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Practice questions

different signals, including disturbances, and explain their physical meaning.

Q2 Compare and contrast the properties of open- and closed-loop control structures. In

your analysis, focus on the characteristics of each structure with respect to plant

disturbances, changes in the plant gain, and stabilisation.

Q3 Describe the design goals which one attempts to achieve in the design of closed-loop

feedback systems, and describe the factors which limit the extent to which these goals

can be achieved.

feedback system, and explain why high-frequency measurement noise is relatively

unimportant.

B0 ( s )

Q5 Given is a feedback control structure with a plant P0 ( s ) and a controller

Ao ( s )

G (s)

C (s) . Explain feedback controller design using pole assignment. What is the

H (s)

characteristic polynomial?

Q6 Given is the feedback control loop shown in figure 1. Formulate the Nyquist stability

criterion. Under which conditions does this criterion apply.

Figure 1

Q7 Draw a Nyquist plot for a stable closed loop system and for an unstable system. For

the stable system, mark the gain margin, phase margin and the vector margin in the

plot. Explain the meaning of gain margin, phase margin and vector margin.

1

Control 4 Practice questions

Q8 From the Nyquist plot for a closed loop system, a phase margin of 120deg at a

frequency of 3Hz, and a gain margin of 11.6dB was derived.

(i) By how much can the plant gain increase before the closed loop becomes

unstable?

(ii) What additional delay can be added to the closed loop before stability is lost?

Q9 Show that for an open-loop structure the ideal compensator should cancel the plant

dynamics, and state the drawbacks of this approach. Describe a feedback structure

which can provide approximate plant inversion, and show therefore that high-gain

closed-loop control implicitly inverts plant dynamics.

(a) Derive the closed-loop equation relating the plant output y and the plant input

u to the signals r, d, and n.

(b) Define the sensitivity function So and the complementary sensitivity function

To in terms of C and Po. Sketch the typical plots of |So| and |To| against

frequency, based on the assumption that the plant has a low-pass character.

Explain how this results in trade-offs in the achievement of key feedback

design goals.

(c) Show that the following constraint holds: To So 1 . Discuss the implications

of this constraint.

(d) Show that To is equivalent to the relative changes in So which result from

S / S

changes in the plant Po, i.e. show that To o o . What is the significance

Po / Po

of this result?

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