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Dulpichet Rerkpreedapong, Student Member, IEEE, and Ali Feliachi, Senior Member, IEEE

Abstract--This paper proposes a decentralized controller for according to their load following contracts [3-4]. Therefore,

the load frequency control operated as a load following service. the parameters of the proposed controllers are simultaneously

Decentralization is achieved by developing a model for the inter- designed to control the generated power of each generating

face variables, which consist of frequencies of other subsystems. unit to meet contractual requirement. The effectiveness of the

To account for the modeling uncertainties, a local Kalman filter proposed controllers is demonstrated using two test systems,

is designed to estimate each subsystem’s own and interface vari-

ables. The controller uses these estimates, optimizes a given per-

each consisting of a three-area power system. The first system

formance index, and allocates generating units’s outputs accord- has one generator in each area, and the second has one area

ing to a deregulation scenario. Two test systems are given to with two units operating under a deregulation scenario.

illustrate the proposed methodologies.

II. DYNAMIC MODEL

Index Terms--Load frequency control, Automatic generation

control, Decentralized control, Kalman filter, Estimation, Ancil- A large interconnected power system consists of a number

lary services, Deregulation. of subsystems or control areas. Each area can be modeled in

great details depending on the generators models and their

I. INTRODUCTION prime movers. But, to illustrate the proposed idea, a simple

dynamic model, shown in Fig. 1, is presented in this section.

T HE power system consists of several interconnected con-

trol areas where each one is traditionally responsible for

its native load and scheduled interchanges with neighboring

The test system has a more elaborate model.

1

Ri

areas. Load frequency control (LFC) or automatic generation ∆PDi

control (AGC) is the mechanism by which the energy balance 1 ∆PVi 1 ∆PTi 1 ∆f i

is maintained. Under deregulation, such a mechanism can be + 1 + sTHi 1 + sTTi

+ D i + sTPi

used as a load following service operated by the regulating Governor T urbine

units according to a given contract. The regulating unit in a Bi

control area changes may change its output to match the ∆PCi = ui

∑ ∆Ptieij +

power demands in other areas, as the contract desires. j

combination of a frequency error (∆f) and a tie-line power

Fig. 1. Block diagram of the ith-generating unit.

error (∆Ptie), reflects the control area’s performance, and is

used as the input to the load frequency controllers. Such con- PTi: turbine power PVi: governor valve

trollers are PI (Proportional-Integral) controllers whose pa- PCi: governor set point PDi: power demand

rameters are tuned using lengthy simulations and trial-and-

fi: frequency ΑCEi: Area control error

error approaches. Several optimization techniques have been

Ptie,ij: tie-line power between area i and j

proposed to solve this problem, but they require information

∆: deviation from nominal values

about the entire system rather than local information [1-2].

This paper proposes a completely decentralized LFC

The state space model for this system is given by:

scheme for load following services. A model for the interface

variables, which consist of frequencies of other control areas x& i = Ai xi + Bi u i + Gi z i + Fi ∆PDi (1)

or subsystems, is developed. To account for the modeling where

uncertainties, a local Kalman filter is designed to estimate

each subsystem’s own and interface variables from only local Di 1 1

−T 0 − 0

0

measurements, namely area frequency and tie-line power. The Pi T Pi T Pi

deregulation scenario considered here assumes that generat- 1 1

0

0 − 0 0 1

ing units in each area supply a portion of the regulated power TTi TTi

, Bi =

Ai = − 1 0 −

1

0 0 T Hi

This work was sponsored in part by National Science Foundation under R i T Hi T Hi 0

grant ECS-9870041 and in part by US DOE/EPSCoR WV State Implementa-

N

tion Award.

2π ∑ Tij 0 0 0 0 0

j =1

The authors are with the Lane Department of Computer Science & Elec- j ≠i

trical Engineering, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506. B i 0 0 1 0

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o

1

T

u xi = u io = ∆PCi

o

(7)

Gi = [0 0 0 − 2π 0]T , Fi = − 0 0 0 0

TPi Define xi′ = xi − xio (8)

N u i′ = u xi − u io (9)

N ,

x iT = ∆f i ∆PTi ∆PVi ∑ ∆Ptie ,ij ∫ ACE i

z i = ∑ Tij ⋅ ∆f j

j =1 j =1

j ≠i j ≠i Substitute eq. (8) and (9) into (4), a new system is obtained:

xi: State variables of the ith area

ui: Input of the ith area, zi: Interface variables x& i′ = Ai xi′ + Bi u i′ (10)

Tij : Synchronizing power coefficient of tie-line i-j

TPi: Generator’s time constant Subsequently, the controller parameters (Ki) in (2) are

TTi: Turbine’s time constant, THi: Governor’s time constant designed using LQR with the following performance index.

Ri: Droop characteristic, Di: Damping coefficient

N: Number of interconnected areas ∞

(

J i = ∫ xi′T Qi xi′ + u i′T ri u i′ dt ) (11)

0

III. CONTROL DESIGN

where

The proposed controllers are designed for a given state Ji: Performance index of the ith subsystem

space model using an LQR (linear quadratic regulator) ap- Qi : System weighting matrix

proach. It is known that the LQR has good gain and phase ri: Input weighting matrix

stability margins, but an accurate model is needed and all of

its state variables are essential for its implementation. This is The optimal controller is:

not suitable for a decentralized control structure because of u i′ = − K i xi′ (12)

the interface variables. In this paper, local state feedback or u xi = − K i xi + u io + K i xio (13)

gains (Ki) are designed using LQR, but an additional feed-

forward gain (KDi) is separately designed to cancel the effects

In a deregulated power system, the generated power from

of the interfaces [5].

generating units will be allocated according to given load

following contracts shown as

A. Control Design with Available State and Interface

Variables

∆PG1 α11 α12 α1m ∆Pdc1

∆P α α α

In this section, it is assumed that both state and interface G 2 = 21 22 2 m ∆Pdc 2

variables are available for feedback. Then, using the state (14)

M O M

space model (1), a controller (ui) is designed as:

∆PGn 1α4

n1 α n 2

44424444

α nm ∆Pdcm

3

u i = − K i xi + K Di z i = u xi + K Di z i (2) α

where where

KDi: Interface cancellation gain ∆PGi: Required change in pu MW of the ith generating unit

Ki : Stabilizing feedback gain, u xi : Stabilizing input ∆Pdcj : Change in demand of the jth distribution company

αij: Contract factor that indicates ratio of required change

then the closed loop system is expressed by: in pu MW of the ith generating unit to change in de-

mand (∆Pdcj) of the jth distribution company

x& i = Ai xi + Bi u xi + (Bi K Di + Gi )z i + Fi ∆PDi (3)

∆PD1 β 1 0 L 0 ∆PG1

∆P 0 ∆PG 2

The gain (KDi) interfaces are designed later to cancel the in- D2 = 0 β 2 (15)

terface variables. Hence, the closed-loop system now has the M M O M M

form:

∆PDN 0 0 L β N ∆PGn

x& i = Ai xi + Bi u xi + Fi ∆PDi (4)

β i = [1 1 L 1]1×k (16)

i

For a load frequency control problem, a non-zero set point,

i.e., steady state condition, is present when there is a change ∆PDi : Total change in demand for which the ith area are

in power demand (∆PDi). The set point is given by: responsible

ki: Number of generation units of the ith area

x& io = 0 = Ai xio + Bi u io + Fi ∆PDi (5)

yielding: Consequently, designing the controller parameters (Ki)

must also satisfy contract-based constraints. At a desired set

xi = xio (6) point,

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u io = ∆PCi

o o

= ∆PGi = − K i xio (17) ing the required state and interface variables using only avail-

able measurements at the expense of some performance deg-

xio = − ( Ai − Bi K i )−1 Fi ∆PDi (18) radation. The structure of the proposed controller using esti-

where mates obtained from a Kalman filter is illustrated in Fig. 3.

xio : Set point of state variables wi(t) vi(t) PDi

zi(t) xi(t)

Subsystem

ui(t) = ∆P Ci yi(t)

The input weighting matrix (ri) used for designing Ki will (area #i)

be selected by “lsqnonlin”, a search routine embedded in the

optimization toolbox in MATLAB, to satisfy eq. (17) and

(18). ^

xi(t)

+ -Ki Kalman

∆P di β i (List of generating

^z (t) Filter

units of each area) KDi i

Load following

Contracts Fig. 3. Decentralized control structure for the ith subsystem.

(αij)

wi : Plant noise, vi: Measurement noise

∆P Gi , ∆PDi ui: Control input, yi: Output

System

parameters Lsqnonlin

Ai , B i , Fi To design a Kalman filter that will estimate both local and

interface variables a dynamical model for these variables is

desired. This model is obtained by introducing the dynamics

ri , Ki

of the interface variable (zi), a combination of the deviations

of frequencies from the other areas, in the following form:

Fig. 2. Flowchart of determination of control parameters (Ki).

z&i = w fi (23)

Next, the interface cancellation gain (KDi) is designed to

cancel the effects of the interface on the integral of the area

control error, which is one of the state variables. where wfi is a fictitious white noise. The reason for this as-

sumption comes from the nature of the area frequencies

~ ~ whose deviations keep oscillating around zero, and are

yi = ∫ ACEi = Ci xi (19)

bounded when NERC’s performance standards are met.

However, the variance of the fictitious noise must be properly

The effect of the interface on the considered output ( ~

yi ) is chosen to increase the accuracy of the above model. In this

paper, the value of this variance is chosen at 0.001 by trial-

~

y zi (∞ ) = − Ci ( Ai − Bi K i )−1 (Bi K Di + Gi )z i

~ (20) and-error.

Augmenting the model given by (1) by adding the interface

dynamics given by (23) gives the following model:

then the interface cancellation gain (KDi) is selected to make

eq. (20) equals to zero:

x& i = Ai xi + Bi u i + GiWi + Fi ∆PDi (24)

~ ~

Ci ( Ai − Bi K i )−1 Bi K Di = − Ci ( Ai − Bi K i )−1 Gi (21) y i = C i xi + vi (25)

where

~

[

K Di = − Ci ( Ai − Bi K i )−1 Bi ]−1 ~

Ci ( Ai − Bi K i )−1 Gi (22)

x wi

xi = i , Wi = , Ai = i

A Gi

B F

, Bi = i , Fi = i

zi w fi 0 0 0 0

From eq. (21), interface cancellation gain (KDi), however, can T 1 0 0 0 0

0 0 1 0 0 0

be obtained as far as the number of inputs are not less than Gi = , Ci = 0 0 0 1 0 , Ci = [Ci 0]

that of the outputs. 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1

B. Control Design with Estimation of State and Interface xi : Augmented state vector

Variables

A Kalman filter, based on (24) and (25), is designed to

In an interconnected power system, not all the state vari- estimate the augmented state vector. It is given by:

ables are measurable, and the interface variables cannot be x&ˆ

&

obtained from local measurements. In this paper, a local xˆ i = i = Aˆ i xˆ i + Bi u i + Li y i + Fi ∆PDi (26)

Kalman filter is used to overcome this limitation by estimat- z&ˆ i

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Aˆ i = Ai − Li Ci (27) The system matrix (A) can be written as

~ ~

where Li is the Kalman gain that can be determined by a A = A+G (32)

MATLAB function called “KALMAN.” where

The full dynamical model of the ith subsystem including ~

A : Ideal system matrix without interface consideration, i.e.,

the dynamics of the actual system in (1) and the Kalman es- ~

A = A where any Gij = 0

timator in (26) is expressed in (28).

~

G : Interface matrix

x& i Ai 0 xi Bi Gi Fi

&ˆ = ˆA xˆ + B u i + 0 z i + F ∆PDi (28) The closed loop system is:

xi Li Ci i i i i

x& = ( A − BK ) x + F∆PD = Acl x + F∆PD (33)

In Fig. 3, the input of the subsystem using the estimates of

state variables and interface is defined as ( ~

) ~ ~

Acl = A − BK + G = Acl + G

~

(34)

is analyzed based on its eigenvalues. Let µ be any eigenvalue

IV. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS of the composite closed-loop system, i.e. an eigenvalue of Acl,

~

and λi be the ith eigenvalue of Acl . The objective of this sec-

The stability of the entire interconnected system, called tion is to estimate the maximum departure of µ from the ei-

here the composite or actual system, when the proposed con- ~

genvalues of Acl . For this purpose let:

trollers are implemented, is of a major concern rather than

~

that of individual subsystems. The composite system has the T −1 Acl T = D = diag {λ1 , λ 2 , L , λ n~ } (35)

following state-space model and control input: then

~ ~

x& = Ax + Bu + F∆PD (30) T −1 Acl T = T −1 Acl T + T −1GT = D + Γ (36)

u = − Kx (31)

Gershgorin Circle Theorem [6] states:

where

n~

& T T ℑ i = d ∈ C : d − λ i ≤ ∑ Γij (37)

x = x&1T

& &

x& 2T L x& TN xˆ1T xˆ 2T L xˆ N

j =1

ℑi : Gershgorin disk’s region

u = [u1 u2 L u N ]T , ∆PD = [∆PD1 ∆PD2 L ∆PDN ]T

C : Complex domain

A1 G12 L G1N 0 0 L 0 Γij : (i-j) entity of the matrix Γ

G A2 G2 N 0 0 M

21 From Gershgorin’s theorem, a Gershgorin disk’s region

M O M M O gives an estimate of the maximum departure of the composite

G GN 2 L AN 0 L 0 closed-loop system eigenvalues (µ) from the eigenvalues (λi)

A = N1 of the closed-loop control area model. Since the strength of

L1C1 0 L 0 ˆA

1 0 L 0

ˆA the interconnection is preset, one can guarantee closed-loop

0 L2 C 2 0 0 2 0 stability of the composite system by properly designing the

M O M M O M area controllers.

0 0 L LN C N 0 0 L Aˆ N

V. CASE STUDY

T

B1T 0 L 0 B1T 0 L 0

A power system, which consists of three control areas in-

0 B2T 0 B2T

B=

M M terconnected through a number of tie-lines as shown in Fig. 4

M O M O

is used to illustrate the proposed idea.

T T

0 L BN 0 L B N

Gij = Gi Tij S j , S j = [1 0 0 L 0] tie-line

1442443 Area 1 Area 2

number of rows of x j

K1 0 0 L

0 K2 M

K = 0 NxN , K i = [K i − K Di ] Area 3

M O

0 L K N Fig. 4. A three-area power system.

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The generating units and their prime mover models within The eigenvalues of the closed-loop, ideal (A ~

cl ) and com-

subsystems are shown as posite (Acl), systems are obtained but only eigenvalues close

to the imaginary axis are plotted in Fig 6. These two sets of

1

R eigenvalues are very close, and thus justify the application of

Governor

the proposed controllers as a feasible and effective decentral-

T2

T3 ized control structure.

_ +

∆Pc

+

Σ

1 1

1−

T2 +

Σ VI. SIMULATION

1 + sT1 1 + sT2 T3

+

Σ

+

Σ

+

Σ through simulation of two test systems: 1) a three-area power

+ + + system with a single generator in each area, and 2) a test sys-

K1 K2 K3 K4

tem similar to the previous one except area 1 now has two

1 1 1 1 generating units operating under a deregulation scenario.

1 + sT4 1 + sT5 1 + sT6 1 + sT7

Turbine

A. Test system #1

+ 1

∆PT _

Σ

_ D + sTP ∆f In this test system, the contract matrix (α) is identity, and

∆PD

∑ ∆Ptie Generator

each area has a single generating unit whose data are given in

Table 1. The following unit-step changes in power demands

Fig. 5. Generating unit and prime mover models. are applied: ∆Pdc1 = 200 MW, ∆Pdc2 = -100 MW and ∆Pdc3 =

150 MW. The MVAbase is 2000. The area control error

Table 1. Data for a three-area power system ~

( )

(ACE) of the closed-loop ideal system A cl and the closed-

Data Area 1 Area 2 Area 3 loop composite system are shown in Fig. 7.

Rating (MW) 1000 750 2000

Droop characteristic: R (%) 5 4 5

Damping: D (pu MW/Hz) 20 15 18

Constant of inertia: H (sec) 5 5 5

T1 2.8 3 2.5

T2 1 0 0

T3 0.15 1 1

T4 0.2 0.4 0.5

T5 6 0 5

T6 7 0 0

T7 0.5 0 0

K1 0.2 1 0.4

K2 0.2 0 0.6

K3 0.4 0 0

K4 0.2 0 0

T12 = 60 MW/rad, T13 = 200 MW/rad, T23 = 100 MW/rad

Fig. 7. Area control error for ideal and actual systems.

O : Ideal system

Later, the frequency deviation (∆f) of each area regulated

X : Actual system

by the proposed controllers is shown in Fig. 8.

Fig. 6. Eigenvalues of the closed-loop ideal system and actual system. Fig. 8. Frequency deviation of actual system.

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B. Test system #2

Now area 1 has an additional generating unit identical to the

one in area 2. It is used to demonstrate the ability of the pro-

posed controllers to allocate generating units’s outputs ac-

cording to a given load following contract described as

∆P ∆Pdc1

G 2 = 0.4 0 0.1 ∆P = 0.0475 pu

∆PG 3 0 0.8 0.1 dc 2 − 0.0325 Fig. 11. Frequency deviation for test system #2.

∆Pdc3

∆PG 4 140 0 0.8 0.6 VII. CONCLUSION

42443

α

Later the identical changes in demands in the previous test This paper proposes a decentralized controller for the load

system are applied. Then the total change in demand for frequency control operated as a load following service. Decen-

which each area has to be responsible can be obtained as tralization is achieved by developing a model for the interface

∆PG1 variables, which is a combination of frequencies of other sub-

∆PD1 1 1 0 0 0.0975 systems. To account for the modeling uncertainties, a local

∆P = 0 0 1 0 ∆PG 2 = - 0.0325 pu Kalman filter is designed to estimate each subsystem’s own

D2 ∆P and interface variables. The controller uses these estimates,

∆PD3 0 0 0 1 G 3 0.06

optimizes a given performance index, and allocates generat-

∆PG 4

ing units’s outputs according to a deregulation scenario. The

After the simulation is completed, the changes in turbine performance of the proposed controllers is assessed through

power (∆PT) of each unit are shown in Fig. 9. eigenanalysis and simulation of two test systems, each con-

sisting of a three-area power system. The first system has one

generator in each area, and the second has one area with two

units operating under a deregulation scenario. It is shown that

the proposed technique gives good results.

VIII. REFERENCES

[1] C. E. Fosha, Jr. and O. I. Elgerd, “The Megawatt-Frequency Control

Problem: A New Approach Via Optimal Control Theory,” IEEE Trans-

actions on Power Systems, vol. 89, no. 4, pp. 563-577, April 1970.

[2] M. L. Kothari, N. Sinha and M. Rafi, “Automatic Generation Control of

an Interconnected Power System Under Deregulated Environment,”

Power Quality’ 98, pp. 95-102, 1998.

[3] R. D. Christie and A. Bose, “Load Frequency Control Issues in Power

System Operations after Deregulation”, IEEE Transaction on Power

Systems, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 1191-1200, August 1996.

Fig. 9. Changes in turbine power for test system #2.

[4] R. D. Christie and A. Bose, “Load Frequency Control In Hybrid Elec-

tric Power Markets,” Proceedings of the 1996 IEEE International Con-

The area control error and frequency deviation of each area ference on Control Applications, pp. 432-436, September, 1996.

are shown as Fig. 10 and 11 respectively. [5] J. B. Burl, Linear Optimal Control, Addison Wesley Longman, Inc.,

1999.

[6] G. H. Golub and A.F. Van Loan, “Matrix Computations,” 2nd edition,

Baltimore: The John Hopkins university Press, 1989.

IV. BIOGRAPHIES

Dulpichet Rerkpreedapong received his MSEE from the CSEE Depart-

ment, West Virginia University in 1999. He is currently working towards a

Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering at WVU. His research interests are in power

systems control and operation, and power systems restructuring.

from Georgia Tech in 1979 and 1983 respectively. He joined the faculty of

Electrical and Computer Engineering at West Virginia University in January

1984 where he is now a Full Professor and the holder of the endowed Electric

Power Systems Chair position. His research interests are in modeling,

simulation, control and estimation of large-scale systems with emphasis on

Fig. 10. Area control error for test system #2

electric power systems.

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