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ANTHROPOLOGY -( Webster illustrated Contemporary Dictionary – Encyclopedic

Edition )
- The scientific study of human beings and the physical, social,
material, and cultural development.
- ( History of the World Book- Second Edition, Social Studies
Perspective, pp.37, DIWA )-Human remains are important in the
study of Physical Anthropology, while the Artifacts or things or even
belongings found the human remains are important in the study of
Archeology. They are evidence of Ancient Culture and Society. Thus,
the use of Science to study and interpret evidence helps us learn
more of man’s origin and the culture of the past.
( Cultural Anthropology 8th edition, Haviland ) The study of human kind, in all times and
places.
-Is the most liberating of all sciences.
-it’s devotion to the study of all peoples, regardless of where and when
they lived.
- the subject matter of anthropology is vast.It includes everything that has
to do with human beings, past and present.
- Some, such as anatomy and physiology, study humans as biological
organisms.

- The Social Sciences are concerned with the distinctive forms of human
relationships, while Humanities examine the great
avhievements of human culture.

Anthropologists are interested in all of these things, but they try to deal with them all
together.
Needless to say , no single anthropologist is able to investigate personally everything
that has to do with people.
For practical purposes, the discipline is divided into various subfields;
a. Cultural Anthropologists- specialize in the study of human behavior,
b. Physical Anthropologist- specialize in the study of humans as biological organism
c. Linguists- who study language by which cultures are maintained and passed on
to succeeding generations
d. Etnologists- who study cultures as they have been observed, experienced,
discussed with persons whose cultures they seek to
understand
*ignorance of other cultures can have serious consequences;
Ex. OFW before they will go to certain countries in Asia, Africa, Europe and America,
they will have what they called Orientation, so that they will prevent the Cultural Shock
of a certain country.
Ex. K.SA.since it is a Muslim country any practices of Roman Catholic Religion is
prohibited, even the bringing of rosaries.
For as long as they have been on earth,people have needed answers to question about
who they are, where they come and why they act as they do.They relied on on myth and
folklore for their answers to those questions.
The anthropologist is concerned primarily with a single species-Homosapiens-the
human species, its ancestors and near relatives.Because anthropologists are members
of the species being studied.

Anthropologists are able to arrive at a reasonably reliable understanding of


human diversity, as well as the many things that human have in common beneath that
diversity.

I. DEVELOPMENT OF ANTHROPOLOGY AND ITS BRANCHES

If people have always been concerned about themselves and their origins, why
did it take such a long time for a systematic discipline of anthropology to appear?

The answer to this is as complex as human history. Extensive travel was usually
the exclusive prerogative of a few, the study of foreign people and cultures was not
likely to flourish until adequate modes of transportation and communication could be
developed.

The Old and New Testaments of the Bible for ex. are full of references to diverse
peoples among them Jews, Egyptians, Hittites, Babylonians, Ethiopians, Romans
and so forth.

These peoples were at least familiar to one another and familiar differences are
one thing ,while unfamiliar differences are another.

Another significant element that contributed to the slow growth of anthropology


was the failure of Europeans to recognize the common humanity that they share with
people everywhere.

Societies that did not share the fundamental cultural value of Europeans were
labeled as “ savage” or “ barbarians “. From the examination that followed came the
awareness that the study of “savage” is a study of all humankind.

TWO MAJOR BRANCHES OF ANTHROPOLOGY

1.Physical Anthropology 2. Cultural Anthropology

1.Physical Anthropology- ( or alternatively, biological anthropology )


- Is the branch that focuses on humans as biological organisms, and it
is one of its many interest is human evolution
- Through the analysis of fossils and observation of living primates,
physical anthropologists try to trace the anscestor of the human
species in order to understand , how, when, and why we became the
kind of animal we are today.Another major concern of physical
anthropology is the study of present-day human variation.
*Australopithecine-------Hominid--------Homo-sapiens-sapiens
2.Cultural Anthropology- the branch of anthropology that focuses on human behavior.
- Is closely related to sociology,since the business of both is the
description and explanation of behavior of people within a social
context.
- Have found that to understand human behavior fully, all humans must
be studied.

THREE AREAS OF CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY


1. Archaeology- branch og cultural anthropology that studies material remains in
order to describe and explain human behavior.
- The archaeologist studies tools, pottery and other enduring relics that
remain us the legacy of extinct cultures, some of them as much as
2.5 million years old
- Archaeological remains can tell historians much about a society that
is not apparent from its written documents.

2. Linguistic Anthropology- the branch of cultural anthropology that studies human


language.
Language is what allows people to preserve and transmit their culture
from generation to generation.
-Linguistics may deal with the description of a language ( the way a
sentence is formed or a verb conjugated) or with the history of
language ( the way languages develop and (influence each other with
the passage of time)
Both approaches yield valuable information not only about the way in
which people communicate but also about the way in which
understand the world around them.
Anthropological Linguists- may also make asignificant contribution to our
understanding of the human past. By identifying those words in
related languages that have survived from an ancient ancestral
tongue, they can also suggest both and how speakers of the ancestral
language lived.

3. Ethnology- ( Socio- Cultural Anthropology )- concentrates on culture of the


present
- Concentrates on the study of human behavior as it can be seen,
experienced and discussed with those whose culture is to be
understood
*ethnography- the syatematic description of a culture based on first hand
observation
*etnographers- learn about the cultures of other people by actually living with
them
*through participant observation - eating a people’s food, speaking their
language, and personally experiencing their habits and
customs.
*etnographer- is able to understand their way of life to a far greater extent than
any nonparticipant anthropologist or other social scientist ever
could.

*FORENSIC ANTHROPOLOGY- field of applied physical anthropology that specializes


in the identification of human skeletal remains for legal purposes.

*FORENSIC ANTHROPOGISTS –are routinely called upon by police


and other authorities to identify the remains of murder
victims, missing persons, or people who have died in
disasters such as plane crashes.

*From skeletal remains, the forensic anthropologists can establish the age, sex, race
and stature of the deceased, and often whether they were right-or left handed.
Some details of an individuals health and nutritional history can be read from
the bones.

*CLYDE C. SNOW-well-known forensic anthropologist

*Snow & his 2 Argentinian associates were invited to the Philippines to look into the
disappearance of 600 or more suspected victims of the Marcos regime.

* “it is often the investigators who bring the culprits to justice”

To quote Snow “ of all the forms of murder , none is more monstrous than that
committed by a state against its own citizens. And of all murder victims, those of
the state are the most helpless and vulnerable, since the very entity to which they
have entrusted their lives and safety becomes their killer.
TITLE PAGE

DEVELOPMENT OF

ANTHROPOLOGY AND

ITS BRANCHES

Submitted by: Mrs. Imelda M. Flores


Submitted to: Dr. Rolando R. Gaspar
TABLE OF CONTENTS
I. Introduction
II. Meaning of Anthropology
III. Development of Anthropology
IV.Two Major Branches of Anthropology
A. Physical Anthropology
B. Cultural Anthropology
V.Three Areas of Cultural Anthropology
A. Archaeology
B. Linguistic Anthropology
C. Etnology
VI. Forensic Anthropology