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Source: The Journal of Musicology, Vol. 3, No.

(Summer, 1984), pp. 264-279
Published by: University of California Press



The study of ancientGreekmusic has held the interestof modem schol-
arship since the Renaissance, when the widely attestedpowers of an-
cient music began to attractthe attentionof a numberof the humanists.
From the very first, two subjects within the field of ancient Greek music
were seen as especially troublesome and were given particularscrutiny.
These are the subjects of harmoniaand ethos. The difficulty with these
subjects lies in part in the fact that ancient authoritiesdisagree among
themselves, and it has thereforeseemed that the subjectsmust remain for-
ever in the realm of philosophical dispute, eluding all attempts at syste-
matization. This is not to say that scholars ignored the subjects. In fact,
there have been a number of notable works dealing with these matters,
including Girolamo Mei's unpublished De modis musicis antiquorum (au-
tographin Vaticanuslatinus 5323)-dating from the sixteenthcentury, the
beginning of modem scholarshipon ancient Greek music-and, more re-
cently, studies by HermannWiegandt, A. F. Walter, HermannAbert, E.
M. von Hornbostel,L. P. Wilkinson, JamesRiley, EdwardLippman,War-
ren Anderson, J. Garcia L6pez, and Lukas Richter.1All these works are
incisive and combine technical remarksabout modes, scales, pitches, and
so on, with general philosophical treatmentsof music and character,but
none of these-nor any of the other studies that might be cited-attempts
to systematizethe ethical characteristicsof ancientGreek music or to show
a close relationshipbetween harmoniaand ethos. Nonetheless, it is possible
to develop and demonstratea reasonablyprecise system for the analysis of
the ethos in pieces of ancient Greek music. This system leans heavily on
the De musica of AristidesQuintilianus,which unquestionablyprovidesthe
most detailed and comprehensiveancient treatmentof the subjects of har-

'HermannWiegandt, "De ethico antiquorumrhythmorumcharactereauctoreAristideQuintiliano"
(Ph.D. diss., Halle, 1881); Anton FriedrichWalter, "Die ethisch-padagogischeWiirdigungder Musik
durch Plato und Aristoteles," Vierteljahrsschrift
fiir MusikwissenschaftVI (1890), 388-415; Hermann
Abert, Die Lehre vom Ethos in der griechischen Musik (Leipzig, 1899: reprinted., Tutzing, 1968);
Erich M. von Hornbostel, "Tonart und Ethos," Festschriftfir Johannes Wolf zu seinem sechzigsten
Geburtstag, ed. W. Lott, H. Osthoff, and W. Wolffheim (Berlin, 1929), pp. 73-78; L. P. Wilkinson,
"Philodemus on Ethos in Music," Classical QuarterlyXXXII (1938), 174-81; James Riley, "Ethos
in Greek Music" (M.M. thesis, College-Conservatoryof Music of Cincinnati, 1948); EdwardLippman,
Musical Thoughtin AncientGreece (New York, 1964; reprinted., New York, 1975);WarrenAnderson,
Ethos and Educationin GreekMusic (Cambridge,Mass., 1966);J. GarciaL6pez, "Sobre el vocabulario
etico-musicaldel Griego," Emerita, boletin de linguisticay filologia cldsica XXXVII (1969), 335-52;
and Lukas Richter, "Antike asthetischeTheorienzur gesellschaftlichenFunktionder griechischenTra-
godie," Die griechische Tragodie in ihrer gesellschaftlichenFunktion, ed. HeinrichKuch, Ver6ffent-
lichungen des Zentralinstitutsfur Alte Geschichte und Archaologieder Akademie der Wissenschaften
der DDR, XI (Berlin, 1983), 173-92.

it will be necessary first to treat the concept of harmonia. pp.4. and 27). Harmonica 1. It must be stressed that these usages occur in proximityto usages of terms like enharmonios.. and charactersmimeticof higheruniversals. BurtonKarson(Provo. 22. 3. In order to explain the system. 12. Aristides Quin- tilianus on Music in Three Books. Music Theory TranslationSeries (New Haven.orders. 94-103. though it does subsume these technical concepts." Studiumgenerale XIX (1966). thus. and Olof Gignon. 3Mathiesen. 9. and the still indispensablemonographof BonaventuraMeyer. Mathiesen.g.-] Plutarch(e. must then be reviewed.g. 42-57. APMONIA. tropos. Theorists primarilyconcernedwith music as an analogue for higher philosophical truths conceive the harmoniaas manifesting certain basic proportions. 7-39 and 119-41. [Ps.. and idem.the analyticalsystem may be extractedfrom the treatise of Aristides Quintilianusand applied to three early fragmentsof ancient Greek music. harmonics. 6. Because my discussions have already appearedelse- where. Ptolemy to some degree (e. theoristsrepresentingthe sec- ond-centuryrevival of ancient theory (such as Cleonides and Gaudentius) who seem to have viewed music essentially as a system ratherthan as a "consort of philosophy"-as Aristides Quintilianusrefers to it-tend to concentrateon the limited technical sense of harmonia. 19. tonos. 7. which are seen as analogues.HARMONIAAND ETHOS IN ANCIENTGREEKMUSIC 265 monia and ethos. 3-4. "The Harmonia."The Growthof the Greek&pJov(oaci. Harmonia A full and systematic discussion of the term harmonia-even limited to its use in ancient Greek music theory-would extend far beyond the limits of this paper.. 3-17. and 26). depending on the approach(or. 1983). 1976). 11-12.2it will be most expeditiousto make some straightforward statements about harmoniathat will be necessary for our understandingof the larger subjects in view. On the other hand. 8." Fes- tival Essays for Pauline Alderman. and so on. 10- 11). Some preliminaryconclusions will then emerge. harmoniamay not be considered a simple synonym for these other technical terms. and especially AristidesQuintilianus(De musica 1. "Zum antikenBegriff der Harmonie."Music Review V (1944). and 3. perhaps. 2. 14. 16. 1932).Bedeutungsgeschichte des Wortesvon Homer bis Aristoteles (Ziirich. while remaining aware (to a greateror lesser degree) of the largerperspective. especially as it is formulated by Aristides Quintilianusand the Platonists.g. eidos. This more comprehensiveusage appearsin the treatisesof Ar- istoxenus (e. 539- 47. and which pulls together all the various disciplines- philosophy."Problems.metrics. See also useful articles by KathleenSchlesinger. 17. and cosmology-that bear on these subjects. De musica 34 [1143E]).3 2ThomasJ. on the sophistication)of the theorist. 4. 16-17.1. With this as background.ed.6. Harmonica 3. psychology.2. "Problemsof Terminologyin Ancient GreekTheory: 'APMONiA. Harmoniain ancient Greek music theory must be understoodon two levels. .The notion of mimesis." Classical QuarterlyXXXVI (1942). Isobel Henderson.even when applying the term to certain scales or genera." pp. 12.3-7.

the converse is not true:harmoniais not an octave. by the way.12). 2. Harmoniain its fullest sense. Given this general definition for harmonia. it may be possible to discoverhow that much-vauntedpower of ancient Greek music-the ability to convey and affect ethos-actually worked.pp. for instance in Aristides QuintilianusDe musica 3.or a tonos are harmoniai.6). for some of the other technical terms that appearthroughoutthe Greek theoreticaltradition. and other branchesof Greekphilosophy.4 of Aristotle. in Politica 8.8. a proportion. a proportionlike 2:4:8 (which may also produceoctaves) is a harmonia(cf.266 THE JOURNALOF MUSICOLOGY It is thereforenecessaryto keep in mind when studyingancientGreek music theory that a harmoniais not a harmonia. in Plutarch'sDe animae procreatione in Timaeo. and their treatisesmust be studied in a larger intellectual context if one is to understandthem. a proportion. Historiansof music theory have realized this for many years in connection with termi- nology in medieval and Renaissancemusic theory. it should be easy to see two things: (1) how less sophisticatedtheorists(and some mod- em commentators)began to think of tonos and octave species as synony- mous with harmonia.10. In fact. metaphysics.4and the treatiseprovidesa means for distilling a system to analyze the ethical quality of a composition. Aristides Quintilianus and Platonic notions of mimesis The treatiseof AristidesQuintilianusis quiteunlikeotherancientGreek musical treatises in that it is not a technical work but ratheran elaborate 4This matteris discussed at length in my Introductionto Aristides Quintilianus. the octave is a harmonia(cf. but the lesson has been all too rarely applied to ancient Greek music theory. . This is importantbecause it might otherwisebe assumed that the term is being used metaphoricallyor at least in a sense unrelatedto music. Each of these provides a unifi- cation and an order for lower level entities such as dissimilar numbers. But if harmoniaas a concept might relate divergentbranchesin Greekphilosophy. noted above. to choose three examples. 2. Aris- tides QuintilianusDe musica 1. this relationshipof divergent philosophical branchesthroughharmoniais one of the central features of the treatiseof AristidesQuintilianus. From this definition.5 (1340b18-19) and De anima 1. Aristides QuintilianusDe musica 3. Thus. is a unificationof things thatappear on a lower level to be dissimilaror unrelatedor lacking in will not be surprisingto discover that the term is also used in connection with cosmology. Moreover. or rhythmic patterns. the term often appears in passages where musical parallels are explicit. ethics. Aristides QuintilianusDe musica 1. Greek musical theorists are not separatefrom their philosophicalor technical context. then.The same may be said.This sense of the term appearsclearly in the Phaedo and Timaeusof Plato. and in the musical treatises as well.and (2) while an octave. 14-57. or a tonos. as for in- stance in the Phaedo. and a tonos is a harmonia(cf.14). groups of notes.6.

Paul Moraux. The notion of the soul's attractionis based-perhaps-on Plato's Timaeusand Sophista. Philip P.." Dictionary of the History of Ideas. HermannKoller. and metrics. are the rationaland irrationalparts-the latterfurther divided into the thymic (or. (London. The concept of mimesis is exceedingly difficult to condense. 5 vols. and the order of the universe. It is there- fore necessary at this point to review mimesis as the process throughwhich harmoniaimbues music and throughwhich ethos is developed in response to music. H. Aristides Quintilianusonce again provides a great deal of help in his ratherspecific remarksabout mimesis in music. Die Miinesis in der Antike (Bern. Tatarkiewicz. New York.6. and Gerald F. H. . aggressive) and epithymetic (or. De musica 2. Since all of these sections are related cumulatively in the most intricateway. 3-13. if ever it is necessary to move passion in accord with the inter- pretation. "Mimesis. and Gerald F. de la musique. " 'Imitation' in the Fifth Century. painting and sculpture teach only through vision and the likeness both excites and amazes the soul. of course. 1951). but it does not always move passion without melody or adapt it to the underlying matters without rhythms. Else. ed.. For instance. 4th ed. at least in the ancient Greek sense." Classical Philology LIII (1958).the soul. Note also the useful article by W. Paul Moraux. 1954). 225-30. mimetic arts may affect the soul." Etudes classiques XXIII (1955). indulgent) parts (these are elegantly characterizedin Plato's Phaedrus 245-248 and Timaeus 41E-42D). how then could music fail to captivate. 14-15.proceeds to a considerationof the effect of music on character." Aristotle's Theoryof Poetry and Fine Art with a Critical Text and Translationof the Poetics. Wiener (New York. 1911. such a thing does not result without slightly altering the voice in the 5Ibid. HermannKoller.and concludes with an exegesis of number.5 It has long been observed in general terms that the Platonic notion of mimesis is in some way relatedto music's power to affect and effect ethos.4 points out thatsince the soul is naturallyattractedto whatever is like one or anotherof its parts.6 Nevertheless. Butcher.. For inasmuch as our first learning comes through similarities. according to Aristides Quintilianus. since it makes its mimesis not through one sensory perception but through many? Even poesy uses hearing alone through pure diction. Musical mimesis is especially powerful. The parts of the soul. pp. 73- 90.HARMONIAAND ETHOS IN ANCIENT GREEKMUSIC 267 work of philosophy that attempts to show how music through harmonia providesa comprehensiblemodel for understandingphysical and metaphys- ical realities and thus for attaininghigher knowledge throughphilosophy. et de la po6sie. III. 1973). despite the importantwork by S. 6S. capable of raising the soul once again to the harmoniaof the universe: The reasons for music's actuality are apparent. Indeed. "La 'mimesis' dans les th6ories anciennes de la danse. " 'Imitation' as an Aesthetic Term. which we conjecture by attending to our sensory perceptions. the concludingsections naturallyprovidereasons for the powers and phenomenaobserved in the earlier sections. rhythmics. one might even say that the notion of mimesis is fundamentalto the notion of musical ethos. Else. but it is also consideredin Aristotle'sMetaphysica1. The treatise begins with a study of the technical details of harmonics. Butcher.because it is not a simple imitationof things but is ratheran imitation of life itself. reprinted.

from Aristides Quintilianus.. rhythmicpattern." pp. of which it altersboth the figure and the motion to the kindredform in accord with each of the actions recited. harmonia. the technical parametersof music. and thereafteraction is accomplished. but throughanimatebodies. You will persuade. and this in turncreatesa particularethos. 9Melos is the combinationof augmentingthem through similarity in symmetricalproportion. and to still others the phrase have suggested things alien to the truth. and these are like the movements and affections of the soul. if ignobility and stiffness should lurk. melody. the disciples of Damon showed. and instill a better one.. 5-6). and thereforethroughmimesis. to others the mass. and the musical psychology are so consistentthrough- out the treatise that they may be arrangedand classified as shown in Table 1 below.pp.and so on-are like the order of the universe. gesture.8 With this sense of the mimetic power of music. and the action in the rhythmsand motion of the body. 8AristidesQuintilianusDe musica 2. "Problems.268 THEJOURNAL OF MUSICOLOGY direction of melody.4 (trans. The descriptions of ethos. These things are evident both from the dance of the ancient choruses.14 (trans. Only music teaches both by word and by the counterparts of actions. will leads. mold throughsimilaritya nonexistentethos in children and in those already advancedin age and bring out a latent ethos. since it is evident that a harmoniais utilized in accord with the ethos of each soul. for it makes its mimesis with such means as happen also to carry out truthfullythe actions themselves. even of continuous melody. Thus. The table illustratestwo of the indispensablecomponentsof any piece of Greek music: rhythmand melos. In the harmoniaitransmittedby him. heal it. not through motionless bodies or those fixed in a single form. Those arts having materialsthat are special may not lead quickly to a notion of the action. it is possible to discover that sometimes the feminine. 144-45). As I said. the harmoniaiare like dominatingintervalsor surroundingnotes.12 and Mathiesen.7 In De musica 3. the words in the harmoniaiand the molding of the voice. and from the things writtendown by many authorsaboutdelivery.14.. music may make the order of the soul like the orderof the universe. Since in the usual orderof things. the trainerof which is the science of rhythmic. That notes. scale. for to some the colors. tonos.pp. But music persuadesmost pal- pably. it is now possible to see the sort of analytical system that might be distilled from Aristides Quintilianus' treatise. music imitatesthe ethoses and passions of the soul in the notions. In De musica 2.9 These componentsare furthersubdi- 7AristidesQuintilianusDe musica 2. and rhythm(see Aristides QuintilianusDe musica 1. Aristides Quintilianusstates: By using the harmoniaiin the aforesaidways-either presentinga harmoniato each soul by similarityor contrariety-you will disclose the inferiorethos lying hidden. by leadingthrougha middlestateto the oppositecondition. and if refinementand usefulness shouldbe present. from Aristides Quintilianus. Aristides Quintilianusshows how all the parts of music-pitch. sometimes the masculine of the movable notes either dominate or have been employed to a lesser degree or not at all. word follows. . the harmoniaof music may create a like harmoniain the soul. 118-19).

I have added the rhythmicvalues (Pohlmanntranscribesthe piece with note heads alone) indicatedby the rhythmicnotationand the rhythmicvalues of the text and have changed the low instrumentalnote (. 1970). as shown in Table 1. but as a randomsample. feminine. of course. Mathiesen. with only twenty-one feminine and medial feminine elements. the Iphigenia in Aulis fragmentappearsin Thomas J. significant to any study of ethos. but it would surely be best to concentratefirst of all on the two earliest surviving frag- ments. the composition is ambiguousin ethos. Only a small portion of the notationremains.while the movable notes are either l?The matterof the propertranscriptionof these fragmentsis.e." Acta musicologica LIII (1981).und Kunstwissenschaft. This would seem to convey a decidedly masculineethos. HARMONIAAND ETHOS IN ANCIENTGREEKMUSIC 269 vided into masculine. since they are most likely to exhibit the classical conceptions of harmoniaand ethos described by Aristides Quintilianus. Leiden Inv. and medial characteristics. 1 which preserves Orestes338-344. a review of Table 1 will show that the sta- tionary notes are medial in character.By applying these characteristicsto the musical fragments. ErlangerBeitrage zur Sprach. Denkmaler altgrie- chischer Musik. which is the proper readingfor this Greek notationalsymbol. but it must be assumed for the present that the published transcriptionsof the fragmentsare at least reasonably accurate. with perhapsa slight feminine emphasis. . and it may then be considered whether this ethos would match the characterand function that might be assumed from a study of the text of the fragment. Here again. In the analysis. sixty-nine feminine elements.These two frag- ments are P. thirty-fourmasculine melos vowels and sixteen medial mas- culine melos vowels). Wien G2315 and P.XXXI (Niirnberg.C.following AristidesQuintilianus'system. a dominant ethos may be determinedin the fragment. pp. one finds fifty masculine and medial masculine ele- ments (i. The Orestes fragment appears in Egert Pohlmann. and a full analysisof the fragment. "New Fragmentsof Ancient Greek Music. the melos has been shown on two levels: that of melos vowels and that of the notes themselves and the tonoi. 510. a table of the notes found in the fragmentandtheirrelation to the harmoniaigiven in Aristides Quintilianus'De musica 1. Ignoringfor the moment the notes themselves. 14-32. both dating from the third century B. The rhythmic area reveals fifty-five masculine elements.) from the F# of Pohlmann'stranscriptionto an E. and both ostensibly preservingmusic from Euripides' Orestes and Iphigenia in Aulis. In rhythmicterms. Wien G2315. A differentpictureemerges from the melos. 78-82. and octave species they imply. it may be statistically valid.9. and twenty-ninemedial elements (note the summaryto Figure 1). Application to the fragments Any numberof fragmentsmight be chosen for analysis. This would seem to provide generally a medial ethos. 10 Figure 1 exhibits a transcriptionof P. 11n the transcription.. scales.

p. nete synemmenon. parhypatemeson. L. zeugmenon. r. /. Wien G2315 (EuripidesOrestes 338-344) According to the System of Aristides Quintilianus Alypius symbols Aristides Quintilianus Dynamic names vocal instru. nos [more feminine]. and par- nantly masculine notes nantly feminine notes amese. notes notes mese followed by synemmenon Gapped scales with predomi. Parhypatoidnotes (parhypate v (more feminine) ton. Gapped scales with predomi. [more masculine]. trite hyperbo. and nete hyper- Instrumentspitchedfrom F to Bb Instrumentspitchedfrom bbto bolaion [more masculine]) bb' Scales boundedby medial notes Gapped scales with predominantly medial notes Phrygianmode Instrumentspitched from Bb to ab Figure 1. Stationarynotes (proslambanome- synemmenon. mese followed by Scales bounded by masculine Scales bounded by feminine diezeugmenon [more feminine]. paton and hypate meson [more bolaion) laion) masculine]. Dorian Phrygian mental a' 0 paranetediezeugmenon g' Z g' Lr trite diezeugmenon f' E f' A A paramese e' zZ e'* E E mese d' I e' Z zZ chromaticlichanos meson b 7T D d' I I parhypatemeson bb P a# II n hypate meson a C a* P P p lichanos hypaton g a C C g c hypate hypaton e . p) and spirant(r) Feet dominatedby short Composite feet Feet dominatedby long syllables syllables MELOS (Feminine) Masculine Feminine Medial Vowels o and w Vowels E and aq Vowels a (more masculine). nete Dorian mode Lydian mode diezeugmenon. paranete hypaton. x). o) Short vowels (e. 4) Liquids (X. trite synemmenon. paranete die. o) Dichrona(a.270 THE JOURNALOF MUSICOLOGY TABLE 1 Characteristicsof Ethos in Ancient Greek Music Based on the System of Aristides Quintilianus RHYTHM (masculine) Masculine Feminine Medial Long vowels (r.tritedie. lichanos meson. Land Lichanoid notes (lichanos hypa. v.r) Medial mutes (3. X) Smooth mutes (x.v) Rough mutes (. Analysis of P. 6) Double consonants (4. paranete hyper. 4.hypate hy- zeugmenon..

BpOTOi. M Notes M F m f m c P T CpL c- Text t6S axaro) 0oac tLVcQtas6Ciijuv Rhythlm D I D M FM D M M M Melos f m m M Mn ffm m MM Notes m F 1 rF Mm 1TT P rT I 7 J.MM F M . "L va 6E AOL 0S W"!S Rhyth F D F M F M DD F M F M Melos M f M F M M m n F M M1.. Text tIL.OS V.e Text xdtK(XuaoEv ) -13 6ELVSV Rhythm D M D M 14 M Melos m fF f F M Notes . Rhythm D F F D FM D F M D M Melos m MM f MM m F M1 M m M Notes M Fm F M --I I = V.HARMONIAAND ETHOS IN ANCIENTGREEKMUSIC 271 PC P j V Text uactox\oppoiJa(u p'jLTposT ayIa actS. a ' havo La*XE 'l o6pfTsoLPos o0 Rhythm IF D D M MM F FD M F M Melos M mm m FF M Fm M M M Notes m m m f m F TT P c I z Text p6VL.

272 THE JOURNALOF MUSICOLOGY Zl 7 Text J6Vuv') 1 3 sjs )OVTOu Rhythm F M MM M M Melos M!n .r M Notes mf m P C PpZ -: Text Acpo oAS oACpoL L av tV u'KUiarv Rliythm M M FM DM D FF DDD Melos m M M F f M f FF f m f Notes MM m Fm ? M Key D = medial dichrona M = masculine F = feminine m = medial masculine f = medial feminine Summary Masculine 5 rough mutes 19 double consonants and spirants 31 masculine syllables .34 masculine melos vowels 12 masculine notes Feminine 16 smooth mutes 69 34 liquids 19 feminine syllables 12 feminine melos vowels 8 feminine notes Medial 29 8 medial mutes 21 medial syllables 16 medial masculine melos vowels 9 medial feminine melos vowels .

if the instru- mental notes are included in the pattern). Aristides Quintilianus'De musica considers this to be a "mixed rhythm" and states (2. The proportion 26:11 is almost identical to the proportion50:21. and medial characteristicsto rhythmicpat- terns (except in the general terms shown in Table 1). In terms of the melos.pp. The octave species. .15) that these types of rhythmscreatea disorderedaffect. See Aristides Quintilianus. and-as an interestingcoinci- dence-the notes of the fragment also match the Phrygian and Dorian harmoniaigiven by Aristides Quintilianus'De musica 1. The rhythmic elements are medial in ethos. Thus. the fragmentwould seem to convey a masculine ethos with some mediationand an agitatedaffect. and only eleven feminine and medial feminine elements.9." If the tonos dominates the ethos. which has not re- ceived much attentionin publishedtreatmentsof this fragment. The tonos of the fragment is generally considered to be Lydian.the ethos of this part of the chorus is decidedly masculine.Electrahas dominatedthe first scene. rhythmicelements convey characters.11-13 and the use of some of these vowels in a solmization system to sing each note of the PerfectImmutableSystem. there is a feminine ethos here. AristidesQuintilianusdoes not assign specific masculine. But if it is the harmoniaand if the harmonia in this fragment is Aristides Quintilianus'Dorian or Phrygian (the latter matchingthe octave species).HARMONIAAND ETHOS IN ANCIENTGREEKMUSIC 273 14 medial masculine notes 3 medial feminine notes Tonos: Lydian Octave species: Phrygian Scale boundedby masculine notes Rhythmicpattern:doch- miacs (mixed) masculineor feminine. where he states that these are "exceedingly ancient. there is either a masculineor medial ethos. The medial notes may have a masculineor feminine inflection. as describedin De musica 2. therefore. How does the rhythmicpatternrelate? The rhythm(or meter. It immediatelystrikes one that the notationalproportioncomple- ments almost perfectly the ratio of melos vowel elements. So.14. the rhythmicpatterncreates a disorderedaffect.while patternsconvey affects. he ascribes instead certainaffects to them. Some conclusions may now be drawn from the data. the rhythmicpatternconveys an affect of disorder.12The notationin this fragmentshows twenty-six masculine and medial masculineelements. there is the matter of tonos. along with a chorusof Argive 12Thecharactersassigned in Table 1 come from the various charactersassigned to vowel sounds in Aristides QuintilianusDe musica 2. Thus. feminine. althoughthe rhythmicelements provide a me- dial ethos. and the harmoniais mas- culine or probably Phrygian (though Dorian and Mixolydian are also possible. How does this charactermatchthe characterandfunctionof this chorus in the tragedy?The fragmentcomes from a point near the beginningof the tragedy. Finally. if one perfers) of the fragment is dochmiac. 33-34 and 139-46. the melos elements are decidedly masculine.

The masculine ethos would therefore seem appropriateto the appearance of Menelaus. Orestes is also present in a frenzied state. Figure2 exhibits a transcriptionof P. a chorus of anguish and weeping. Leiden Inv. Figure 2. 510 (EuripidesIphigenia Aulidensis 783-796. the chorus begins. Another fragment may provide addi- tional evidence. But the chorusalso serves to introduceMenelaus. It would be prematureon the basis of one example to draw a firm conclusion aboutthe relationshipof musical and dramaturgicalethos in this chorus. but one might at least say that the ethoses seem reasonably cohesive. According to the System of Aristides Quintilianus Alypius symbols Dynamic names Hyperaeolian Hyperphrygian chromaticparanetediezeugmenon bb' I nete synemmenon bb' I b diatonic paranetesynemmenon ab5' chromaticparanetesynemmenon g#' t trite synemmenon g' U paramese g' U mese f#' A or / f' diatonic lichanos meson e' I parhypatemeson d' I diatonic lichanos hypaton b O bb. and the disorderedaffect foreshadowsMenelaus' own agita- tion expressed in his opening speech. full of disorderedimages of struggle and question that fit the agitated dochmiacs with their many successive shortsyllables. After she exits. Il parhypatehypaton a C hypate hypaton g# T }yperaeolian I 0 A 5A . Electra tells Orestes that Menelaus has arrived and is coming to see him.274 THE JOURNALOF MUSICOLOGY maidens. a table of the notes found in the fragment. f chromaticlichanos hypaton bb.and a full analysis of the fragment.once again following AristidesQuintilianus' system as shown in Table 1. which preserves Iphigenia in Aulis 783-796. Analysis of P. The analysis follows the same patternused for the Orestes fragment. Text jpnrt eVOt PITi epotaL T?VWVV TLeXVOLS OwLts C&bL or e^eOOL Rhytlhm MF F MM F F MF MM M M F D F F F M M Melos F F F M F F F M f F M F M F f m F M F F M Notes M M M F M m F m . 510. Leiden Inv.

tL Rhythm MI) M F fI D M D M M D M D F M M M D D D rl M D i.toriZ ivJuCW.T . U'KVOU 6oAtLXauIXCVyOSYo). r.. 6L&a TCfv (. Me los Mln M M f f M f 1' M f M m M M F M f m m f M f F M Notes FF F M in ml m m Hyperphrygian X\ .1 Text Trd6e is rXXnra S' TCS apot p euil. IHyperaeolian rr r I CTTTT F Text tQa& TaLS aT'pisL 6dX)opJas aXtoXTLet. La. . .T Text OOLVaA roXVxpuoLL Au6ai Kt aiXoxo puvy&ZV T aoraoVoL Iop&.Aoxdjpouv xOpias bpa 6abpu6Ev Rhythm D F F M M D D D FM F D M FM MD M DFM Melos m F F m F m f m m F F m Mm M m f m m fMF Notes M m m m m m m _ _I . Rhythm DD M DD F F F D D F M D M DD F M M M F D F M F F Melos mm M m fm M M F m m M M f F fm F m f M M f M F M M M Notes mm m m Mm 1-1In Key D = medical dichrona M = masculine F = feminine m = medial masculine f = medial feminine Summary Masculine -7 rough mutes 20 double consonants and spirant 43 masculine syllables 33 masculine melos vowels 10 masculine notes .HARMONIAAND ETHOS IN ANCIENTGREEKMUSIC 275 (I) CT.

9 is threnodicor feminine. The tonos of the fragment is Hyperaeolianand Hyperphrygian. In rhythmicterms. however. as was the case with the Orestes fragment. This is cer- tainly less markedlymasculinethanthe Orestesfragment. If one considers the melos vowels and melos notes together.e. The predominanceof long syllables. with a slight feminine emphasis. which-as can be seen from Table 1-creates a medial ethos. The conclusions that can be drawn about this fragmentare less con- sistent than those for the Orestes fragment.the octave species appears to be Mixolydian. There are no medial feminine notes at all.. the melos elements are more masculine by far (though the relationshipof the melos vowels and melos . which according to Aristides Quintilianus'De musica 1.shows a mas- culine ethos in the fifty-five masculineand medial masculineelements (i. Here again. the ethos of the fragmentis ambiguous. thirty-threemasculine melos vowels and twenty-twomedial masculineme- los vowels) and forty-one feminine elements (i. and this matches.So far the ethos of this fragmentis less clear thanthatof the Orestes fragment. as againstonly five feminine notes.In this fragment. only a small portionof the notationsurvives.276 THE JOURNALOF MUSICOLOGY Feminine r 28 smooth mutes 95 41 liquids L 26 feminine syllables 24 feminine melos vowels 5 feminine notes Medial 36 9 medial mutes 27 medial syllables 22 medial masculine melos vowels 17 medial feminine melos vowels 19 medial masculine notes Tonos: Hyperaolianand Hyperphyrygian Octave species: Mixolydian Scale boundedby medial notes Rhythmicpattern:choriambic(composite) In the area of rhythm. there are seventy masculine elements.. 2.15). the solemn nature conveyed by the prayerin this part of the chorus. as will be shown. twenty-fourfeminine melos vowels and seventeen medial feminine melos vowels). conveys a more masculinequality(noteDe musica 1. The rhythmicpatternof the fragmentis choriambic.e. but it may claim statistical validity. and thirty-six medial elements (note the summary to Figure 2). eighty-four masculine and medial masculine elements and forty-six feminine elements appear. ninety- five feminine elements. The rhythmic elements are medial in ethos with a feminine emphasis. this would seem to imply a medial ethos. too. The melos. Aristides Quin- tilianus considers this patternto be composite by conjunction. but somewhat feminine. 26. There are twenty-nine masculine and medial masculine notes.23.

438. 292-302. and Mathiesen. 24-25. and the dominanceof the long syllables.13 In the manuscripttraditionfor Iphigenia in Aulis. It may be objected at this point that the evidence for the ethoses of these two choruses is conflicting and the system thereforedoes not work. Thus. Verse and Music in Euripides' Iphigenia in Aulis."Un nouveau papyrusmusical d'Euripide(presentationprovisoire). Moreover.On the other hand. Iphigenia's heroic quality at this point in the tragedycould thus be emphasizedin the masculineethosof the melos. the text is one of supplication. if the papyrusrepresentsan alternate version of the tragedy(or Euripides'intendedorder). the chorus precedes the first appearanceof Achilles." Comptesrendus de l'Academie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres(1973). A. It should thereforebe surprisingif a Euripideanchorus con- veyed one and only one ethos in all its parts. Giovanni Comotti. Adding to the problemis the fact that it is not certainwhether Euripidesfinished this tragedyor whethersome of it is spurious." pp. M. following line 1509.unlessthe papyrusrepresents some sort of anthology with the solo and choralpartsnot necessarilyin the properorder." Museumphilologum Londiniense2 (1977). 1961). as has been noted. . the fragmentwould seem to be medial because of the dominantfeminine harmoniaand the masculine melos combined with the medial rhythmicpattern. Denise Jourdan- Hemmerdinger. neutralethos in keeping with the grandeurof Iphigenia's decision to accept her sacrifice willingly. and the dispassionateacceptance of Iphigenia's fate in the rhythmicpattern. one might expect the chorus to convey a calmer. pp. the rhythmic patterncreates a medial quality with some masculine emphasis.If the manuscripttraditionis correct.HARMONIAAND ETHOS IN ANCIENTGREEKMUSIC 277 notes is not as precise as it was in the Orestes fragment).16) makes it clear that complementaryethoses were the norm ratherthan a uniformethos in every part: 13SeeG.Iphigenia in Aulis was producedposthumouslyand scholars have questionedthe au- thenticityof some parts of the work. 69-84. Aristides Quinti- lianus (De musica 2. The Drama of Euripides (London. conveys a quality of solemnity suited to supplication. The chorus' function is prob- lematic in this work because the chorus appearsin one place in the man- uscripttraditionandanotherplacein the papyrus. one might expect by analogy with the Orestes fragment that the chorus would have a masculine ethos to introduceAchilles while at the same time conveying a disorderedaffect in keeping with the knowledge of Agamem- non's treachery. the chorus follows the departureof Iphigeniato be sacrificed. it may serve to suggest that this chorus does indeed belong at the end of the tragedy. But it must be rememberedthat Euripideswas noted for his unusual and complex approachto tragedyand for his avoidanceof stereotypedcharacters and moods.If this analysis is correct. Grube. "New Fragments. Moreover. the lamentationappropriate to the text foretelling the fate of Phrygia in the harmonia. and the harmoniaand tonos are clearly feminine. in the papyrus. 421. "Words. and to support the appropriatenessof the medial ethos conveyed by all the elements of the setting. A considerationof the functionof this chorus in the tragedymay help in understandingthe ambiguityof the ethos.

and thirty-three masculine syllables (totaling fifty-nine masculine elements). The conflicting evidence of the two Euripideanchorusesmay also lead one to wonder if all the fragmentswould demonstratesuch complexity or ambiguity. 209. It is in a Lydian tonos with a Phrygianoctave species. PlutarchDe musica 33. The peculiarityof theircharactermay have necessitated their notation and thus insured their survival. and thirty-fivefeminine syllables (totaling 118 feminineelements).Thus. the chorus is unusuallypassive and plays a largely neutralrole. and in like manner for the rest. 1461. with a mas- culine scale.278 THE JOURNALOF MUSICOLOGY In the perfect actuality of music. it has only seven masculinenotes as against thirty-onefeminine notes and thirty-sixmedial notes. the chorus fills its more usual role in Euripides'work of being directly involved and sympatheticto the main characters. We must make a mixture not through bare opposites (for this is unsuitable and repellent) but rather through harmoniously arranging the means with the extremes: for example. it presents fifty-nine masculine elements.which operatein mimesis (cf. thirteen double consonants and spirants. It also has fifty-two feminine and medial feminine vowels and fifty-threemasculineand medial masculine vowels. In Orestes. We must apply the perfect types of musical creation when the extreme is in no way harmful. The first segment of the Delphic hymn by Limenios (Delphi Inv. AristotleMetaph.pp. . Nr. 1591. lest somewhere. 4Aristides QuintilianusDe musica 2. and seemly diction. fifty-two liquids. harmonia of notes. A summaryof one additionalcomposition may serve to dispel this question. 489. the ethos is feminine. also explain why these particularfragmentsexist. qualities of rhythm.14 It should also be noted that the two fragmentshappen to come from tragedies that are generally regardedas unusualin their structureand par- ticularly in their use of chorus. there are thirty- one smooth mutes. a medial scale and instrument. incidentally. which surely fits a text invoking the Muses. from Aristides Quintilianus. 118 feminine elements. 150-51). Except in the area of melos vowels and octave species. . on the other hand. 10. or with a more feminine rhythm. not a feminine but rather a medial rhythm. the more definite ethos in the Orestes fragmentis to be expected. on this excerpt. producing out of masculinity and the middle state or fem- ininity and the middle state a mixture of one with the rest or two or even more with more. a suitable notion is determined. 212. and only eleven medial ele- ments. because of the extreme. This may.. not only an opposite one. 15Thehymn is published in P6hlmann.e. which are medial in ethos. 226. pp. . 225. In the rhythmic area. 214)15 exhibits an altogether feminine ethos. The ethos discovered in the fragmentseems to matchthat neutralityquite well. and. 215. a scale akin.16 In the area of melos.there are thirteen rough mutes.16 (trans. and the rhythm is dominated by short syllables. 224. In Iphigenia in Aulis.8 [1058a8- 28]). But sometimes we must mix and beware of otherness. we unknowingly lead the underlying ethos in the opposite direction. 16I. and use of instru- ment are made homologous. cf. This excerpt reflects the theoryof contraries. . 68-76.

17 It is also known from the writings of Plato. rhythms. Brigham Young University 17W. it may be possible to come closer to an understandingof the special power and beauty of both the music- even in its fragmentarystate-and the theory. C. by David Beach and JurgenThym. 20DanielGottlob Turk. in listening to mu- sic. 1973). but their denial nonetheless affirms the prominentplace of musical ethos in Greek thought.5 (1340al-b19).21 Harmoniaand ethos in ancient Greek music are inextricably linked and overarchthe whole body of mousike.20It is not.3 (School of Clavier Playing. modes. Klavierschule 6. 1982]. of course." PhilosophischenSchriften.18 Finally. 1967). the individualminuteelements of any composition. XII (Cambridge. 7 vols. 1982]. unconsciously counts the beats of the tones.and notes by RaymondH. and W. andeven pitch vibrationswas still observedand seriouslytreatedby modern philosopherslike Leibniz-who proposes that the soul. It is known from early treatises such as Dionysius of Halicarnassus'De compositioneverborum. Ps. JohannPhilipp Kirberger. Haggh [Lincoln.. it might be noted that the affectiveor ethicalqualityof such musicalfeaturesas keys. 337-53). pp. 1880). By studying the fragmentswith the aid of AristidesQuintilianus'system. Accent and Rhythm: Prosodic Features of Latin and Greek: A Study in Theoryand Reconstruction. but rathertheir collective effect. This subtletyhas also been admirablydemonstratedby modern scholars. compares their mathe- matical ratios. Philodemus. Sidney Allen. 4 (The Art of Strict Musical Composition. introduction. Sextus Empiricus.-Longinus' De sublimitate. B. . J.CambridgeStudies in Linguistics. 375-417). Sather Classical Lectures. introductionand notes by David Beach. 4 [New Haven. Die Kunstdes reinen Satzes in der Musik 2. Yet this argumentmay easily be defeated. XXXVIII (Berkeley. ed. 21NotePlutarchDe musica 33-36. 314-46.HARMONIAAND ETHOS IN ANCIENTGREEKMUSIC 279 Conclusion It may be argued that an analysis of ethos based on so many minute details has no chance of illuminatinga truly functionaleffect in pieces of music because audiences could not possibly grasp or be affected by such minutiae. 9'"Remarks on an Extractfrom Bayle's Dictionary. Stanford and W. Sidney Allen. ancientor moder. B. Stanford. The Sound of Greek: Studies in the Greek Theoryand Practice of Euphony. Philodemusand Sextus Empiricustake a skeptical view of ethos. 'lNote especially Aristotle Politica 8. 550. Aristotle. trans. Music TheoryTranslationSeries.2. (Berlin. Ger- hardt. and appreciates the mathematical relationships as "un arithmetiqueocculte"'9--and by systematic theorists at least as late as Daniel Gottlob Turk and JohannPhilipp Kirnberger. and various works of Hephaestion-not to mention the technical observationsof Plato and Aristotle-that the Greeks had an extraordinarilysubtle sense of their language. pp. especially by W. IV. that convey ethos.and othersthat the Greeks did perceive the ethos conveyed by theatricalworks and music and that they were concernedwith this subject.trans.

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