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You are on page 1of 11

(Either Imperial or SI units may be used in the homework exercises, though it may be useful to show both

in the final answers)

1. Show that the change in the impulse function I =A ( p + ρ V 2 ) between two stations in an idealized

flow machine yields the force acting on the fluid in that interval (it is suggested to put the impulse function

in terms of Mach number). Use this result to determine the net thrust acting between stations 1 and 7

2. A General Electric J79-GE-15 turbojet engine is one of two propelling a McDonnell F4C airplane (wing

area S=530ft2, inlet area for each engine A1= 6.5 ft2) cruising at a constant Mach number M0=.82 at an

altitude of 35,000ft (the 1976 U.S. Standard Atmosphere model may be used). The drag coefficient of the

aircraft under these conditions is 0.045. Determine (a) the net thrust of the engine, (b) the gross thrust of the

engine, and (c) the weight (or mass) flow through the engine. Then, if the exhaust pressure p7 = p0 (d)

estimate the exhaust velocity V7 and, assuming that the turbine exit stagnation temperature, which is the

nozzle entry stagnation temperature, Tt,5=Tt,7=1350F, (e) estimate the exit static temperature T7 and (f) the

exit Mach number M7.

3. Consider a jet engine that exhausts hydrocarbon-air combustion products (the overall fuel to air ratio

here is wf /w0= 0.02) through a nozzle with stagnation conditions Tt,5=1500F and pt,5=30psia. Use the one-

dimensional adiabatic energy equation and the assumption of an isentropic expansion through the nozzle to

develop equations that are used to generate a plot of the (dimensional) static and stagnation temperature

and pressure variation as a function of Mach number through the nozzle, for Mach numbers in the range

0<M<3. Clearly state any assumptions you made in producing the plot.

4. An S-shaped exponential curve may be used to model the spatial distribution of the heat released in the

combustion chamber. One such model is as follows:

(

∆H = H eff exp − B1ς B2 )

z

ζ = −1

z1

Here z is the axial location in the combustor and z1 is the axial location where combustion is complete. The

quantities B1 and B2 provide the shape that is considered to best characterize the heat release as a function of

the axial coordinate. The quantity ∆ H represents the heat released up to a given axial station in the

combustor while Heff represents the total heat release per unit mass during combustion and is proportional to

the heating value of the fuel. Using this information: (a) Describe the significance of the term z1 and how it

influences the design of a combustor for a practical aerospace vehicle, (b) Relate the term z1 to the

39

Damkohler similarity parameter, (c) Consider a combustor typical of the Pratt & Whitney TF30 engine

used on the Grumman F-14A Tomcat in which the combustor length L=50cm, the combustor height

d=20cm, and Heff can be taken as 40MJ/kg. Assuming that z1=50cm and B1=4.605 plot the heat release as a

function of axial distance for B2=2, 3, and 4. (d) Define a combustion zone length Lc based on your results

and show a plot of Lc as a function of B2 (you may wish to carry out calculations for additional values of B2

to clarify the functional relationship sought. (e) Discuss how your results for L c are related to the general

concept of the chemical production rate of the combustion reactions taking place in the combustor.

5. A combustor is to accept air from a compressor at a pressure p3=1MPa, a speed V3=150m/s and a

temperature T3=500C. It is to operate with a stoichiometric primary zone fuel to air ratio (f/a)primary = mf

/ma,p= 0.066 and a burner efficiency η b= 96%. The hydrocarbon fuel has a heating value HV=44MJ/kg and

secondary air mass flow ma,s can be supplied to the combustor through appropriate combustor liner design

over the range 0.8>ma,s/ma>0. Two designs are being considered: a constant area combustor design and a

constant pressure combustor design. Show the variation of (a) the temperature leaving the combustor and

entering the turbine T4, (b) the stagnation pressure loss across the combustor, and (c) the velocity leaving

the combustor and entering the turbine V4 as functions of the cooling secondary air flow ratio ma,s/ma.

Compare the performance of the two combustor designs for this range of cooling flow and discuss the

results. For the purposes of this problem the thermodynamic properties of the combustion products may be

assumed to be constant with average values Cp=1.37 kJ/kg-K, k=1.27 and W=28.96. Furthermore you may

assume that the mass flow of fuel is much less than that of the air so that m= (mf + ma,p + ma,s) ~ (ma,p + ma,s)

= ma

6. Design a converging diverging nozzle for a missile ramjet engine under the constraint of maximum

thrust. The combustor delivers hot gas (assume k=1.33=constant) to the nozzle at a stagnation pressure

pt,5=81kPa through a minimum section of fixed area A6=0.0845 m2. The missile is to fly at M0=2.2 at

altitudes between 12.2km and 18.3km. Provide an illustration of the nozzle contour, drawn to scale and

showing all pertinent features, and explain these features in accompanying text. (a) Explain how your

design ensures maximum thrust over the mission specification envelope, (b) Show a plot of the variation of

gross thrust with altitude for your nozzle design, (c) How did you decide on the length of the nozzle and its

contour? (d) Present a simplified design for a nozzle that will approximate the maximum gross thrust

constraint, (d) Compare the gross thrust produced by your simplified design with that of your ideal design

over the flight envelope.

7. A compressor rotor is operated at 10,000rpm on a test stand where the atmospheric conditions are those

of a standard sea level day. The compressor has an axial inlet with a hub diameter of 13.35cm and an eye

diameter of 25.40cm. The compressor has a radial exhaust and the rotor tip diameter is 50.80cm. If the

average inlet Mach number is 0.7 determine: (a) the mass flow through the compressor, (b) the power

required to drive the compressor, (c) the total temperature at the compressor exit, (d) the portion of the

required power due to the centrifugal effect, (e) the overall pressure ratio of the machine, if the adiabatic

efficiency of compression η c=85%.

40

rhub

rtip reye

8. Carry out problem 7 for the case where instead of the engine being operated on a test stand it is operating

in an aircraft flying at M0=0.7 at sea level where the atmospheric conditions are those of a standard day.

9. A turbojet engine is operated under standard sea level conditions and the following measurements are

made at the compressor exit: stagnation temperature equals 216C and stagnation pressure equals 482kPa.

The airflow through the compressor is determined to be 27.2kg/s. Determine: (a) the work input required

per unit mass of air, (b) the power required, (c) the adiabatic compression efficiency of the compressor, and

(d) the torque exerted on the fluid at a rotational speed of 12,000rpm.

10. A compressor operates with a stagnation pressure ratio of 4 and an inlet stagnation temperature of 5C.

If the exit stagnation temperature is 171C, what is the adiabatic efficiency of compression?

11. A radial bladed centrifugal compressor designed with zero pre-whirl (axial entry) for a turbojet engine

is shown in the sketch below and has the following data:

impeller eye radius=15cm impeller hub radius=7cm

impeller tip width=4.4cm number of vanes=29

diffuser inner radius=30.5cm

diffuser outer radius=40.6cm N=16,750rpm

The compressor operates with an axial inlet Mach number of 0.8 at maximum rpm at the impeller inlet as

the aircraft moves through the atmosphere at standard sea level conditions.

41

Impeller wheel Impeller

shroud

40.6 4.4

30.5

15

7 Hub

26.3

Eye

Diffuser

(a) Determine the linear speed of rotation at the impeller tip, eye, and hub

(b) Determine the inlet flow area allowing for 5% blockage by vane thickness

(c) Sketch the inlet blade design showing proper diameters and blade angles at the hub,

eye, and at the station midway between the two.

(d) Calculate the airflow rate

(e) If τ =0.94 draw the exit velocity diagram to scale and indicate all magnitudes

(f) If η c=80% determine p3, pt3, T3, and Tt3

(g) What is the entrance angle for the fixed diffuser vanes? (Note that angular momentum of the

fluid is conserved in the annulus between the impeller tip and the diffuser entrance

(h) What is the diffuser entrance Mach number?

(i) What is the pressure ratio of the compressor pt3/pt2?

(j) What is the torque and power required to drive the impeller?

12. Consider a staged axial flow compressor with the general configuration shown in the sketch below.

Only the rotor of the first stage is shown and it accepts air from the inlet guide vanes with the following

conditions: p2=96.2kPa, T2=289K. The rotor mean line has r=30.5cm, α 2=60o, β 2=80o, and u2=427m/s.

42

w2 c2

Inlet guide vane c2a c2

u

30.5cm

rotor

u

first

stage

c3 c3

stator w3 c3a

12.7cm

u

(a) Draw the velocity diagram of the entry to the rotor and find w2, c2, c2a and then find pt2, Tt2, and M2,

where the last 3 items are based upon the absolute velocity c2.

(b) Determine N, the rotational speed of the machine in rpm.

(c) If the stagnation pressure ratio across the rotor is1.15 and η c=85%, find c3u-c2u.

(d) Draw the exit velocity diagram to scale and find w3, c3, β 3, α 3, assuming c2a=c3a.

(e) Find the blade angle of the first stator passage at the median radius r of the rotor.

(f) Determine the airflow rate for the compressor if the blade height is 12.7cm assuming that 5% of the

flow passage is blocked by blade leading edges.

(g) Calculate the required torque, power, and work per unit mass for this first stage.

(h) Determine the power required to drive a compressor using 13 stages like the first stage.

(i) Calculate the static pressure rise achieved in the one stage shown.

(j) Determine the percent reaction of the one stage shown

13. A 50% reaction stage of an axial flow turbine has blades 12.7cm in height and a linear speed of rotation

u=366m/s at the mean line of the rotor where the diameter is d=76.2cm. The stagnation temperature and

stagnation pressure entering the stator from the combustor are Tt=1144K and pt=687kPa. The angle for the

stator exit absolute velocity is α 4=25o.

combustor exit

c4

stator

α w4

4

38.1cm u stage

c4

rotor

u

stator c5 w5 x

u

12.7cm

43

Problem 13 Axial flow turbine

(a) Draw 2 possible combined velocity diagrams for this stage. The diagrams should be neat, executed with

a straight edge or by computer, of reasonable size, clearly marked, and shown to scale. The combined

velocity diagram is one which shows the inlet and outlet velocities referenced to a single u velocity. For

example, the general velocity diagrams shown in the figure may be superimposed to form a combined

velocity diagram.

(b) Calculate the work per unit mass Wt for the case where the turbine is extracting the maximum work per

unit of entering kinetic energy 2Wt/c42

(c) Determine the blade efficiency η b, which is defined as η b=u/c4, for the case of maximum work

described in part (c) and draw the corresponding combined velocity diagram.

(d) Plot the distribution of stagnation and static values of pressure and temperature, as well as the Mach

number, through the stage as a function of x, starting from the entrance to the stator blades and ending at

the exit of the rotor blades.

(e) If the blades block 5% of the flow area determine the mass flow rate through the turbine

(f) Determine the power developed by the turbine

14. Consider an engine with the compressor and turbine performance maps given below. The exhaust

nozzle minimum section has a diameter d6=16.25in and the flight condition is take-off where M0=0.25 and

the altitude is sea level at standard day conditions. Assuming that the turbine inlet temperature is Tt4=3400R

determine the engine operating rpm N (in % of the design value), the free stream capture area A0, and the

net thrust produced. The nozzle may be assumed to be choked with A7=A6. The gas properties may be

assumed as follows: γ 2=7/5, γ 4=4/3, cp2=6006 ft2/s2-R (0.240Btu/lb-R), cp4=6864 ft2/s2-R (0.276Btu/lb-R)

and R=1716ft2/s2-R.

44

Problem 14 (a)Turbine performance map

45

Problem 14 (b) Compressor performance map. NOTE: the corrected mass flow values shown

should be multiplied by 3.6 to be used properly with the previously given turbine map for part (a)

15. For the propellant system comprised of CnH2n as fuel and O2 as oxidizer:

a1Cn H 2 n + a2 O2 → products

Determine (a) the stoichiometric fuel to oxidizer ratio (wf/wo)s and (b) the equilibrium composition of the

products of reaction for the following conditions: p=20atm, T=3000K, equivalence ratio φ =1.2, and total

mass of reactants equal to 1kg.

46

16. Consider the gaseous propellant system described by the reaction

4H 2 + O2 → products

Determine (a) the equivalence ratio φ and (b) the adiabatic flame temperature Tad. Note that this reaction

is fuel rich and it should be possible to reduce the number of product species accordingly so as to simplify

the calculation, if desired. Use p=20atm for the chamber pressure.

17. Assume that the combustor of Problem 15 is part of an engine operating on a test stand for which the

nozzle is operating in the matched mode such that pe= p0 =1atm. Determine, for both frozen flow and

equilibrium flow in the nozzle: (a) the exit, temperature Te, (b) the mixture molecular weight at the exit

We,mix, (c) the exit velocity Ve, (d) the specific impulse Isp, and (e) the exit area Ae.

18. Consider the reaction of 1 mole of bromine (Br2, gas) reacting with varying numbers of moles of

hydrogen (H2, gas) injected at a temperature Tj=298.16K. Show a graph of the variation of the adiabatic

flame temperature Tad with the weight fraction of hydrogen.

19. An axial flow compressor for a jet engine is operating on a test stand under standard sea level

atmospheric conditions. The pressure ratio provided by the compressor is p3/p1 =10 and it processes a mass

flow rate of 45.3kg/s. The dimensions of the compressor are shown on the figure below. Assuming that all

processes are steady, quasi-one-dimensional, and isentropic and that p1is measured to be 97kPa determine

the force F experienced by the load cell on the test stand, the power P required to drive the compressor, and

the temperature leaving the compressor T3. Clearly state any assumptions made.

1 2

3

Load cell

Test stand

Problem 19 Compressor rig on test stand under standard sea level conditions

47

20. Consider frictionless flow between stations 1 and 3 in a constant area duct, to which work alone may be

added between sections 2 and 3 as shown in the sketch below. (a) using Table 2-1 of the text develop

equations for the pressure, temperature, density, velocity, and work (per unit mass) done on the fluid as a

function of Mach number in the duct, (b) for air entering station 1 at p1 =101kPa, T1 =288K, and M1 =0.4

find the velocity, stagnation pressure, and stagnation temperature at station 2, (c) If 169.3kJ/kg of work is

done on the flow find the Mach number, pressure, temperature, density, velocity, stagnation pressure and

stagnation temperature at station 3.

M1

1 2 3

Wk

Problem 20 Constant area duct with work addition

21. Assume that a simple converging duct is attached to station 3 of the constant area duct of problem 17 as

shown in the sketch below. The exit of the converging duct is called station 7, with the area ratio

A7/A3=0.85. (a) Using the conditions at station 3 determined in Problem 17 find the Mach number, pressure,

temperature, density, velocity, stagnation pressure and stagnation temperature at the exit station 7. The flow

in the converging duct may be considered frictionless, with no transfer of heat or work, so that the flow in it

is isentropic. (b) Determine the net force acting on the complete unit if the radius r1=25cm.

M1

1 2 3 7

Wk

Problem 21 Constant area duct with converging nozzle added

22. A turbine blade receives hot gas from a stator with an outlet angle of 70 o as shown in the diagram. The

blade is designed to have 3o incidence at the root when the linear speed of rotation at the root is 213.4 m/s.

The absolute speed leaving the stator is 548.6m/s and the radius of the turbine disc at the root is 50.8cm, as

shown in the diagram.

(a) Find the rotor blade angle β 4 for a blade that is untwisted over its entire length

(b) Find the incidence at the tip for this untwisted blade

(c) Find the stator outlet angle α 4 and the rotor blade inlet angle β 4 at the root and at the tip under the

following set of assumptions:

(i) The original conditions pertain only to the root station

48

(ii) There is free vortex flow in the gap between the stator and the rotor, which implies that

ucu=constant through the gap and, likewise, the axial component ca=constant.

(iii) The incidence at all points along the leading edge of the blade is 3o

(iv) The rotor outlet absolute velocity c5 is 231.6m/s and is in the axial direction

(v) The deviation is 5o at all points along the trailing edge of the stator blade

stator 70o

w4

stage

50.8cm c4

rotor

u

stator

c5 -i

10.16cm i

Note that i is the incidence and δ is the deviation.

These angles are measured with respect to the

tangent to the camber line at the leading and trailing

edges, respectively. The curvature of the blade as

shown is purely illustrative and the angles are

exaggerated for clarity. +δ

49

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