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Networking Benefits
Networking Enables: Information
Sharing

Centralized
Administration
and Support
Hardware and Software Sharing

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Roles of Computers in a Network
Mail Server
Database Server Fax Server

Database

File and Print Server Directory Services


Server

Client Computer

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Types of Networks
Peer-to-Peer

Client-Server

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Scope of Networks
Local Area
Network

Wid Area
Wide A Network
N t k

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Bus Topology

Segment
T i t
Terminator Terminator

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Star Topology

Hub

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Ring Topology

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Mesh Topology

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Hybrid Topologies
Star-Bus Bus

Star-Ring

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Ethernet
Transmits signal Detects signal Collision detected

Carrier Sense Multiple Access Collision Detection

Characteristics Description
Access Method CSMA/CD
Standard Ethernet – 10 Mbps
Transfer Speed Fast Ethernet – 100 Mbps
Gigabit Ethernet – 1 Gbps (1000 Mbps)

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Token Ring

MSAU
Physical Logical
Ring Ring

Characteristics
Characteristics Description
Access Method Token passing

Transfer Speed 4 to 16 Mbps for all cable types

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Fibber Distributed Data Interface

Secondary Ring

Primary Ring

Characteristics Description
Access Method Token passing

Transfer Speed Fiber-optic at 155 Mbps to 622 Mbps

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Network Cables
Types of Cables

Twisted-Pair
Unshielded (UTP)
10BaseT Shielded (STP)

Coaxial ThinNet
10Base2, 10Base5 ThickNet

Fiber-Optics

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Wireless Communication Devices
Wireless Communication Devices

Infrared Transmission

Narrowband Radio Transmission

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Repeaters and Hubs
Repeater
Transmits data to
all connected computers

Repeater

Hub
Transmits
T it ddata
t to
t allll connected
t d
computers in a star topology

Hub

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Bridges

Bridge

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Switches

Switch

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Routers

Router

Router

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Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model

Application Layer

Presentation Layer

Session Layer

T
Transport
t Layer
L

Network Layer

Data Link Layer

Physical Layer

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Types of Data Transmissions

Unicast Broadcast

Multicast

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IP Address Classes

Network ID Host ID
Class A

Network ID Host ID
Class B

Network ID Host ID
Class C

w x y z

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IP Addresses

192.168.2.100 192.168.3.100

IP
Address 192.168.1.100

192.168.1.0 192.168.2.0 192.168.3.0

Network ID

192.168.1.100 192.168.2.101
Host ID

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Subnets
Subnet 1 Subnet 2
1 2

Hub Router Hub

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Addressing Guidelines

The First Number in the Network ID Cannot Be 127

Th Host
The H t ID Cannot
C t Be
B All 255s
255

The Host ID Cannot Be All Zeros

The Host ID Must Be Unique to the Local Network ID

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CIDR Notation

IP 10 . 217 . 123 . 7
Address
00001010 11011001 01111011 00000111

Subnet 255 . 255 . 240 . 0


Mask
11111111 11111111 11110000 00000000

Number of Subnet
Mask Bits (ones) 8 + 8 + 4 + 0 = 20

IP Address in
CIDR Notation 10.217.123.7/20

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The Internet

Server

Internet
Text, Audio, Video,
and Graphics Data

Connection Using
TCP/IP Protocol

Client

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Intranets

Intranet

Internet

Extranet

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Uniform Resource Locator (URL)

URL (http://example.microsoft.com/tutorial/default.html)
(http://example microsoft com/tutorial/default html)

• Protocol used (http://)

• DNS address (example.microsoft.com)

• Path on the server (/tutorial/default.html)

http://example.microsoft.com/tutorial/default.html

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Domain Naming System (DNS)

• Domain Name (example.microsoft.com)


– Top-level domain com
(com)
– Second-level domain (microsoft.com)
– Subdomain
S bd i ((example.microsoft.com)
l i f )

microsoft com
microsoft.com

example.microsoft.com

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Domain Organization

F
Forest
t
Domain
nwtraders.msft Domain
Tree

Domain Domain
Tree

Domain Domain
namerica.nwtraders.msft samerica.nwtraders.msft

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Features of a Domain
Single Logon Single User Account

Centralized Management S l bilit


Scalability

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Benefits of a Domain
Organized Easy Location of
Paris
Objects Information
Sales Repair

User1 Computer1 User2 Printer1

Streamlined Access Delegated Authority

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Internet Protocols

• HTTP Server

• HTTPS Internet

• FTP
Data
• SMTP
Connection
C ti Using
U i an
• NNTP Internet Protocol

• HTML
DHTML
Client

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TCP/IP Layers

Application
HTTP FTP
Application Layer
Layer

TCP UDP
Transport Layer Transport Layer

IP ICMP
Internet IGMP
Layer ARP Internet Layer

Network
ATM Interface
Network Ethernet
Layer
Interface Layer

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Network Address Translators (NATs)

192.168.0.10 w2.x2.y2.z2
Web Server

Web Browser
w1.x1.y1.z1
Internet

NAT

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Proxy Servers

Authorized
LAN
Web Site

LAN Internet

Proxy Server

Restricted
LAN
Web Site

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Firewalls

Authorized
LAN
User

LAN Internet

Firewall

LAN Unauthorized
User

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