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# Differentiation C3

Specifications.

## Find the derivatives of trigonometric, logarithmic and exponential functions.

Work will also include turning points and the equations of tangents and

normals.

## The following differentials must be learnt.

Function Differential
lnx 1
x
emx memx
Sin t Cos t
Cos t -Sin t
Tan t Sec2 t
Sec t Sec t Tan t
Cot t -Cosec2 t
Cosec t -Cosec t cot t
Sinn t nSinn-1 t Cos t
Cosn t -nCosn-1 t Sin t
Sin (g(t)) g’(t)Cos (g(t))
Cos (g(t)) -g’(t)Sin (g(t))
Tan (g(t)) g’(t)Sec2 (g(t))

Chain Rule

## If y is a function of v and v, in turn, is a function of x, then:

C3 1
dy dy dv
= ×
dx dv dx

Product Rule
d dv du
( uv) = u + v
dx dx dx

Quotient Rule
du dv
v −u
d  u dx dx
  =
dx  v  v 2

Composite Functions

y = (mx + c)n

dy
= nm ( mx + c ) n −1
dx

y = (f(x))n

dy
= nf' ( x ) × ( f( x )) n −1
dx

## The following example covers most of the ideas introduced above.

Example 1

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Differentiate the following with respect to x simplify your answer as far as

possible.

a) (x + ln 4x)7

b) 6 sin2x + sec 2 x

d) x5 e5x + 5

cos5x5
e)
3x

d
a) (x + ln 4x)7
dx

By chain rule

## If y = (x + ln 4x)7 let u = (x + ln 4x)

du 1 1
So y = u7 =1+ not
dx x 4x

dy
= 7u6
du

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So

d  1
(x + ln 4x)7 = 7u6 ×  1 + 
dx  x

 1
= 7(x + ln 4x)6  1 + 
 x

## If y = 6sin2x let u = sinx

du
then y = 6u2 = cos x
dx

dy
= 12u
du

By chain rule

dy dy du
= ×
dx du dx

= cos x × 12u

## = 12cos x sin x = 6 sin 2x

So finally:

C3 4
d
(6sin2 x + sec2x) = 6 sin 2x + 2 sec 2x tan 2x
dx

c)

## The rule for differentiating products is to differentiate the first and

times it by the second and then add the differential of the second times

## by the first. Or in symbols:

d(uv) du dv
=v +u
dx dx dx

d 11
(x tan13x) = 11x10 tan13x + 13x11 sec2 13x
dx

d 5 5x + 5
d) (x e )
dx

## power on the e and bring it to the front.

d 5 5x + 5
(x e ) = 5x4 e5x + 5 + 5x5 e5x + 5
dx

= 5x 4 e5x + 5 (1 + x)

C3 5
d  cos5x5 
e)  
dx  3x 

## question says specifically to use the quotient rule.

d  cos5x5  d  x −1 cos5x5 
 =  
dx  3x  dx  3 

x −1
Let u = v = cos5x5
3

du −x −2 dv
= = −25 x 4 sin 5x 5
dx 3 dx

Therefore:

 cos 5x 5 
d 
 3x  = − x cos 5x 5 − x × −25x 4 sin 5x 5
−2 −1

dx 3 3

## cos 5x 5 25x3 sin 5x 5

=− +
3x2 3

Example 2
dy
Given that x = 8sin(7y + 3), find .
dx

C3 6
dy 1
=
The only thing that is new here is that dx dx
dy

x = 8sin(7y + 3)

## Don’t forget to write the (7y + 3) in

dx
= 56cos(7y + 3)
dy

dy 1 sec(7y + 3)
= =
dx 56cos(7y + 3) 56

## Equations of tangents and Normals

Example 3
1 x
The curve with equation y = e meets the y axis at the point A.
6

## the point C. Prove that the x coordinate of C is ln 6 + 17.5 and find

the y coordinate of C.

## especially in this case where there are quite a few lines.

C3 7
8

6 Normal
B

4 C
y=1/6ex

Tangent
A
0
-5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35

1
y=-26 ex
Normal
a) First find at x = ln36
Tangent at x = 0
dy 1 x
= e
dx 6

1
At A, x = 0 therefore the gradient is as is the y coordinate.
6

y = mx + c

1 1
= ×0+c
6 6

Therefore

1 1
y= x+
6 6

and hence 6y = x + 1

b) Find the equation of the normal at the point B with x coord of ln 36.

1 x
From part (a) the gradient function is e hence the gradient at B is 6 and
6

C3 8
−1
so the normal gradient is . (y coord also 6)
6

y = mx + c

− ln36
6= +c
6

−x ln36
y= +6+
6 6

The normal then meets the tangent from part (a) at the point C.

1 1 −x ln36
x+ = +6+
6 6 6 6

2x = 35 + ln36

1
x = 17.5 + ln36 = 17.5 + ln 6
2

## Therefore the y coordinate can be found by substituting x = ln 6 + 17.5 into

6y = x + 1.

6y = ln 6 + 17.5 +1

1 37 
y= ln 6 + 
6 2 

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Example 4
7
The curve c has equation y = 4x 2 − ln 4x , where x > 0. The tangent at the

## point C where x = 1 meets the x axis at the point A.

9 + ln 4
Prove that the x coordinate of A is .
13

7
y = 4x 2 − ln 4x

dy 5
1
= 14x −
2
dx x

y = mx + c

4 – ln4 = 13 + c

## The line meets the x-axis at the point where y = 0. Therefore:

13x – 9 – ln4 = 0

9 + ln 4
x=
13

C3 10
Differentiating Quotients

Example 5

4x2 − 16x + 7
Given that y = , x ≠ 2,
(x − 2)2

dy 18
Show that =
dx (x − 2)3

It is obvious from the question that by using the quotient rule it will be

## easier to get the desired answer.

u
d   v du − u dv
 v  = dx dx
dx v 2

## u = 4x2 − 16x + 7 v = (x – 2)2

du dv
= 8x − 16 = 2(x − 2)
dx dx

Therefore:

C3 11
dy (x − 2)2 (8x − 16) − (4x2 − 16x + 7) × 2(x − 2)
=
dx (x − 2) 4

=
(x − 2)3

=
(x − 2)3

18
=
(x − 2)3

Example 6

## The diagram shows part of the curve with equation,

C3 12
π
y = (10x – 3) tan 3x, 0≤x<
4

## that K satisfies the equation 30K – 9 + 5 sin 6K = 0

As soon as you see the word minimum your first thought should be to

## differentiate and set it equal to zero.

Differentiating a product:

y = (10x - 3) tan 3x

dy
= 10 tan3x + 3(10x - 3)sec2 3x
dx

## 0 = 10 tan3x + 3(10x - 3)sec2 3x

sin3x 3(10x − 3)
0 = 10 +
cos3x cos2 3x

Multiply by cos2 3x

0 = 10sin3xcos3x + 3(10x − 3)

0 = 5 sin 6x + 3(10x − 3)

If x = K

30K – 9 + 5 sin 6K = 0

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A lot of the ideas outlined above are not complicated and the final example

below deals with turning points and the differential of exponential functions.

Example 7

x
y=
9 + x2

## Use calculus to find the coordinates of the tuning points of C.

b) Given that
5
(
y = 1+e 4x 4
)
dy 1
find the value of at the point x = ln 3 .
dx 4

## a) The curve C is to be differentiated as a quotient

u
d   v du − u dv
 v  = dx dx
dx v 2

u=x v = 9 + x2

du dv
=1 = 2x
dx dx

C3 14
dy 9 + x2 − 2x2
=
dx (9 + x2 )

dy 9 − x2
=
dx (9 + x2 )

dy
Turning points exist where = 0 therefore the numerator must equal zero
dx

## By substituting these values into y we get:

x  1  −1
y=  3,  and 3, 
9 + x2  6  6 

b) Given that
5
(
y = 1+e 4x 4
)
dy 1
find the value of at the point x = ln 3 .
dx 4

## This is a composite function. To differentiate it simply multiply by the

power, multiply by the differential of the bracket and then multiply by the

## differential of the bracket.

C3 15
5
y = (1 + e 4 x ) 4

dy 5 1
= × 4e 4 x × (1 + e 4 x ) 4
dx 4

dy 1
= 5e 4 x (1 + e 4 x ) 4
dx

1
Let x = ln 3
4

dy 1

dx
(
= 5eln 3 1 + eln 3 ) 4

dy  1
= 15 4 4 
dx  

C3 16