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11/30/2010 Required Properties and Types for Prestressed Concrete 2nd Lecture

:Low Shrinkage -4

Relationship between Shrinkage and Age of Concrete

100

80
Shrinkage Percentage

60

40

20

0
0 1 2 3 4 5
Time

Average Shrinkage Design Value = ɛsh = 0.0002 – 0.0004


:Factors Affecting Shrinkage

a. Humidity
b. Size
c. W/C
d. Aggregate size
e. Cement type
f. Temperature

5- Low Porosity

6- Good Workability

:Pre-tensioning

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11/30/2010 Required Properties and Types for Prestressed Concrete 2nd Lecture

Tension of tendons then pouring concrete (No Buckling as force


(transfers by mean of bond strength

:Post Tensioning
Pouring concrete in form which fitted with a duct, after hardening of
concrete occurred the tendons pulled through the duct and the duct may
be filled with grout or may not.(Buckling occurred as the force applies at
(the ends

:Types of P/S Steel


• P/S Wires:

Hot rolled carbon steel


Diameter (5 – 15 mm)

• P/S Strands:

Diameter (6-15mm)

7 wire strands

19 wire strands

The strands can be categorized according to production process to:

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11/30/2010 Required Properties and Types for Prestressed Concrete 2nd Lecture

a. Stress relieved strands


b. Low relaxation strands

• High Tensile Bars:

Diameter (20-40mm)
Chromium steel materials
Hot rolled then cold drawn

P Sinɵ P Sinɵ

F= 2 P Sin ɵ
Note: inclined Cables increase the shear resistance along the section
depth.

F = P sin ɵ

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11/30/2010 Required Properties and Types for Prestressed Concrete 2nd Lecture

Types of Prestressing:

A. Pre-tensioning:

1- Wire is stretched against form or end anchors ( Pi &


Fsi ).
2- Concrete placed and bonded around it.
3- Concrete is cured.
4- Steel released from anchorage leaving steel anchored in
concrete by bond (Pt & Fst)

Pt ≃ 0.95 Pi

If you are in site and tendons are being pulled by the specialist and by a machine
which its calibration is a matter of question, you can predict the strain by knowing
E (Young's modulus) of the tendons.

/
E = (P/As) (∆/L)
B. Post-Tensioning:

1 – Concrete placed with open place for steel.


2 – Concrete is cured.
3– Steel threaded into open place and stressed (need for High early
strength concrete)
4 – Steel anchored by plates & wedges against concrete (Some losses
may occur in anchorage)

Note: Tension should be from two sides to prevent losses due to friction

Summary of P/S Losses:

Types of Losses Pre-Tensioning Post Tensioning


Elastic Shortening (3 – 4)% (2 - 3)%
Anchorage Seating None ≈ 0.24"
Friction losses None √
Creep (6 – 7)% (4 – 5)%
Shrinkage (5 – 6)% (4 – 5)%
Relaxation 3% 4%

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11/30/2010 Required Properties and Types for Prestressed Concrete 2nd Lecture

Total (17 – 20)% (14 – 17)%

Combined Stress Concept:

Ftb = -P/A ± P.E/Ztb ∓ Mo.w/Ztb ∓ ML.L/Ztb

Ftb ≯ Allowable stress stated by ECP

Analysis:

At transfer (critical section at end of beam)

Ftb = -P/A ± P.E/Ztb ∓ Mo.w/Ztb

At full service load: (Critical section at mid-span)

Ftb = -P/A ± P.E/Ztb ∓ Mo.w/Ztb ∓ ML.L/Ztb


Notes:
1. Proof strength is the strength used for design when Fy cannot be
determined.
2. In P/S concrete the whole section is considered as the Prestressing
force prevents the cracking of the section.

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