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05 Picture Reference

indicates

a significant difference between a sample The 1-sample t-test is used with continuous

mean and a specified value when the data any time you need to compare a sample

Continuous Y,

1-Sample t-Test Compares mean to target difference is not readily apparent from mean to a specified value. This is useful when Not equal 1

graphical tools. Using the 1-sample t-test you need to make judgments about a process Discrete Xs

to compare data gathered before process based on a sample output from that process.

improvem

Use 1-way ANOVA when you need to compare At least one group

of each level is significantly more than the variation

One-way ANOVA is useful for identifying a three or more means (a single factor with three

within each level. 1-way ANOVA is used when two or Continuous Y, of data is different

1-Way ANOVA more means (a single factor with three or more levels)

statistically significant difference between or more levels) and determine how much of the 0

means of three or more levels of a factor. total observed variation can be explained by the Discrete Xs than at least one

must be compared with each other.

factor. other group.

When you have two samples of continuous There is a

a significant difference between means of

A statistical test used to detect differences between data, and you need to know if they both come Continuous Y,

2-Sample t-Test means of two populations.

two levels (subgroups) of a factor. It is also

from the same population or if they represent difference in the 0

extremely useful for identifying important Discrete Xs

two different populations means

Xs for a project Y.

indicate the data

is not normally

distributed.

A goodness-of-fit test that closely resembles the Anderson-Darling

Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, except that it weights the Used to test the goodness-of-fit of a given Use this test when you need a better fit at the

Anderson-Darling Test differences between the two distributions at their tails distribution through a set of data. extreme tails of the distributions. Continuous Y value < 1.5

greater than at their mid-ranges. indicates a close

fit. A-squared

value will increase

for poorer fits of

data

You can use ANOVA GLM any time you need to

ANOVA General Linear Model (GLM) is a statistical tool learn one form of ANOVA that can be used

identify a statistically significant difference in the At least one group

used to test for differences in means. ANOVA tests to for all tests of mean differences involving

mean of the dependent variable due to two or Continuous Y & all of data is different

ANOVA GLM see if the difference between the means of each level is two or more factors or levels. Because

more factors with multiple levels, alone and in

0

significantly more than the variation within each level. ANOVA GLM is useful for identifying the X's than at least one

combination. ANOVA GLM also can be used to

ANOVA GLM is used to test the effect of two or more factors (independent

quantify the amount

other group.

variable

and estimated rework cost and hours per nonconformity;

Attribute Matrix This ultimately drives control charting because attribute 12.178

matrix helps determine where to look for potential non-

conformances

Benchmarking is an improvement tool whereby a improvement of your process for several

company: Measures its performance or process against reasons. First, it allows you to compare Benchmarking can be done at any point in the

Benchmarking other companies' best in class practices, Determines your relative position for this product or Six Sigma process when you need to develop a all N/A 1

how those companies achieved their performance levels, service against industry leaders or other new process or improve an existing one

Uses the information to improve its own perf companies outside your industry who

perform simi

group of "best subsets" for further analysis Typically used before or after a multiple-

Tells you the best X to use when you're comparing by selecting the smallest subset that fulfills regression analysis. Particularly useful in

Best Subsets multiple X's in regression assessment. certain statistical criteria. The subset model determining which X combination yields the Continuous X & Y N/A 0

may actually estimate the regression best R-sq value.

coefficients and predict future re

The goodness-of-

fit tests, with p-

values ranging

from 0.312 to

0.724, indicate

that there is

Binary logistic regression is useful in two

applications: analyzing the differences insufficient

Binary logistic regression is useful in two important Defectives Y / evidence for the

among discrete Xs and modeling the Generally speaking, logistic regression is used

applications: analyzing the differences among discrete

Binary Logistic Regression

Xs and modeling the relationship between a discrete

relationship between a discrete binary Y when the Ys are discrete and the Xs are Continuous & model not fitting 0

and discrete and/or continuous Xs. Binary continuous Discrete X the data

binary Y and discrete and/or continuous Xs.

logistic regression can be used to model

the relati adequately. If the

p-value is less

than your

accepted a level,

the test would

indicate sufficient

evidenc

You can use a box plot throughout an

A box plot is a basic graphing tool that displays the centering, spread, and distribution of your

improvement project, although it is most useful

centering, spread, and distribution of a continuous data data quickly. It is especially useful to view

in the Analyze phase. In the Measure phase

Box Plot set. In simplified terms, it is made up of a box and more than one box plot simultaneously to

you can use a box plot to begin to understand Continuous X & Y N/A 1 7.52

whiskers (and occasional outliers) that correspond to compare the performance of several

the nature of a problem. In the Analyze phase a

each fourth, or quartile, of the data processes such as the price quote cycle

box plot can help you identify po

between off

used to find the mathematical function needed to Many tools require that data be normally

encounter problems in Calculating Z values with

translate a continuous but nonnormal distribution into a distributed to produce accurate results. If

continuous data. You could calculate an

Box-Cox Transformationnormal distribution. After you have entered your data, the data set is not normal, this may reduce

inaccurate representation of your process Continuous X & Y N/A 1

Minitab tells you what mathematical function can be significantly the confidence in the results

capability. In constructing control charts.... Your

applied to each of your data points to bri obtained.

process may appear more

Brainstorming is helpful because it allows your team need to creatively generate

Brainstorming is a tool that allows for open and creative

your team to generate many ideas on a numerous ideas on any topic. You will use

Brainstorming thinking. It encourages all team members to participate

topic creatively and efficiently without brainstorming many times throughout your all N/A 0

and to build on each other's creativity

criticism or judgment. project whenever you feel it is appropriate. You

also may incorporate brainstorming into ot

Control phase to verify that your process

a graphical tool that allows you to view the actual determine if your process is in control by

remains in control after the sources of special

number of defects in each subgroup. Unlike continuous determining whether special causes are

cause variation have been removed. The c Continuous X,

c Chart data control charts, discrete data control charts can present. The presence of special cause

chart is used for processes that generate N/A 0 12.150

monitor many product quality characteristics variation indicates that factors are Attribute Y

discrete data. The c chart monitors the number

simultaneously. For example, you could use a c cha influencing the output of your process.

of defects per sample taken from a

Eliminating the

To insure project leader has identified key

CAP ARMI Model committment to project are needed for success. Lists

stakeholders for project

Define Step 0 C, pg 7

groups / individuals involved in process and defines roles

G.R.P.I. Check List - This tool is based on a simple formed teams or for teams that have been

model for team formation. It challenges the team to underway for a while, but who have never

CAP GRPI Checklist consider four critical and interrelated aspects of taken time to look at their teamwork. Define All N/A Step 0 C, pg 13

teamwork: Goals, Roles, Processes and Interpersonal Ideally, this tool should be used at one of

relationships. It is invaluable in helping a gr the first team meetings. It can and should

be update

Not as complex as SIPOC, but useful when

frame. It challenges the team to identify those aspects of

you feel there are many “boundary issues”

CAP In Out of Frame the project (the type and extent of end results or

facing the team (differences of opinion as

Define N/A Step 0 C, pg 8

deliverables, the people impacted, timing, product lines

to what is and isn’t in the scope of work).

impacted, sites involved, etc.)

A group exercise used to establish scope and facilitate individual involvement and understanding

CAP Includes/Excludes discussion. Effort focuses on delineating project of team efforts. Prevents errant team Define all N/A 0

boundaries. efforts in later project stages (waste).

Helps to orient new team members.

Confirms management or stakeholder acceptance and

CAP Stakeholder Analysis

prioritization of Project and team efforts.

Insure management support and Defone all N/A 0

compatibility with business goals.

Threat vs. Opportunity Matrix - "Best Practice" first and most important tasks of the team.

organizations know how to frame the need for change as This simple tool helps the team discover

CAP Threat vs. more than a short-term threat. They work to find ways to how to frame the need for change more Define all N/A Step 0 C, pg 11

Opportunity Matrix frame the need as a threat and opportunity over both the broadly and perhaps break some old

short and long term. By doing so, they habits about change only as it applies to a

short-te

When describing a process, it is important

Capability analysis is used with continuous data

Capability analysis is a MinitabTM tool that visually to identify sources of variation as well as

whenever you need to compare actual process

compares actual process performance to the process segments that do not meet

performance to the performance standards. You

Capability Analysis performance standards. The capability analysis output performance standards. Capability analysis

can use this tool in the Measure phase to Continuous X & Y N/A 1

includes an illustration of the data and several is a useful tool because it illustrates the

describe process performance in statistical

performance statistics. The plot is a histogram with th centering and spread of your data in

terms. In the Improve phase, y

relation t

A cause and effect diagram is a visual tool that logically team to explore, identify, and display all of You can use the cause and effect diagram

organizes possible causes for a specific problem or the possible causes related to a specific whenever you need to break an effect down into

Cause and Effect Diagram

effect by graphically displaying them in increasing detail. problem. The diagram can increase in its root causes. It is especially useful in the all N/A 0

It is sometimes called a fishbone diagram because of its detail as necessary to identify the true root Measure, Analyze, and Improve phases of the

fishbone shape. This shape cause of the problem. Proper use of the DMAIC process

tool

The chi square-test of independence is

The chi square-test of independence is a test of useful for identifying a significant difference

When you have discrete Y and X data (nominal is statistically

data in a table-of-total-counts format, shown in different. When

association (nonindependence) between discrete between count data for two or more levels

fig. 1) and need to know if the Y output counts discrete (category or

Chi Square--Test of Independence

variables. It is also referred to as the test of association. of a discrete variable Many statistical

differ for two or more subgroup categories (Xs), using Chi Square 0

It is based on a mathematical comparison of the number problem statements and performance count)

use the chi square test. If you have raw data to fit a distribution,

of observed counts against the expected nu improvement goals are written in terms of

reducing

(untotaled), you p > 0.5 reflects a

close fit.

In the Measure phase, use control charts to

Control charts are time-ordered graphical displays of ongoing control of a process and provide a

understand the performance of your process as

data that plot process variation over time. Control charts common language for discussing process

it exists before process improvements.

Control Charts are the major tools used to monitor processes to ensure performance. They help you understand

In the Analyze phase, control charts serve as a all N/A 0 12.102, 12.106

they remain stable. THEY HELP IN DETERMINING variation and use that knowledge to control

troubleshooting guide that can help you identify

WHEN A SPECIAL CAUSE IS ACTING ON THE PR and improve your process. In addition,

sources of variation (Xs).

control char

Control Charts (2R - Allows you to assess control of two parameters (e.g., Use when you are controlling out-of-round,

12.211

Chart) roundness, flatness, etc...) flatness, etc... Issues.

Control Charts discrete (category or

Chart types include: u-chart, p-chart, c-chart and np- To analyze control of attribute data sets Control phase 12.15

(attribute) chart (dependent on constant lot size) count)

Control Charts data sets. Chart types include: I-MR charts and X-Bar / To analyze control of continuous data sets Control phase Continuous X&Y 12.11

(continuous) Range charts (dependent on high or low volume)

12.210

(process focused) deviation from nominal / target;

Control Plan 12.9

Failing to establish a data collection plan

can be an expensive mistake in a project.

Without a plan, data collection may be Any time data is needed, you should draft a

Data Collection Plan haphazard, resulting in insufficient, data collection plan before beginning to collect all N/A 0

unnecessary, or inaccurate information. it.

This is often called "bad" data. A data

collection p

Partial derivative analysis is widely used in

The design analysis spreadsheet is an MS-Excel™ you improve, revise, and optimize your

product design, manufacturing, process

workbook that has been designed to perform partial design. It can also:Improve a product or

improvement, and commercial services during

Design Analysis Spreadsheet

derivative analysis and root sum of squares analysis. process by identifying the Xs which have

the concept design, capability assessment, and Continuous X & Y N/A 0

The design analysis spreadsheet provides a quick way the most impact on the response.Identify

creation of the detailed design.When the Xs are

to predict the mean and standard deviation of an the factors whose variability has the

known to be highly non-normal (

highest influe

Design of experiment (DOE) is a tool that allows you to methodical approach to collecting and In general, use DOE when you want toIdentify

obtain information about how factors (Xs), alone and in analyzing data related to a process output and quantify the impact of the vital few Xs on

Continuous Y & all

Design of Experiment (DOE)

combination, affect a process and its output (Y). and the factors that affect it. By testing your process outputDescribe the relationship N/A 0 7.133+

Traditional experiments generate data by changing one more than one factor at a time, DOE is between Xs and a Y with a mathematical X's

factor at a time, usually by trial and able to identify all factors and combinations modelDetermine the best configuration

of

Design scorecards are a means for gathering data,

product or process is being designed or

predicting final quality, analyzing drivers of poor quality,

modified and it is necessary to predict defect

Design Scorecards and modifying design elements before a product is built.

levels before implementing a process. They can all N/A 0

This makes proactive corrective action possible, rather

be used in either the DMADV or DMAIC

than initiating reactive qualit

processes.

Use the DDA method after the project data

because it provides a method to

The Discrete Data Analysis (DDA) method is a tool used collection plan is formulated or modified and

independently assess the most common

to assess the variation in a measurement system due to before the project data collection plan is discrete (category or

Discrete Data Analysis Method

reproducibility, repeatability, and/or accuracy. This tool

types of measurement variation-

finalized and data is collected. Choose the N/A 0

repeatability, reproducibility, and/or count)

applies to discrete data only. DDA method when you have discrete data and

accuracy. Completing the DDA method will

you want to determine if the measur

help you to determine whether the varia

ProcessModelTM is a process modeling Discrete event simulation is used in the Analyze

Discrete event simulation is conducted for processes and analysis tool that accelerates the phase of a DMAIC project to understand the

that are dictated by events at distinct points in time; each process improvement effort. It combines a Continuous Y,

behavior of important process variables. In the

Discrete Event Simulation (Process

occurrence ModelTM)

of an event impacts the current state of the simple flowcharting function with a Improve phase of a DMAIC project, discrete N/A 0

process. Examples of discrete events are arrivals of simulation process to produce a quick and Discrete Xs

event simulation is used to predict the

phone calls at a call center. Ti easy tool for documenting, analyzing, and performance of an existing proce

improving busines

Quick graphical comparison of two or more processes' Quick graphical comparison of two or more Comparing two or more processes' variation or Continuous Y,

Dot Plot variation or spread processes' variation or spread spread N/A

Discrete Xs

A means / method to Identify ways a process can fail, Improves the quality, reliability, and safety

are being designed. When existing designs or

estimate th risks of those failures, evaluate a control of products. Helps to increase customer

processes are being changed. When carryover

Failure Mode and Effects Analysis

plan, prioritize actions related to the process. Three satisfaction. Reduces product

designs/processes will be used in new all N/A 0

types: system (analyze systems early on), design development timing and cost. Documents

applications, or new environments. After

(analyze designs before production) and tracks actions taken to reduce risk.

completing a Problem Solving Study (to pre

Measure -Use Gage R&R-ANOVA method after

Gage R&R-ANOVA method is a tool used to assess the tool because it provides a method to

the project data collection plan is formulated or 3.29,

variation in a measurement system due to reproducibility independently assess the most common

modified and before the project data collection

Gage R & R--ANOVA Method

and/or repeatability. An advantage of this tool is that it types of measurement variation -

plan is finalized and data is collected. Choose Continuous X & Y 0 08_MSA_010199.

can separate the individual effects of repeatability and repeatability and reproducibility. This tool pps

the ANOVA method when you have continuous

reproducibility and then break will help you to determine whether the

data and you want to dete

variation from repeatabili

Use Gage R&R-Short Method after the project

Gage R&R-Short Method is a tool used to assess the tool because it provides a quick method of

data collection plan is formulated or modified 3.29,

variation in a measurement system due to the combined assessing the most common types of

and before the project data collection plan is

Gage R & R--Short Method

effect of reproducibility and repeatability. An advantage measurement variation using only five

finalized and data is collected. Choose the Continuous X & Y 0 08_MSA_010199.

of this tool is that it requires only two operators and five parts and two operators. Completing the pps

Gage R&R-Short Method when you have

samples to complete the analysi Gage R&R-Short Method will help you

continuous data and you believe the

determine whether the com

GRPI is an excellent tool for organizing

such, should be initiated at one of the first team

newly formed teams. It is valuable in

meetings. In the DMAIC process, this generally

GRPI helping a group of individuals work as an

happens in the Define phase, where you create all N/A 0

effective team-one of the key ingredients to

your charter and form your team. Continue to

success in a DMAIC project

update your GRPI c

A histogram is a basic graphing tool that displays the

sources of variation. Histograms allow you improvement project. In the Measure phase,

relative frequency or occurrence of data values-or which Continuous Y & all

to visualize large quantities of data that you can use histograms to begin to understand

Histogram data values occur most and least frequently. A histogram

would otherwise be difficult to interpret. the statistical nature of the problem. In the N/A 1

illustrates the shape, centering, and spread of data X's

They give you a way to quickly assess the Analyze phase, histograms can help you

distribution and indicates whethe

distribution of your data and the variat identify potential Xs that should be investi

There are two main reasons for using the

Homogeneity of variance is a test used to determine if between a small number of samples are Test) At least one

homogeneity of variance test:1. A basic

the variances of two or more samples are different, or detectable with graphical tools, the

assumption of many statistical tests is that the Continuous Y, group of data is

Homogeneity of Variance

not homogeneous. The homogeneity of variance test is homogeneity of variance test is a quick

variances of the different samples are equal.

1

a comparison of the variances (sigma, or standard way to reliably detect small differences in Discrete Xs different than at

Some statistical procedures, such as 2-sample

deviations) of two or more distributions. variance between large numbers of

t-test, gain additional test powe

least one other

samples. group

The presence of special cause variation The Measure phase to separate common

indicates that factors are influencing the causes of variation from special causesThe

The I-MR chart is a tool to help you determine if your

output of your process. Eliminating the Analyze and Improve phases to ensure process 12.133,12.142,12.

I-MR Chart process is in control by seeing if special causes are

influence of these factors will improve the stability before completing a hypothesis testThe Continuous X & Y N/A 1

present. 201

performance of your process and bring Control phase to verify that the process remains

your process into control in control after the sources of

Kano analysis is a customer research method for

Kano analysis provides a systematic, data- that have to be satisfied is generated (through,

classifying customer needs into four categories; it relies

based method for gaining deeper for example, interviews, focus groups, or

Kano Analysis on a questionnaire filled out by or with the customer. It

understanding of customer needs by observations). Kano analysis is useful when all N/A 0

helps you understand the relationship between the

classifying them you need to collect data on customer needs and

fulfillment or nonfulfillment of a need

prioritize them to f

Used most commonly when you are unsure of Kolmogorov-

A goodness-of-fit test, the result of which is essentially

Kolmogorov-Smirnov the largest vertical distance between the two cumulative Used to test the goodness-of-fit of a given the best distribution needed to characterize a

Smirnov < 0.03

distributions. Generally a value less than 0.03 indicates distribution through a set of data.

set of data. Crystal Ball has a builtin Continuous Y

Test distribution wizard that ranks distributions using indicates a good

a good fit.

this tool as one of the ranking methods. fit

non-parametric

At least one mean

Kruskal-Wallis Test Compare two or more means with unknown distributions (measurement or 0

is different

count)

Main-Effects / A useful plot in showing effect of one factor on another.

Determine dependancy between factors Used commonly in analyzing DOE results 7.86, 7.124

Interaction Plots The steeper the line, the more significant the effect.

Tool used for high-level look at relationships between Matrix plots can save time by allowing you Continuous Y & all

You should use matrix plots early in your

Matrix Plot several parameters. Matrix plots are often a first step at to drill-down into data and determine which

analyze phase. N/A

determining which X's contribute most to your Y. parameters best relate to your Y. X's

Mistake proofing is an important tool Measure phase when you are developing your

Mistake-proofing devices prevent defects by preventing because it allows you to take a proactive data collection plan, in the Improve phase when

Mistake Proofing errors or by predicting when errors could occur. approach to eliminating errors at their you are developing your proposed solution, and all N/A 0 12.42

source before they become defects. in the Control phase when developing the

control plan.Mistake proofing is appr

Monte Carlo analysis is a decision-making and problem- way to understand the variation that

solving tool used to evaluate a large number of possible naturally exists in your process. One of the

Continuous Y & all

Monte Carlo Analysis scenarios of a process. Each scenario represents one ways to reduce defects is to decrease the N/A 0

possible set of values for each of the variables of the output variation. Monte Carlo focuses on X's

process and the calculation of thos understanding what variations exist in the

input

You should follow an MGPP in conjunction with

Multigenerational product/process planning (MGPP) is a introduced, tend to remain unchanged for

your business's overall marketing strategy. The

procedure that helps you create, upgrade, leverage, and many years. Yet, competitors, technology,

market process applied to MGPP usually takes

Multi-Generational Product/Process Planning

maintain a product or process in a way that can reduce and the marketplace-as personified by the

place over three or more generations. These all N/A 0

production costs and increase market share. A key ever more demanding consumer-change

generations cover the first three to five years of

element of MGPP is its ability to help constantly. Therefore, it makes good

product/process devel

business sense to incorp

You can use multiple regression during the

understand the relationship between the

Analyze phase to help identify important Xs and

method that enables you to determine the relationship process output (Y) and several factors (Xs)

during the Improve phase to define the A correlation is

Multiple Regression between a continuous process output (Y) and several that may affect the Y. Understanding this

optimized solution. Multiple regression can be Continuous X & Y 0

factors (Xs). relationship allows you to1. Identify detected

used with both continuous and discrete Xs. If

important Xs2. Identify the amount of

you have only discrete Xs, use A

variation explai

A multi-vari chart is a tool that graphically displays effect multiple variables have on a Y. It

patterns of variation. It is used to identify possible Xs or also helps you see variation within Continuous Y & all

Multi-Vari Chart families of variation, such as variation within a subgroup, subgroups, between subgroups, and over N/A 0

X's

between subgroups, or over time time. By looking at the patterns of variation,

you can identify or eliminate possible Xs

To determine the normality of data. To see

Normal Probability Plot Allows you to determine the normality of your data. if multiple X's exist in your data. cont (measurement) follow a normal 1

distribution

Many statistical tests (tests of means and a normality test:

A normality test is a statistical process used to determine

tests of variances) assume that the data 1. When you are first trying to characterize raw

if a sample, or any group of data, fits a standard normal

Normality Test distribution. A normality test can be done mathematically

being tested is normally distributed. A data, normality testing is used in conjunction cont (measurement) not normal 0

normality test is used to determine if that with graphical tools such as histograms and box

or graphically.

assumption is valid. plots.

2. When you are analyzing your data, and y

You will use an np chart in the Control phase to

determine if your process is in control by

verify that the process remains in control after Defectives Y /

a graphical tool that allows you to view the actual seeing if special causes are present. The

the sources of special cause variation have

np Chart number of defectives and detect the presence of special presence of special cause variation

been removed. The np chart is used for Continuous & N/A 1 12.170

causes. indicates that factors are influencing the Discrete X

processes that generate discrete data. The np

output of your process. Eliminating the

chart is used to graph the a

influence

Many businesses are successful for a brief

Out-of-the-box thinking is an approach to creativity

time due to a single innovation, while Root cause analysis and new product / process

Out-of-the-Box Thinkingbased on overcoming the subconscious patterns of continued success is dependent upon development all N/A 0

thinking that we all develop.

continued innovation

You will use a p chart in the Control phase to

a graphical tool that allows you to view the proportion of determine if your process is in control by

verify that the process remains in control after Defectives Y /

defectives and detect the presence of special causes. determining whether special causes are

the sources of special cause variation have

p Chart The p chart is used to understand the ratio of present. The presence of special cause

been removed. The p chart is used for Continuous & N/A 1 12.165

nonconforming units to the total number of units in a variation indicates that factors are Discrete X

processes that generate discrete data. The

sample. influencing the output of your process.

sample size for the p chart can va

Eliminating the

A Pareto chart is a graphing tool that prioritizes a list of convenient communication tool for use by In the Define phase to stratify Voice of the

variables or factors based on impact or frequency of individuals not familiar with the project. The Customer data...In the Measure phase to

Pareto Chart occurrence. This chart is based on the Pareto principle, Pareto chart will not detect small stratify data collected on the project Y…..In the all N/A 0

which states that typically 80% of the defects in a differences between categories; more Analyze phase to assess the relative impact or

process or product are caused by advanced statistical tools are required in frequency of different factors, or Xs

such cas

As you examine your process in greater In the Define phase, you create a high-level

Process mapping is a tool that provides structure for detail, your map will evolve from the process map to get an overview of the steps,

defining a process in a simplified, visual manner by process you "think" exists to what "actually" events, and operations that make up the

Process Mapping displaying the steps, events, and operations (in exists. Your process map will evolve again process. This will help you understand the all N/A 0

chronological order) that make up a process to reflect what "should" exist-the process process and verify the scope you defined in

after improvements are made. your charter. It is particularly impor

The Pugh matrix is the recommended method

the tool used to facilitate a disciplined, team-based reviewing, assessing, and enhancing

for selecting the most promising concepts in the

process for concept selection and generation. Several design concepts the team has generated

Analyze phase of the DMADV process. It is

Pugh Matrix concepts are evaluated according to their strengths and with reference to the project's CTQs.

used when the team already has developed all N/A 0

weaknesses against a reference concept called the Because it employs agreed-upon criteria

several alternative concepts that potentially can

datum. The datum is the best current conc for assessing each concept, it becomes

meet the CTQs developed during

difficult for one team membe

QFD produces the greatest results in situations

a methodology that provides a flowdown process for to define what is important. It provides a

where1. Customer requirements have not been

CTQs from the highest to the lowest level. The flowdown vehicle for asking how products/services

clearly defined 2. There must be trade-offs

Quality Function Deployment

process begins with the results of the customer needs will be measured and what are the critical

between the elements of the business 3. There all N/A 0

mapping (VOC) as input. From that point we cascade variables to control processes.The QFD

are significant investments in resources

through a series of four Houses of Quality process highlights trade-offs between

required

conflictin

A correlation is

Reqression see Multiple Regression Continuous X & Y 0

detected

In DMAIC, risk assessment is used in the

there is potential for unforeseen failure or

The risk-management process is a methodology used to Improve phase before you make changes in the

unintended consequences. Performing a

identify risks,analyze risks,plan, communicate, and process (before running a DOE, piloting, or

Risk Assessment implement abatement actions, andtrack resolution of

risk assessment allows you to identify

testing solutions) and in the Control phase to all N/A 0 IC.14

potential risks associated with planned

abatement actions. develop the control plan. In DMADV, risk

process changes and develop abatement

assessment is used in all phases of

actions to min

Identifies elements that can interfere with process Continuously to assess risk and abate; DMAIC

Risk Management improvement or cause loss of control; Process of and DFSS to assure improvement and control is 12.23

managing risk using risk abatement plan maintained

estimating the variation in system output Use RSS when you need to quantify the

Root sum of squares (RSS) is a statistical tolerance given the variation in system component variation in the output given the variation in

analysis method used to estimate the variation of a inputs. However, the following conditions must

Root Sum of Squares system output Y from variations in each of the system's

inputs, provided the system behavior can

be met in order to perform RSS analysis: 1. The Continuous X & Y N/A 0

be modeled using a linear transfer function

inputs Xs. inputs (Xs) are independent. 2. The transfer

with unit (± 1) coefficients. RSS can quickly

function is linear with coeffi

tell yo

A run chart is a graphical tool that allows you to view the The patterns in the run chart allow you to Consider using a run chart to 1. Look for

variation of your process over time. The patterns in the see if special causes are influencing your possible time-related Xs in the Measure phase

Run Chart run chart can help identify the presence of special cause process. This will help you to identify Xs 2. Ensure process stability before completing a cont (measurement) N/A 1

variation. affecting your process run chart. hypothesis test 3. Look at variation within a

subgroup; compare subgroup to s

The sample size calculator simplifies the use of the with cost. If your sample size is statistically

sample size formula and provides you with a statistical sound, you can have more confidence in

Sample Size Calculator basis for determining the required sample size for given your data and greater assurance that all N/A 1

resources spent on data collection efforts

levels of α and β risks

and/or planned improvements will not be

wasted

between two variables.The variables may be a process Scatter plots are used with continuous and

output (Y) and a factor affecting it (X), two factors Useful in determining whether trends exist discrete data and are especially useful in the

Scatter Plot affecting a Y (two Xs), or two related process outputs between two or more sets of data. Measure, Analyze, and Improve phases of all N/A 0

(two Ys). DMAIC projects.

indicate that there

is sufficient

Simple linear regression will help you to

Simple linear regression is a method that enables you to evidence that the

understand the relationship between the You can use simple linear regression during the

determine the relationship between a continuous coefficients are

process output (Y) and any factor that may Analyze phase to help identify important Xs and

Simple Linear Regression

process output (Y) and one factor (X). The relationship is

affect it (X). Understanding this relationship during the Improve phase to define the settings Continuous X & Y 0

typically expressed in terms of a mathematical equation, not zero for likely

will allow you to predict the Y, given a needed to achieve the desired output.

such as Y = b + mX, where Y is the

value of X. This is especially useful when

Type I error rates

(a levels)... SEE

MINITAB

Simulation is used in the Analyze phase of a

Simulation is a powerful analysis tool used to experiment interactions and specific problems in an

DMAIC project to understand the behavior of

with a detailed process model to determine how the existing or proposed process 2. Develop a

important process variables. In the Improve

Simulation process output Y will respond to changes in its structure, realistic model for a process 3. Predict the

phase of a DMAIC project, simulation is used to all N/A 0

inputs, or surroundings Xs. Simulation model is a behavior of the process under different

predict the performance of an existing process

computer model that describes relatio conditions 4. Optimize process

under different conditions

performance

It helps you compare the performance of continuous data, helps you determine process

A Six Sigma process report is a Minitab tool that Continuous Y & all

your process or product to the capability for your project Y. Process capability

Six Sigma Process Report

provides a baseline for measuring improvement of your performance standard and determine if is calculated after you have gathered your data N/A 0

product or process X's

technology or control is the problem and have determined your performance

standards

It helps you compare the performance of

process capability for your project Y. You would

your process or product to the Continuous Y,

Six Sigma Product Report

calculates DPMO and process short term capability

performance standard and determine if

calculate Process capability after you have N/A 0

gathered your data and determined your Discrete Xs

technology or control is the problem

performance standards.

Uses control charts to monitor X(s) and quickly detect

changes in process due to special cause variation

proofed or easily control within the required 12.21, 12.102

Process Control) tolerance range;

Stepwise Regression specified criteria. Continuous X & Y N/A 0

Relate a CTQ to subprocess elements (Project

A tree diagram is a tool that is used to break any concept Useful in organizing information into logical

CTQs) 2. Determine the project Y (Project Y) 3.

Tree Diagram (such as a goal, idea, objective, issue, or CTQ) into categories. See "When use?" section for

Select the appropriate Xs (Prioritized List of All all N/A 0

subcomponents, or lower levels of detail. more detail

Xs) 4. Determine task-level detail for a solution

to be implement

You will use a u chart in the Control phase to

determine if your process is in control by

verify that the process remains in control after

A u chart, shown in figure 1, is a graphical tool that determining whether special causes are

the sources of special cause variation have

u Chart allows you to view the number of defects per unit present. The presence of special cause

been removed. The u chart is used for N/A 1 12.159

sampled and detect the presence of special causes variation indicates that factors are

processes that generate discrete data. The u

influencing the output of your process.

chart monitors the number of def

Eliminating the

You can use VOC tools at the start of a project

organized method for gathering information

The following tools are commonly used to collect VOC to determine what key issues are important to

from customers. Without the use of

data: Dashboard ,Focus group, Interview, Scorecard, the customers, understand why they are

Voice of the Customer and Survey.. Tools used to develop specific CTQs and

structured tools, the data collected may be

important, and subsequently gather detailed all N/A 0

incomplete or biased. Key groups may be

associated priorities. information about each issue. VOC tools can

inadvertently omitted from the process,

also be used whenever you need add

information m

You should use worst case analysis : To

and maximum limits within which your total

A worst case analysis is a nonstatistical tolerance analyze safety-critical Ys, and when no process

product or process will vary. You can then

analysis tool used to identify whether combinations of data is available and only the tolerances on Xs

Worst Case Analysis inputs (Xs) at their upper and lower specification limits

compare these limits with the required

are known. Worst case analysis should be all N/A 0

specification limits to see if they are

always produce an acceptable output measure (Y). used sparingly because it does not take into

acceptable. By testing these limits in

account the probabilistic nature

advance,

The presence of special cause variation Xbar-R charts can be used in many phases of

indicates that factors are influencing the the DMAIC process when you have continuous

The Xbar-R chart is a tool to help you decide if your

output of your process. Eliminating the data broken into subgroups. Consider using an 12.115, EX.

Xbar-R Chart process is in control by determining whether special

influence of these factors will improve the Xbar-R chart· in the Measure phase to separate Continuous X & Y N/A 1

causes are present. 12.118, 12.141

performance of your process and bring common causes of variation from special

your process into control causes,· in the Analyze and Improve

An Xbar-S chart can be used in many phases of

An Xbar-S chart, or mean and standard deviation chart, determine if your process is in control by

the DMAIC process when you have continuous

is a graphical tool that allows you to view the variation in seeing if special causes are present. The

data. Consider using an Xbar-S chart……in the

Xbar-S Chart your process over time. An Xbar-S chart lets you perform presence of special cause variation

Measure phase to separate common causes of Continuous X & Y N/A 1

statistical tests that signal when a process may be going indicates that factors are influencing the

variation from special causes, in the Analyze

out of control. A proces output of your process. Eliminating the

and Improve phases to ensure pr

influence of

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