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θωερτψυιοπασδφγηϕκλζξχϖβνµθωερτψυιοπασδφγηϕκ

λζξχϖβνµθωερτψυιοπασδφγηϕκλζξχϖβνµθωερτψυιοπ
λζξχϖβ νµθωερτψυιοπασδφγηϕκλζξχϖβνµθωερτψυιοπ
ασδφγηϕκλζξχϖβνµθωερτψυιοπασδφγηϕκλζξχϖβνµθ
ωερτψυιοπασδφγηϕκλζξχϖβνµθωερτψυιοπασδφγηϕκλ
ζξχϖβνµθωερτψυιοπασδφγηϕκλζξχϖβνµθωερτψυιοπα
σδφγηϕκλζξχϖβνµθωερτψυιοπασδφγηϕκλζξχϖβνµθωε
CHAPTER 1
ρτψυιοπασδφγηϕκλζξχϖβνµθωερτψυιοπασδφγηϕκλζξ
ρτψυιοπασδφγηϕκλζξχϖβνµθωερτψυιοπασδφγηϕκλζ
INTRODUCTION ξ
χϖβνµθωερτψυιοπασδφγηϕκλζξχϖβνµθωερτψυιοπασδ
For

φγηϕκλζξχϖβνµθωερτψυιοπασδφγηϕκλζξχϖβνµθωερτ
Dynamic Matrix Emulation Technique

ψυιοπασδφγηϕκλζξχϖβνµθωερτψυιοπασδφγηϕκλζξχϖ
βνµθωερτψυιοπασδφγηϕκλζξχϖβνµρτψυιοπασδφγηϕκ
λζξχϖβνµθωερτψυιοπασδφγηϕκλζξχϖβνµθωερτψυιοπ
ασδφγηϕκλζξχϖβνµθωερτψυιοπασδφγηϕκλζξχϖβνµθ
ασδφγηϕκλζξχϖβνµθωερτψυιοπασδφγηϕκλ ζξχϖβνµθ
ωερτψυιοπασδφγηϕκλζξχϖβνµθωερτψυιοπασδφγηϕκλ
ζξχϖβνµθωερτψυιοπασδφγηϕκλζξχϖβνµθωερτψυιοπα
σδφγηϕκλζξχϖβνµθωερτψυιοπασδφγηϕκλζξχϖβνµθωε
ρτψυιοπασδφγηϕκλζξχϖβνµθωερτψυιοπασδφγηϕκλζξ
χϖβνµθωερτψυιοπασδφγηϕκλζξχϖβνµθωερτψυιοπασδ
φγηϕκλζξχϖβνµρτψυιοπασδφγηϕκλζξχϖβνµθωερτψυι
φγηϕκλζξχϖβνµρτψυιοπασδφγηϕκ λζξχϖβνµθωερτψυι
οπασδφγηϕκλζξχϖβνµθωερτψυιοπασδφγηϕκλζξχϖβνµ
θωερτψυιοπασδφγηϕκλζξχϖβνµθωερτψυιοπασδφγηϕκ
λζξχϖβνµθωερτψυιοπασδφγηϕκλζξχϖβνµθωερτψυιοπ
ασδφγηϕκλζξχϖβνµθωερτψυιοπασδφγηϕκλζξχϖβνµθ
ωερτψυιοπασδφγηϕκλζξχϖβνµθωερτψυιοπασδφγηϕκλ
ζξχϖβνµθωερτψυιοπασδφγηϕκλζξχϖβνµθωερτψυιοπα
ζξχϖβνµθωερτψυιοπασδφ γηϕκλζξχϖβνµθωερτψυιοπα
The requirements of information security within an
organization have undergone a major change in last two decades.
Before the widespread use of data processing equipment, the security
of information used to be provided primarily by physical and
administrative means. With the introduction of computers, the need
of automated tools for protecting files and other information stored
in the computer became evident. This is especially the case for a
shared system, such as a time-sharing system, and the need is even
more acute for systems that can be accessed over a public telephone
network, data network, or the Internet. With the remarkable
advancement of technology and availability of facilities, the interest
of people to connect computers to form networks is increasing
rapidly. In this digital system, a huge amount of data flow exists.
Besides this, different distributed processing involves a large amount
of complex digital data transfer.

In general, there exist following types of problems


associated with such data transmission: -
• A huge amount of data is to be handled.
• Much of the data is very sensitive to errors.
• The security of data transmitted from source to destination over
communication links via different nodes is the most important
matter to be worried.
• Someone can intercept message during the process of
transmission, which may cause problem, hence data security and
communication privacy have become a fundamental requirement
for such systems.
Encoding a message prior to its transmission is the process of
Data Encryption. The corresponding Data Decryption technique is
used to decode the encrypted message. All the research activities of
varied genres of researchers for the last few years are based on the
field of cryptography, involving the planning, developing, designing
and analyzing of some bit-level encryption/decryption techniques.
Representation of this entire activity is the basic
objective of this dissertation.
1.1 Cryptography (The Data Security)

Cryptography comes from the Greek words for


"Secret Writing". It is a tool that can be used to keep information
confidential and to ensure its integrity and authenticity.

Bluetooth has inbuilt encryption and verification


mechanisms for security purposes. Professionals make a clear
distinction between ciphers and codes.

"Cryptography is a technique that can be used to protect


data or information."

Four groups of people have used and contributed to


the art of the cryptography, and they are:

1. The Military
2. The Diplomatic Corps
3. Diarists
4. Lovers
Of these, the military has had the most important role and
has shaped the field over the centuries. Within military
organizations, the messages have to be encrypted and
traditionally been given to poorly-paid, low-level code clerks
for encryption and transmission. The sheer volume of messages
prevented this work being done by a few elite specialists.

The above discussed cryptography had some constraints which


are detailed below:

(1) Until the advent of computers, the ability of the code clerk
to perform the necessary transformations.

(2) The difficulty in switching from/over quickly from one cryptographic


method to another method.

(3) The danger of a code clerk being captured by the enemy has
made it essential to be able to change the cryptographic method
instantly if needed.
1.2 Cryptographic Algorithms: -

There are many algorithms and amongst them the most important
are: -

1. Secret-key Algorithm
2. Symmetric-key Algorithm
3. Public-key algorithm

1.2.1 Secret-Key Algorithm:

The foremost use technology is the secret-key cryptography technique


which implements a single key to encrypt and decrypt, and this key must
be known to both the parties.

1.2.2 Symmetric-Key Algorithm:


Symmetric-key cryptography refers to encryption methods in which both
the sender and receiver share the same key (or, less commonly, in which
their keys are different, but related in an easily computable way). This
was the only kind of encryption publicly known until June 1976.
It is used for high-speed encryption of, for instance, e-mail.

The modern study of symmetric-key ciphers relates mainly to the study of


block ciphers and stream ciphers and to their applications. A block ciphers
take as input a block of plaintext and a key, and output a block of cipher
text of the same size. Since messages are almost always longer than a
single block, some method of knitting together successive blocks is
required. Several have been developed, some with better security in one
aspect or another than others. They are the modes of operation and must
be carefully considered when using a block cipher in a cryptosystem. The
Data Encryption Standard (DES) and the Advanced Encryption Standard
(AES) are block cipher designs which have been designated cryptography
standards by the US government (though DES's designation was finally
withdrawn after the AES was adopted). Despite its deprecation as an
official standard, DES (especially its still-approved and much more secure
triple-DES variant) remains quite popular; it is used across a wide range of
applications, from ATM encryption to e-mail privacy and secure remote
access.

Stream ciphers, in contrast to the 'block' type, create an arbitrarily long


stream of key material, which is combined with the plaintext bit-by-bit or
character-by-character, somewhat like the one-time pad. In a stream
cipher, the output stream is created based on a hidden internal state
which changes as the cipher operates. That internal state is initially set up
using the secret key material. RC4 is a widely used stream cipher; see
Cryptographic hash functions are a third type of cryptographic algorithm.
They take a message of any length as input, and output a short, fixed
length hash which can be used in (for example) a digital signature. For
good hash functions, an attacker cannot find two messages that produce
the same hash. MD4 is a long-used hash function which is now broken;
MD5, a strengthened variant of MD4, is also widely used but broken in
practice. The U.S.
1.2.3 Public-Key Algorithm:
Stems use the same key for encryption and decryption of a message,
though a message or group of messages may have a different key than
others. A significant disadvantage of symmetric ciphers is the key
management necessary to use them securely. Each distinct pair of
communicating parties must, ideally, share a different key, and perhaps
each cipher text exchanged as well. The number of keys required
increases as the square of the number of network members, which very
quickly requires complex key management schemes to keep them all
straight and secret. The difficulty of securely establishing a secret key
between two communicating parties, when a secure channel doesn't
already exist between them, also presents a chicken-and-egg problem
which is a considerable practical obstacle for cryptography users in the
real world.

In a groundbreaking 1976 paper, Whitfield Diffie and Martin


Hellman proposed the notion of public-key (also, more generally, called
asymmetric key) cryptography in which two different but mathematically
related keys are used — a public key and a private key. A public key
system is so constructed that calculation of one key (the 'private key') is
computationally infeasible from the other (the 'public key'), even though
they are necessarily related. Instead, both keys are generated secretly, as
an interrelated pair.The historian David Kahn described public-key
cryptography as "the most revolutionary new concept in the field since
polyalphabetic substitution emerged in the Renaissance".

In public-key cryptosystems, the public key may be freely


distributed, while its paired private key must remain secret. The public
key is typically used for encryption, while the private or secret key is used
for decryption.

The Diffie-Hellman and RSA algorithms, in addition to being


the first publicly known examples of high quality public-key algorithms,
have been among the most widely used. Others include the Cramer-
Shoup cryptosystem, ElGamal encryption, and various elliptic curve
techniques.