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PROPULSION EXERCISES A

(Either Imperial or SI units may be used in the homework exercises, though it may be useful to show both
in the final answers)

1. Show that the change in the impulse function I =A ( p + ρ V 2 ) between two stations in an idealized
flow machine yields the force acting on the fluid in that interval (it is suggested to put the impulse function
in terms of Mach number). Use this result to determine the net thrust acting between stations 1 and 7

2. A General Electric J79-GE-15 turbojet engine is one of two propelling a McDonnell F4C airplane (wing
area S=530ft2, inlet area for each engine A1= 6.5 ft2) cruising at a constant Mach number M0=.82 at an
altitude of 35,000ft (the 1976 U.S. Standard Atmosphere model may be used). The drag coefficient of the
aircraft under these conditions is 0.045. Determine (a) the net thrust of the engine, (b) the gross thrust of the
engine, and (c) the weight (or mass) flow through the engine. Then, if the exhaust pressure p7 = p0 (d)
estimate the exhaust velocity V7 and, assuming that the turbine exit stagnation temperature, which is the
nozzle entry stagnation temperature, Tt,5=Tt,7=1350F, (e) estimate the exit static temperature T7 and (f) the
exit Mach number M7.

Problem 2 McDonnell F4C

3. Consider a jet engine that exhausts hydrocarbon-air combustion products (the overall fuel to air ratio
here is wf /w0= 0.02) through a nozzle with stagnation conditions Tt,5=1500F and pt,5=30psia. Use the one-
dimensional adiabatic energy equation and the assumption of an isentropic expansion through the nozzle to
develop equations that are used to generate a plot of the (dimensional) static and stagnation temperature
and pressure variation as a function of Mach number through the nozzle, for Mach numbers in the range
0<M<3. Clearly state any assumptions you made in producing the plot.

4. An S-shaped exponential curve may be used to model the spatial distribution of the heat released in the
combustion chamber. One such model is as follows:
(
∆H = H eff exp − B1ς B2 )
z
ζ = −1
z1

Here z is the axial location in the combustor and z1 is the axial location where combustion is complete. The
quantities B1 and B2 provide the shape that is considered to best characterize the heat release as a function of
the axial coordinate. The quantity ∆ H represents the heat released up to a given axial station in the
combustor while Heff represents the total heat release per unit mass during combustion and is proportional to
the heating value of the fuel. Using this information: (a) Describe the significance of the term z1 and how it
influences the design of a combustor for a practical aerospace vehicle, (b) Relate the term z1 to the

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Damkohler similarity parameter, (c) Consider a combustor typical of the Pratt & Whitney TF30 engine
used on the Grumman F-14A Tomcat in which the combustor length L=50cm, the combustor height
d=20cm, and Heff can be taken as 40MJ/kg. Assuming that z1=50cm and B1=4.605 plot the heat release as a
function of axial distance for B2=2, 3, and 4. (d) Define a combustion zone length Lc based on your results
and show a plot of Lc as a function of B2 (you may wish to carry out calculations for additional values of B2
to clarify the functional relationship sought. (e) Discuss how your results for L c are related to the general
concept of the chemical production rate of the combustion reactions taking place in the combustor.

5. A combustor is to accept air from a compressor at a pressure p3=1MPa, a speed V3=150m/s and a
temperature T3=500C. It is to operate with a stoichiometric primary zone fuel to air ratio (f/a)primary = mf
/ma,p= 0.066 and a burner efficiency η b= 96%. The hydrocarbon fuel has a heating value HV=44MJ/kg and
secondary air mass flow ma,s can be supplied to the combustor through appropriate combustor liner design
over the range 0.8>ma,s/ma>0. Two designs are being considered: a constant area combustor design and a
constant pressure combustor design. Show the variation of (a) the temperature leaving the combustor and
entering the turbine T4, (b) the stagnation pressure loss across the combustor, and (c) the velocity leaving
the combustor and entering the turbine V4 as functions of the cooling secondary air flow ratio ma,s/ma.
Compare the performance of the two combustor designs for this range of cooling flow and discuss the
results. For the purposes of this problem the thermodynamic properties of the combustion products may be
assumed to be constant with average values Cp=1.37 kJ/kg-K, k=1.27 and W=28.96. Furthermore you may
assume that the mass flow of fuel is much less than that of the air so that m= (mf + ma,p + ma,s) ~ (ma,p + ma,s)
= ma

6. Design a converging diverging nozzle for a missile ramjet engine under the constraint of maximum
thrust. The combustor delivers hot gas (assume k=1.33=constant) to the nozzle at a stagnation pressure
pt,5=81kPa through a minimum section of fixed area A6=0.0845 m2. The missile is to fly at M0=2.2 at
altitudes between 12.2km and 18.3km. Provide an illustration of the nozzle contour, drawn to scale and
showing all pertinent features, and explain these features in accompanying text. (a) Explain how your
design ensures maximum thrust over the mission specification envelope, (b) Show a plot of the variation of
gross thrust with altitude for your nozzle design, (c) How did you decide on the length of the nozzle and its
contour? (d) Present a simplified design for a nozzle that will approximate the maximum gross thrust
constraint, (d) Compare the gross thrust produced by your simplified design with that of your ideal design
over the flight envelope.

7. A compressor rotor is operated at 10,000rpm on a test stand where the atmospheric conditions are those
of a standard sea level day. The compressor has an axial inlet with a hub diameter of 13.35cm and an eye
diameter of 25.40cm. The compressor has a radial exhaust and the rotor tip diameter is 50.80cm. If the
average inlet Mach number is 0.7 determine: (a) the mass flow through the compressor, (b) the power
required to drive the compressor, (c) the total temperature at the compressor exit, (d) the portion of the
required power due to the centrifugal effect, (e) the overall pressure ratio of the machine, if the adiabatic
efficiency of compression η c=85%.

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rhub
rtip reye

8. Carry out problem 7 for the case where instead of the engine being operated on a test stand it is operating
in an aircraft flying at M0=0.7 at sea level where the atmospheric conditions are those of a standard day.

9. A turbojet engine is operated under standard sea level conditions and the following measurements are
made at the compressor exit: stagnation temperature equals 216C and stagnation pressure equals 482kPa.
The airflow through the compressor is determined to be 27.2kg/s. Determine: (a) the work input required
per unit mass of air, (b) the power required, (c) the adiabatic compression efficiency of the compressor, and
(d) the torque exerted on the fluid at a rotational speed of 12,000rpm.

10. A compressor operates with a stagnation pressure ratio of 4 and an inlet stagnation temperature of 5C.
If the exit stagnation temperature is 171C, what is the adiabatic efficiency of compression?

11. A radial bladed centrifugal compressor designed with zero pre-whirl (axial entry) for a turbojet engine
is shown in the sketch below and has the following data:

Slip angle=14o impeller tip radius=26.3cm


impeller eye radius=15cm impeller hub radius=7cm
impeller tip width=4.4cm number of vanes=29
diffuser inner radius=30.5cm
diffuser outer radius=40.6cm N=16,750rpm

The compressor operates with an axial inlet Mach number of 0.8 at maximum rpm at the impeller inlet as
the aircraft moves through the atmosphere at standard sea level conditions.

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Impeller wheel Impeller
shroud

40.6 4.4
30.5
15
7 Hub

26.3

Eye

Diffuser

Problem 11 Centrifugal compressor

(a) Determine the linear speed of rotation at the impeller tip, eye, and hub
(b) Determine the inlet flow area allowing for 5% blockage by vane thickness
(c) Sketch the inlet blade design showing proper diameters and blade angles at the hub,
eye, and at the station midway between the two.
(d) Calculate the airflow rate
(e) If τ =0.94 draw the exit velocity diagram to scale and indicate all magnitudes
(f) If η c=80% determine p3, pt3, T3, and Tt3
(g) What is the entrance angle for the fixed diffuser vanes? (Note that angular momentum of the
fluid is conserved in the annulus between the impeller tip and the diffuser entrance
(h) What is the diffuser entrance Mach number?
(i) What is the pressure ratio of the compressor pt3/pt2?
(j) What is the torque and power required to drive the impeller?

12. Consider a staged axial flow compressor with the general configuration shown in the sketch below.
Only the rotor of the first stage is shown and it accepts air from the inlet guide vanes with the following
conditions: p2=96.2kPa, T2=289K. The rotor mean line has r=30.5cm, α 2=60o, β 2=80o, and u2=427m/s.

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w2 c2
Inlet guide vane c2a c2
u
30.5cm
rotor
u
first
stage
c3 c3
stator w3 c3a
12.7cm
u

(a) Draw the velocity diagram of the entry to the rotor and find w2, c2, c2a and then find pt2, Tt2, and M2,
where the last 3 items are based upon the absolute velocity c2.
(b) Determine N, the rotational speed of the machine in rpm.
(c) If the stagnation pressure ratio across the rotor is1.15 and η c=85%, find c3u-c2u.
(d) Draw the exit velocity diagram to scale and find w3, c3, β 3, α 3, assuming c2a=c3a.
(e) Find the blade angle of the first stator passage at the median radius r of the rotor.
(f) Determine the airflow rate for the compressor if the blade height is 12.7cm assuming that 5% of the
flow passage is blocked by blade leading edges.
(g) Calculate the required torque, power, and work per unit mass for this first stage.
(h) Determine the power required to drive a compressor using 13 stages like the first stage.
(i) Calculate the static pressure rise achieved in the one stage shown.
(j) Determine the percent reaction of the one stage shown

13. A 50% reaction stage of an axial flow turbine has blades 12.7cm in height and a linear speed of rotation
u=366m/s at the mean line of the rotor where the diameter is d=76.2cm. The stagnation temperature and
stagnation pressure entering the stator from the combustor are Tt=1144K and pt=687kPa. The angle for the
stator exit absolute velocity is α 4=25o.

Axial flow from


combustor exit

c4
stator
α w4
4

38.1cm u stage
c4
rotor
u

stator c5 w5 x
u
12.7cm

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Problem 13 Axial flow turbine

(a) Draw 2 possible combined velocity diagrams for this stage. The diagrams should be neat, executed with
a straight edge or by computer, of reasonable size, clearly marked, and shown to scale. The combined
velocity diagram is one which shows the inlet and outlet velocities referenced to a single u velocity. For
example, the general velocity diagrams shown in the figure may be superimposed to form a combined
velocity diagram.
(b) Calculate the work per unit mass Wt for the case where the turbine is extracting the maximum work per
unit of entering kinetic energy 2Wt/c42
(c) Determine the blade efficiency η b, which is defined as η b=u/c4, for the case of maximum work
described in part (c) and draw the corresponding combined velocity diagram.
(d) Plot the distribution of stagnation and static values of pressure and temperature, as well as the Mach
number, through the stage as a function of x, starting from the entrance to the stator blades and ending at
the exit of the rotor blades.
(e) If the blades block 5% of the flow area determine the mass flow rate through the turbine
(f) Determine the power developed by the turbine

14. Consider an engine with the compressor and turbine performance maps given below. The exhaust
nozzle minimum section has a diameter d6=16.25in and the flight condition is take-off where M0=0.25 and
the altitude is sea level at standard day conditions. Assuming that the turbine inlet temperature is Tt4=3400R
determine the engine operating rpm N (in % of the design value), the free stream capture area A0, and the
net thrust produced. The nozzle may be assumed to be choked with A7=A6. The gas properties may be
assumed as follows: γ 2=7/5, γ 4=4/3, cp2=6006 ft2/s2-R (0.240Btu/lb-R), cp4=6864 ft2/s2-R (0.276Btu/lb-R)
and R=1716ft2/s2-R.

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Problem 14 (a)Turbine performance map

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Problem 14 (b) Compressor performance map. NOTE: the corrected mass flow values shown
should be multiplied by 3.6 to be used properly with the previously given turbine map for part (a)

15. For the propellant system comprised of CnH2n as fuel and O2 as oxidizer:

a1Cn H 2 n + a2 O2 → products

Determine (a) the stoichiometric fuel to oxidizer ratio (wf/wo)s and (b) the equilibrium composition of the
products of reaction for the following conditions: p=20atm, T=3000K, equivalence ratio φ =1.2, and total
mass of reactants equal to 1kg.

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16. Consider the gaseous propellant system described by the reaction

4H 2 + O2 → products

Determine (a) the equivalence ratio φ and (b) the adiabatic flame temperature Tad. Note that this reaction
is fuel rich and it should be possible to reduce the number of product species accordingly so as to simplify
the calculation, if desired. Use p=20atm for the chamber pressure.

17. Assume that the combustor of Problem 15 is part of an engine operating on a test stand for which the
nozzle is operating in the matched mode such that pe= p0 =1atm. Determine, for both frozen flow and
equilibrium flow in the nozzle: (a) the exit, temperature Te, (b) the mixture molecular weight at the exit
We,mix, (c) the exit velocity Ve, (d) the specific impulse Isp, and (e) the exit area Ae.

18. Consider the reaction of 1 mole of bromine (Br2, gas) reacting with varying numbers of moles of
hydrogen (H2, gas) injected at a temperature Tj=298.16K. Show a graph of the variation of the adiabatic
flame temperature Tad with the weight fraction of hydrogen.

19. An axial flow compressor for a jet engine is operating on a test stand under standard sea level
atmospheric conditions. The pressure ratio provided by the compressor is p3/p1 =10 and it processes a mass
flow rate of 45.3kg/s. The dimensions of the compressor are shown on the figure below. Assuming that all
processes are steady, quasi-one-dimensional, and isentropic and that p1is measured to be 97kPa determine
the force F experienced by the load cell on the test stand, the power P required to drive the compressor, and
the temperature leaving the compressor T3. Clearly state any assumptions made.

1 2
3

38.1cm 25.4cm 33cm

Load cell

Test stand

Problem 19 Compressor rig on test stand under standard sea level conditions

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20. Consider frictionless flow between stations 1 and 3 in a constant area duct, to which work alone may be
added between sections 2 and 3 as shown in the sketch below. (a) using Table 2-1 of the text develop
equations for the pressure, temperature, density, velocity, and work (per unit mass) done on the fluid as a
function of Mach number in the duct, (b) for air entering station 1 at p1 =101kPa, T1 =288K, and M1 =0.4
find the velocity, stagnation pressure, and stagnation temperature at station 2, (c) If 169.3kJ/kg of work is
done on the flow find the Mach number, pressure, temperature, density, velocity, stagnation pressure and
stagnation temperature at station 3.

M1

1 2 3

Wk
Problem 20 Constant area duct with work addition

21. Assume that a simple converging duct is attached to station 3 of the constant area duct of problem 17 as
shown in the sketch below. The exit of the converging duct is called station 7, with the area ratio
A7/A3=0.85. (a) Using the conditions at station 3 determined in Problem 17 find the Mach number, pressure,
temperature, density, velocity, stagnation pressure and stagnation temperature at the exit station 7. The flow
in the converging duct may be considered frictionless, with no transfer of heat or work, so that the flow in it
is isentropic. (b) Determine the net force acting on the complete unit if the radius r1=25cm.

M1

1 2 3 7

Wk
Problem 21 Constant area duct with converging nozzle added

22. A turbine blade receives hot gas from a stator with an outlet angle of 70 o as shown in the diagram. The
blade is designed to have 3o incidence at the root when the linear speed of rotation at the root is 213.4 m/s.
The absolute speed leaving the stator is 548.6m/s and the radius of the turbine disc at the root is 50.8cm, as
shown in the diagram.
(a) Find the rotor blade angle β 4 for a blade that is untwisted over its entire length
(b) Find the incidence at the tip for this untwisted blade
(c) Find the stator outlet angle α 4 and the rotor blade inlet angle β 4 at the root and at the tip under the
following set of assumptions:
(i) The original conditions pertain only to the root station

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(ii) There is free vortex flow in the gap between the stator and the rotor, which implies that
ucu=constant through the gap and, likewise, the axial component ca=constant.
(iii) The incidence at all points along the leading edge of the blade is 3o
(iv) The rotor outlet absolute velocity c5 is 231.6m/s and is in the axial direction
(v) The deviation is 5o at all points along the trailing edge of the stator blade

stator 70o
w4
stage
50.8cm c4
rotor
u

stator
c5 -i
10.16cm i
Note that i is the incidence and δ is the deviation.
These angles are measured with respect to the
tangent to the camber line at the leading and trailing
edges, respectively. The curvature of the blade as
shown is purely illustrative and the angles are
exaggerated for clarity. +δ

Problem 22 Turbine rotor with incidence and deviation effects

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