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CHAPTER 1

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ρτψυιοπασδφγηϕκλζξχϖβνµθωερτψυιοπασδφγηϕκλζ

INTRODUCTION ξ

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Dynamic Matrix Emulation Technique

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φγηϕκλζξχϖβνµρτψυιοπασδφγηϕκ λζξχϖβνµθωερτψυι

οπασδφγηϕκλζξχϖβνµθωερτψυιοπασδφγηϕκλζξχϖβνµ

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ζξχϖβνµθωερτψυιοπασδφγηϕκλζξχϖβνµθωερτψυιοπα

ζξχϖβνµθωερτψυιοπασδφ γηϕκλζξχϖβνµθωερτψυιοπα

The requirements of information security within an

organization have undergone a major change in last two decades.

Before the widespread use of data processing equipment, the security

of information used to be provided primarily by physical and

administrative means. With the introduction of computers, the need

of automated tools for protecting files and other information stored

in the computer became evident. This is especially the case for a

shared system, such as a time-sharing system, and the need is even

more acute for systems that can be accessed over a public telephone

network, data network, or the Internet. With the remarkable

advancement of technology and availability of facilities, the interest

of people to connect computers to form networks is increasing

rapidly. In this digital system, a huge amount of data flow exists.

Besides this, different distributed processing involves a large amount

of complex digital data transfer.

associated with such data transmission: -

• A huge amount of data is to be handled.

• Much of the data is very sensitive to errors.

• The security of data transmitted from source to destination over

communication links via different nodes is the most important

matter to be worried.

• Someone can intercept message during the process of

transmission, which may cause problem, hence data security and

communication privacy have become a fundamental requirement

for such systems.

Encoding a message prior to its transmission is the process of

Data Encryption. The corresponding Data Decryption technique is

used to decode the encrypted message. All the research activities of

varied genres of researchers for the last few years are based on the

field of cryptography, involving the planning, developing, designing

and analyzing of some bit-level encryption/decryption techniques.

Representation of this entire activity is the basic

objective of this dissertation.

1.1 Cryptography (The Data Security)

"Secret Writing". It is a tool that can be used to keep information

confidential and to ensure its integrity and authenticity.

mechanisms for security purposes. Professionals make a clear

distinction between ciphers and codes.

data or information."

the art of the cryptography, and they are:

1. The Military

2. The Diplomatic Corps

3. Diarists

4. Lovers

Of these, the military has had the most important role and

has shaped the field over the centuries. Within military

organizations, the messages have to be encrypted and

traditionally been given to poorly-paid, low-level code clerks

for encryption and transmission. The sheer volume of messages

prevented this work being done by a few elite specialists.

are detailed below:

(1) Until the advent of computers, the ability of the code clerk

to perform the necessary transformations.

method to another method.

(3) The danger of a code clerk being captured by the enemy has

made it essential to be able to change the cryptographic method

instantly if needed.

1.2 Cryptographic Algorithms: -

There are many algorithms and amongst them the most important

are: -

1. Secret-key Algorithm

2. Symmetric-key Algorithm

3. Public-key algorithm

which implements a single key to encrypt and decrypt, and this key must

be known to both the parties.

Symmetric-key cryptography refers to encryption methods in which both

the sender and receiver share the same key (or, less commonly, in which

their keys are different, but related in an easily computable way). This

was the only kind of encryption publicly known until June 1976.

It is used for high-speed encryption of, for instance, e-mail.

block ciphers and stream ciphers and to their applications. A block ciphers

take as input a block of plaintext and a key, and output a block of cipher

text of the same size. Since messages are almost always longer than a

single block, some method of knitting together successive blocks is

required. Several have been developed, some with better security in one

aspect or another than others. They are the modes of operation and must

be carefully considered when using a block cipher in a cryptosystem. The

Data Encryption Standard (DES) and the Advanced Encryption Standard

(AES) are block cipher designs which have been designated cryptography

standards by the US government (though DES's designation was finally

withdrawn after the AES was adopted). Despite its deprecation as an

official standard, DES (especially its still-approved and much more secure

triple-DES variant) remains quite popular; it is used across a wide range of

applications, from ATM encryption to e-mail privacy and secure remote

access.

stream of key material, which is combined with the plaintext bit-by-bit or

character-by-character, somewhat like the one-time pad. In a stream

cipher, the output stream is created based on a hidden internal state

which changes as the cipher operates. That internal state is initially set up

using the secret key material. RC4 is a widely used stream cipher; see

Cryptographic hash functions are a third type of cryptographic algorithm.

They take a message of any length as input, and output a short, fixed

length hash which can be used in (for example) a digital signature. For

good hash functions, an attacker cannot find two messages that produce

the same hash. MD4 is a long-used hash function which is now broken;

MD5, a strengthened variant of MD4, is also widely used but broken in

practice. The U.S.

1.2.3 Public-Key Algorithm:

Stems use the same key for encryption and decryption of a message,

though a message or group of messages may have a different key than

others. A significant disadvantage of symmetric ciphers is the key

management necessary to use them securely. Each distinct pair of

communicating parties must, ideally, share a different key, and perhaps

each cipher text exchanged as well. The number of keys required

increases as the square of the number of network members, which very

quickly requires complex key management schemes to keep them all

straight and secret. The difficulty of securely establishing a secret key

between two communicating parties, when a secure channel doesn't

already exist between them, also presents a chicken-and-egg problem

which is a considerable practical obstacle for cryptography users in the

real world.

Hellman proposed the notion of public-key (also, more generally, called

asymmetric key) cryptography in which two different but mathematically

related keys are used — a public key and a private key. A public key

system is so constructed that calculation of one key (the 'private key') is

computationally infeasible from the other (the 'public key'), even though

they are necessarily related. Instead, both keys are generated secretly, as

an interrelated pair.The historian David Kahn described public-key

cryptography as "the most revolutionary new concept in the field since

polyalphabetic substitution emerged in the Renaissance".

distributed, while its paired private key must remain secret. The public

key is typically used for encryption, while the private or secret key is used

for decryption.

the first publicly known examples of high quality public-key algorithms,

have been among the most widely used. Others include the Cramer-

Shoup cryptosystem, ElGamal encryption, and various elliptic curve

techniques.

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