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ADVANCES IN POWER ENHANCEMENT IN COGEN BATTERY 

IN SESHASAYEE PAPER MILL

Dr T.G.Sundara Raman

Seshasayee Paper & Boards Ltd.

PAPER TECH 2010

CII
Hyderabad
16 June 2010
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International practice in running Steam turbo‐generator 
[STG] battery 
GENERAL
• Run STG of higher cycle efficiency at increased loads and 
yet meeting the process steam demands
• Other STGs at lower loads thus acting as slave

Chemical Recovery Boiler [CRB] & Coal fired Boiler[CFB] 
Cogen units
• Run CRB Cogen with black liquor solids as  fuel
• CFB Cogen shall cater to  balance load 

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HP COGEN BATTERY IN PREMIER PAPER MILLS

Mill CFB (kg/cm²) CRB (kg/cm²)

APPM 64 64
ITC 64 64
JK* 88/106 64/88
SPB 106 65
WCPM 64 64
TNPL 64 64
* : Planned
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Existing  HP Cogen Scenerio in SPB

Captive Power Plant [CPP1]           
• Boiler # 10 [106 kg/cm² /510˚C AFBC ] &                                    
21MW Double extraction condensing steam turbo‐
generator
‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐
Captive Power Plant [CPP2]
• Boiler # 11 [65 kg/cm² /465˚C CRB] &
16 MW Extraction back pressure steam turbo‐generator

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SPECIFICATIONS OF THE 2 HP COGEN UNITS
CPP Chemical Recovery Cogen

Boiler #10 Parameter Boiler #11

AFBC Boiler Type Chemical Recovery Boiler


Rated Steam
117 TPH 83TPH(Phase1) I140TPH(Phase2)
Evaporation

106 kg/cm² SOP 65 kg/cm²

510˚C SOT 465˚C

135˚C Feed inlet temperature 135˚C

Imported coal Black liquor


Fuel
@ 70% solids concn.

21 MW- DEC STG 16 MW- EBP

10.5/4.0 kg/cm² E1/E2 10.5/4.5 kg/cm²

0.09 ata Condensing --


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20.4 MW Capacity 10MW(Phase1) / 16 MW(Phase2)
Boiler # 10 – CFB &
Boiler # 11 – CRB
STEAMING CONDITIONS
Parameter Blr #10 Blr #11

Fuel Imported Coal Black Liquor Solids

Steam Evaporation TPH 117 80/130 


[Ph‐1/Ph‐2]

Steam Pressure (kg/cm2) 106 65

Steam Temperature °C 510 465

Feed Water Temperature °C 135 135


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OPERATING  LOADS

• Boiler 10 operating at economic  load (85%) with Imported 
coal as fuel

• Boiler 11 designed for Phase‐1 ( 60 %) & 
Phase ‐ 2 ( 100 % ) operation with Black  
liquor  solids firing in CRB

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Turbine Extraction‐Exhaust  Steam Range

ZONE 21 MW STG 16 MW STG

E1 [ MP] 0‐30 TPH 0‐60 TPH

E2 [LP] 0‐60 TPH 30‐130 TPH

Condensing 25‐50 TPH X
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ENERGY DISTRIBUTION ACROSS 16 MW STG

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POST MDP – [PHASE – I] – FLOW CHART
Weak Black Liquor from
Pulp Mill
.
Falling Film
Evaporator
GRID
IMPORT

. Strong Black
Liquor 70% 586 tpd CPP/CFB
Concentration
AFBC#10
106 kg/cm2
B#11 CRB
65 kg/cm2 95 tph

73 tph

EBP DEC
16MW STG 21MW STG

8.7 MW 15.6 MW
8 tph 22 tph
65 tph 42 tph
31 tph

0.1 MW

11 kg/cm2 4 kg/cm2 CW
Steam Header Steam Header

Station To Process Station To Process


Consumption Consumption

Total Power : 24.4 MW 10


PHILOSOPHY

• 16 MW STG is designed for both the  phases of operating 
loads( 60 % to 100%)

• Hence extraction stage ( nozzle) is designed by BHEL to 
commensurate with rated steaming conditions at the 
header for Process(11 kg/cm2)

• Obviously at lower loads of operation, higher turbine 
nozzle steam temperatures are unavoidable

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.
16 MW STG E1 flow Vs Nozzle  steam temperature
400

350

300

250
Temp (Deg c)

200
Tnoz
150 Tsat

100

50

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45
E1 (TPH)
.
16MW STG E1 flow Vs Enthalpy differential
30

25

20
ΔH (Kcal/Kg)

15

10

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45
E1 (TPH)
.
250
16MW STG E2 flow Vs Nozzle steam temperature

200
Temp (Deg C)

150

Tnoz
100
Tsat

50

0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
E2 (TPH)
.
16MW STG E2 flow Vs Enthalpy differential
16

14

12

10
Δh (Kcal/Kg)

0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
E2 (TPH)
Available Energy for Conversion from Thermal
‐16 MW Steam turbo‐generator

• 1.5 MW (th) each  from  turbine nozzles of both E1 & E2 
upto saturation are available

• Equivalent  to  15 to 20 % of total energy through reduction 
of steam temperature through desuperheating alone.

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RECOMMENDATIONS

• Splitting  E 1 ( M.P. steam extraction) flows between the 2 
steam turbines to be minimized. 

• Ensure entire E 1 flow through one of the 2 STGs 

• Accordingly split E2 (L.P. steam extraction) flow between 
the  2 steam turbines  

• Maximize combined cycle efficiency in power with either of 
the turbines acting as slave.
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POWER GENERATION ENHANCEMENT SCHEME [PES]
Through shifting of E1 flows to one STG ( instead of splitting of flows)
Extraction Steam flows – Actual & Potential [TPH]
1 of 2

SPB Actual Potential


16MW 21MW 16 MW 21 MW

2010 E1 E1 E1 E2 E1 E2 C

March 13 15.7 28.7 41.8 0 53 37

April 13.7 14.9 28.6 45.6 0 49 38

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Power generation enhancement (estimated)
2 of 2 

Both TG  E1 Addl. Power  E1S –reduction 


SPB in opern estimated estimated
2010 hrs TPH MW Lakh TPH TPM
units

March  694 28.7 0.31 2.2 0.44 300

April 636 28.6 0.31 2.0 0.43 275

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Gains from Power enhancement scheme

• Higher electrical power generation with lowering of  
extraction(E1) steam temperature at turbine nozzle
• Equivalent  to  0. 3 MW  on a continuous basis.

• Reduction in spray quantity required  for desuperheating
ensures better steam quality for process use.
X Counteracted by marginal reduction in LP steam generation 
through desuperheating

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Contribution to Power enhancement by                     
Energy efficient main steam pipe‐line

• Recommended to go in for high level pipe‐line 
insulation for a design temperature drop across main 
steam line connecting boiler to steam turbine from    
8°C to  4°C.

• Through the above scheme in place, power 
generation increment of 0.3 MW shall be ensured  
for the  case under study during Phase‐1 operation.

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CONCLUSIONS & WAY FORWARD

• Recommended for all Paper mills having HP Cogen Battery to


go in for PES to suit process needs
• Automation of the whole turbine energy cycle with
extraction flow limits in place is advocated
• Temperature drop from Boiler main steam outlet to turbine
inlet should be minimal ( <5°C)
• DSH spray reduction would ensure higher quality steam to
process
• For new green‐field extraction steam turbines (as in JK
Paper), configuration & HMBD should be aimed at lowered
steam temperatures at turbine nozzles to derive higher
power generation

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Conserve
.
.
Energy

Green the
Mother
Earth
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