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Control 4 Practice questions

Practice questions

Q1 Draw the structure of a two-degree-of-freedom feedback controller. Show the

different signals, including disturbances, and explain their physical meaning.

Q2 Compare and contrast the properties of open- and closed-loop control structures. In
your analysis, focus on the characteristics of each structure with respect to plant
disturbances, changes in the plant gain, and stabilisation.

Q3 Describe the design goals which one attempts to achieve in the design of closed-loop
feedback systems, and describe the factors which limit the extent to which these goals
can be achieved.

Q4 Explain why it is highly undesirable to have low-frequency measurement noise in a

feedback system, and explain why high-frequency measurement noise is relatively

B0 ( s )
Q5 Given is a feedback control structure with a plant P0 ( s )  and a controller
Ao ( s )
G (s)
C (s)  . Explain feedback controller design using pole assignment. What is the
H (s)
characteristic polynomial?

Q6 Given is the feedback control loop shown in figure 1. Formulate the Nyquist stability
criterion. Under which conditions does this criterion apply.

Figure 1

Q7 Draw a Nyquist plot for a stable closed loop system and for an unstable system. For
the stable system, mark the gain margin, phase margin and the vector margin in the
plot. Explain the meaning of gain margin, phase margin and vector margin.

Control 4 Practice questions

Q8 From the Nyquist plot for a closed loop system, a phase margin of 120deg at a
frequency of 3Hz, and a gain margin of 11.6dB was derived.

(i) By how much can the plant gain increase before the closed loop becomes

(ii) What additional delay can be added to the closed loop before stability is lost?

Q9 Show that for an open-loop structure the ideal compensator should cancel the plant
dynamics, and state the drawbacks of this approach. Describe a feedback structure
which can provide approximate plant inversion, and show therefore that high-gain
closed-loop control implicitly inverts plant dynamics.

Q10 Refer to the closed-loop system shown in figure 1 above.

(a) Derive the closed-loop equation relating the plant output y and the plant input
u to the signals r, d, and n.

(b) Define the sensitivity function So and the complementary sensitivity function
To in terms of C and Po. Sketch the typical plots of |So| and |To| against
frequency, based on the assumption that the plant has a low-pass character.
Explain how this results in trade-offs in the achievement of key feedback
design goals.

(c) Show that the following constraint holds: To  So  1 . Discuss the implications
of this constraint.

(d) Show that To is equivalent to the relative changes in So which result from
S / S
changes in the plant Po, i.e. show that To   o o . What is the significance
Po / Po
of this result?