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encounter

• Is the vessel going to survive?

• Can the vessel carry out specified task or mission?

• Decide if motions are acceptable:

Slamming, Deck Wetness, Speed Loss, Human Performance, Ride Control

Design selection, marketing

Seakeeping Analysis

Expected Sea

Conditions

Seakeeping Analysis

Expected Sea

Conditions

Resultant Vessel

Motions

Seakeeping Analysis

Expected Sea

Conditions

Motions Design Criteria

Expected Sea Conditions

swell and sea breeze spectrum off Scarborough, 12 Feb 2000

0.45

0.4

0.35

spectral density [m2/Hz]

0.3

0.25

0.2

0.15

0.1

0.05

0

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6

frequency [Hz]

a) narrow b) broad

Multi-directional spectrum

Ocean Wave Statistics Methods

Wave buoys:

Ideal source for wave statistics

There is significant data available from wave buoys - however it costs $

to obtain due to expense of collection.

Hindcasting:

Use measured wind data to estimate waves produced using modelling

techniques.

Dependent on accuracy of models.

Remote Sensing:

Satellite imaging of ocean surface - again $

Visual Observations

Hogben & Lumb (1967) compared visual observations with

measured values from wave buoys.

H1/ 3 = 106

. Hobs

TZ = 0.73Tobs

T0 = 112

. Tobs

TZ = mean zero crossing period

T0 = modal period

Visual Observations

Nordenstrom (1969) derived alternative expressions.

. ( Hobs )

0.75

H1/ 3 = 168

TZ = 0.82(Tobs )

0.96

. (Tobs )

0.96

T0 = 116

Visual Observations

For example Hogben & Lumb (1967) published

comprehensive atlas based on 2 million visual observations

from ships between 1953 and 1966.

vessels which cannot change course e.g. military craft and

offshore platforms may encounter worse weather than

shown by observations.

BMT Ocean Wave Statistics

BMT Ocean Wave Statistics

http://www.globalwavestatisticsonline.com/

You will need to use the following email address as the user name :

G.Macfarlane@mte.amc.edu.au

Standard Sea Spectra

ITTC or Bretschneider "two parameter" spectrum.

Where:

Standard Sea Spectra

In coastal waters where the fetch may be limited the

JONSWAP (Joint North Sea Wave Project)

spectrum may be used.

Standard Sea Spectra

Simplified ITTC spectrum called the Pierson-

Moskowitz spectrum is sometimes used, which has

windspeed as its only variable.

Standard Sea Spectra

Vessel Motions

Expected Sea

Conditions

Motions Design Criteria

Vessel Motions

Response Amplitude Operator (RAO)

Obtained from:

• Numerical predictions e.g. Seakeeper, Beamsea, HydroStar

• Towing tank experiments

Heave Amplitude RAO

1.2

SEALAM

1 Towing Tank

Full Scale

Heave RAO (m/m)

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2

Pitch Amplitude RAO

1.2

SEALAM

1

Towing Tank

Pitch RAO (deg/deg)

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2

Encounter Frequency (Hz)

Encounter Frequency

As ships move through the water the rate at which they

encounter waves is dependent on their speed and direction.

For a head sea the encounter frequency is higher than the wave frequency.

For a beam sea the encounter frequency equals the wave frequency.

In a following sea the encounter frequency is initially positive, meaning that the waves overtake the

vessel, passes through zero and then goes negative which means that the vessel overtakes the waves.

Encounter Frequency

Bretschneider spectrum modal period

11secs,sig wave heght 2m at 0 knots and

10 knots head sea

0.7

0.6

0.5

zero speed

0.4

0.3 10 knots head

sea

0.2

0.1

0

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

frequency ( rad/sec)

Motions

Using these RAOs the motions may be determined by assuming that the response

function is linear with respect to wave height and that the principle of

superposition holds. (The principle of superposition states that the response of a

body to a spectrum of waves is the sum of the individual waves).

z (ωe )

RAOz (ωe ) =

ζ (ωe )

then it follows that the motion response spectrum, Sz( e), is given by:

Seakeeping Design Criteria

Why use criteria?

What is important for a ferry design?

• speed loss due to motions

What is important for a patrol boat design?

• deck wetness

• ability of crew to keep working despite motions

Significant Motions

0.6

∞

0.5 m0 = S x (ω e )dω e

heave spectral density ( m*m/hz

0

0.4

0.3

σ 0 = m0

0.2

HeaveSIG = 4 m0

0.1

0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

-0.1

frequency hz

Absolute Motions

centre of gravity

Absolute Motions

Absolute vertical motion , sz, of a position (px,py,pz), due to

heave, pitch and roll is given by:

sz = z + p y φ − p xθ

the amplitude and phase of the absolute vertical motion is given by:

s z 0 = A2 + B 2

B

tan ε z =

A

B = z0 sin(ε z ) + p y φ 0 sin(ε φ ) − p xθ 0 sin(ε θ )

Velocities & Accelerations

& acceleration

transfer functions

. obtained by

x = x0ω e cos(ω et + ε ) multiplying

displacement

.. amplitude by

x = − x0ω e2 sin(ω et + ε ) encounter frequency

& square of

encounter frequency

Slamming

Slamming

May cause:

• decelerations and local structural damage

• transient vibratory stresses (whipping) elsewhere in the hull.

• Re-entry of the ship's bow into the water after it has

risen above the surface

• The relative vertical velocity between the ship's flat of

bottom and the water surface exceeds a certain critical

specified value.

Deck Wetness

Deck Wetness

Occurs when:

• the bow of a ship is buried in the sea and throws solid

water and spray into the air.

personnel and damage to deck-mounted equipment.

information may be gained from towing tank tests, eg.

shipping of green or solid water

Speed Loss

Voluntary Involuntary

captain, to reduce speed waves will have a greater

in order to reduce resistance due to its

motions, slams, deck motions, and the resulting

wetness, propeller change in load on the

emergence etc. to within propeller usually reduces

acceptable limits. the propeller efficiency.

Added Resistance

Resistance in waves

Resistance

Time

Propeller Emergence

emerge from the water due to the motions of the ship.

Propeller Emergence

where the propeller is located can be utilised to determine

the likelihood of propeller emergence.

local wave elevation from the local absolute vertical

motion.

Human Performance

onboard:

• Motion sickness

manner

Vertical Acceleration

oscillation is also important in assessing the impact on

human performance.

introduce a frequency dependence.

Motion Sickness Incidence (MSI)

seakeeping performance of different designs, particularly

passenger vessels.

May be displayed in two forms:

• The percentage of people likely to vomit within two

hours

• The time period after which severe discomfort (sea

sickness) occurs

Determined by sequentially integrating the acceleration

spectral density over 1/3 octave bands and then plotting

against the standard curves

Motion Sickness Incidence (MSI)

10

20%

10%

rms vertical acceleration [ms^-2]

5%

2%

0.1

0.1 1

Motion Sickness Incidence (MSI)

10

rms vertical acceleration [ms^-2]

30 Minute

1

2 Hour

8 Hour (tentative)

0.1

0.1 1

The time period after which severe discomfort (sea sickness) occurs

Motion Sickness Incidence (MSI)

Analysis limitations:

• Experiment subjects limited to young men - sea sickness

incidence varies with age, sex and race.

• Statistically, tolerance to motions increases with time at

sea, therefore ferry passengers are likely to be more

susceptible to motion sickness than the crew.

• Additional influences such as vision, fear, odours etc.

affect sea sickness, but their effects have not yet been

quantified.

• Performance may be degraded before vomiting occurs.

Subjective Motions (SM)

Analysis will give an indication on the ability of the crew

to perform tasks

1.43

s30

SM = A

g

where:

s30 is twice the rms vertical acceleration

[ ( )][

A = 1 - exp - 1.65ω e2 75.6 − 49.6 log e ω e + 13.5(log e ω e )

2

]

Subjective Motions (SM)

25

Intolerable

20

Hazardous

Subjective Motion

15

Severe : necessary to 'hang on' all the time

10

Serious

5

Moderate

0

0 1 2 3

Lateral Force Estimator

Lateral accelerations experienced on board a vessel in rough

weather may cause objects to topple and people to lose balance

and stumble.

In a similar manner to subjective motions, lateral force

estimators may be derived to ascertain the effect on a crew

rms Lateral Acceleration m/s2 Motion Induced Interruptions per Minute Rating Level

Limiting Criteria

Limiting Criteria are acceptable limits for these various criteria

which may be used to determine whether the vessel motions will

be acceptable.

Heave 2.0m C of G

Pitch 3.0° C of G

Roll 8.0° C of G

Vertical acceleration 0.4g Bridge

Lateral acceleration 0.2g Bridge

Specific task MSI 20% of crew Task location

MII 1/min Task location

Current design criteria for crew performance for naval vessels, after ABCD Working

Group on Human Performance at Sea (1995)

Probability of Exceeding Criteria

Assuming the probability density function of the

motions is a Rayleigh distribution

Possible to evaluate the probability of exceeding critical

value zcrit given the variance of the motion energy

spectrum, m0z.

−z 2

2m0 z

Author Ship type Slamming Wetness Propeller Vertical

emergence acceleration

Ochi and Merchant Probability Probability

Motter 0.03 0.07

(1974)

Shipbuildin Merchant Probability Probability Probability

g Research 0.01 0.02 0.1

Association

of Japan

(1975)

Lloyd and Merchant 120/hour

Andrew

(1977)

Aertssen Merchant Probability Probability

(1963, 1966, 0.03 or 0.04 0.25

1968, 1972)

Yamamoto Merchant Probability Probability Probability of

(1984) 0.02 0.02 at FP exceeding

0.4g at bridge

= 0.05

Author Ship type Slamming Wetness Propeller Vertical

emergence acceleration

Kehoe Warship 60/hour at 60/hour at

(1973) 0.15L FP

Lloyd and Warship 36/hour avg. SM = 15

Andrew

(1977)

Andrew and Warship 90/hour avg. SM = 12

Lloyd

(1981)

Comstock et Warship 20/hour 30/hour 0.2g RMS at

al. (1982) bridge

Walden and Warship Probability Probability

Grundmann 0.03 0.07

(1985)

Seakeeper

Based on Strip theory of Salvesen, Tuck & Faltinsen (1970):

strip

· Integrate the added mass and damping over the length of the

vessel

· Put these values into the equations of motion and solve them.

Seakeeper

· The ship is slender i.e. L>>B and L>>D

· There is no significant planing force. This implies low to moderate speeds for monohulls.

· The motions vary linearly with wave amplitude, which is usually valid for slender

vessels operating in waves of small amplitude. However, extreme motions tend to be very

nonlinear.

· There is no flow between strips, i.e. the motion is two-dimensional. Whilst this is clearly

incorrect, the results are surprisingly accurate.

· Viscous damping terms are negligible (a poor assumption for roll, but reasonable for

pitch and heave under most conditions).

· The presence of the hull does not affect the incoming waves.

Seakeeper

then using the known analytical solution for a circle (Ursell, 1949). The values are

then put back into the equations of motion which are decoupled and solved,

yielding RAOs and phase angles for pitch and heave.

The mapping will not replicate the ship section exactly; the goodness of fit depends

mainly on the number of terms used in the mapping equation. However, the more

terms, the slower the computation.

adequate for mapping most conventional hull shapes, though it will have difficulty

with some bulbous bows and very high section area coefficients.

Seakeeper

Seakeeper - questions

· Mass distribution - what is the influence of changing the longitudinal

radius of gyration?

number of mapped sections?

terms?

proposed design?

form of idealised sea spectrum?

Seakeeper

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