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Beach Wells for Large-Scale Reverse Osmosis Plants: The Sur Case Study

Authors: Boris David, Jean-Pierre Pinot, Michel Morrillon

Presenter: Boris David


Hydrogeologist – Veolia Water – France

Abstract

The Sur project involves the design, construction and 22-years operation of a new 80,200m3/day
capacity Seawater Reverse Osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant at Sur in Oman to replace the existing
12,000m3/day capacity plant. The new plant has recently been constructed and is currently being
commissioned. Like the existing plant it is to be fed 100% by water originating from beach wells drilled
at the site. This would make it by far the largest SWRO desalination plant in the world fed only by
beach wells and would contribute to show that the subsurface intake option is also feasible for large
capacity SWRO plants. The use of beach wells for such a large-scale plant however provides both
significant opportunities and challenges throughout the project delivery process, including at the design,
construction, and operational stage. These are discussed throughout this paper using the Sur project as a
case study.

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I. INTRODUCTION

Seawater intake is the initial process of Sea Water Reverse Osmosis (SWRO) desalination and is of
utmost importance for desalination projects since it conditions other processes like pre-treatment,
membrane treatment and post-treatment, and it governs final water quality. The objective of seawater
intakes is to provide reliable and consistent high-quality feed water with lowest environmental impact.
Selecting the most appropriate type of seawater intake is therefore a critical step for the successful long-
term operation and consistent performance of SWRO plants.

SWRO plants, especially the large capacity ones (>20,000m3/d), are traditionally and most frequently
fed by surface open intakes that pump water directly from the sea via a collecting pipe and an intake
screen. However, such intake systems provide unfiltered and often variable feed water quality (e.g. red
tides, oil spills) that requires costly pre-treatment and can lead to significant environmental impact
during operation (e.g. aspiration). In a quest to improve efficiency of SWRO plants and avoid some of
the drawbacks associated with surface intakes, the use of subsurface intakes to feed SWRO plant has
gained momentum in recent years. Although such systems have already been in operation for many
years in several countries around the world (e.g. Malta, Spain, Canary Islands, Greece, Israel, Saudi
Arabia, US, etc.), they have usually been restricted to smaller scale plants and it remains to be seen
whether subsurface intakes can be suitable for large scale plants [6, 8].

This article reports on a project in Sur (Oman), which involves the design and construction by Veolia
Water (VW) of a new 80,200m3/day capacity SWRO desalination plant fed by water originating entirely
from beach wells. This would make it the largest SWRO desalination plant in the world fed 100% by
beach wells and would contribute to show that the subsurface intake option may also be feasible for
large capacity SWRO plants. After initially discussing some of the key challenges and opportunities
associated with subsurface intakes, this paper seeks to illustrate those through a description of the
various stages of the Sur project.

II. CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES OF SURFACE VS. SUBSURFACE INTAKES

There are various types and configurations of seawater intakes and as shown in Figure 1, these can be
classified into two main families [5]:
• Surface water intakes (direct)
• Subsurface water intakes (indirect)

In the first case, water is withdrawn directly at different depths whereas in the second case, water
crosses through natural soil or sand bed and is naturally filtered before being withdrawn. Some of the
main advantages and disadvantages associated with both types of intakes are summarised in Table 1.
This table shows that despite providing generally poorer water quality, surface intakes are technically
feasible almost anywhere along the coastline and offer greater certainty in terms of achieving the desired
capacity including for large scale SWRO plant. On the other hand, subsurface intakes generally provide
better and less variable water quality but require favourable site conditions and are considered to be
more risky in terms of achieving the required capacity, particularly for large scale SWRO plants. Both
types of intakes also offer their own specific challenges and opportunities in terms of operation and
maintenance, as well as from an environmental impact point of view.

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Figure 1 : Direct and indirect seawater intakes (after Cartier & Corsin, 2007)

Advantages Disadvantages
− High flow capacity (virtually any capacity − Lower and more variable feed water quality
can be designed for) (unfiltered) requiring costly pre-treatment
− Suitable for most terrains and projects − Vulnerable to oil spills and red tides
− Relatively easy to build and rapid to − Higher capital cost (significant for small units)
Surface Intakes implement solution − Higher operational cost (maintenance)
− Smaller footprint and less visual impact on − Significant environmental impact during
the seashore operation (aspiration, clogging)
− Lower flexibility (all or nothing)

− Better and more stable water quality − Generally limited flow capacity (unless
generally requiring less pre-treatment multiple well fields, horizontal collector wells)
(SDI<5) − Higher risk of insufficient flow capacity
− Lower capital (pre-treatment) and (capacity needs to be proven)
operational cost (chemicals and energy) − Suitability highly depends on hydrogeological
− Lower environmental impact during context
Subsurface Intakes operation (except visual impact) − Can be slow to implement (preliminary
− Can provide greater operational flexibility studies)
(e.g. multiple well field) − Can be more complicated to built (radial
collector wells, tunnelling)
− Can be difficult to maintain (clogging,
corrosion)

Table 1 : Advantages and disadvantages of surface and subsurface intakes


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The decision on intake type and treatment process for SWRO projects relies on an economic
comparison. The first and main concern for comparing different water intakes is the resulting direct
feed-water cost at the inlet of the SWRO plant (after pre-treatment), and the reduction of treatment cost
due to the improved feed-water quality. The second concern is the indirect cost representing the
environmental impacts of pumping seawater directly from the sea or from the groundwater system (i.e.
impact on the local ecosystem, impact on the sustainability of fresh groundwater for existing and
planned pumping wells) [7]. The choice of seawater intake should therefore be based on technical,
economical and environmental considerations and is generally considered to be very site and project
specific.

As can be seen from Figure 1, there are different types of subsurface intakes, including vertical wells
and boreholes, radial collector wells, horizontal directional drains (HDD), infiltration trenches and
basins. These all represent design variations that utilize the same principle of extracting filtered
seawater from below the surface near the shoreline. Each type has its own advantages, capabilities,
suitability, and cost-effectiveness for different site conditions. The feasibility, design, capacity and
performance of these types of intakes depend highly on site-specific conditions and in particular the
local hydrogeological context. The hydrogeological properties of the site determine in particular the
most suitable type of subsurface intake, the intake structure size, the available water flows, the quality of
the feed-water, and possible environmental impacts. Site suitability for the construction of beach wells
therefore requires that detailed hydrogeological investigations be carried out with the objectives to
establish and determine quantitatively relevant site properties. Examples of methods and survey
techniques commonly used for carrying out such site investigations are shown in Table 2.

− Topographical mapping and bathymetric surveys


− Geological mapping and geological cross sections
− Review of existing well logs including oil wells and offshore wells
− Geophysical surveys (resistivity, electromagnetic).
− Remote sensing methods, aerial photographs and GIS
− Trial holes and geotechnical investigations
− Well pumping tests, including interference tests.
− Sampling and analyses of well water quality.
− Groundwater modelling

Table 2 : Examples of methods and survey techniques commonly used for site investigations

Favourable aquifers for beach wells are generally the same ones that are favourable for fresh
groundwater withdrawal. This includes granular sedimentary rock aquifers (sandstones, beach and
alluvial deposits), which are the most commonly used for seawater withdrawal because they are more
homogeneous and thus less risky to develop. They also generally offer a good filtration potential,
although there is often a compromise to be found between water quality and discharge rate. Fissured
and karstic sedimentary rock aquifers (limestone and dolomite deposits) are also generally favourable
because they can produce large quantities. They are however harder to develop and offer poorer natural
filtration potential (e.g. generally higher yield means lower water quality). Igneous and metamorphic

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rock aquifers (basalts, lava, granites) on the other hands are usually very poor and unlikely to be
favourable for large scale subsurface intake projects.

The biggest advantages of subsurface intakes is better and more stable water quality notably in terms of
lower Silt Density Index (SDI), suspended solids, oil and grease, natural organic contamination and
aquatic micro-organisms. The water withdrawn from such intakes therefore generally requires less pre-
treatment, which in turn means lower capital costs (e.g. pre-treatment) and operational cost (e.g.
chemicals and energy) for the SWRO plant. Other advantages may also include lower environmental
impact during operation and greater operational flexibility (e.g. multiple well fields). In addition,
subsurface intakes are generally less vulnerable to accidental pollutions (e.g. oil spills) and to algal
blooms (e.g. red tides).

Depending on local conditions subsurface intakes may however provide only limited flow capacity and
there is always a higher risk of not obtaining the required capacity when implementing such systems (i.e.
yields need to be proven). Subsurface intakes may also be more complicated to build (e.g. HDD, radial
collector wells, tunnelling) and be slow to implement because of the need for extensive preliminary
studies. In addition subsurface intakes can have larger footprint and significant environmental impact
during construction. Finally, like their surface counterparts, subsurface intakes generally need some
form of monitoring and maintenance to prevent clogging and/or corrosion of the intake structure.

Under favourable hydrogeological conditions, beach wells are generally preferable to open intakes for
small SWRO plants, but for large plants, the distribution and large number of wells may render this
alternative less cost effective. According to a study carried out by MEDRC [6], beach well intakes can
be viable and cost effective solution for SWRO plants where:
• Capacity of plant not exceeding 50,000 m3/day,
• The beach geological formations are granular,
• Aquifer transmissivity exceeds 1,000 m2/day,
• Impact on groundwater stocks inland does not exceed 10% of plants capacity.

The MEDRC study also indicates that many of the coasts along the Mediterranean, Red Sea, Indian
Ocean and the Arab/Persian Gulf meet those conditions.

III. THE SUR CASE TUDY

3.1 Context

The Sur project involves the design, construction and 22-years operation of a new 80,200m3/day
capacity SWRO desalination plant at Sur in Oman to replace the existing 12,000m3/day capacity plant.
The existing plant is fed entirely by seawater originating from 13 beach wells drilled in 3 successive
phases and placed along the coastline at the Sur plant site. The capacity of the existing wells is about
30,000m3/day (i.e. 1250m3/h).

According to the geological map of Oman shown in Figure 2, outcrops beneath the Sur area are
essentially made of early tertiary (Palaeocene-Eocene) carbonates [1]. Such geological formations
usually form very productive but highly heterogeneous aquifers, as groundwater circulation in fractures
dissolves carbonates thereby creating networks of highly diffusive karstic drains and cavities. This
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karstic development is well known to occur in Oman, where some of the largest cavities in the world
have been reported [2].

The local hydrogeological context of the Sur area was studied in more details for the project by a
specialist consultant appointed by the project team as early as the pre-tender stage. The studies indicated
that the Sur plant site is located at the edge of an unconfined coastal aquifer that spreads along the coast
from Bimah to Sur and beyond and that is made of early tertiary carbonated deposits disposed in sub-
horizontal to slightly tilt layers [3]. The deposits comprise fossiliferous limestone with interbedded
conglomerates and belong to the Seeb, Shama and Tahwah formations that lay on top of the Rusayl marl
deposit.

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Figure 2 : Simplified geological map of Oman

3.2 The Pre-Tender phase (January-June 2006)

The initial request for proposals (RFP) from the client, the Ministry of National Economy of the
Sultanate of Oman, was issued in January 2006 for the development, ownership and operation of a new
water desalination project at Sharqiyah and the privatisation of the existing Sur SWRO desalination
plant owned by the Rural Areas Electricity Company. The RFP indicated that the new plant was to be
fed by an open intake but offered the possibility to the developer to use the existing beach wells from the
existing plant at the site. Given the high quality of the water withdrawn from the existing beach wells,
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VW decided at this stage to carry some preliminary hydrogeological investigations to evaluate the
feasibility of withdrawing additional quantities from the aquifer at the site thereby allowing reduce the
proportion of raw water coming from the open intake. These investigations were carried out at VW’s
own risk, as the costs of such studies was considered to be acceptable in view of the potential savings
that could arise from the use of naturally filtered seawater instead of unfiltered seawater for the plant
operation.

The preliminary hydrogeological investigations were carried out in May and June 2006 with the aim to
establish the potential yield of the aquifer at the site and in particular to determine whether an additional
yield of 7,800m3/h of seawater could be extracted from the site to feed the new plant. The objectives
were also to specify a technical solution (e.g. radial collector wells) capable of abstracting as much
seawater as possible. The investigations comprised an initial overview of the existing literature about
geology and hydrogeology of the Sur area, geophysical investigations (2D resistivity imaging surveys),
and the drilling of 4 recognition boreholes. These investigations enabled to define the geological
structure of the area and to identify the spatial heterogeneity of the hydraulic properties of the geological
formations at the site. It was notably established that most of the structures (fractures or karstic drains)
were oriented North-South and that some were partially filled with sand and clay material.

The preliminary hydrogeological investigations led to the following conclusions [3]:


• The withdrawal of large groundwater quantities at the Sur site could not be achieved with a
radial collector well system, as initially envisaged. Due to the consolidated nature of the aquifer
at the Sur site, several vertical beach wells would be more appropriate. Since the largest karstic
drains/cavities were found to be filled with sandy materials or clay, it was also considered that
the wells should imperatively be equipped with screened casing and gravel-pack.
• The existence of high productivity zones at the site was not confirmed and the maximum yield
that could be obtained from individual wells was estimated to be in the order of 250 to 350m3/h.
The density of the fractures/karstic drains was found to be low with no more than 7 N-S
structures identified over the 500m of coastline. It was therefore considered that up to 10 to 15
additional wells could be drilled along the coastline at the site, enabling to augment the capacity
of the existing well field by up to 5,500m3/h.

Overall, these investigations established that 75% of the seawater quantities required for the new plant
(i.e. about 9,000m3/h) could most probably be achieved by drilling new vertical beach wells at the site
(i.e. 5,500m3/h) and keeping the existing beach wells (i.e. 1,250m3/h). However, these investigations
were not considered sufficient to validate an option relying 100% on subsurface intakes. On the basis of
those investigations, VW submitted a proposal to the client that involved feeding the new plant with
75% of raw water flow coming from subsurface intakes (i.e. vertical wells) and 25% from the open
surface intake.

3.3 The Tender evaluation to Contract award phase (June 2006 to January 2007)

During the tender evaluation phase, VW decided to carry out further hydrogeological investigations at
their own risk to determine whether the option of feeding the new plant with 100% groundwater would
at all be feasible. These investigations took place from December 2006 to January 2007 and involved
[3]:

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• drilling and test pumping of 20 new investigation boreholes to determine more accurately the
hydraulic properties of the aquifer (i.e. transmissivity) at various locations across the site,
• geo-statistical analysis of the transmissivity data and the geophysical data obtained from the
preliminary investigations in order to obtain maps of aquifer transmissivity across the site, and
• stochastic groundwater flow modelling in order to determine the maximum yield that could be
obtained from wells at the site.

The pumping test schedule comprised constant yield discharge tests for each of the investigation
boreholes that were analysed using curve fitting methods. The transmissivity value obtained from the
pumping test data ranged from 260 to 26,000m2/d thereby illustrating the highly heterogeneous nature of
the aquifer at the site. The average transmissivity value obtained was in the order of 7,000m2/d, which
is quite high and confirmed the highly productive nature of the aquifer in Sur. The aquifer
transmissivity data were subsequently compared with the data obtained from the geophysical campaign
of June 2006 and this showed that the transmissivity of the aquifer was well correlated with the
electrical resistivity data. Using this relationship and the geo-statistical analysis of the transmissivity
distribution, 100 maps of transmissivities across the site were generated. These maps were then
integrated into a groundwater flow model to calculate the yield that could be obtained from wells at the
site.

Numerous modelling runs then were performed for varying drawdown (5, 7.5 and 10m) and for varying
number (21, 78 and 140) and position of wells. These simulations showed that the maximum yield
which could be extracted from the site was very dependent on two main parameters: the number of wells
and their positions, and the allowed drawdown in each of the wells. The results of the simulations
nonetheless confirmed that the yield of 9,000m3/h required for the 100% beach well option could most
probably be achieved at the site with a large number of wells and with a drawdown in the well
comprised between 5 and 10m (excluding the head loses due to the well itself). To explore this option
further and in particular to optimise the number and location of wells to be drilled, it was recommended
to refine the model calibration by carrying out further field investigations should the contract be
awarded to VW. It was also established at this stage that wells should be 10-14” diameter and equipped
with PVC screens in order to prevent corrosion and ageing.

3.4 Detailed design (February to December 2007)

VW was awarded the Sur project contract on 17th of January 2007 based on the submitted proposal that
involved feeding the new plant with raw water coming from both subsurface and open surface intakes.
On the basis of the additional hydrogeological investigations carried out during the tender evaluation
phase, VW had however by then already taken the decision to go for the 100% subsurface intake option
and therefore proceeded to the detailed design of this option. Advanced hydrogeological investigations
were notably carried out from February to May 2007 in order to determine the number of wells that
would be needed to abstract the required 9,000m3/h of seawater for the plant and to propose optimal
locations for those wells at the site. These investigations included:
• instrumentation of selected existing wells and topographic surveys,
• field measurement campaigns including sea level fluctuations monitoring and tidal response
analysis,
• additional longer duration pumping tests,

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• more detailed numerical modelling in order to refine the characterisation of the spatial variability
of the hydraulic properties of the aquifer at the site and determine the number of wells required
to achieve the target yield, and
• further modelling work using genetic algorithms to determine the optimal configuration of the
well field.

These investigations enabled to compile a piezometric map of the study area, which confirmed that there
was virtually no recharge from the southwest border of the site and that the majority of the recharge was
coming from the sea. The field work also enabled to better characterise the spatial variability of the
hydraulic properties of the aquifer at the site while the subsequent numerical modelling allowed to find
an optimal and robust configuration of the number, type, and location of the beach wells. The
optimization of the wells’ position was based both on construction cost criteria and minimal drawdown
criteria in order to minimise both the operational costs and the environmental impacts of the facilities.
Based on this work, it was established that a well field comprising of 33 wells capable of producing 70-
100l/s each would be required to be able to withdraw 9,000m3/h from the aquifer at the site. The
configuration of the proposed well field, which included 8 of the 12 existing wells to be retained for the
project, is shown in Figure 3.

Figure 3 : Location of wells recommended at the design stage

The advanced hydrogeological investigations also enable to refine the design of the beach wells, a
typical layout of which is shown in Figure 4. It was in particular recommended that the 25 new wells be
drilled up to 100m in order to increase the contribution from the lower part of the aquifer and that the

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open-holes (i.e. before casing) be developed in order to clean the karstic drains and thereby increase well
performance. It was also recommended to install 14” diameter PVC casing and screen in order to allow
sufficient clearance around the pump and ensure long term sustainability of the wells. The recommended
screen slot size was 3 mm in order to facilitate horizontal flow through the gravel pack. The modelling
work also enabled to estimate that the average drawdown in the pumping wells would be in the order
12m, excluding the quadratic head loses caused by the wells themselves.

Figure 4 : Typical beach well layout

On the basis of those advanced investigations, VW therefore proposed to the client a solution for the Sur
project that involved feeding the Sur plant 100% with beach wells at the site. In order to reduce the risk
of not obtaining the desired flow capacity from the well field it was nonetheless decided to construct the
open surface intake, but not to equip it unless development of the well field proved to be unsuccessful.

3.5 Construction (from June 2007 for plant, April 2008 for beach wells)

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The drilling of the new beach wells at Sur took place between April and September 2008. The drilling
work was carried out by a local drilling contractor under the supervision of the specialist consultant
already contracted by VW for the previously described site investigations. Up to three drilling rigs were
simultaneously made available by the contractor to carry out the drilling operations. The drilling
operations involved the following tasks for each of the new wells:
• ground truthing of individual well positions in order to ensure safe drilling operations and
adequate well location
• foam-flushed drilling of a pilot hole to full depth (i.e. 80-100m below ground) with 12 1/4” drill
bit, including analysis of lithology (i.e. sampling of cuttings) and recording of critical drilling
parameters (e.g. penetration rate),
• airlift development of the pilot hole in order to clean up the karstic drains from clastic sediments
and estimate the capacity of the well,
• reaming of the pilot hole to full depth (if productive enough) and installation of the well casing
and screen sections surrounded by gravel pack and a bentonite seal (well depth and exact
position of screen length were determined from the drilling records),
• development and clearance pumping of the new well until water was sufficiently clear for pump
testing operations to commence,
• carrying out of a step drawdown test and a constant rate pumping test in order to confirm the
performance and yield of each well.

Close supervision by the specialist consultant during the drilling work was considered of utmost
importance as it enabled design adaptation to be made in order to suit the ground condition encountered.
This allowed in particular relocating some of the wells that could not be drilled at the envisaged position
for various reasons (e.g. inadequate space for safe drilling rig operation). This also allowed ensuring
correct positioning of casing and screen length in order to minimise well loses and thus drawdown.

At the time of writing all the 25 proposed new wells and three additional spare wells have been
successfully drilled. Table 3 shows a summary of the data obtained for each individual well during the
drilling and test pumping operations. Overall, this data suggest that aquifer and well losses are generally
both lower than expected and thus these results are encouraging. However, the potential interferences
between pumped wells have not been properly evaluated yet and it is therefore too early at this stage to
attempt accurate yield/drawdown predictions. Combined test pumping of all the wells is scheduled
during commissioning of the plant in order to confirm the capacity of the Sur well field as a whole.

The new wells have all been equipped with submersible pumps and ancillary equipments. This includes
a flowmeter and a pressure level transducer link to telemetry for each individual well in order to monitor
their performance. This will enable a continuous monitoring of the evolution of water levels, abstraction
rates and specific yield (i.e. flow/drawdown) of individual wells. Such rigorous monitoring is considered
necessary during full scale operation of the well field in order optimise abstraction from the well field
and to anticipate potential operational issues (e.g. well clogging, pump failure). This monitoring of well
hydraulic performance will also be combined with regular raw water sampling and analysis of key
parameters (e.g. temperature, pH, conductivity, turbidity, SDI, etc.) in order to monitor the evolution of
water quality abstracted from each well. This well monitoring strategy will enable to optimise overall
plant performance by prioritising abstraction from the most productive and best water quality wells.

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Table 4 : New beach
b wells sum
mmary data

I
IV CON
NCLUSIO
ON
The use of subsurface intakes to feed SWR
T RO plants generally
g proovides significant oppoortunities
p
particularly i terms of better
in b water quality and lower
l operattional costs. Subsurfacee intakes maay also be
c
cheaper to buuild, providee greater opeerational flexxibility and result
r is less environmenntal impact thhan open
s
surface intakkes. As illu ustrated throuugh the Sur case study however, thhe implemenntation of suubsurface
intakes also provides sig gnificant chaallenges partticularly for large-scale plants. Thiis is becausee detailed
k
knowledge o the subsu
of urface grounnd conditionns is generally requireed to establiish and connfirm the
f
feasibility off such intakees. Extensivee and time consuming
c siite investigattions therefoore need to be
b carried
o in order to
out w an adequate level off certainty thhat the required quantitiees of seawater can be
t confirm with
a
abstracted frrom such typ pe of intakess at any onee site. Unlesss these inveestigations are a carried ouut by the
c
client himsellf prior to the bidding prrocess, there is generallyy insufficientt time and financial resoources for
t SWRO plant
the p contracctor to carryy out such sttudy. In thiis respect Deesign Build & Operate contracts
s
such as the Sur
S project contract
c offeer the advanttage that thee cost incurreed and the risks taken too explore
t subsurfaace intake op
the ption can be shared beetween the construction
c and operational phase,, thereby
a
allowing SW
WRO plant construction
c n and operattion compannies like VW W to offer to t their clieents such
innovative annd groundbrreaking soluttions to meett their needss.

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REFERENCES
1. Bechennec F et al. - Geological Map of the Sultanate of Oman, 1:1,000,000, with explanatory notes -
Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières, France - 1993.
2. Davison W.D. jr. - An Overview of Karst in the Sultanate of Oman – NSS Bulletin, 47 (1),
Huntsville (NSS) 62 – 1985.

3. BCEOM - Seawater catchment from drillings beneath the site of Sur (Oman) - Recognition of the
extractible volume of (ground)water beneath the plant site – 2007a.

4. BCEOM - Seawater catchment from drillings beneath the site of Sur (Oman) - Numerical evaluation
of the extractible volume of (ground)water beneath the plant site and boreholes’ optimisation –
2007b.

5. Cartier G., Corsin P. - Description of Different Water Intakes for SWRO Plants. IDA World
Congress-Maspalomas, Gran Canaria –Spain October 21-26, 2007 - REF: IDAWC/MP07-185.

6. Schwarz J. - Beach well intakes for Small Seawater Reverse Osmosis Plants – MEDRC Project: 97-
BS-015 – August 2000.

7. Schwarz J. - Beach well intakes improve feed-water quality - Water & Wastewater International -
November 2003.

8. Sunny Wang, Eric Leung, Robert Cheng, Tai Tseng, Diem Vuong, David Carlson, Jeff Henson,
Srinivas Veerapaneni - Under Ocean Floor Seawater Intake and Discharge System - IDA World
Congress-Maspalomas, Gran Canaria –Spain October 21-26, 2007 - REF: IDAWC/MP07-104.

9. Voutchkov - Desalination – Challenges and considerations when using coastal aquifers for seawater
desalination - Ultrapure Water®, September 2006 - UP230629.

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