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Metal Science and Heat Treatment l,b/. 41. Nos.

11 12, 1999

UDC 669.14.018.258.8:669.131.6:621.785.53

BORONIZING AND RESISTANCE OF STEEL


AND CAST IRON TO THERMAL EROSION

S. V. Zagulyaeva, A. K. Denisyuk, and L. S. Makashova

Translated from Metallovedenie i Termicheskaya Obrabotka Metallov, No. 11, pp. 10 - 12, November, 1999.

The effect of boronizing on the structure of steels 3Kh2V8F, 4Kh5MFS, and 40Kh and gray cast iron SChI5
and their resistance to thermal erosion is investigated. A method for testing the resistance of the materials to
thermal erosion using high-frequency current (HFC) is described. It is shown that boronizing by the suggested
regime increases the resistance of all the studied materials to thermal erosion.

INTRODUCTION 3 K h 2 V 8 F , 4 K h 5 M F S and 4 0 K h and gray cast iron S C h I 5 ,


often used for plunger-pair rods.
Parts o f press molds and plunger pairs for pressure cast- The steel s p e c i m e n s (60 m m long and 20 m m in diame-
ing o f a l u m i n u m alloys are fabricated from die steels ter) w e r e fabricated from h o t - d e f o r m e d annealed prefonns,
3 K h 2 V 8 F and 4 K h 5 M F S , structural steels, and cast iron. The and the iron s p e c i m e n s were fabricated from cast preforms o f
resistance o f the parts to thermal erosion and wear is in- rods o f plunger pairs.
creased by using various kinds o f c h e m i c a l heat treatment The resistance to thermal erosion was d e t e r m i n e d by the
[1 - 3 ] . f o l l o w i n g method. Cylindrical s p e c i m e n s with a polished
surface (Ra = 0,63 jam), after boronizing, w e r e heated in an
METHODS OF STUDY
LZ-13 H F C installation to 9 2 0 - 9 5 0 ~ with hold o f 15 sec.
In the present w o r k w e studied the effect o f boronizing The length o f the part o f the s p e c i m e n from the end uni-
on the structure and resistance to thermal erosion o f steels formly heated in the inductor was 25 - 30 mm.

TABLE 1
Hardness, HRCc Layer thickness, mm
Grades
of steels Heat-treatment regimes without after boronizing continuous individual N." cycles
and cast iron boronizing borides borides
surface core
3Kh2V8F Quenching from 1100~ in oil + tem-
pering at 550~ for 1.5 h 50 51 - - 30
Boronizing + quenching + tempering ( 1 5 5 8 - 1700 HI/') 45-45.5 0.05 0.1 50
76 - 78
4Kh5MFS Quenching from 1020~ in oil +
tempering at 550~ for 1.5 h 49 - 50 - - 30
Boronizing + quenching + tempering ( 1319 HI/" ) 55 - 56 0,06 0.2 45
73
40Kh Quenching from 850~ in oil + tem-
pering at 550~ for 1.5 h 49 50 - - 0.06 0.12 25
Boronizing + quenching + tempering (742 786 HI,') 22 23 - 40
60 61
SChI5 No heat treatment 8
Boronizing + quenching (257 276 HV) 170HB - 0.12 l0
24 27

* N is the number of cycles to the appearance of thermal-erosion cracks.

473
0026-0673/99/I 112-0473$22.00 ~ 2000 KluwerAcademic/PlenumPublishers
474 S.V. Zagulyaeva et aL

Fig. 1. Microstmcture of the surface layer of steels 4Kh5MFS (a) Fig. 2. Microstructure of the surface layer (a) and core (b) of gray
and 40Kh (h) after boronizing and cooling in the container. • 250. cast iron SCh 15 after boronizing. • 250.

The elevated temperature compared to that o f the poured Then we studied the structure, measured the hardness o f
liquid aluminum 1720 - 750~ was chosen in order to create the surface and the core, and determined the resistance to
test conditions close to those of operation o f press molds and themlal erosion.
reduce the number of heating cycles to tbrmation of ther-
RESULTS AND THEIR DISCUSSION
mal-erosion cracks on the surface of the specimens. The
heated specimens were cooled in cold water. After every A study of the microstructure showed that the boronized
5 cycles scale removal was performed in a 25% solution of layer in steels 3Kh2V8F, 4Kh5MFS, and 40Kh consists o f
sulfuric acid for 10 rain. Then the specimens were washed two parts (Fig. 1). At the very surface we observe a white
with water, neutralized in a solution of alkali, and washed in layer o f borides that penetrate into the depth of the metal as
water again. Next the surface of the specimen was carefully tongues, and then there is a layer of fine globular borides
examined under a microscope in order to detect thermal-ero- whose density decreases from the surface to the core. In steel
sion cracks. The number o f cycles to the appearance o f the 40Kh the solid boronized layer penetrates into the depth o f
first crack was determined. the metal by coarser "'tongues" than in steels 3Kh2B8F and
The resistance to thermal erosion was evaluated on spec- 4Kh5MFS, and the amount o f fine borides is much lower.
imens subjected to heat treatment by the following regimes: The structure of the core o f the specimens o f steels 3Kh2VF
(1) a standard regime for the studied steels and iron and (2) and 4Kh5MFS is represented by fine acicular manensite;
boronizing, quenching, and tempering (see Table 1). that of steel 40Kh consists o f troostite with ferrite grains o f
The specimens were boronized in a boronizing powder size No. 4 (GOST 5965-70).
of grade BKB-2. They were degreased and placed in a con- The boride layer in the structure of gray cast iron
tainer with the boronizing agent, which was then put in a SChl5 has a nonuniform depth (Fig. 2a). There are no
chamber furnace heated to 1030~ After a 2.5-h hold the "tongues" as observed in the steels. The structure o f the ma-
container with the specimens was cooled in water. The tully trix is represented by pearlite. The graphite inclusions at a
cooled specimens, after boronizing, were unloaded from the distance over t.5 mm from the surface are surrounded by fer-
container and tempered at 550~ for 1.5 h. rite (Fig. 2b ).
Boronizing and Resistance of Steel and Cast Iron to Thermal Erosion 475

It can be seen from Table 1 that boronizing has a positive mains virtually the same. It seems that the graphite inclu-
effect on the resistance to thermal erosion and the hardness sions in the cast iron have a more negative effect on the resis-
o f the studied materials. Steel 3Kh2V8F has the highest sur- tance to thennal erosio that exceeds the positive effect o f the
lhce hardness after boronizing, and gray cast iron has the boronized layer.
lowest hardness (see Table 1). The core hardness in steels
3Kh2VSF and 4 K h 5 M F S after boronizing at 1030~ REFERENCES
quenching (cooling in the container with the boronizing
agent and the specimens in water), and tempering (550~ is 1. S. N. Pikalov et al., (Jke o/B(,'cmizing Agent o[Grade BMB.#,"
high (45 - 46 HRCe ). Local Bolwnizing olDies. Methodological Recommendations [in
Russian], VNITEMR (t989).
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CONCLUSION Russian], Mashinostroenie, Moscow (I 986).
3. V. N. Zhuravlev, R. R. Faskhutdinov, and A. N. Chernyi, "'In-
The resistance o f all the studied steels to thermal erosion creasing the endurance of steels for press molds," Metalloved.
after boronizing increases, whereas that o f the cast iron re- Term. Ohrah. Met., No. 5. 18 23 (1989).