:emenl m !!In.e s~lM'ness matrh:: liS ze~and tlil:e(lnrre~Mdr[jJ!lc(I'i!Jpl'lng CI.oos .Mt OOilUr)

Un-pl3ll.e-

Exlensicn-sb!e'lll" Bending-Wrist Exlensicn-fwist ilm1-c,fjpalllle

A~E; 1lI1i6 fi'1~ ,ill,!

S'j'm:rnmi:'.i.G;:i~ (l,aIaBlce.di Ofl'hohopic QII~si-

isu.tmp1c I:sotropk lay~,rBtI [sOItropic; ~iil,1l!I~];aye.>t

1'1;0
nO no no
fiO
nO iJo nO
nO 11,0 no :nD :iiD

.u --i> !I;

ty

---11--"

''17

P'u.(!,U[~ joB: :f'.~}' ilJrrr'allls:e:t1.1iCiJj~~ i[1 or1tm,otmpir; 18minat~5. ']'!he rt~"s !i)imme:~1)' ~IXI::S (d!B~h~dI .~i:D,c;s) must ClIlillldd!c with the .lmai.1JiI!~e'~ ollh1J-trop), x, Y iIIli:ii-.

w:hell!l. the 1P1.y~s a woven. fibdc and the pl.y's synnnetry axes: are a~igned! ,\l'ilh frlT!.e .lamimltes o:rfrlilObopcy d~rectiol1S;

,\'be,n~w-o .adjacerIt lJ[lid~rectionll~. p~iB8 (odented in .cliffere:l!ll directions) are ITealed as a.!ii[l~e~1I!ye:[ and th.e syl.nmetly axes of thiis layer are ah.gned! "ruth tfui.e 13.millate's orthotropyd!irecliollls,

.'

For the (](flfui.oI.To[plc plies descdbed above, the QI~ and >Cb~ elements of U~.e lP~y s~if'f:uless,m1l1dx are zero (Eq. 2JJ8):

(3..15)

Wuth these values, :JEq" (:12'o) gives: thai tlmil;: ]6 a,[Id 26 e~emenlS of the [A], II E.L lind! [.D] matrices are zem:

(336)

.A.ccmd:un~ly, t&l.e:re is. :no extenslcn-slrear, bend/i:nlIg-urist,. or exrrensi.on-tw.iisl c:m..l(plilngin lIn o:dll.GiI.TCI[pk lalll:ui:na:rre (Table 3.5). On th.e oHlI':1r hllJlld,. whenthe la:mimlUe is !!lot o:rllil.otrapic:, t:h.es,goou[pl:ingB are present "lnd result In l!.u!.e]{pec~edi cJ)-e~a[ma:tion!>.

We observe th,ll~ the Hi and! 26 elements af the [AJ, [HI, and [D'Jmllh'ke~ are zero ollly~n the .x-y QQO.rdirHue system,w:here ,11llnd! yare thearthol:rQPY d:nrec~iolls (Table 3A, lPage 76)"

Forl!il.!!lsytTIimemC:.a~. {]ort:l~ot:mpl.C~lIn.fii:una,Jtes. the compliance matrlx becomes (see .Eq .. 3"23)

r [(II {t'12 (I {hi fill (I 1
&::12 all (I {)2i fin: (I
I [I [I lI'fio:1 0 (I /'41;. I (337)
fJ" fJ:!:n 1[1 Sr! 812 (I I
lP~2 f!v. f.I .'l12 tln: Q~~J
[I {3fi.b 0 (I 78

\Vlil.en tl1!.e.la.Jf1llp' is arr1:.liI.otm!p1c and symmelrkaJ.,the elements of the com!pluam:e matlire.~ are (gee Eq!1.. 3.29 IUld3.,JO)

[~' ([12. 0] ['" ,dl::! .:]
ai.2 an ~: ti!2 a'l2 rl~8)
o e 0 (I l,~(),tropic lamhlate. We cousider a .la.ooinl3~e llil whuC:ill. e:!'lch p,~yusisQho!pl.c~ (The material mil}' be diUerenti[l e:!llchpiy"} Smce in !Lm;tmp.i!c l.l1I,a~er.ia.]~~lil.ere ]S no prefesred dir£ONol!!, tlil.e [Q] rn,a~rb.:: in. the .x;-y cwnlh~,alesystel.n is d~.e·sallf.le as the I['Q] matdxun the XI-~ coorui:nl,ate 8}'1lho:m:

[QJ"" [Q]"

(3.39}

Consequently; t.n.!:!, [Al,. [.8]., [D] matr.~res are~nd!e.!pend611t .of th.emordillla:~e d~redioll~ lElyintrodil1lu::inlil the elements of the [Q] m.atrixgiven byEq, (214.5) into Eq. (3"20), we ob~lI.l:n. th,e fOUOWlllg elements of fille [A]. 1[8]. and [D] matrices:

HI;!:

B:Jf!:= o

III hot:mplc laminates there are no e;xte[lSion-s]lu~:ar, fu..end:in~.~~w[lSt, or extel!lsJ.o:n.-twist: col1!p~:Hngs {Ta.b~e 3,.:),page 76}, but there mll!Y be In-p]ane-ol!lt. of-plane ool1lPHng"

Will.en tn.e~am:imllte OO:l!l;Sl.s:ts of a. si:ng~eisotm!pk .la.yer,~I!!.e 'nonzero del.lTl.enls of the I[ AJ, [8], and! [.D] matrices am (Eqs~ 2.1.45 and 3,20)

(3,.42)

Ii. is the YOIlil:f!gmod!uI1J5, !) is~hePoi;ssonra.tl.o., and h is the t.1rni,ck:lless, The preceding stmIlsSSS:S, areidentue..'l~ to tm..e~1:if:ffle!;lH1S, of 'isotropic pla~8~}

1 s.. F, n[J!ll1s1lml1Jm lind! S. Wnilll1l'1.!iky~Kri!!i8)l\r., T}Je.IJ\Ij' of.Pl'IJ:I~,~ aH<i' :'m~lh ~nd. cdi:tiOlJl. M;CGTlii""":Hill, N~w York, 19S~}. pp. 5 nnd! RL

k1ven:si.on of marrlees I[A] aad I[ D] yie,lds tll"!.fC compl:~3[1cemllttkes [a]1Ind! [01] (see .Eq!i 32.9 a:nd 330). The nOllrerD elements are

1

lIU"" - •. -'

EJl

12: dll "" Eh:Ji

(3,.43)

.' tlm.f.:[-8 are 3[ lea:s~ three fiber directions;

• Hle orien! .. tiQin (fiber angle B) of e,adhply ls f) == iJr/J, wllere.i is anilltegel' fi "" 1,2:., ' ., , fl, and! l]s the taEal.nLLllubfir of'fiberorleatatious (l ~ ]).

I' ~bLe number of plies in each fiber diirecti,on is the same; and

•. eac:.ll"!pIy L.'lLna.de of the same nla.te:rual. lind! has the same tnk&l1e~!t

Fur example,un ~ /4 .Ia][lll!l,a~es (page (is} there 1I1'~ fibers h~. the .0", 451>, -45", and! 9f.r diHK~~uons, and I "" 4,

For each piy, the eJ.eme'r!b af the fQ] ma~rix are olJ:lll!i.n.::d. bysl!l.ibiSlHtuting 8 "" i1801'-1lil1to the e;xp[es~~om in Tab]e. 3.1 (page 70). Theil, by 8ubstHuting tlhl.e:se elemeuis in.~D '~he expression fOl' i11e [A] matrix [see Eq, :l20),. we obtainjhe foU.owurI,g. nonzero elements of the [~ matrix

3. ,1.. ]

All ."" gh{Ql1 4oQ22) + 4hQ~2 +2:hQM,

A.12. ""An

1 .. ] 1

A12"" -h('Q]l -+~1). -+ -hQn--hQ&fi,

8 _.. _ 4 _. 2 _

Au, "". Au =An"

. . 2

(3.44)

The stiffness matrix rAJ may be wr.iHen as

[All

ItA] "" A,.12 f.i

1

(3.4.5)

3 1 1

R ""'8 (QIl + Q21) 9:= 4'Qb + i Qbii

~i'" "'" 'g~ (Qu+ 'b:+ 6QL2 - .4 Q6fi.),

(3 .. .40)

and h]8 the thickness of [he laminate, It is staredhere witihout [PWOftl.lllt Eqa (3 AS) IIncli (3.46) arevalid" f.or d v:!Illli.es 0;[' I as ]ollg as .I :::. 3.

z S. W. l'!ll!li :md. H, 1'. :H!lllIII, .. I1J1i'i?tr.rj~rim.l' 1L>.co:.\;J\I1M~irll!'.tJ~1I!'w.ala. Ttldbl1l!l!l!l'lic,L.lIn«~tIlX.P~I!I!l;5.ylvall'i:n .. ~9B(}, p. U5.

We observe that Jorbp;[h qllasi·:i~otropk and i~QilTClIP~,c~1Im:una.t:es,4 and!

Arir; are ~:l: "'" Au and A:;~ ."" (Au - .412) ;'2. 'nlLliS, under .in.]phme force!>, quasi. isotroplcIamfuetes behave in t.liu::. same wlIY as iootmpic larainates, tli"l.at :is, t.1i"I.erei8 n.o f;xtemiQ]l-8,nel3:[ .cmJlIPHnr;l (Table 3_5) and tn.e [_AJ matrix ];!OulJidependenl: a~~he coord!ina.~e directtoas, The [8] .and! [D']l.nalri.ces do ]loLl>iulplify for quasi-isotropic ~am:inate;~L

Heme'n'~ AL1:> and ~t. are zero and A.:;n. "" (All - At!) /2 faa: ~ynll.lI.etrk<ll. lIIndi ILl:Ulsymmetric:.al. quasi-isotmplc laminates, eo:[resiP0[l(]ji:mlg~y,. fDa: s}'mmet.ruca~ quasiisotropic laminates, the alL'> and fl'l~eleme:Ults oJ~haoompll,aneematrix are zero (al~ := (II lind (12(; "" 0) and tlfll .:=: 2 (all - ad. fur l!lUlS}']l]jmetrnc:.a1 quasi . -isetropie ]aIIII.inates, [lone of th.eelements ofrrli"le .oom]!}]~,ance :ur.lJa.tri::.:: is zero (gee Eq, 3.2-2}

.R,IlJCl'cn.c.e pirlJl.lll. The stiffness m<ltl'ices [AJ, [.8'] ,. and I[.!)] rder to Reference Plane L The stiHmle;Ss mardees fm Refe:nmce Pla:~e :2 (toca:ted! at a dfstanee .12< from Reference Plane 1, Fig .. 3.14) lire obtlllfl.ed! Jmm Eq, P .20) byr;gp~adllg .~ by (t"k- e) as fonow.s:

K

Aft "'" E({?Jjh r(<lk - e) - (~I - e)]

k-ol {f;:

"" L(Q;)k (z;, - .Zk-l) "" 4j

k-ol

]~--, ... 2"

lifi "" 2'L.(Qij)l!:[(Xk - e)- (Zk-i - e)-]

10 .. 1

(3.,47)

.Iii: ,_ . [rl- ~L . ii - ~~I . 2 ]

"" LtQl})k 3" . -2e 2 . + e (n - zs-i]

k-l .

"" ni} - 2IJB'j + e2.A;j ..

81

The superscript e rele:rllM Rderem::eP'~allle 2" \Ville]! tfuie lami:Ula[e is sy.mme[· deal. and. the rederence plaae co~ndd)es with themidpl.a.ne, til.lematnix [t 8] ~s zero, \\l'hen the~1Jjm.unll,te~s unsjmraetrlcel, the matrix [.8] is :nC!'~ :z.:e;[o.

[11 ge.1Il.e:ral, there ii~ no e value t.lfla.t[e:s:!li.~lsil1 111 uonzero [[8] matrux. for 1In aniaotropic ,oo:mpO;S:ule.~am:unale" In other war dis, fer 311 IlIlSYI11l!l']etrical la.wlhm.te them isno :re:~e[enoo plane that ill also 3. [!If!UD:ra1 plane.

1ihe eomplianee ma.t~iC!f;S. [a], [fi]., <lind! [8] refer to Refereuce Plane L The elements of'[·ffilerematr.ices far RerereF!ceP'~a.ne :2 are oMaim~d byimmdJuolng Eq .. (3.47)ulItoEq" (3"23} . .Affrer algebraic nm.rlupula.luons,we obtain

t:l!Z "" (Xij + ,i}' (Pil+ fjld + Q2}jii {:J~ "'" (3ii+ ,{!8;j

811- b'

.ij=;j·

(3,.48)

The third .o:f these equatioas :slfl.mv:s. thatthe Ibe.nding complienee 1l'J.1Inix [j]us il1depe:mldenl.'l or the chaice of t~.le.refe[enre!il!!:r[ac:e"

Crln!'{!d ltl:millalf1$..The stiiff[less and! oompli.1linoo matrices derived in thu~ chaptel' for flat .iami!l13lesmlllY be ill.pp]ie.d. to thin. curvedlaminates wlilen the rn,dl.l!us of eurvamre ls large compared with the t.lilk,kl:less,

NIl:rlu.lricallrallle.5'fJ! flu: tltiffRe.~.~ ,{mdc{Jlup.liruu:e matrtcesfJf selected l.nniIl'ates.. B.elow, we preseutnumencal values of the stiffness .amld. cmruplillllremlitrices of la.mim!~.gs w.ilth diff.erellt~lIy·lIJlPs,. The engi.ne.ar.ul:Ig eonstants used tocalclidllte~he IlImJ:Ui!l1a.te :sliffUleS8.e~ <l!nd!oo.mpi~.ances. are listed [mi. 'fOlibl.e~t6" While the ]J<:ropertiies in t!hLo; table 3.Te FI.a~~nlellded to' depid a p:arrrkula:r material, t.lfle.y <lire d1i,a[.acte;[u~· lie ohmmy graphite,.,gpox:y oompa!1ite:j,. Therefore, llfl.ep:miPe:~!ties iml.Tll.lble 3Al are usediill tffile eKam.p~es l:mI. the book,

.3.1 .!E~xal!ll!llLe. Calcl~rl1te tile s.r;fJ~r:e,~~ [A], [[ Hl, [D] ami 'he compliance: [f!t 1 [Ill [B] rru:rl.ric(J,s of a ~nLD!4..5ua icm1iJu!tl! mtuie of ffl'tlpili'll! epoxy lmiilirec,tirmal plie,~ Tlw ply properties {Ire gi .. eJi.in Ta'J.le ],6,.

Slt1I!1ti.O[l" The!lliffUleslS mll[rjx ora unidirectional plym~h the fibers in tihe O· degree dlimctionis rQJ~ "" [Q], The stiffness matrix [Q]i~gi.,,~n by Eq" (2"147},

[0] ::b45"
£1 148 U.~L~9
& ~ .. 65 U.6.:,9
Gu 4,55 38J.9
111.2 0.3 0.801
ri~ OJ. 02. LiJl1g1tudDlila~. YOIilI1~:',S mmlil~lilll (OP-JJ) 'I't~ttcs"'t:,tile Yi)iUfig'srnOtI'Lllus (G[I:',<I) LiJjjgihjdD.OO~. s.heat m.oou~l!Is (Gp:lJ) LO!lgitlldn:ti!a~. fulss'i.Qn",s ratio Thickness (mm.)

and thus [Q]{lis

0] N

(I }O~ - •. _ ..

m~

4_55 .

WFrtf!£f! [r..] and! [1,;] aregiven by Eq, (3J.5J Far I:h.e 45.d!egree ply c == 00845" == 0_707 ands "'" sin45Q ~ 0..707; and we hal'Ye

[ 0_5 f15 .£1 .. 5]

I[To]= _ 0_5 n5~05 .

-LO 1.0 (I

(351)

By substitllltingEq;!l... (3A9) and (3.51) into Eq, (3.50); we obtain. the stiffness maU1K of the 45.deg;re0f2 ply as (oHaws:

_ . [45Ji5 .30.,5.5 34_79] . N

(Qr5"" .. 3,6, _55. 4,' .:i6, J 34. ,._79 HI\I -. ." "

I ,,',' ", "', m-

34.,79 34.79 38J.9

- .-

(352)

The~a.yl!ipis sbown in 'Fig 3.1:'). In ca).Cou~.atil~g the [A];. [B:j; [.D] matrices.we treat ~he ten 'O.degre,e Jl~i£;S as one layer and! [h.e tf,n 45.deg;ree p.~i.e..'i as 1Il1othe;r layer. ThE [A]; I[ 8'], I[ DJ IFLa[£UOBIl are {Eq. 3.20}

J] 'J

I[ B] ."" rQJ~~~i ; ;-; -I- [QJ4_~ .~. ; Z"['.

[D]"" [Q]w~ : z!. -I- rQ]4_~~~ : zL

.:l :J

(353)

The [Q] matdces are Wven byEqs. (:149) and (3"5::2J The.dtsrances (:ilnmete.TS) are ZQ "" -O_(I(n, Zl. "" O'~'2 "" 0.001 (Rig. 3.]5). With these va~es;Eq .. (3.53) yi.eJds

[194 .. 52 39 .. 46 34_79] N

[A] :"" [Qltl [0 - (-01101)] +- [Q]4;S(~tIOm - 0)"" .. 39.46 5.5d6 34_79. Hf' __

34"79 34"79 42_74 m

_. . . (11 _. (._. 0. Joo1l .. ' {}.OOF _ 02 [-51.6 .. ,]]6 .. _82 .. ' 17 4 0 ]

[B] "" far" :2' "+ [Ql~:5 . .. 2: . "" 16_82]7 - 97 17040 ]01 N

l 17_40 ]1AO 16Jl2.

{ld _ (-0 00'1 ),3 ,.". "0']]; _ ,,3 [MJ34." 13. 01.5 1L60]

'.Co ,u" ." .... 45\'""'" " .. .'

[.oj"'" [0 3 . -if. 1[Q1' ]"'" .. 1.3.1.5 18..45 11.60. N· m ..

1JJiO H .. GO 1.4_25

(3.54)

[ct f1] [A BJ-I

(3T ."! :=: B' lJ

{3.55)

-]lJ))'] ]

-.],.U)U o '1.0-1> ~

-24.05 N

_ZL4]] ._~ ]

~=:~: 10 N.m'

(356)

The complia:nce 1!.I1d stnffne~s matrices of 1[4.:'h/ = 452/0~2! - 45214.5:2], [-30~fl54/(h] •. , [02/4.]2/901/ - 4Sd •. [456/0"J •. , and [O;d45dOd45;!] Iaminates are ca:~clldllted silrruilariy .. The results are in 1'aM.e-s 3..7, .;It&, and 3.9 (pages 84-&6).N-01t.fthat, for sy:mmetrkal .. Ia:mi.males., thefoHrnv.ing;sin!q]~i:~.clltiomis alPlP~Y: [B] "" [,8] "'" 0 and! [O!] "'" [a], [~] "'" [0].

3.2,1E'~llIlpLl.:!. Cabda/e tAe s';jfll,esx [A], 1[.8], [.0] amI rhe c;omplitJj~ce [O! 1 [~1 [~] :rl1at.ricl'J<~ (')j a [0.20] lamiJml.f3 mtuie of g1't1pi1iN! epoxy ut1idil""ecticm-cdpli(M:. The; ply t)roperNe~~ are giN.oie~1 in 'l'ilbte 3.6 (page 8.1).

SlJll!ltioo .. The unid~:[eotjjonal.~<lI.nii[lOlite. is!;ym"Ul1!etrica~., and the fB] matrlx ]s zero:

I[E] "'" O.

Table 3..1. The [.4] and [D~ 1iI1l&lI'i:OOsl'or i!l'lMfilmeMcalllamI11la'bl$,. 'ine I!rn!it of IAJ ls Uf~Md tl\,e ~itClt [OJ 1:S N, 1iIli. The MMer1'a1 jlropertlles ar:e iQNen in Ta~Je 3,(; (ipllQefl"1),

[JI]I

[D]

[2ll7. _.75 ,5 .. 82 0.:.' ']

~L32 19A1 0

{I 0 9.10

.-

[99.25 1.94 .1.946.47

o 0

19_5:2 zs.zs o

Il ]

(I

20,62._

_lliUH.] -·/_74

ll'_39

[2:D.5._.lI'!l-?= .. "I.4 32_74· 43,]7

01) Q

19 .. 52 2,'Llfi 4AS

4-45]

4-45

2(t62.

[::rU5J.1' :12. .. 1'4 3234 4SJ1

,[I; Q

{) ]

o

36 .. 0i.

[45.3Q 1!l52 4.4S

U.6.29 n.60 -7.74

[~.'; 31SI' · ] ["'0' 4LSS '.34]
:n .. 5f 9'iUIS (I 4.58 1.234 334
{) (I 34.19_ 3.34 3_!W _'U4
[45tJ~]. (~}'m.meUit.~~.)
["'; 46J.9 41."] [3484 22 .. 93 ml]
46J9 82.5S <1]_75 12.93 28 .. 90 2LI~
<lL7S 41.75 4·9 .. 41 2::1.71 lUI 24:00 'i'il:n.f:rf: h "" 11002 mus the t.~kk[le~ll of t."til.e .Ia.ooina.te..

By sli.b\S'i:utilltIn.g Eqs, (3,2H) 3F11J. (2J39) :into Eq, (3"58) and by llSing the engilu:e;r.nng constants jn 11:!.b~.e 3,6 (page gl) (£, ",,:1.48 x ]£rJ'Nlm2, .~ "" 9.6:5 x

[-.31l4D5",!{J2l. {sy.mm.ehical)

[ 235_S~. 12.7.4 =]Q .••. J.9 .• ]

32-]~ rJ.1'9 ](U9

-IO_t9 -10J.9 3m;:[I;]

. -

[ 65-42 hi.29 -1:EL93

[Dl """ h3 ['Q\ ~ 12-.11

~i;2 SliIFffillEliS MATBICiES O.F lIMIN UlMllfil'AUS

Table 3 .. 6. The [i!lIaffild [dj matrJoos 'ret s~melJica~ f.a1i11l1:rnate$i .. iIl1le I!Inl~: of [,i!lI i!l1 0';'9 'ifmd tlite l!Jli'IitClt' [dJ fs1 o-~ ~ .TIi\Ie mate~all

IlropeJ1ile:s are.g'lV'e1ili illl Table 3.6 (pa.{ge 81). '

,[3]

[a]

[O~] (oftlmtropk., sy:mmd:rk~l)

[ 3.38 -1 .. 01. IJ]

-I,.JYl 5~,._81 (I

>0 >0 109.89

. . -

[ UL,14 -3_04

o

-3_Q4 155_44 I[)

[±45V[)121 ± ,j!S~l (ofthotropk:.. symm~lt.lcaL)

[ 5J.8 -352 n] [ 3301.0. -25_~9

-3,52 23_15 , I} -25.5'9 59..37

{) U 27_77 0 o

. ~-

[452./ - 452/0'1:~1 - 4S:1./4S2l (bala!1lcer:l, s:ymm,eilriclIL)

[ 5JS -3_52 (I] [ 33J.iIi _:2S_:B

-.!L51 .13 . .15 ,00. -2533,' 60SI.

iI1 iI1 17_71 -1,69 -"1'_60

_ _

-25_93 147_fili 37_'57

[ 7'J,' _2,",,: -25.43 -25.43 11iliJU

-411_4{I ·-,S2,5S

o ]

o

:W,:I.Ii7_

_E,_e9]

-i_50 ':],0.5]_

17,.10]

3,',.5'1 93.51

_:RSS5] -iliCilJ.1 2<13_70_

_41.40] -82.,S8

L'53.i!i6._

.AI~ "'" Ei:l .~ ~ 297_75 x 1(f N

1 ~ ~L2 ,[fl m

A.I::! ~ ~'L2All. "" 5'::32 x}Of> N

m

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