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Signals in Fractional Fourier Domain

Ayush Bhandari and Pina Marziliano

Abstract—Sampling theory for continuous time signals which where “ ” in the superscript denotes complex conjugate of

have a bandlimited representation in fractional Fourier transform . In context of [13], the FrFT of a signal or a function, say

(FrFT) domain—a transformation which generalizes the conven- , is defined by

tional Fourier transform—has blossomed in the recent past. The

mechanistic principles behind Shannon’s sampling theorem for

(1)

fractional bandlimited (or fractional Fourier bandlimited) signals

are the same as for the Fourier domain case i.e. sampling (and

reconstruction) in FrFT domain can be seen as an orthogonal where

projection of a signal onto a subspace of fractional bandlimited

signals. As neat as this extension of Shannon’s framework is, it

inherits the same fundamental limitation that is prevalent in the

Fourier regime—what happens if the signals have singularities in

the time domain (or the signal has a nonbandlimited spectrum)?

In this paper, we propose a uniform sampling and reconstruc- (2)

tion scheme for a class of signals which are nonbandlimited in is the transformation kernel, parametrized by the fractional

FrFT sense. Specifically, we assume that samples of a smoothed order and where is some integer. The inverse-FrFT

version of a periodic stream of Diracs (which is sparse in time-do- with respect to angle is the FrFT at angle , given by

main) are accessible. In its parametric form, this signal has a fi-

nite number of degrees of freedom per unit time. Based on the (3)

representation of this signal in FrFT domain, we derive conditions

under which exact recovery of parameters of the signal is possible.

Knowledge of these parameters leads to exact reconstruction of the Whenever , (1) collapses to the classical Fourier trans-

original signal. form definition. In sense of the FrFT, the generalized version of

Shannon’s sampling theorem states,

Index Terms—Finite-rate-of-innovation, fractional Fourier

transform (FrFT), nonbandlimited signals, Shannon, sparse sam- Theorem 1 (Shannon-FrFT): Let be a continuous-time

pling, stream of Diracs. signal. If the spectrum of , i.e. is fractional bandlim-

ited to , meaning, when , then

is completely determined by giving its ordinates at a series of

I. INTRODUCTION equidistant points spaced seconds apart.

S HANNON’s sampling theorem [1] is at the heart of The reconstruction formula for fractional bandlimited signals

analog-to-digital conversion. Jerri [2] and Unser [3] pro- as given in [12] is

vide an excellent survey on the state-of-the-art of the sampling

theory in their respective eras. Since Almeida’s introduction of (4)

fractional Fourier transform (FrFT) [4] to the signal processing

community, there has been a surge of research in this area.

Since sampling theory is the theme of this paper, we would where is a domain independent chirp

like to emphasize that at least on eight occasions including, modulation function. Let ‘ ’ denote the fractional convolution

[5]–[12], Shannon’s sampling theorem [1] was independently operator. Filtering by a filter, say , in FrFT sense1 is

extended to the class of fractional Fourier bandlimited, or equivalent to [14],

simply, fractional bandlimited signals. Important applications

of the FrFT are mentioned in [5]–[13] and the references

therein. Let denote the -inner

product operation between continuous time signals and (5)

where “ ” is the conventional convolution operator. From a fil-

tering perspective, (4) can be seen as filtering of samples

Manuscript received August 21, 2009; revised October 05, 2009. First pub- with the kernel . If is the approxi-

lished October 30, 2009; current version published December 23, 2009. The mation of , then whenever

associate editor coordinating the review of this manuscript and approving it for (the Nyquist rate for FrFT), where is the

publication was Dr. Hsiao–Chun Wu.

A. Bhandari is with the Temasek Laboratories@Nanyang Technological

sampling frequency. All the aforementioned results are equiva-

University, Singapore 637553 (e-mail: ayushbhandari@gmail.com; ayushb- lent to Shannon’s sampling theorem with respect to Fourier do-

handari@ntu.edu.sg). main for .

P. Marziliano is with the Division of Information Engineering, School of

Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Sin- 1We adhere to this modified definition of convolution operator as it inherits

gapore 637553 (e-mail: epina@ntu.edu.sg). the fractional Fourier duality property in that

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/LSP.2009.2035242 , which does not hold for the FrFT of unless .

Authorized licensed use limited to: Government Engineering College- Barton Hill. Downloaded on July 19,2010 at 08:42:40 UTC from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

222 IEEE SIGNAL PROCESSING LETTERS, VOL. 17, NO. 3, MARCH 2010

over its Fourier domain based counterpart, the sampling the-

orem for either domain is confined to bandlimited signals only.

Consider a Dirac impulse or . Using (2), we have

(6) The FrFS coefficients are given by

pared to the time-domain counterpart) and thus, Theorem 1 fails

to answer the following question: If is a fractional nonban-

dlimited signal, then, how can we sample and reconstruct such

a signal? where denotes the integral width. The well-known Fourier

This limitation can be quite restrictive from a practical point series (FS) is just a special case of FrFS for .

of view—the intense motivation behind development of inter-

esting sampling theorems pertaining to Fourier domain by Vet- C. Stream of Diracs in Fractional Fourier Domain

terli et al. in [15] and their extensions in [16]–[18]. In Fourier analysis, the Poisson summation formula (PSF)

The problem of sampling nonbandlimited signals in FrFT do- plays an important role. It is a well-known fact that a Dirac comb

main has a natural/strong link with that of sparse sampling [15], (or stream of Diracs) in time-domain is another Dirac comb in

[16]. The Heisenberg-Gabor uncertainty principle for the FrFT Fourier domain. Generalization of the PSF for Dirac comb in

[19]—a generalization of the Fourier duality—asserts that the FrFT domain leads to a similar result. Let Ш

product of spreads of and has a lower bound which be a -periodic Dirac comb. Then, we have

is proportional to (assuming ). This implies

that loss of compact support/bandlimitedness in one (frequency)

domain will lead to more sparse representation in canonically Ш

conjugate (time) domain.

In this paper, we propose a sampling and reconstruction

(10)

scheme for a signal with sparse representation (in the time

domain), whose fractional spectrum is nonbandlimited. We

model the input signal as a continuous-time periodic stream where .

of Diracs which is observed by an acquisition device which Proof: The proof is done by expanding Ш as FrFS:

deploys a sinc-based low-pass filter.

The paper is organized as follows. In Section II, we introduce

Ш Ш (11)

our signal model and then derive an equivalent representation

of our sparse/nonbandlimited signal in FrFT domain. In Sec- Ш

tion III, we present a uniform sampling theorem and describe the

reconstruction process and finally, we conclude in Section IV. where the coefficients of expansion are given by

In this paper, we are interested in sampling a periodic stream

of Diracs,

(7)

Ш Ш

. In sense of [15], the signal has degrees

of freedom per period and its rate of innovation is .

From now on, the signal will denote the stream of Diracs.

(12)

B. Fractional Fourier Series (FrFS)

Periodic signals can be expanded in fractional Fourier domain where . Back substitution of (12) in

as a fractional Fourier series or FrFS [20]. The FrFS of a periodic (11) results in,

signal, say , can be written as

(8) Ш

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BHANDARI AND MARZILIANO: SAMPLING AND RECONSTRUCTION OF SPARSE SIGNALS 223

Fig. 1. Sampling and reconstruction of periodic stream of Diracs in fractional Fourier transform domain.

where . This concludes the proof. properties. Firstly, integer translates of form an or-

For sake of convenience, we will assume that the constant thonormal basis. Secondly, using

has been absorbed in . Note that at ,Ш

which is the result of applying the PSF on (14)

Ш in Fourier domain. Our immediate goal now is to derive

the FrFS equivalent of in (7). Since is a linear combi-

it is apparent that is a space of fractional bandlim-

nation of some Ш delayed by some time shift , it will be

ited signals which we will refer to as . Indeed, for every

useful to recall shift property of FrFT [4] which states that

it is self-evident that (where is the

projection operator) and mathematically, it results in,

(13)

Therefore, call Ш where Ш Ш

is the -shifted version of Ш . Using (10) and the shift-

property of FrFT in (13), we have, which shows that Theorem 1 is simply the orthogonal projection

of onto the subspace of fractional bandlimited signals. We

Ш

would like to highlight the fact that this procedure is optimal

in least-square sense—a fact that has been overlooked in the

discussions presented in [5]–[12].

In view of the filtering operation in FrFT domain which

makes use of (5), can be interpreted in the

following two steps.

Having obtained the FrFT-version of Ш , we can write Sampling: is prefiltered with anti-aliasing filter

followed by sampling or

Ш . Note that .

Reconstruction: is filtered using low-pass

leading to approximation of , which is

.

Departing From Shannon’s Framework for FrFT Do-

main: Theorem 1 is well applicable for the case of fractional

bandlimited signals, however, it fails to recover nonbandlimited

signals e.g. in (7). Certainly, . We propose a

remedy to this problem in the form of the following theorem.

Theorem 2: Let be a -periodic stream of Diracs

weighted by coefficients and locations

with finite rate of innovation . Let the sampling

Note that is nonbandlimited. However, it can be com- kernel/prefilter be an ideal low-pass filter which has

pletely described by the knowledge of —a linear combi- fractional bandwidth , where is chosen such that

nation of complex exponentials. . If the filtered version of , i.e.

is sampled uniformly at locations ,

III. MAIN RESULT: SAMPLING AND RECONSTRUCTION OF then the samples,

SPARSE SIGNALS IN FRACTIONAL FOURIER DOMAIN

The scheme that we will present in this section is depicted in

Fig. 1. Like in most practical cases, we assume that the signal are a sufficient characterization of , provided that

is being observed through a lowpass prefilter which is analo- and .

gous to the anti-aliasing filter in Shannon’s framework. In this Proof: We define our sampling kernel as,

paper, we presume that a sinc-based kernel is used to observe

. In particular, we let the sampling kernel to be

. We will use to denote .

Shannon’s Sampling Theorem for FrFT Domain Revis- Using (14), one can show that is compactly supported

ited: The family of functions has two interesting over . Prefiltering and sampling results in,

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224 IEEE SIGNAL PROCESSING LETTERS, VOL. 17, NO. 3, MARCH 2010

Departing from Shannon’s framework, we presented a

scheme for sampling and reconstruction of fractional non-

bandlimited signals which have a sparse representation in

time-domain. Even though these signals are nonbandlimited,

in their parametric form, as we have shown, exact recovery of

their parameters is possible. The constraint being, the fractional

The inner product in the above step is further simplified using bandwidth of anti-aliasing filter exceeds the rate of innovation.

the Fourier integral, Based on the recovered parameters, precise locations and

amplitudes of the stream of Diracs can be obtained. Our results

can be extended to Linear Canonical transform domain [13].

(15)

REFERENCES

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IEEE Signal Process. Lett., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 72–74, Mar. 1996.

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bandlimited signals: A self-contained proof. Application to digital

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are obtained by finding roots of the polynomial which in rate conversion of band-limited signals in the fractional Fourier

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Computing ’s: Once the ’s are obtained, we have [13] H. M. Ozaktas and M. A. Kutay, Introduction to the Fractional Fourier

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