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HAZARD

MANAGEMENT

OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH & SAFETY – SELF PACED LEARNING KIT


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This Icon Represents …
Section 4: Hazard Management

Overview:
• What are hazards and risks
• The hazard management (SAFER) process
• Types of hazards
• Risk assessment
• Hierarchy of control
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Hazard – means … the potential to cause injury or
illness (OHSW Regulations 1995)
A hazard is a source or a situation with a potential for harm in terms of human injury or ill
health, damage to the business, the environment or a combination of these

Purging process Cluttered Walkway Vehicle Traffic

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Risk – means… the probability and consequences
of injury or illness (OHSW Regulations 1995)
A risk is the likelihood that the hazard will cause injury or illness.

Clearing blockages during Accessing an exit via a Vehicles & pedestrians


purging process cluttered walkway sharing paths

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Hazard Management
Hazard management is a process to systematically reduce the level of risk in the workplace through hazard
identification, risk assessment and control.
Levels of responsibility:
Managers are responsible to establish, maintain and evaluate the overall hazard management system.
Supervisors are responsible for implementation and monitoring of the hazard management system.
Employees need to be involved in hazard management – this includes identifying and reporting hazards.
The SAFER approach to hazard management ….
SEE IT Identify the Hazard

ASSESS IT Risk Assessment

FIX IT Risk Control

EVALUATE IT Evaluation

REVIEW IT Review
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Hazard Management

HAZARD MANAGEMENT IS;

IDENTIFYING HAZARDS
ASSESSING RISK
CONTROLLING RISK
REVIEWING THE CONTROLS

THERE ARE 5 STEPS TO HAZARD MANAGEMENT

SEE IT - ASSESS IT - FIX IT - EVALUATE IT - REVIEW IT

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See It – Identifying Hazards …

There are several ways to identify hazards including;


- Inspections
- Hazard reports
- Injury reports and injury maps
- Ask the people doing the work
- Audits
- Near misses
- Reviewing legislative compliance TO
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See It - Types of Hazards…
Mechanical & Electrical Physical

Noise, housekeeping, manual handling


Unguarded machinery and poorly
(lifting, carrying), hot surfaces, slippery
maintained machinery, vehicles,
damaged cables, power- point HAZARD surfaces, ventilation, lighting
overloading
Chemical Psychological

Type, storage, strength, volume, toxicity, Harassment, bullying, discrimination,


compatibility unrealistic deadlines

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Assess It – Why Bother Assessing Risks ...

Once hazards are identified it is necessary to determine the level of impact they may
pose to the health, safety and welfare of people and to the business.
Risk assessment is the process of:
evaluating the probability and
consequences of injury or illness arising
from exposure to an identified hazard or
hazards.

Use your resources and effort where it will


Consequence Likelihood make the biggest difference!
Risk can be measured in relation to 2 factors
RISK = Consequence x Likelihood

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Assess It – What are the Steps …
There are 3 main steps in assessing risk using a matrix approach;

STEP 1 - CONSEQUENCES:
Identify the most likely outcome of a potential accident
Insignificant No injuries, low financial loss
Minor First aid treatment, on-site release immediately contained, medium financial loss
Moderate Medical treatment required, on-site release contained without outside assistance, high financial loss
Major Extensive injuries, loss of production capability, off-site release with no detrimental effects, major financial
loss
Catastrophic Death, toxic release off-site with detrimental effect, huge financial loss

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Assess It – Definitions …

STEP 2 - LIKELIHOOD:
Estimate the likelihood that the accident will occur

Almost Certain Is expected to occur in most circumstances

Likely Will probably occur in most circumstances


Possible Might occur at some time
Unlikely Unlikely to occur, but history of event exists within the industry
Rare May occur only in exceptional circumstance

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Assess It – What are the Steps …
STEP 3:
Using the table “The Risk Rating Matrix” find the risk level that links the
consequences and the likelihood Consequences
Insignificant Minor Moderate Major Catastrophic

Almost High High Very High Very High Very High


Certain

Likely Moderate Moderate High Very High Very High


Likelihood

Possible Low Moderate High High Very High

Unlikely Low Low Moderate Moderate High

Rare Low Low Low Low Moderate

Repeat these steps for each identified hazard and start to prioritise the risks
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Assess It – Example …
STEP 1: Identify the most
likely outcome of a
potential accident
Consequences
Insignificant Minor Moderate Major Catastrophic

STEP 2: Estimate Almost High High Very High Very High Very High
Certain
the likelihood that
the accident will
Likelihood

Likely Moderate Moderate High Very High Very High


occur

Possible Low Moderate High High Very High

Unlikely Low Low Moderate Moderate High

Rare Low Low Low Low Moderate

STEP 3: Find the box (the risk


level) that links the
consequences & the likelihood

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Assess It – Example …
‹ Forklift truck and people using shared walkways
„ Use of knives for de-flashing
z Tools left on back stairway
Consequences
Insignificant Minor Moderate Major Catastrophic
z ‹
„ Use of knives „
for de-flashing Almost High High Very High Very High Very High
is a moderate ‹ Shared
Certain Walkways are a
risk
very high risk
Likely Moderate Moderate High Very High Very High
„
Likelihood

‹
Possible Low Moderate High High Very High

Unlikely Low Low Moderate Moderate High

z
Rare Low Low Low Low Moderate

z Tools left on a back stairway are a low risk

Establishing the context is important when conducting risk assessments as the context may influence both
likelihood and consequence. For instance, in the case of the tools left on the back stairwell - there are only two
steps and the stairs are used rarely. See the case study for more information.
CASE
14 STUDY p.13
Control It – Reasonably Practicable …
Managers are responsible for determining what is appropriate to control the risks, in consultation with employees.
Supervisors are responsible for implementing controls.
Employees are responsible for following the control measures.

In determining what is appropriate to control the risks, consideration should be given to the principles of
reasonableness and practicableness as outlined below.

The concept of reasonably practicable is based on established legal case studies, existing knowledge of methods
to control the hazards and industry standards. For the purposes of hazard management; the following fundamental
approach could be applied.

The four underlying principles in determining a reasonable and practical approach are
•Foreseeability
•Causation
•Preventability
•Reasonableness

In simple terms, the principles can be considered as follows:


Foreseeability – Is it foreseeable that a person could be injured or at risk of injury as a consequence
of the hazards and workplace activities?
Causation – Is there evidence of causative factors that could result in a person being injured or at risk of injury?
Preventable – Is it possible to take reasonable action(s) to prevent a person being injured or at risk of injury?
Reasonableness – Is it reasonable to take preventable action(s) based on reasonable demands on the people
and organisations responsible, this includes financial and physical requirements
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Control It – Hierarchy of Control …
The Hierarchy of Control helps you to choose the best way to fix the issue.

Elimination Replace hazardous equipment or implement a different process


If this is not practicable, then

Substitution Substitute the hazard with something less hazardous e.g. use a less toxic
cleaning chemical

Engineering If this is not practicable, then

Controls Installing guards or automating a manual process


If this is not practicable, then

Admin Develop standard work procedures to minimise exposure to the hazard;


training, programmed inspections/audits, signage, policies, record keeping

If this is not practicable, then


PPE Ensure personal protective equipment is used e.g. safety glasses, hearing
protection, protective clothing and footwear, hard hats, face shields, gloves,
high visibility vests.

OR USE A COMBINATION OF 2 OR MORE OF THESE CONTROLS

CASE
16 STUDY p.19
Fix It – Example Risk Control Options …

HAZARD CONTROL
Forklift truck and people using shared walkways………………….... Designate and mark walkways

Use of knives for de-flashing……………………………………..………Review Die maintenance schedules


to reduce flash and hence need
for trimming

Tools left on back stairway ………………………………………………Provide for and ensure


appropriate storage of tools

Remember: The choice of risk control depends on what is reasonably practicable.

The company can be prosecuted if there are no plans in place to manage the risk
systematically.

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Fix It - Action Planning …

In order to get things to happen, risk control activities need to be carefully planned.

The plan should address;

• Action to be taken ACTION PLAN

Use this document to plan and monitor OH&S Activities


• Who is responsible to ensure action is
WHO COMPLETIO
ACTION
N DATE

carried out 1.
2.
J. Bloggs 27/03/03

3.

• Completion Date 4.

5.

(Who will do what by when) …..

The sample ‘Action Plan’ included in the OHSMS tools can be used to plan risk control activities

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Evaluate It – Check the effectiveness of risk controls…

It is important to go back and evaluate the risk controls that


have been put in place and to regularly review them in case
something has changed.

Things to consider:
• Check that risk controls are effective (re-assess the risk to determine what effect
the risk control has had)
• Check that new hazards haven’t been introduced into the workplace
• Check that general changes in the workplace haven’t created more hazards
• Check that updates to the legislation are taken into consideration

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Evaluate It – Example of Checking Controls…
It is important to check how well the control has minimised the risk…
„ Risk – Use of knives for de-flashing
z Control – Improved maintenance reduced de-flashing so knives only used rarely now

Consequences
Insignificant Minor Moderate Major Catastrophic
„z
Almost High High Very High Very High Very High
„ Use of knives for de- Certain
flashing was a moderate risk Likely Moderate Moderate High Very High Very High
Likelihood
„
Possible Low Moderate High High Very High

Unlikely Low Low Moderate Moderate High


z By using a control measure z
that changes the likelihood - the Rare Low Low Low Low Moderate
risk has changed from moderate
to low

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Review It – How is the Hazard Management Process Working …

Review is an important step in the process to ensure continuous improvement.


Conduct a review after the remedy (controls or process change) have been in
operation and ask:
Has the remedy been successful – fully or partially?
Has the fix exposed new hazards not identified before?
Should we or can we improve the fix even further?
This involves reviewing all the steps in the SAFER process and making changes
as necessary.

See it
Assess it
Fix it
Evaluate it
Review it O LS
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Additional Resources …

p.1 Information –Hazard Management: From Go to Whoa Information


p.3 Types of Hazards

O LS p.5 Sample –Hazard Management Form


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p.7 Sample – Hazard Register

p.8 Sample – Incident/Injury Tracking Chart

p.9 Sample – Incident Register

p.10 Sample – Site Injury Map

p.12 Sample – Management Review Meeting – Agenda

p.13 Case Study – Hazard Management


CASE
STUDY
p.19 Case Study – Hierarchy of Control (Use of Knives)

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