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DETAIL Praxis

Timber Construction
Details
Products
Case studies

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2
DETAIlPraxis
Timber Construction

Authors:

Theodor Hugues, Umv.-Prof. Dr. -ing., architect,


Faculty of Building Construction and Materials at
the Technical University ot Munich
Ludwig Steiger, Dipl.-lng. Univ., architect,
the Technical University of Munich
Johann Weber. Dipl.-lng. (FH), Theodor Hugues
the Technical University of Munich Ludwig Steiger
Johann Weber
Drawings:
Michaela Jurck, Dipl.-lng. Univ.

Secretary's Office.
Marga Cervinka
Contents
Editorial Department:
Friedemann Zeitler, Dipl.-lng. Univ., architect 9 Introduction
Nicola Kollmann, Dipl.-lng. (FH)
11 House A
Translation German/English: 12 Exterior wall, plinth
Robin Benson (pp. 1-50, 97-110), 13 Interior wall, floor above basement
Adam Blauhut (pp. 51-53), 14 Exterior wall, floor/ceiling, window
Elizabeth Schwaiger (pp. 54-65), 15 Interior wall, floor/ceiling, door
David Berry (pp. 66-78) 16 Exterior wall, ceiling, eaves
Detail (pp. 80-96}
17 Exterior wall, ceiling, verge
18 Exterior wall, services installation shaft
DTP 8 Production:
19 Party wall
Peter Gensmantel, Cornelia Kohn, Andrea Linke,
Roswitha Siegler
21 House B
22 Exterior wall, plinth
° 2004 Institut fur international 23 Interior wall, sole plate
Architektur-Dokumentation GmbH & Co.KG, 24 Exterior wall, foundation
P.O.Box 33 06 60. D-80066 Munich, Germany 25 Interior wall, foundation
26 Exterior wall, floor/ceiling, window
ISBN 3-7643-7032-7 27 Interior wall, floor/ceiling, door
28 Exterior wall, eaves
Printed on acid-free paper, manufactured from 29 Exterior wall, verge
chlorine-free bleached cellulose. 30 Exterior wall, corner
31 Party wall
Printed by:
Wesel - Kom m u n i kati on
33 Product overview
Baden-Baden
34 Timber
Institut fur Internationale
A CIP catalogue record far this book is available Architektur-Dokumentation GmbH 8 Co.KG
40 Manufactured Wood Products
from the Library of Congress, Washington, D.C., Sonnenstrasse 17, D-80331 Munich 50 Building boards
USA Tel. +49 89 38 16 20-0 53 Insulating materials
Fax +49 89 39 86 70 66 Sheathing paper
Bibliographic information published by Die e-mail: vertneb@detail.de 70 Joints and fasteners
Deutsche Bibliothek Internet: www.detail.de 76 Wood preservation
Die Deutsche Bibliothek lists this publication in 78 Joint sealing tapes
the Deutsche Nationalbibliografie; detailed Distribution Partner:
bibliographic data is available on the internet at Birkhauser - Publishers for Architecture Overview of exemplary constructions
http://dnb.ddb.de P.O.Box 133. CH-4010 Basel, 81 Exemplary constructions
Switzerland
This work is subject to copyright. All rights are Tel. +41 61 205 07 07
97 Technical information
reserved, whether the whole or part of the material Fax +41 61 205 07 92
100 Standards
is concerned, specifically the right of translation, e-mail: sales@birkhauser.ch
101 Literature
reprinting, re-use of illustrations, recitation, broad- http .//Www. birkhauser.ch
casting, reproduction on microfilms or in other
102 References
ways, and storage in databases. For any kind of in co-operation with the
107 Subject index
use, permission of the copyright owner must be Verbande des Baye rise hen Zimmerer- und 109 Index of projects
obtained. Holzbaugewerbes. Munich 110 Picture credits
si:

The Arbeitsheft Holzbau, the precursor


of this book, arose at the suggestion of
the Bayerisches Zimmerer- und Holz-
baugewerbe and was sponsored by the
Stiftung des Bayerischen Zimmerer- und
Holzbaugewerbes Donat Miiller.

The authors should like to extend their


special thanks to Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing
Heinrich Kreuzinger (load-bearing
structure) and Dipl,-lng. (FH) Georg Wust
and Dipl.-fng. (FH) Woffgang Hallinger
(construction and materials).
Introduction

Introduction

The Arbeitsbeft Holzbau is intended as an The greater part of House B is designed


aid to all those working in the field of con- to be produced in the workshop and
struction. However, it is neither a con- assembled from prefabricated wall ele-
struction manual nor an encyclopaedia of ments, floors and a roof on a floating
materials. It aims to show the relationship foundation, assuming that the subsoil is
between design, detail work and the built suitable. The roof has been fitted out and
product. What has emerged is a very integrated into the interior.
handy book which summarises, in a user- The design is based on a dimensional co-
friendly manner, all the material found in ordination of 62.5 cm, corresponding to
offices and enterprises that deals with the basic elements of panel construction
building with wood. To avoid the selection such as the panel dimensions of the ply-
presenting here falling prey to rapid wood, chipboard and, above all, plaster-
House A House B obsolescence and, above all. premature board / gypsum-fibre board. This dimen-
obsolescence, it has been limited to sional co-ordination has proven to be a
basic designs and proven materials. useful standard for partial and full prefab-
rication.
Part 1
The first part provides an overview of fhe The development of the skin and its
exemplary use of building components, material implementation has been exe-
component layers and building materials cuted in accordance with the different
and their integration into the overall struc- goals of the two projects.
ture of two prototypical limber houses of
different design. Questions concerning Part 2
building physics, such as heat, and The generic terms of building materials
sound insulation, vapour and fire protec- and joints and fasteners have been ital-
tion, draught proofing and jointing are icised in the commentary on the details.
briefly explained and presented in In part 2 they are listed in the sub|ect
graphic examples of details and joints index under the marked generic term
typical of wooden construction. along with products, specifications and
Two simple, common types of terraced manufacturers.
house have been designed and con-
structed to illustrate the interconnections Part3
and the problems. Common to both types The brief illustrated documentation of the
is the relatively low roof pitch permitting nine completed projects is intended to
the use of light roofing materials, Both convey an impression of the diverse
houses can be heated with gas. types of wooden buildings, showing the
designs chosen, the specific ways in
House A\sa craft-built timber-framework which the details have been elaborated,
house standing on a cellar, its lattice- and the materials used.
work walls rest on the cellar walls and the
floor above the cellar and bear a wooden Part 4
joist ceiling as well as a doubly supported The appendix contains technical informa-
roof structure which has not been fitted tion, a summary of the pertinent guide-
out. The distance between the post axes lines and standards together with a bibli-
and the ceiling joists is 125 cm, making it ography and a list of manufacturers, also
a multiple of the module of 62.5 cm, includes cross-references that allow read-
which many of the building materials ers to follow the path from the manufac-
observe, The disadvantage of using turer to the product and its use and vice
thicker boarding on the visible joists has versa, as well as a subject index and list
to be weighed up against the spatial (hall of names,
width, cubic measure) and the design
advantages (door and window openings
without trimming). It could be reduced to
83.33 cm (250 cm: 3).
To improve the dimensions of the roof
overhang at the eaves and the verge, the
rafter spacing between was halved to
62.5 cm.
House A House A

House A

12 Exterior wall, plinth


13 Interior wall, floor above basement
14 Exterior wall, floor/ceiling, window
15 Interiorwall, floor/ceiling, door
16 Exterior wall, ceiling, eaves
17 Exterior wall, ceiling, verge
18 Exterior wall, services installation shaft
19 Party wall

All of the detail drawings are drawn to a


scale of 1:10.
The yellow squares refer to specific texts.
The diverse building components have
been developed as variations and repre-
sent exemplary solutions that must be
adapted to specific marginal conditions,
prevailing legislation, standards and man-
ufacturers' recommendations. The
authors shall not be liable for any claims
made against them on the basis of the
material presented here.

10
House A House A
Exterior Wall, Plinth Interior Wall, Floor above Basement

d f

Under DIN 18195, and to ensure that the The exterior wall construction consists of The ventilation cross-section between the The interior lining comprises vertical
wood is protected, a plinth height of 12 x 12 cm posts with a unit spacing of weatherboarding and the inner board is matchboards attached to a horizontal bat-
30 cm must be observed. Although a 125 cm, and a vertical or horizontal inter- sufficient to ensure ventilation of the exte- ten substructure. If the post spacing is
plinth can be lower in principle, special mediate structure adapted both to the rior skin. 125 cm, the substructure should have a
measures must be taken where this is the substructure of the exterior and interior If more resistant and well-patinated wood cross-section of at least 30 x 50 mm or -
case, for example: a roof overhang, off- lining and to the format of the thermal species such as larch, cedar and Doug- better s t i l l - 4 0 x 6 0 mm.
sets, weather-protected sides, and insulation. Insulation can be applied panel las fir are used, the surface boarding In this area, dimensional tolerances can
coarse gravel strips to reduce water or roll form, or sprayed on in flake form. need not be treated. However, this will not be compensated for and electrical cables
splashing. Flakes should only be injected if there are prevent the wood from greying, which is laid. However, there is too little space to
sealed chambers between the posts. harmless in any case. If other woods are fit electric sockets here without piercing
The perimeter insulation of the exterior
A softboard is fixed across the entire used, a weather-protective layer, such as the vapour retarding layer inside the ther-
basement wall is covered on the outside
bearing structure to reduce heat loss a glaze or a coat of paint, will be neces- mal insulation. As it is difficult to mount
for aesthetic reasons and to offer protec-
through the structure and the joints. The sary - depending on the resistance class. connections on the vapour retarding layer,
tion against any mechanical damage, for
panels, to which battens can be directly electric sockets and switches should be
instance, with a fibre-cement slab.
fixed, are rebated to provide draught- installed on the Interior walls whenever
proofing. possible.
Lib
If a fibrous insulating material is used.
The perimeter insulation and the wall vertical battening and some kind of •
structure must be made to harmonise with draughtproofing will be necessary.
one another at the transition of the perim- The load-bearing interior walls also con-
eter insulation to the facade. The cross- sist of 12 x 12-cm post with horizontal
section for the ventilation must not be rails. The sill plate must be anchored in
obstructed in any way. If banked-up the same way as the exterior wall to the
coarse gravel is used to push the lower floor above the basement. It is not neces-
panel edge against the insulating board, sary to observe minimum distances (the
the fibre-cement slab need only be fas- stairwell being an exception) between the
tened with a batten along its upper edge. heavy-duty bolt and the concrete edge
The vertical panel joint must be executed here.
in a way that prevents moisture from When constructing the floor, care must be
seeping behind the panel. taken that the sill plate is high enough to
ensure that the floating screed terminates
at an edge insulating strip. Although flush
U c
skirting boards offer a more elegant solu-
tion, they are also more expensive.
The wooden sill plate must take up the
tolerances of the concrete floor above the
basement, The joint is sealed with high- Dh
expansion cement mortar. The wooden sill
plate must be impregnated both to pro- The electrical installations are routed
tect it and insulate it from the concrete through the cavity in the interior wall,
floor. Chemical wood preservative is not which is soundproofed with a mineral- or
necessary if timber species with a high coconut-fibre panel. If stable load-bearing
resistance class are used. To attach the structures are used (for example, solid
bar-reinforced sill plate to the floor, the structural timber with additional horizontal
plate is drilled through and then anchored rails), the boarding can be mounted
with a heavy-duty bolt, taking care that a directly. Alternatively, plywood or OSB
safe distance is maintained to the edge of panelling can be used.
the concrete.
(Alternatively, the sill plate can be fixed
with an angle attached to the side or with
a ragbolt cast in concrete,)

12 13
House A
House A
Exterior Wall, Floor/Ceiling, Window
Interior Wall, Floor/Ceiling, Door

— c
The window, which is mounted flush with
As a structural grid of 125 cm has been
the wall and tixed to the rail at sill level
chosen for the building, tongued-and-
with a metal angle, provides a simple
grooved floor covering is required. A floor
transition to the overlapping vertical
comprising plain floorboards on timber
weatherboards. Care must be taken that
bearing strips laid loose and filled with
the angle is mounted on the bearing
insulating material will suffice for a
structure in front of the soft particleboard.
detached house. If prefabricated parquet
The draughtproofing can be fixed to a bat-
or sheet flooring is preferred, it is advisa-
ten beneath the outer window frame.
ble to lay the flooring on a load-bearing
A similar procedure is adopted on the
surface of ready mixed dry screed. Air-
inside when connecting the vapour retard-
borne-sound insulation can be optimised
ing layer to fhe prefabricated window
by putting loose fill beneath the impact-
frame, which is fixed to the outer frame.
sound insulation or by ballasting the floor
Before the vapour retarding layer is
structure with, for example, paving flags
mounted, the joint between the window
attached with adhesive to give a shear-
frame and the bearing structure must be
resistant bond.
carefully filled out or foam-filled with insu-
lating material.
d
Joint sealing tape must also be applied to
ensure that the window is airtight.
The joint between the lintel beam and the
In January 2002, the Ordinance on
doorframe is filled in with insulating mate-
Energy Saving came into effect, which
rial to improve the sound insulation of the
tightened up the requirements for exterior
interior wall. The rebate in the solid door
walls. Under the ordinance, these walls
frame not only seals the joint with the inte-
must be constructed and verified as
rior-wall lining, but also creates a harmo-
totally draught-proof enclosures. This
nious transition between the door and
applies, in fact, to all junctions, especially
window flashing on the one hand, and the
for those at the window surrounds.
interior boarding on the other.

._. b
De
The exposed transverse joists in the floors The fioor joists rest on the head of the
are fixed to the posts with galvanised interior load-bearing wall, The space
steel sheet Joist hangers. To ensure that between the joists is sealed with an addi-
vapour is fully retarded, a section of foil - tional rail at the same level as the joists.
to which the vapour retarding layer is sub- This area can now be covered with a
sequently attached - is attached to the board, as was the case with the exterior
bearing structure when the beam is fixed. wall.
A board is fitted between the beams to a
batten substructure to create a flush con-
f
nection to the interior wall cladding and
cover the underside of the joint between
the panelling and the bearing structure. The solid door frame is connected to the
This step is necessary as swelling may floor by a threshold, a measure which not
cause movement in the panelling. only ensures greater stability when trans-
To prevent airborne noise entering at the porting the door frame, but also makes it
edge of the ceiling, the joint between the possible to lay the flooring without having
floor and the wall must be carefully filled to fit it into the door reveal.
in with insulating material. To provide adequate impact-sound insula-
tion here too, an insulating strip is fitted
between the threshold and the flooring.
The joint between the threshold and the
planks is filled with a cork strip to absorb
any movements in the materials.

14
15
House A House A
Exterior Wall, Floor/Ceiling, Eaves Exterior Wall, Floor/Ceiling, Verge

• nc
A sheet-metal covering joined with locked To ensure that the roof edge is kept as
double-welt standing seams and laid on a narrow as possible, the seam at the verge
separation layor has been chosen for the is bent over and bonded to the overhang-
roof covering. If the separation layer is to ing roof boarding to form a drip batten.
serve as sheathing, a more resistant The building's low height allows for a
material, appropriately laid, should be sheet bay width of 62,5 cm and thereby
used. The rafter spacing of 62.5 cm cor- harmonises the locked double-welt stand-
responds to the support-grid of 125 cm. ing seams with the rafter arrangement,
Instead of planed boarding, a panel of which corresponds to half the structural
watertight adhesive bonded plywood has grid.
been used, which allows the roof-skin
overhang to be extended over the ends of d
the rafters at the eaves. A chemical wood
preservative, as required under DIM 68 In the gable area, the exterior wall struc-
800, is unnecessary. ture only extends as far as the fioor
As the overhang is to be fixed to the raft- beneath the roof void. The roof void is not
ers, its size must be adapted to the length insulated to the outside. In order to fit the
of the gutter bracket. The panel widths insulation, the draughtproofing and the
are obtained by dividing a standard panel vapour retarding layer ai the transition from
in equal parts to avoid waste, for example the wall to the ceiling, an edge beam has
by quartering a 125 cm-wide panel. been fitted to the roof boarding so that
the individual insulating layers can be
b attached to both its long sides.

The floor beneath the roof void is


designed in the same way as the upper
floor, whose joists are connected to the The vertical exterior boarding extends as
posts by beams. A carpenter fits the far as the lower edge of the roof board-
vapour retarding layer and the thermal ing; it is screwed to a plank running along
insulation in sections, connecting them the edge rafter on the lower side of the
with the ceiling boarding to the roof roof boarding. At this edge, air from both
boarding of the profiled planks. They are the ventilated roof and the wall construc-
then covered with a water-repellent tion can escape through the ventilation
draughtproofing designed to allow diffu- cross-section of the overlapping vertical
sion. The roof overhang on the gable side weatherboarding.
calls for a relatively large cross-section
for the projecting eaves purlins. The f
draughtproofing is attached to the eaves
puriin. A vertical plank, fixed to the side of the
posts, will provide sufficient support for
the load-bearing roof boarding at the
gable wall.

16 17
House A House A
Exterior Wall. Services Installation Shaft Party Wall

The exterior corner of the overlapping In the area of the shaft, the vapour retard-
vertical weatherboarding is easily made ing layer is fixed to the inside of the bear-
by connecting the window boards to cre- ing structure to ensure that the service
ate a butt joint. The boards are fixed to lines do not unnecessarily penetrate the
the horizontal battens with nails or screws vapour retarding layer,
of stainless steel (they may be galvanised The floor structure continues through the
only in exceptional cases! to avoid corro- services shaft. If lines run vertically, the
sion stains on the boarding, Each board ceiling boarding must be drilled or cut out
is fixed separately to avoid tension due to to the size of the conduits.
swelling and shrinkage.
The joint can be made airtight by overlap-
ping or bonding the boards at the corner. Dd

According to the building regulations and


DIN 4102, a party wall must comply with
fire resistance class F 30 B on the room
Normally, boards of equal width are used side and F 90 B in the cavity.
for the overlapping vertical weatherboard- These requirements are fulfilled on the
ing, As the outer boards overlap those interior by using a single layer of planking
beneath them - approx. 25 mm on each with 12.5 mm fire-resistant plasterboard.
side - the boards appear to be of differ- For the exterior, two-layers of planking
ent widths. This system allows for differ- with fire-resistant plasterboard ( 2 x 1 8 mm)
ences in spacing between the boards, are required. In the case of terraced
obviating the need to use door and win- houses, this requirement applies to both
dow flashings of special widths. It is buildings. During construction, the side of
essential that the facade be planned the building must be planked before the
carefully and all measurements be pre- wall is erected,
cisely attuned to the positioning of the
boards. The expansion joint between the houses
is not filled for reasons of sound insulation.
When windows are installed flush, they A vapour retarding layer and draught-
must be attached to the side of the outer proofing are not necessary in the party
frame in such a way that the overlapping wall. All things considered, this type of
weatherboard seals the joint between the wall structure is a relatively costly and
outer frame and the wall. There is no time-consuming affair. In timber construc-
need for the casement to be rebated at tion, however, there is no recognised
the side. The draughtproofing, insulation alternative to this approach.
and the vapour retarding layer are con-
nected to the wall structure in precisely
the same way as the window to the lintel
and the parapet beam.
Under the building regulations, a terraced
house is a low-rise building whose party
walls are constructed like compartment
walls. In the cavity, the F 90 planking can
For the services shaft, a substructure end at the inside of the overlapping verti-
comprising 6 x 20 or 8 x 20 cm posts is cal weatherboarding. The boarding venti-
necessary. Optimally, it is constructed lation space must, however, be sealed
half a grid space in the exterior wall to with a non-flammable insulating material
reduce the span of the planking. Ceramic such as mineral fibre extending at least
tiles are bonded to the gypsum fibreboard the width of the party wall. The boarding
or impregnated plasterboard (identifica- can be continued uninterrupted across
tion colour: green). the expansion joint.
When connecting the sanitary fittings, the
location and dimensions of the posts and
rails must be taken into consideration, [f
the rib spacing exceeds 40 cm, two lay-
ers of plasterboard will be necessary.

18 19
House I
House.

22 Exterior wall, plinth


23 Interior wall, sole plate
24 Exterior wall, foundation
25 Interior wall, foundation
26 Exterior wall, floor/ceiling, window
27 Interior wall, floor/ceiling, door
28 Exterior wall, eaves
29 Exterior wall, verge
30 Exterior wall, corner
31 Party wall

20
21
House B House B
Exterior Wall, Plinth Interior Wall, Sole Plate

Before constructing a floating foundation been fitted to the structural timbers (soft- The height of the elements corresponds
with a load-bearing reinforced concrete wood timbers measuring 6 x 12 to 6 x to that of the room(s), which, in turn, must
slab on frost blanket gravel, it is first nec- 16 cm, depending on the insulation comply with standard board dimensions.
essary to carry out preliminary investiga- standard). The element lengths partly depend on the
tions to determine the soil type and estab- The above procedure makes it easier to method of transport and assembly used.
lish its bearing capacity. A rapidly drain- fix the sill to the floor and install the wall Elements can extend the entire width of
ing, concentrated soil with a good bear- elements. the house.
ing capacity is absolutely essential. The If the panelling is to be used for reinforce-
top layer of soil must be replaced by a ment, permission must first be obtained The interior wall elements, which must
layer of clean gravel approx. 40 cm deep, from the building supervisory authorities. comply with the standard dimensions of
which is then carefully compressed and The elements are screwed to the con- board materials and construction timbers,
covered with a sub-base of 5-10 cm- struction, which is then sound insulated, comprise structural limbers made of soft-
thick grade B5 concrete on which the vapour retarded and lined on the interior wood and measure 6/12 cm (centre dis-
reinforced floor slab is cast. with plasterboard or wood-based panels. tance = 62.5 cm). Like the exterior wall
elements, they should initially be panelled
Db If the interior panelling is to be attached on one side only. Once they have been
directly to the structural timber elements. constructed and installed, they should be
On the interior, the floor slab must be great care must be taken when planning clad with plasterboard or wooden panels.
thermally insulated beneath the screed. the services, particularly the electric If the cavity between the structural timber
The transition to the exterior wall is a weak installations. If there is no alternative to elements has not been completely filled
point. This problem can be overcome connecting sockets to the exterior wall, with expanded mica, cellulose flakes, etc.,
(and the planned insulation standard protected sockets with an adhesive edge it should be filled with mineral or coconut-
maintained) by fitting impervious thermal must be used. The sockets must be care- fibre sound insulation at least 30-40 mm
Insulation to the front side of the sole plate fully bonded to the vapour retarding layer or - preferably - 60 mm thick.
and covering the insulation either with a and provided with external insulation. Higher sound-insulation values can be
flat fibre-cement slab or concrete roofing obtained by applying double panelling or
tiles. fitting additional "floating" panel cladding
with flexible wall connections.

f
Prior to installing the prefabricated exte-
rior wall elements, a sill is put in place, Appropriately bonded wooden panels or
aligned, underlaid and fixed to the con- impregnated plasterboard (identification
crete slab with either lug angles and dow- colour green) must be used in the humid
els or anchor bolts. The space between rooms. Gypsum fibreboard has the advan-
the sill and the floor slab is filled with high- tage of not requiring additional treatment.
expansion cement mortar. Since it is par- Two layers of gypsum fibreboard will be
ticularly exposed to hazards, the sill must necessary if humid rooms are to be tiled
be protected to meet hazard class 2 or the spacing between the structural tim-
requirements. Alternately, a very resistant bers exceeds approx. 42 cm.
wood species can be used, which will
eliminate the need for chemical wood
protection. The shrinkage ratio of the noggings must
be taken into account when attaching the
The damp-proof course on the floor slab panelling. Owing to their cross-section,
is first bonded or welded to the seal this ratio is small and can be reduced still
beneath the sill. Then the plasterboard further by using pre-dried wood.
lining is attached to the elements, which
are initially left unclad on the interior.

A permit must be obtained from the build-


ing supervisory authorities before the pre-
fabricated insulated wall elements can be
erected. Although these elements are
subsequently panelled on both sides
(clad elements), with most wooden con-
structions it is customary to panel them
with plywood sheeting or plasterboard on
the outside only at first, and to leave them
unclad on the room side until they have

22 23
House B House B
Exterior Wall, Foundation Interior Wall, Foundation

A different and perhaps more consistent Beneath the interior walls, there is no
approach to wood construction as a "dry" need for frost-proof foundations or for
construction method is to use a floor con- continuous footing concreted to the soil or
struction comprising structural timber ele- planked. The position of the footing is
ments and with excellent thermal insula- determined by that of the floor elements
tion, and to panel them on both sides. and the load-bearing interior walls.
(These elements have dimensions of The floor elements should be formed as a
approx. 6 x 20 cm, determined statically plate and anchored to the foundation with
and in accordance with insulation stand- authorised dowels or connection angles
ards.) The rising walls are connected to and stone bolts. AW 100 plywood strips or
the aligned and fixed floor elements. high-expansion cement mortar can be
Cemented chipboard and fibrated concrete used to equalise out any unevenness. A
slabs make suitable underside panels. vapour barrier of, say, polymeric bitumen
or plastic sheet is fitted between the floor
elements and the foundations to prevent
The cavity between the infilling and the
any damage through moisture. The abut-
underside of the elements must be per-
ting joint between the elements must be
manently ventilated. This can be done by
sealed with insulating strips and sealing
installing correspondingly large grated
tape,
openings on both sides of the terraced
house.

Floating dry screed composed of wood,


plasterboard, or gypsum fibreboard
panels should be installed as a dry
construction.
The PE-foil under the impact-sound insu-
lation serves as a vapour retarding layer
and simultaneously provides draught
insulation.

24 25
House B House B
Exterior Wall, Floor/Ceiling, Window Interior Wall, Floor/Ceiling, Door

The wall elements are held together by, The ceiling's structural connection to the
and aligned with, the upper headpiece. interior walls corresponds to that of the
The floor, which is composed of glued exterior walls. The problems related to
laminated beams or glued laminated tim- fitting the vapour retarding layer and
bers, is fitted and bolted in element draughtproofing do not apply here.
widths of between 60 and 250 cm
(beams) or 62.5 and 100 cm (timbers).
Mounting and shrinkage must be taken
into account when choosing the width.
The joint between the lintel and the door-
During the construction phase, the wood
frame is constructed in the same way as
- especially the solid elements - must be
that of the window (see item c). The
protected from the weather at all times to
requirements of building physics con-
prevent damage through moisture and
cerning heat, vapour and draughts, which
swelling.
present considerable practical problems,
If necessary, diaphragm action can be do not apply here.
ensured by joining the elements to make
them shear-resistant. f

u b The floor structure, which is composed of


parquet, dry screed and impact insulation,
To ensure that the light, effectively insu- has been made 3 cm thicker than usual to
lated wooden waif fulfils its function, the include a services shaft which, in turn,
vapour retarding layer must be connected accommodates the larger number ot lines
to the wall at the floor edge in a way that laid along the floor/ceiling. The problem
allows for subsequent inspection. Corre- of power-supply lines crossing one
spondingly long sections of flexible plastic another can only be surmounted by care-
sheeting that allow for diffusion must be ful planning.
wrapped round the end of the floor and Even with such a relatively "complex"
fixed on the upper side of the floor to the ceiling structure, additional measures can
vapour retarding layer sheeting of the be taken to improve airborne-sound insu-
installed wall elements. lation by, for example, using "sand hon-
eycombs".

The selected assembly system and point


in time when the exterior wall cladding is
installed determine whether the surface-
finished windows are assembled in the
workshop or on site, and whether they are
installed with or without glazing.
The windows must be fitted to the struc-
ture with a section of vapour-resistant,
flexible plastic that is fixed to the window
frame.
The joint between the lintel and the win-
dow frame performs a vital function dur-
ing installation in absorbing tolerances
and movements. It should be filled with
an insulating material (mineral fibres, min-
eral wool, sheep's wool, etc.) and sealed
with a pre-compressed seating tape or
permanently elastic sealing material. The
stringent requirements of the energy con-
servation regulations must be observed
(see also p. 14a).

26 27
House B House B
Exterior Wall, Eaves Exterior Wall, Verge

a
The roof floor of glued laminated beams or The width of the insulating panels must
glued laminated timbers is fitted to the be greater than the clear spacing of the
support and screwed to the sill. As with cross rafters to accommodate the slightly
the floor, a section of plastic sheet thai compacted thermal insulation installed
allows diffusion is guided around the between them, which has to compensate
headpiece of the roof floor and fixed to for any wood shrinkage.
the floor vapour retarding layer. The sheet The division of the substructure into
ends must be either bonded together or cross-rafters and counter battens ensures
well overlapped and fastened. that the vapour-permeable protective
layer is level and remains securely fixed.
b
The main goal here (depending on the
The height of the cross rafters is deter- thermal-insulation requirements for the
mined by the thickness of the thermal roof) is to ensure that the continuous raft-
insulation. ers do not create a thermal bridge. This
Covering the insulation with vapour per- can be avoided by installing a second
meable, water-repellent paper, or with insulating layer, as shown in the example
plastic sheeting displaying the same quali- here. Another solution is to place insula-
ties, ensures that any precipitation (rain, tion beneath the foil between the horizon-
drifting snow...) or "secondary" meltwater tal counter battens, or to install continu-
(changes in weather or cold night air that ous bituminous fibreboard decking, which
cools the underside of the non-sucking simultaneously acts as a protective layer.
roofing material) can drain off, and that
there is no reduction in insulation value.
Ventilation and drainage are ensured by
counter battens and a triangular cleat of
The efficiency of the various insulating
perforated plate, which is fixed to the
measures and the utility of a house
eaves flashing with tingles.
largely depends on whether the protec-
tive layers, which take the diverse loads
The eaves flashing rests on a plywood imposed on a building (thermal, moisture,
strip, for which the cross-rafters are cut air), can be applied consistently and
out. II is advisable to bolt the flush coun- safely to all connections. They must also
tersunk gutter hanger onto a continuous be open to inspection.
fascia.
The storage capacity of the heavy roof
members improves thermal protection
during the summer.
The dimensions and spacing chosen for
the rafter-supporting purlins depend on
the corrugated sheet roofing used.

28 29
House B House B
Exterior Wall, Corner Party Wall

• Db
If the substructure unit spacing of The elements are jointed at the corner.
62.5 cm is observed, the plywood panels Although the corner design shown here
(which are generally 125 cm wide) can be is atypical for wooden frame construc-
screwed in the centre of the panels and tions, it does make it easier to connect
at their edges. The width of the cover the elements in an open corner joint.
strips has to be calculated accurately to After it has been screwed together, the
ensure that the edge spacing of the corner must be sealed on the outside with
screws is sufficient, and to fully cover the a prefabricated, thermally insulated metal
screw heads. Narrower cover strips angle.
should not be used unless an alternative The greater requirements (regarding
way is found of fixing the facing panels building physics! placed on the exposed
(e.g. by screwing them onto more closely outside corner mean that considerable
spaced substructure elements) and the care must be taken when installing the
panel edges only has to be cramped by thermal insulation and the vapour retarding
the screwed-down cover strips. layer. The joint must be completely
packed with insulating material (filling,
Although the absence of a visible bolted injecting) and the angle sealed with tape
connection (with a shadow gap, sealing (buthyl, for instance) beneath the overlap-
tape and a correspondingly wide sub- ping joint of the vapour retarding layer
structure) on a smooth large plywood (nailed/clamped and bonded).
cladding panel does justice to the mate-
rial, it nevertheless exposes the panel
edges. This, in turn, makes it almost
impossible to prevent water absorption According to the Building Regulations
and heightens the risk of damage or and DIN 4102 T-4, party walls must have
movement from swelling and shrinkage. a fire-resistance class of F 30-B (interior)
The following protective measures can be and F 90-B (exterior). These requirements
taken here: reduce the weather loads, can be met using glued laminated beams
e.g. by circumspect alignment of the or glued laminated timber elements which
building, use large roof overhangs or can- are panelled accordingly on the outside
tilevered balcony slabs, and give all (in contrast to trie procedure adopted
edges water-repellent treatment. As these for House A). If this method is chosen,
precautions were not taken in the exam- the construction must be inspected and
ple presented here, a more resistant joint a permit may have to be obtained. As
was chosen and secured with cover an alternative to leaving an air space
strips. between the party walls, an elastic insulat-
ing material could be used here (e.g.
building class A, melting point > 1000 °C).

• d
II is necessary to establish the required
acoustic reduction (required Bw = 57 dB
or 67 dB for greater sound insulation).
Sound insulation can be improved even
more with an interior facing shell of plas-
terboard panels on spring shackles.

The expansion joint must extend to the


outer edge of the exterior wall.
The width of the non-flammable backfill
insulation must be established in co-oper-
ation with the responsible authority.

31
Products Products

Products

Timber
34 Solid wood
35 Structural solid wood
36 Glued laminated timber
37 Glued laminated beams
38 Boards/planks
39 Profile boards

Manufactured Wood Products


40 Blockboard and laminated board
41 Three- and five-ply panels
42 Laminated construction board
43 Parallel laminated veneer
44 Parallel strand lumber
45 Laminated strand lumber
46 Oriented strand board
47 Fibreboard
48 Flat-pressed boards
49 Extruded particle boards
50 Fibre-Reinforced cement boards

Building Boards
51 Fibre cement boards
52 Plasterboard
53 Gypsum fibreboard

Insulating Materials
54 Wood fibre
55 Bituminated fibreboard
56 Cork
57 Expandable polystyrene
58 Extruded polystyrene
59 Polyurethane
60 Mineral wool
61 Sheep's wool/cotton wool
62 Flax/hemp
63 Coconut fibre
64 Cellulose
65 Perlite/swelling clay

Sheathing paper
66 Vapour retarding layer/vapour barrisr
67 Damp-proofing
68 Product overview

Joints and Fasteners


70 Dowels
71 Anchors/bolts
72 Screws/staples
73 NaiIs/Nail Plates
74 Sheet steel brackets

76 Wood preservation

78 Joint sealing tapes


Timber Timber
Solid Wood Structural Solid Wood

For invitations to tender and orders: For invitations to tender and orders:
• Sawn wood species • Structural solid wood
•DIN • Identification
• Grade • Wood species
• Wood species • Thickness/height
• Sawn wood grade - Width
• Wood moisture • Length
• Thickness/height • Surface
• Width Calculated per m/m3
• Length
Calculated per m/m3

Solid Wood Material Grading Structural Solid Wood Material Manufacture


• Solid wood is debarked round timber Structural wood, which is dimensioned in Structural solid wood is a converted Wood finishes are categorised according
DIN 1052-1 and converted building timber (squared relation to its load-bearing capacity, must DIN 1052-1 building pinewood which, due to its field to use:
DIN 4074-1 timber, planks, boards and laths) of be graded mechanically, in relation to its DIN 1052-1/A1 of application, is subject to very stringent • structural solid timber for visible struc-
DIN 68365 softwood (coniferous wood) and hard- load-bearing capacity, prior to use. DIN 4074-1 requirements. Its load-bearing capacity tures (planed and chamfered)
DIN EN 350-2 wood (wood from deciduous trees). • Depending on the grading procedure, Thermal conductivity: (S 10) and appearance are graded • structural solid timber for concealed
Thermal conductivity: • Structural timber is round wood or sawn the moduli of elasticity, raw density, according to the DIN 4044-1 hardwood structures (levelled and chamfered, with
timber. The cross-sections of load-bear- knottiness and grain deviation are Vapour diffusion resistance factor: standard. the heart plank removed)
Vapour diffusion resistance factor: ing building elements are dimensioned recorded and the sawn timbers graded. H = 40 Additional requirements apply which go
H = 40 in relation to the load-bearing capacity The mechanical grades are: MS 7, Raw density: beyond DIN 4074-1 with respect to wood In both cases, finger jointing is permissi-
Raw density: dependent on timber of the wood species in question. MS 10, MS 13, MS 17 (see appendix) p = 470-590 kg/mLi moisture content, dimensional stability/ ble as spring-actuated longitudinal joint-
species • Converted building timbers are laths, • When wood is graded visually, the fol- Computation weight according to size consistency, sawing method, limi- ing. This type of jointing does not weaken
p - 450-800 kg/nV planks and squared (softwood) timber. lowing characteristics have to be con- DIN 1055-1:4-6 kN/m3 tation of crack width, and - in the case of the cross section of the wood and need
Computation weight in accordance with The following types of sawn timber are sidered: the wane, knots, annual-ring Building material classification: visible building elements - surface not be taken into account during stress
DIN 1055-1: distinguished according to their thick- width, slope of grain, cracks, stains, B2 quality. detection.
4-6kN/m 3 ness-to-width ratio: compression wood, insect damage, Wood moisture content: In the case of visible structural solid tim-
Building material classification: mistletoe attack and warp. The visual 15 ± 3 % identification ber, a heart-free cut is obligatory for cross
B2 'Thickness d Width b grades are: S 7, S 10, S 13 (see appen- Amount of swelling and shrinkage The product must display a kite mark. sections of up to 100 mm. This is made
Thermal capacity: Height h [mm] Jmm] dix). The DIN standards S 7, S 10, S 13 per % change in wood moisture In addition, it must bear the kite mark of by removing a 40 mm-thick heart plank, A
C = 350 kJ/mJK Lath d <. 40_ b<80 correspond to the old quality classes I, 0.24 % across the grain the Uberwachungsgemeinschaft Kon- heart-free cut is obligatory for all other
Wood moisture content: Board d<:40 b:>80 II, Ml. struktionsvollholz aus deutscher Produk- cross-sectional thicknesses and for the
as dry structural wood < 20 % There is no difference between visual and Wood species: tion e.V. (accreditation body for German entire range of visible structural solid
Amount of swelling and shrinkage Squared timberiblfh <. 3b b >40 mechanical grades with respect to load- • spruce solid structural wood products). woods.
per % change in wood moisture bearing capacity. •fir
0.24 % across the grain Use •pine Use
Sawn softwood may be used in all areas Sawn timber grades: • larch Structural solid wood is primarily used Manufacturerfs) (selection)
Commonly used timber species of construction. When load-bearing Sawn-wood Grading Permissible when the wood used has to fulfil strict Ante-Holz GmbH
• spruce timbers are used for external building grade wane requirements concerning its load-bearing Eugen Decker Holzindustrie
• fir elements, appropriate measures must be S - - capacity, appearance, dimensional accu- Ambros Fichtner Holzwerk
• pine taken to preserve the wood (treatment A S13 1/8 racy and shape retention. In wooden Anton Heggenstaller AG
• larch with chemicals or structural reinforce- B S10 1/3 house construction, structural solid wood Anton Hess GmbH+Co KG
• Douglas fir ment). In order to minimise fluctuations in C S7 Saw-marked is used primarily in the construction of Hulster-Holz GmbH & Co.KG
wood moisture as well as the related neg- sides fully insulated structures. Johann Kirchhoff GmbH
Dimensions ative consequences brought about by Merkle Holz GmbH
Cross-section dimensions for square shrinkage and swelling, the moisture con- Manufacturerfs) As the wood has a moisture content of Rettenmeier GmbH & Co.KG
timber stock [cm]: tent of the wood used should correspond Converted building timber is available 15 ± 3 %, it need not be treated with Holz Schmidt GmbH
6/6, 6/8. 6/12, to its moisture content in service. directly from sawmills as dimensional tim- chemical preservatives. Schollmayer Holz GmbH
8/8, 8/10, 8/12, 8/16 ber (square timber stock) and can be Matthaus Sturm GmbH
10/10. 10/12,10,20, 10/22 In-service moisture content: ordered in a wide variety of cross-section Holzwerke Wimmer GmbH
12/12, 12/14, 12/16, 12/20, 12/24 Heated buildings enclosed on all sides dimensions and lengths. Dimensions (mmj
14/14, 14/16, 9±3% 60x120/140/160/180 Information
16/16, 16/18, 16/20, Without heating Information 60 x 200/240 Uberwachungsgemeinschaft
18/22 12±3% Bundesverband Deutscher Holzhandel 80 x 120/140/160/200/240 Konstruklionsvollholz aus deutscher
20/20, 20/24 Covered, open buildings e.V. '00x120/200 Produktion e.V.
Length: 15 ± 3 % Bund Deutscher Zimmermeister e.V. 120x120/200/240 Bund Deutscher Zimmermeister e.V.
depending on the sawing facilities of the Constructions exposed to the weather on Lignum Length: with finger jointing any number of Bundesverband Deutscher
sawmill: up to 16 m. all sides 18 ± 6 % Proholz 'engths is possible Holzhandel e.V.
Timber Timber
Glued Laminated Timber Glued Laminated Beams

For invitations to tender and orders; For invitations to tender and orders:
• Wood species - Manufacturer
• Glued laminated timber grade • Wood species
• Width, height, length • Thickness/width/length
• Gluing • Surface
• Surface Calculated per m/mJ
• Wood preservation measures
Calculated per m3

Glued Laminated Timber Material Manufacture Glued Laminated Beams Material Manufacture
Glue-laminated timber is a modified solid The individual laminates used to make Glued laminated beams are solid, flat, Glued laminated beams are generally
DIN 1052-1/A1 EC 5 wood in which the weakening influence of glued laminated timber must be at least Non-standardised building elements. They are composed of prefabricated. After the laminations have
DIN 4074-1 growth-related defects has been largely 6mm thick and not exceed 33 mm. They may only be used if permission is layers of boards or planks connected to been dried to a wood moisture content of
Thermal conductivity: cancelled out. Straight building components may be [granted on the basis of the local Building each other with nails or hardwood drift 15 + 3% they are levelled, arranged
*.ri=0.13W/mK Glued laminated timber is composed of at 42 mm thick provided that they are not [Regulations in each individual case. bolts. The quality of the original material is close together lengthways, and glued
Vapour diffusion resistance factor: least three sheets of softwood timber subject to extreme, climatically induced not subject to particularly high minimal with staggered joints in a continuous
H -40 glued under pressure, parallel lo the load changes. thermal conductivity: requirements. Laminations of grades process. Laminations of the same thick-
Raw density - depending on the wood grain, to create stable building elements. W l t t = 0.13W/mK S7/S10 are sufficient. Side boards can be ness and width are used. The coupling
species: The laminates are dried and planed. All ^Vapour diffusion resistance factor: used. Although there are no obligatory force can be transferred to the lamination
lamination thicknesses, the customary joints by using more nails, or by gluing or
p = 450-800 kg/m3 Glued laminated timber grades natural defects such as excessively large
knots and pieces of bark are removed Raw density: sawmill thicknesses of 24-32 mm, or up finger jointing. The joint can be strength-
Building material classification:
mechanically. Abutments are staggered p = 450-800 kg/m-1 depending on the to 60 mm in special cases, are recom- ened by using profiled boards on the
B2 Glued laminated Grade of
and glued as finger joints and clamp wood species used mended. Boards and planks with thick- faces.
Computation weight in accordance with timber grade laminates
pressed. Computation weight in accordance with nesses between 32 mm and 45 mm are
DIN 1055-1: BS11 S 10, MS 10
•DIN 1055-1: often used for visible structures. Floor/ceiling openings and other open-
4 to 5 kN/m3 BS14 S13
Wood moisture content: MS 13 Load-bearing components may only be | 4 - 5 kN/m3 ings must be taken into consideration
8-12% BS18 MS 17 manufactured by authorised enterprises. Suilding material classification: Use when manufacturing glued laminated
Amount of swelling and shrinkage These components must be clearly identi B2 Floors, ceilings, roofs, (both bearing and beams.
per % change in wood moisture: Use fied with kite marks. Thermal capacity: non-bearing] can be constructed with
0.24 % across the grain Synthetic resin glues with a urea-formal- C = 350 kJ/mJK glued laminated beams. The individual The elements can be prefabricated in
dehyde resin basis may be used for non- Wood moisture content: beams are used vertically in the wall ele- lengths of up to 2.40 m, depending on
Wood species: water-resistant gluing. The glued joint is 15±3% ments. transportability. Lengths should not
• spruce, fir, larch light in colour and barely distinguishable Amount of swelling and shrinkage Additional measures can be taken if dia- exceed 12 m.
• Douglas fir, Western hemlock, from the wood. per percentage change in wood moisture phragm action is desired.
• Southern pine, Yellow cedar If water-resistant gluing is required, syn- 0.24 % across the grain Solid wooden elements have a far higher
thetic resin glues with a phenol, resorcin, storage capacity and therefore provide
Types of glue: melamine or polyurethane basis must be better thermal insulation during the sum-
Urea-formaldehyde resin (UF) used. Phenol and resorcin resins are mer months than wooden framework wall
Melamine modified urea-formaldehyde identifiable by the dark-brown glued joints constructions.
resin (MUF) they make, whereas modified melamine The individual elements are connected
Phenol resorcinol resin (PRF) resins are light to chocolate-brown in col- Manufacturers) {selection} with groove-and-tongue joints, rebates or
Polyurethane (PU) our. Polyurethane joints are light and Achberger Ingenieur Holzbau GmbH flat steel connections. Swelling and
transparent. Grossmann Bau GmbH shrinkage must be taken into considera-
Haas Fertigbau GmbH tion when selecting element widths. In Manufacturer(s) (selection)
Glued laminated timber that is exposed Harle Karl GmbH order to avoid swelling, the wood must be Bau-Barth-Holzbauelemente
directly to Ihe vicissitudes of the weather Kaufmann Holzbauwerk effectively we at her proofed to protect it Holzbau Becke & Sohn GmbH
requires additional chemical treatment Maier Holzbau GmbH during transport, storage and installation. Hiwo Holzindustrie Waldburg
with oleaginous wood preservatives. Merk Holzbau GmbH zu Wolfegg GmbH & Co. KG
Dimensions Zeh Ulrich GmbH&Co.KG This system, which has a high load-bear- Rudolf Janssen GmbH & Co. KG
Recommended width [cm]: 8-22 ing capacity, allows for extremely slender Kaufmann Holzbauwerke
Height [cm]: up to 200 Information cross sections. A variety of composite Kaufmann Massivholz GmbH
The height-to-width (h/w) ratio of 1/10 Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Holzforschung construction systems involving the use of Kobus
must not be exceeded e.V. DGfH dimensions concrete are available on the market.
Length [m]: up to 30. Studiengemeinschaft Holzleimbau e.V, |Beam height [cm]: Information
Overlengths or up to 50 m are possible Gutegemeinschaft BS-Holz e.V. Walls 6,8-12 Fachagentur Holz
(check for transportability) Otto-Graf-lnstitut Floors/ceilings 12-24 Bund Deutscher Zimmermeister

36 37
Timber Timber
Boards/Planks Profile Boards

For invitations to tender and orders: For invitations to tender and orders:
• Classification • Designation
-DIN -DIN
• Grading • Grade
• Wood species • Wood species
• Thickness • Thickness
• Width • Width
• Length • Length
Calculated per m2/m3 Calculated perm ?

Boards/Planks Material Manufacture Profile Boards Material Manufacture


Unplaned softwood boards and planks Boards and planks are sawn from round Matched boards are boards with grooves Planed and profile woods are sawn from
DIN 4071-1 are parallel square-edged materials. timber in sawmills or milled in planing DIN 4072 (matched boards) and planed tongues. round timber in sawmills and then milled
DIN 4071-1 Planed softwood boards and planks are mills and then planed, if necessary. Their DIN 68122 (matched tibreboards) and planed in planing mills.
Thermal conductivity: planed smooth on one side and pro- dimensions and thickness-to-width ration )IN68123 (weatherboards) Softwood matched boards are boards
k,,= 0.13W/mK cessed to an even thickness on the back, are their distinguishing features. )IN 68126-1 +3 (profile boards with broad with planed tongues and grooves, cham- In addition to the forms and dimensions
Vapour diffusion resistance factor: The edges are neither planed nor pro- •cot and chamfer) fered to an angle of less than 45" on the covered by DIN, other profiles and
H = 40 filed. Thickness (t) Width (w) upper side. dimensions can be obtained from the
Raw density: _[mm) |_[nnnnj )imensions manufacturer - depending on the tools
p = 350-500 kg/m1 depending on the Use Board :40 !~w^80 _ (latched boards: Softwood weatherboards are boards with and equipment at the manufacturer's dis-
wood species used Unplaned and planed boards and Plank t>40 ' w>3t fhickness (European) [mm]: planed tongues and grooves, and a con- posal. Planing mills make profile boards
Computation weight in accordance with planks are used for shuttering, external 15.5, 19.5,22,5,35.5 cave-rounded edge on the tongue side. on request and sell them through trade
DIN 1055-1: cladding and the most diverse areas of If boards are to be used externally, they kith [mm]: 95, 115. 135, 155 stores.
4-6 kN/m'1 construction. When boards and planks must be treated with a preventive struc- lickness (northern) [mm]: Softwood profile boards with broad root
Building material classification: are used for structures that have to be tural wood preservative. Careful planning 19.5, 22.5, 25.5 and chamfer are boards with tongues,
B2 dimensioned in relation to load-bearing and execution are essential. Idth [mm]: 96, 111,121 planed grooves and chamfered edges on
Thermal capacity: capacity, they must meet the require- the visible face and a wide tongue on the
C = 350 kJ/mK ments of DIN 1052 and be graded in If boards are exposed to weather, they Matched fibreboards: face side.
Wood moisture content: accordance with DIN 4074-1. If the should not be made of pine as it invaria- Phickness (European) [mm]:
Equivalent to equilibrium moisture boards do not have to perform a load- bly has sap rot and blue stain. Their sap 15.5, 19.5 Use
content < 20 % bearing or reinforcing function, there is is particularly susceptible to wood-decay- Width [mm]: 95, 115 Matched and profile boards are used to
Amount of swelling and shrinkage no necessity under German building ing and wood-staining fungi, which not FTiickness (northern) [mm]: panel both interiors and exteriors.
per % change in wood moisture regulations to take preventive measures only damage the wood but also cause 12,5 Any building boards that have to be
0.24 % across the grain to preserve the wood. paint failure. [Width [mm]: 96, 111 dimensioned in relation to their load-bear-
It is advisable to use load-bearing lathing ing capacity must meet the requirements
Wood species: with a cross section of 30 x 50 mm (mini- To avoid changes in form in internal [Weatherboards: oi DIN 1052 and be graded in accord-
• spruce, fire, pine mum cross section 24 x 48 mm) to affix areas, the wood moisture content must be Thickness (European) [mm]: ance with DIN 4074-1.
• larch, Douglas fir the cladding. These cross sections are stated when placing orders. It is advisa- 19.5
available as dry wood from trade stores: ble to ventilate the wood cladding. jWidth[mm]: 115, 135, 155
• Northern softwood species for planed
cross sections with an average moisture [Thickness (northern) [mm]:
assortments
content of 15 ± 3 % can also be obtained 19.5
by invitation to tender.
Dimensions Mdth [mm]: 111, 121, 146
Visible joints and fastenings for external
Thickness, unplaned [mm]:
use must be made of galvanised steel or
16, 18,22,24, 28,38.44,48, 'rofile boards with broad root and chamfer
- better still - chromium-nickel stainless
50, 63, 70, 75 "hickness (European) [mm]:
steel.
Thickness, planed [mm]: 12.5, 15.5, 19.5
13.5, 15,5, 19.5, 25.5, 35.5, 41.5, 45.5 The spacing of the load-bearing iathing Vidth [mm]: 96, 115
Thickness, northern woods, planed [mm]: depends on board thickness: mickness (northern) [mm]:
9,5, 11, 12.5, 14, 16,22.5, 112.5,14,19.5
25.5, 28.5, 40, 45 Board thickness Lathing spacing pidth [mm]: 12.5, 14, 19.5 Manufacturers/ (selection)
Width [mm]: 'mm] [mm] Manufacturer(s) The assortment of profile boards available
75, 80, 100, 115, 120, 125, 18.0 400-550 Boards and planks, both planed and -ength (European) [mm]: from trade stores varies considerably due
140, 150, 160, 175 19.5 500-700 unplaned, can be obtained from a variety 1,500-4,500, gradations 250 to the great range of types and shapes.
Length [mm]: 22.0 550-800 of sawmills and planing mills. (increments)
1,500-6,000 24.0 600-900 ^.500-6,000, gradations 500 Information
Gradations [mm]: 25.5 700-950 Information •^gth (northern) [mm]: Bundesverband Deutscher
250, 300 28,0 800-1.050 Lignum fe .800-6,000, gradations 300 Holzhandel e.V.

I
Manufactured Wood Products Manufactured Wood Products
Blockboard and Laminated Board Three- and Five-Ply Panels

For invitations to tender and orders: Invitations to tender and orders:


• Manufacturer • Manufacturer
•DIN • Certification number
• Panel type • Panel type
• Wood species • Wood species
• Emission class • Wood preservation measures
• Thickness • Thickness
• Width • Width
• Length • Length
• Surface • Surface
Calculated by m2 Calculated per m2

Blockboard and laminated board Material Manufacture Three- and Five-Ply Panels Material Manufacture
Formerly known as core plywood, block- In general, 24 mm-thick softwood boards The panels consist of three or five layers In the case of softwood plies glued at
DIN 68705-2 board consists of a core layer of solid that have been carefully dried to a wood German building authority certification: of softwood, each glued at right angles to right angles to one another, at least 90
Thermal conductivity: wood board-shaped strips that are glued moisture content of approx. 6-8 per cent Z-9.1-242 the adjacent ply. Melamine modified per cent of the single sheets must be
>v,, = 0.15W/mK together. The width of the strips varies are considered suitable for the manufac- 2-9.1-258 urea-formaldehyde and phenolic resin are grade S10 (DIN 4074-1) and the remain-
Vapour diffusion resistance factor: from approx. 24 mm to a maximum of ture of block cores. These boards are cut Z-9.1-376 used as glues. ing sheets at least grade S7.
H = 50/400 30 mm. A face veneer (three-ply board) into laths with multi-blade circular saws Z-9.1-404 Since the thicknesses of the single plies The surface veneers must be at least
Raw density: or a cross-band veneer and a face so that the lath width corresponds to the Z-9.1-477 vary according to type and manufacturer. 4 - 9 mm thick, and those oi the inner
p = 400-800 kg/m3 veneer (five-ply board) is fixed to each thickness of the inner core. The laths are Thermal conductivity: the elasto-mechanical properties of pan- plies 4-50 mm.
Computation weight in accordance with side, with the grain running perpendicular then glued together with casein, poly- = 0.14 W/mK els of equal thickness can also differ con-
DIN 1055-1: to that of the adjacent layer. vinylacetate or urea-formaldehyde resins Vapour diffusion resistance factor: siderably.
4.5-6.5 kN/m3 to form boards and pressed. 11 = 50/400
Building material classification: Laminated boards are composed of a Raw density: Applications)
B2 middle core of perpendicular rotary-cut DIN 68705-4 refers to structural block- p = 400-500 kg/m3 Depending on glue type and the wood
Material class: veneers (strips) that are glued together. board and core-stripe blockboard as Building material classification: preservative (if any), the panels can be
20, 100 The veneers are 5 - 8 mm thick. A face plywoods with defined, monitored elasto- B2 employed wherever panels of wood
Emission class: veneer, or a cross-band veneer and a mechanical properties. They are used in Material class: classes 20, 100 and 100 G are allowed
E1 face veneer, are fixed to each side. The building construction (e.g. for reinforce- 20,100, 100G under both the German Building Regula-
Wood moisture content; grain of each sheet runs perpendicular to ment). Emission class: tions and DIN 68800-2.
5 < 15% that of the adjacent one. E1 Once permission has been granted, the
Amount of swelling and shrinkage All glues with an assured adhesive In the manufacture of the core, rotary cut Wood moisture content: multi-ply panels can be used as effective
per % change in wood moisture content: strength are permissible. veneers 5-8 mm thick are glued in layers 12 ± 2 % and as reinforcing planking in manufac-
0.020 % parallel to the grain to create blocks. lount of swelling and shrinkage turing wall, ceiling and roof panels for
In the case of blockboard. the glued These are then sawn at right angles to the per % change in wood moisture wooden houses that are erected as panel
Wood species: wooden core is composed of softwoods level of the single plies to make boards. content: construction systems in accordance with
• spruce (primarily spruce) to ensure a more stable In both manufacturing processes, the 0.020 % DIN 1052-3.
•fir form, whereas softer or harder hardwoods cross-band and face veneers are glued Depending on the type of permit granted,
• pine are generally chosen for cross-band to the inner plies with the same glues and Wood species: these panels can sometimes be used in
veneers and face veneers. pressed. spruce place of laminated construction board as
The same wood species can be used for larch per DIN 1052-1.
both wooden core and veneer plywood, i* Douglas fir If the edges are carefully covered or
alongside the customary indigenous soft- sealed for protection, they can also be
woods and hardwoods. A number of used for large ventilated facades.
tropical woods are also used for the cores
and for cross-band and face veneers,
rounding off the customary indigenous
softwoods and hardwoods available.

Use .-••nensions
Blockboards and laminated boards are iThickness (three-ply) [mm]:
Dimensions primarily used in the manufacture of furni- ^12-75
Thickness [mm]: ture, as well as in laboratory and stair hickness (five-ply) [mm]: Manufacturer(s) (selection)
13, 16, 19,22,25,28,30,38 construction. However, they are rarely 33-80 Dold Suddeutsche Sperrholzwerke
Length [mm]: used in timber engineering. [Length [mm]; Gmach Holzbauwerke
1,220, 1,530, 1,830.2,050,2.500.4,100 _ 2,500-6,000 Haas Fertigbau GmbH
Width [mm]: Manufactures) (selection) i [mm]: Kaufmann Holzbauwerk
2.440. 2,500, 3,500, 5,100, 5,200. 5,400 Pfleiderer 1,000-4,750 Probstel Holzwerke

41
Manufactured Wood Products Manufactured Wood Products
Laminated Construction Board Parallel Laminated Veneer

Invitations to tender and orders: Invitations to tender and orders:


• Laminated construction board • Manufacturer
• DIN 68705 • Certification number
• Certification number • Type of parallel laminated veneer
• Panel type • Thickness, width, length
• Emission class • Wood preservation measures
• Thickness, width, length Calculated by m:i
• Surface finish
Calculated by m3

Laminated Construction Board Material Parallel Laminated Veneer Material Manufacture


Laminated construction board is made by bonded with a glue liquor to which a Parallel laminated veneer is a multi-ply In the manufacture of parallel laminated
DIN 68705-3 arranging and gluing alternate veneers wood preservative has been added. German building authority certification: wood-based material. In contrast to ply- veneer, softwood logs are de-barked,
German building authority certification: perpendicular to one another. Urea resin II a chemical wood preservative is Z-9.M00 wood, its veneers are generally arranged soaked in water and stripped to make
Z-9.1-43 is used to glue the veneers of laminated required because the species used has a Z-9.1-291 parallel to the gram and glued watertight 3 mm-thick veneers, which are then cut
Z-9.1-6 construction board 20, whereas water- low resistance class, a wood preservative Z-9.1-245 with phenol-formaldehyde resin. If broad into dimensioned sheets and dried. Large
Z-9.1-7 resistant, alkaline hardening / phenolic designed to eliminate destructive fungi Thermal conductivity: widths are required, plies are also defective areas are removed, as are
Thermal conductivity: resin, phenol-formaldehyde resin, and (basidiomycetes) must be added to the arranged crosswise to increase stability. veneers that are too light, moist or mis-
X,, = 0.15W/mK re sore i no! resin are used for laminated glue liquor when the panels are being Vapour diffusion resistance factor: When wood class 100 G veneers are shapen. The veneers, which are provided
Vapour diffusion resistance factor: construction board 100 and 100 G. All manufactured. | (1 = 50/400 glued together, the single sheets are with staggered joints, are then glued with
u = 50/400 other glues must be certified by the build- feaw density: impregnated with a wood preservative to phenol-formaldehyde resin parallel to the
Raw density: ing authorities. The panels must bear the following • p = 400-800 kg/m:i for protection against destructive fungi. grain, placed on top of one another and
p = 450-800 kg/rrf permanent identification: Building material classification: pressed to form a panel.
Building material classification: Application(s) • Kite mark B2 Application(s) The large panels thus created can be
B2 Laminated construction board is mostly • DIN certification number Emission class: Parallel laminated veneer may be used in sawn to the desired panel or beam size.
Wood moisture content: used as effective, reinforcing panelling for • External quality control stamp all areas of work in which glued laminated
5-15 % walls, ceilings and roofs, For the required • Panel type timber is permitted.
Amount of swelling and shrinkage panel type, which depends on the panel's • Emission class Wood species: Owing to the high loads it is permitted to
per % change in wood moisture content: position in the building component, • Thickness * spruce bear, parallel laminated veneer can also
Thickness: 0.25-0.35 % please refer to DIN 68800-2. pine (kerto) be used for reinforcing the following
Length/width: 0.01-0.02 % Douglas fir structural elements:
Panel type Panel moisture Southern pine (microlam) purlins and other girders subject to bend-
Wood species (selection): in service ing, girders at the point of support, load-
• spruce Laminated construction board 20 k 15 % Manufacturer(s) (selection) bearing plates, connecting plates, etc.
• pine Laminated construction board 100 <. 18 % Blomberger Holzindustrie
• Clear pine Laminated construction board 100Gk 21 % Bruynzeel Multipanel GmbH The presence of cup shakes in the
• Douglas fir Dold Suddeutsche Sperrholzwerke veneers makes it relatively easy to
• Hemlock Manufacture Finnforest Oy impregnate parallel laminated veneer
• Soutlwn pine Laminated construction board is made Glunz AG with aqueous wood preservatives across
• mahogany from the same wood species as normal Hess & Co. AGT its entire cross-sectional area. As a
• Cherry mahogany plywood. However, light species of tropi- ROHOL Rosenauer result, it can be used in areas exposed
cal wood such as limba and obeche may R.O.L. Rougier Ocean Landex to the weather (e.g. external use for roof
Panel types; not be used. Schaumann Wood Oy panels).
Laminated construction board 20 Teuteburger Sperrholzwerk dimensions:
Laminaled construction board 100 Beech laminated construction board, as Westag & Getalit AG Kerto-S veneers are used for load-bear-
Laminated construction board 100 G per DIN 68705-5, consists of three to nine ing, rod-shaped structural members.
veneers, each 1.5-3.2 mm thick (from Information thickness [mm]:
wood classes 100 and 100 G). It is used, American Plywood Ass. (APA) 21-69
in particular, for building elements sub- Cofi Canadian Plywood Association lax. dimensions [mm]:
jected to great static loads. Council of Forest Industries 1.820x23,000
of British Columbia Kerto-Q veneers are used for panels and
Dimensions Beech laminated construction board Finnish Plywood International ates.
Thickness [mm]: (100 G) panels are either made of sap- Guteschutzgemeinschaft Sperrholz e.V. 1,800
8,9, 10, 12, 15, 18.20.21,24.25,40 clear wood corresponding to at least Lignum hickness [mm]: Manufacturers) (selection)
Formats [mm]: resistance class 2 as specified in DIN Proholz 21-75 Merk Holzbau GmbH
2,500/3,000x1,250/1,500 68364 (e.g. oak, mahogany, cherry Verband der Deutschen ax. sizes [mm]: Finnforest OY
2,400/3.050 x 1,200/1,525 mahogany) or from another wood species Holzwerkstoffindustrie e.V. (1.820x23,000 Trus Joist Mac Millan

42 43
Manufactured Wood Products Manufactured Wood Products
Parallel Strand Lumber Laminated Strand Lumber

Invitations to tender and orders: Invitations to tender and orders:


• Certification number • Manufacturer
• Wood species • Certification number
• Thickness • Panel type
• Width • Wood species
• Length • Gluing
Calculated by m:i • Emission class
• Thickness
• Width
• Length
Calculated by m!

Parallel Strand Lumber Material Manufacture Laminated Strand Lumber Applicationfs) Manufacture
Parallel Strand Lumber (PSL) consists of After being soaked and steamed, the logs Laminated Strand Lumber may be used Laminated Strand Lumber consists of
German building authority certification: strands approximately 16-mm wide and are peeled to create veneers 2.5-3.2 mm German building authority certification: for all areas of work in which glued lami- approx. 1.0 x 25 x 300 mm-long poplar
Z-9.1-241 3.2 mm thick. These are aligned parallel thick. The strands are then dried to obtain Z 9.1-323 nated timber is permitted in accordance chips which are glued together with for-
Thermal conductivity: to the longitudinal axis of the beam and a 9 - 1 0 percent moisture content and cut Thermal conductivity: with DIN 1052-1 and in which laminated maldehyde-free polyurethane resin
AH = 0.15W/mK glued with waterproof phenol-formalde- into 45-260 cm-long strips. After the ^ = 0.14 W/mK construction board is permitted in (PMDI).
Vapour diffusion resistance factor: hyde resin. The graded strands are glued defects have been extracted, the strands Vapour diffusion resistance factor: accordance with DIN 68705-3. After being bonded in a mixer, the chips
M = 50/400 to create 483 mm-thick panels and then are glued with phenol-formaldehyde resin u = 50/400 The wood is preserved in the same way are aligned in their original grain flow. The
Raw density: sawn into beams. and pressed in continuously operating Raw density: as glued laminated timber. mass is pressed under heat and then
p = 670 kg/m3 for Douglas fir Currently, PSL is only manufactured in the press. Afterward, they are cured in a
p = 600-700 kg/m3 separated and ground.
p = 720 kg/nr for southern yellow pine USA. microwave process. Long-chip wood is manufactured in two
Building material classification:
Building material classification: Paraffin is applied to give the lumber a The veneer strands are arranged parallel B2 grades: tntratlam S and Intrallam P.
B2 water-repellent finish. to one another with their ends staggered. Material class:
Material class: Owing to the natural resistance of the two During the pressing process, the material 100
100, 100G wood species used (resistance class 3 in is compressed to increase its raw density Emission class:
accordance with DIN 68364|, no wood to a value slightly higher (approx. 15 per E1
Wood species: preservatives are added. cent) than that of the original wood. As Wood moisture content:
• Douglas fir there are gaps between the strands, cavi- 15%
• Southern pine Application(s) ties are visible, especially at the ends.
Parallel Strand Lumber can be used for The resulting 20 m-long section is then Wood species:
all work in which glued laminated timber cut to fhe desired lengths.
poplar
is permitted unless otherwise certified.
Parallel Strand Lumber has maferial prop- Glues:
erties very similar to those of glued lami- Polyurethane adhesive
naled timber; its advantages lie in its con-
siderable flexural, compression and
shearing strengths.
The adhesive bond is weather resistant,
but weather exposure causes the wood to
turn grey.

Dimensions:
Width [mm]:
44-280 Dimensions:
Height [mmj: Thickness [mm]:
44-483 Manufacturers) (selection) 32-89
Length [m]: Merk Holzbau GmbH Format [mm]: Manufacturers) (selection)
up to 20 Trus Joist Mac Millan max. 2,438 x 10,700 Trus Joist MacMillan

44 45
Manufactured Wood Products Manufactured Wood Products
Oriented Strand Board Fibreboard

invitations to tender and orders: Invitations to tender and orders:


• Manufacturer • Manufacturer
• Certification number • DIN
• Panel type • Certification number
• Emission class • Panel type
• Thickness, Width, Length • Gluing
- Surface • Emission class
Calculated by m2 • Thickness
i.
• Width
• Length
Calculated by rrf

Oriented Strand Board (OSB) Material Manufacture Fibreboard Material Manufacture


OSB (oriented strand board) is composed Large coarse rectangular chips (ca. 35 x Fibreboards are panel-shaped materials In the manufacture of wood fibreboards,
DIN EN 300 of aligned strands. Owing to the alternat- 75 mm, thickness 0.6 mm) are used to DIN 68754-1 made of fibrous - primarily wood - par- the wood chips are placed in a reaction
German building authority certification: ing, cross-alignment of the strands, ori- manufacture OSB boards. The flat chips i Thermal conductivity: ticles. tank known as a defibrator, steam-treated
2-9.1-275 ented strand boards - like plywood - are obtained by peeling and crushing | \, = 0.065-0.17 W/mK The particles are combined under heat, and then defibrated mechanically with
Z-9.1-326 have mechanical properties. veneers or by using a chipper. They are Vapour diffusion resistance factor: with or without glue or additives. Pressure grinding plates. This approach primarily
Thermal conductivity: Excellent mechanical properties have then sieved, graded, dried, glued, spread H = 5-70 may be applied. exploits the matting properties of the
AR = 0 . 1 3 W/mK been obtained (two to three times those out and aligned. The strands are Raw density: Fibreboards can be manufactured as fibres and their natural adhesive strength.
Vapour diffusion resistance factor: of normal chipboard types) by machine- arranged crosswise in three or five layers, p = 350-1100 kg/m:i single- or multi-ply boards in a wet pro- The latter can be increased by adding
H = 50/100 cutting the wood parallel to the grain. depending on the required board thick- Computation weight in accordance with cess without bonding agents or in a dry bonding agents and water-repellents as
Raw density (depending on wood spe- ness. In the case of three-ply boards, the DIN 1055-1: process using bonding agents. well as by thermal and other treatments.
cies): A variety of glues is used for bonding: core (comprising 50 per cent of the 9-11 kN/rn3 Depending on their raw density they are The various manufacturing processes dif-
p = 600-660 kg/m3 phenol resin, polycarbamide (isocya- whole) is generally laid crosswise, whilst I Building material classification: subclassified as: fer mainly in the technique employed to
Computation weight in accordance with nate), MUPF (Kauramin) surface glue, the grain of the surface sheets (account- • Porous fibreboards, produce the fibrous material and the
! B2
1055-1: and PMDI core resins. All these resins are ing for 25 per cent each) generally runs not bituminated fibrous mat. These processes are referred
Material class:
5-7.5 kN/m5 waterproof. parallel to the machined length. Once the 20 (100 with certification) - Bituminated porous fibreboards to as wet or dry processes, depending on
Building material classification: strands have been aligned, the sheets whether the fibrous material is trans-
Emission class: - Hardboard and medium-density wood
B2 Application (s) are pressed under heat. After they have ported or formed in a wet or dry process.
E1 fibreboards for the construction industry
Material class: Typical areas of application: cooled, they are formatted and ground. Wood moisture content: • for interiors and furniture
100 OSB flat-pressed boards may be used for 5±3% Other types of wood fibreboard are also
Emission class: all work where class 100 wood-based | Amount of swelling and shrinkage available, e.g. medium-density fibre-
E1 materials are permitted under the local per % change in wood moisture content: boards.
Wood moisture content: Building Regulations. < 20 % in thickness
5-6% It may be used for panelling, with weather Soft fibreboard: see insulating materials.
Amount of swelling and shrinkage proofing, the exterior of load-bearing/ Wood species:
per % wood moisture content: reinforcing walls. • spruce Application®
0.035 % • pine According to DIN 1052-3, the use of fibre-
•fir boards as effective and reinforcing
Wood species: 1
beech boards in the manufacture of wall, ceiling
• pine • poplar and roof panels is restricted to wooden
• Clear pine • birch houses built as panel construction sys-
• Douglas fir tems.
• Oregon pine Glues: They may also be used in rooms with a
• alder • Urea-formaldehyde resins low moisture content, i.e. in areas where
• poplar Phenol-formaldehyde resin wood class 20 is used and in areas in
which wood class 100 is permitted by the
local Building Authority.

DimGnsions Manufacturers) (selection) Manufacturer(s) (selection)


Thickness [mm]: CSC Forest Products (Sterling) Ltd. IDimensions: Euro MDF Board
6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 18, 22, 25,30 Glunz AG Thickness [mm]: Gutex
Formats [mm]: Kronospan Ltd.&Cie. • 5-16 Hornitex
2,500/5,000x1,250 [Width [mm]: Kunz GmbH & Co
5,000 x 2,500 Information 1
up to 2,100 Odenwald Faserplattenwerk
2,440x1,220 Verband der Deutschen Length [mm]: Pavatex
2,620 x 1,250/5.000 Holzwerkstoffindustrie (VHI) up to 5,500 Wilhelmi Werke GmbH & Co KG

46 47
Manufactured Wood Products Manufactured Wood Products
Flat-Pressed Boards Extruded Particle Boards

Invitations to tender and orders: Invitations to tender and orders:


• Manufacturer • Manufacturer
• DIN 68763 • DIN
• Panel type • Panel type
• Gluing • Wood species
• Emission class • Gluing
• Thickness • Emission class
• Width • Thickness
• Length • Width
Calculated by in2 • Length
Calculated by m2

Flat-Pressed Boards (FP) Material Manufacture Extruded Particle Boards Material Manufacture
Flat-pressed boards are panel-shaped Flat-pressed boards are manufactured by Extruded particle boards have a high In the manufacture of extruded particle
DIN 68763 wood-based materials that are made by bonding and pressing relatively small DIN 68764-1/2 shearing strength but a low flexural boards, particles are mixed with a bond-
Thermal conductivity: bonding and pressing particles of wood wood chips, which are ideally aligned Thermal conductivity: strength and insufficient integrity. Conse- ing agent and pushed rhythmically along
A.H = 0.13 W/mK or wood-like fibrous materials. parallel to the board surface. These \, = 0.17W/mK quently, when used in the construction a heated channel by a ram. The cross-
Vapour diffusion resistance factor: Depending on the gluing procedure and boards are generally manufactured as Vapour diffusion resistance factor: industry, they must be panelled with chip- section of the channel forming the board
LI = 50/100 wood preservatives, the panel types can homogenous multi-ply panels. ^i = 20 boards, hardboards, veneers or plastic corresponds to that of the resulting prod-
Raw density: be classified as follows: Raw density; boards. uct. The particles are positioned perpen-
p = 550-700 kg/m3 p = 450-700 kg/m3 dicularly to the board's surface, which
Computation weight in accordance with - V20 Computation weight in accordance with Application^) produces a relatively high shearing
DIN 1055-1; This resin is only suitable for rooms where 1055-1: Extruded particle boards are used in strength at right angles to the surface.
5-7.5 kN/rrr3 humidity is generally low, as it is not 5-7.5 kN/m3 making doors. They are authorized for Extruded particle boards are made in a
Building material classification: resistant to atmospheric corrosion. Building material classification; use as panelling in wooden panel-con- continuous manufacturing process
B2 B2 struction houses, because the heating process and the rate
Glues: aminoplasts, alkaline-hardened
Material class: Emission class: of feed are adjusted to the curing time- As
phenolic resins, polymeric diphenyl meth-
the particles pass through the channel
20, 100, 100 G ylene diisocyanate (PMDI). E1
shaft, they are bonded together to form
Emission class: Wood moisture content:
an endless stream of board that is only
E1 •V100 5 < 12%
cut into sections after pressing is com-
Wood moisture content: For use in humid rooms. pleted.
5 < 12 % Glues: alkaline-hardened phenolic resins, Wood species:
Amount of swelling and shrinkage phenol-resorcinol resins, PMDI. • spruce Solid extruded boards are produced in
per % change in wood moisture content: •fir single layers only. Owing to the arrange-
0.035 % • V100G ' • pine ment of the particles, these boards have
Also durable in highly humid environ- a lower flexural strength than flat-pressed
Wood species: ments; protected against destructive Glues: boards. Extruded particle boards are only
• Softwood fungi by a wood preservative. • Urea-formaldehyde resin suitable as cores in composite boards,
• Hardwood Glues: alkaline-hardened phenol resorci- • Melamine modified urea-formaldehyde Tubeboards, whose cores contain tubular
nol resins, PMDI. • Phenol resin cavities, are produced by arranging
Glues: •PMDI tubes parallel to the shaft.
• Urea-formaldehyde resins Application®
• Melamine modified urea-formaldehyde Flat-pressed boards manufactured for Ihe
• Phenol resin construction industry are primarily used
• PMDI as effective, reinforcing panelling for
walls, floors, ceilings and roofs. Panel
selection depends on the intended use in
these building elements. Information may
be found in DIN 68800-2 (see appendix).
Manufacturer(s) (selection)
Glunz AG
Dimensions Hornitex timensions
Thickness [mm]: Kunz GmbH hickness [mm]:
4,8,10, 13, 16, 19, 22,25, 28, 38 Pfleiderer Industrie . Solid extruded board: 10-34
Formats [mm]: Schlingmann GmbH & Co. j Tubeboards [mm]: 23-80
1,250 x 2,500, 1,250 x 5,000, [Width [mm]:
4,100x1,850,2,710x2,080, Information I 900-2,100
2,750/5,300x2,050 Verband der Deutsche length [mm]: Manufacturers) (selection)
Lengths of up to 14,000mm are available Holzwerkstoffindustrie e.V. up to 5,000 SauerlanderSpanplatten GmbH & Co KG

49
Manufactured Wood Products Building Boards
Fibre-Reinforced Cement Boards Fibre Cement Boards

Invitations to tender and orders: Invitations to tender and orders:


• Manufacturer • Manufacturer
• DIN • Certification number
• Certification number • Thickness
• Panel type • Width
• Emission class • Length
• Thickness • Surface area
• Width Calculated per m2
• Length
• Surface
Calculated by rrf

Fibre-Reinforced Cement Boards Material Manufacture Fibre Cement Boards Material Production
In contrast to organically bonded wood- Coniferous wood (spruce or fir) that has Fibre cement is a composite material of Fibre cement boards are made of an inti-
DIN EN 633 based materials, fibre-reinforced cement been stored for three to four months and German building authority certification: fibre and cement. It consists of 40 % Port- mate mixture of cement and water plus
DIN EN 634 boards are anorganically bonded with not treated against fungi is chipped and Z-31.1-34 land cement, 11 % aggregate (limestone artificial and cellulose fibres. They are
Thermal conductivity: cement (which accounts for approxi- separated into fine and coarse chips and Z-31.1-36 powder), 2 % reinforcement fibre, and manufactured with a surface coating or
X,, = 0.35 W/mK mately one third of their weight percent- then stored in chip bins. A mixture of h Thermal
conductivity: 5 % cellulose fibres and water. with various colour additives. The inor-
Vapour diffusion resistance factor: age). They can be used in the same fields wood chips, cement, recycled trimmings, I \ = 0.58 W/mK ganic materials are weatherproof, frost-
H = 20/50 as wood classes 20, 100. 100G in supplementary agents and water is pre- Vapour diffusion resistance factor: Application and rot-resistant, and incombustible. In
Raw density: accordance with DIN 68800-2. The bond- pared in a semi-dry process in a mechan H-11 Fibre cement boards are suitable as addition, they are largely resistant to
p= 1,250-1,300 kg/m3 ing agent renders the boards moisture- ical mixer. The material is evenly sepa- Raw density: weatherproofing for roofs and walls, and aggressive chemical atmospheres. In the
Building material classification: resistant. The boards can be coated and rated into an outer layer and a core layer p= 1,150-2,000 kg/m3 may also be used as ventilated exterior mixture, the fibres perform a similar func-
B1,A2 plastered for more effective and enduring in a mechanical sifter and spread evenly Building material classification: wall cladding as per DIN 18516-1. tion to that of steel in reinforced concrete.
Material class: weather protection. They are certified for across plates. Surplus material is fed A2
20, 100,100 G use as load-bearing and reinforcing pan- straight back into the mixer. There is no
Emission class: els for wooden panel-construction houses waste water. The mix is pressed and
E1 under DIN 1052-3. allowed to set in a climatic chamber.
Wood moisture content: Afterwards, the boards are cured for
approximately four weeks in a condition-
9±3% The panels are hardly flammable and
ing storage unit. Prior to shipment, the
Amount of swelling and shrinkage have been classified as B1 under DIN
panels are conditioned so thai they have
per % change wood moisture content: 4102. To ensure that they meet the
the right moisture balance; they are then
0.03% requirements of building material classifi-
trimmed and cut, and their edges pro-
cation A 2 (not flammable), perlite
filed. Finally, they are impregnated and
Wood species: (amounting to approx. 24 % of total mass)
coated.
• spruce is added.
•fir
Apphcation(s)
Bonding agent: Fibre-reinforced cement boards are used
• Cement as exterior wall cladding or as wall-re-
inforcement panelling. Effective, enduring
weather protection is essential for extenor
walls. Their good fire-proofing properties
make these panels suitable as fire barri-
ers. They also have good sound-insulat-
ing properties owing to their high raw
density, and can be used as a floor
covering.

Manufacturer(s) (selection)
Eternit AG
Fulgurit Baustoffe GmbH
Dimensions Wan it
Length [mm]:
Dimensions 1,250,2,000, 2,500 Information
Thickness [mm]: Manufacturer(s) (selection) Width [mm]: Fachregeln des Deutschen Dachdecker-
8-40 Eternit AG 1,250, 1,500 handwerks (Professional Regulations of
Format [mm]: Fulgurit Thickness [mm]: the Germany Roofing Trade Deutsches
1.250x2,600, 1,250x3.100 Glunz AG 8,10, 12.5, 15, 18 Dachdeckerhandwerk)

51
Building Boards Building Boards
Plasterboard Gypsum Fibreboard

Invitations to tender and orders: For requests for tenders and orders
• Board type • Gypsum, fibreboard
- Thickness • Certification number
• Length • Thickness, length and width
- Width Calculated per mJ
• Edge shape
Calculated per rrf

Plasterboard Material Production Gypsum Fibreboard Material Production


Plasterboard consists of a plaster core Plasterboard is produced on large con- Gypsum fibreboard is a homogenous Cellulose fibre is obtained from paper in a
DIN 18180 encased in adhesive cardboard. Natural veyor belts in a continuous manufacturing German building authority certification: board made of a mixture of calcined natu- recycling process and then mixed with
German building authority certification: and FGB plaster obtained from flue gas process. The calcined, ground plaster is Z-9.1-187 ral plaster and cellulose tibres. The cellu- ground plaster. Water is added to the
2-9.1-199 desulfurisation provide the raw materials mixed with water and additives, sprayed Z-PA-III 4.864 lose fibres, which are primarily obtained mixture, with no additional bonding agent.
Z-9.1-204 for production. onto a base, and formed into boards Thermal conductivity: from recycled paper, strengthen the The mix is pressed into boards under
Z-9.1-221 Depending on the application, various together with the cardboard lining. The \ = 0.36 W/mK board. high pressure, dried, impregnated with a
Z-9.1-246 types of plasterboard may be used, with boards are then lettered, cut, turned, Vapour diffusion resistance factor: water-repellent agent and formatted.
Z-9.1-318 different cardboard casings and plaster dried and bundled. H=11 Application^)
Z-9.1-319 additives: In combination with the plaster core, the Raw density: Gypsum fibreboard can serve as wall or
Thermal conductivity: - Gypsum plasterboard cardboard reinforces the tensile zone and p = 880-1,250 kg/m3 ceiling panelling, as a lining for sus-
XR = 0.21 W/mK Yellowish-white cardboard, lends the boards the requisite firmness Building material classification: pended ceilings and prefabricated walls,
Coefficient of thermal expansion: blue lettering and flexural strength. A2 and as dry screed (when used in multiple
0.013-0,020 mm/mK • Fire protection plasterboard layers). In the form of composite board
Vapour diffusion resistance factor: Yellowish white cardboard, red lettering with foam plastic, it can be used to pro-
H=8 • Impregnated plasterboard vide additional thermal insulation.
Raw density: Greenish cardboard, blue lettering Gypsum fibreboard may be used as a
p = 900-1000 kg/m 1 • Impregnated fire protection plaster- load-bearing reinforcement for wall pan-
Building material classification: board els in both wooden houses with a panel
A2 Greenish cardboard, red lettering design and in limber skeleton buildings.
Heat storage capacity: • Gypsum baseboard It may be employed as reinforcing and
C = 960 J/kgK Grey cardboard, blue lettering load-bearing wall panelling wherever
• Gypsum dry screed board class 20 wood material is permitted (in
with/without sound-impact insulation accordance with the German building
authority certification).
Applications) It may also be used to plank the outside
Plasterboard can serve as wall or ceiling of exterior wall elements if effective, last-
panelling, as a lining for suspended ceil- ing weather proof ing is ensured.
ings, as lining for prefabricated walls, and
as dry screed. Gypsum fibreboard is resistant to fire and
It may be used wherever class 20 humidity.
wooden boards are allowed as per DIN
68800-2. In addition, impregnated plas-
terboard may be installed on the outside
of exterior wall elements if the conditions
for effective, lasting weather protection,
as specified in the note of authorization, Manufacturer(s) (selection)
are met. Danogips GmbH Dimensions:
Plasterboard may be used as reinforcing Fels-Werke GmbH Thickness [mm]:
Dimensions: panelling for ceilings in wooden buildings Gebr. Knauf Westdeutsche Gipswerke 10,12.5, 15, 18
Thickness [mm]: (fixed to the bottom side) and for pitched Gyproc GmbH Sizes [mm];
9.5, 12.5, 15, 18,20, 25 roofs. Lafarge Gips GmbH 1,000 x 1,500
Width [mm]: Plasterboard may also be employed as a Lindner AG 1,245x2.000
600, 625, 1,250 load-bearing reinforcement for wall panel- Fiigips GmbH 1,245x2,500 Manufacturers) (selection)
Length [mm]: ling in wooden houses erected as panel 1,245x2,540 Fels-Werke
2,000-4,000 in construction systems. Information 1,245x2,750 Lindner AG
increments of 250 Industriegruppe Gipsplatten 1,245x3,000 Rigips GmbH
Insulating Materials Insulating Materials
Wood Fibre Bituminated Fibreboard

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• Manufacturer • Manufacturer
•DIN •DIN
• Application type • Application type
• Thickness • Thickness
• Width • Width
• Length • Length
Calculated per m2 Calculated per m/

Wood Fibre Material Manufacture Bituminated Fibreboard [Asphalt- Material Manufacture


Porous soft fibreboard is manufactured In the wet manufacturing process, waste Treated Board; US] Bituminated fibreboards are porous wood Bituminated wood fibreboards are manu-
DIN 68755 from spruce, fir and pine pulp in a wet (rom locally harvested coniferous trees is fibreboards, manufactured with a bitumen factured in the same manner as porous
DIN EN 316 production process. Fibre humidity chipped and shredded. The chips are [DIN 68752 additive. wood fibreboards; the only difference
Thermal conductivity: exceeds 20 per cent during the manufac- pulped with vapour in a reaction chamber lermal conductivity: A distinction is made between bitumi- being that a bitumen emulsion is added
A.B = 0.045-0.060 W/mK turing process. and subsequently milled into fibres. Addi- ^ = 0.056-0.060 W/mK nated (ibreboards to the fibre slurry.
Vapour diffusion resistance factor: The raw density of soft fibreboard lies tives and, if required, wood preservatives 'apour diffusion resistance factor: • with 10-15 per cent bitumen additive
\i = 5-10 below 450 kg/m;i, making it lower than are blended into the fibre slurry. The = 5-10 (moisture-proof) and a water absorption
Raw density: that of medium hard and hard fibreboard. slurry is spread on a Foudrinier to create Raw density: rate of less than 25 per cent (BPH)
p= 130-450 kg/m3 a flat fibrous mat, which is then dehy- p = 200-350 kg/m3 • with more than 15 per cent bitumen
Building material classification: Application® drated by extrusion or by applying nega- Building material classification: additive (increased moisture resistance)
B2 Soft fibreboards are used as insulation for tive pressure. In the final stage, the mats B2 and an average water absorption of less
Thermal capacity: floors, walls, ceilings and roofs; they are are shaped into boards and dried. Fhermal capacity: than 20 per cent (BPH2).
C = 360 kJ/m-K also employed as impact sound insulation Thicker panels (25-30 mm and upwards) C - 630 kJ/m;'K
Application types: under floor screed, dry screed and wood are manufactured by laminating several \pplication types: Application®
T, TV, IC flooring, and as sound absorbing panels. individual boards. T,TV The primary areas of application ar& exte-
rior walls, roof extensions and subfloors.
Depending on the application, the boards Bitumen-impregnated wood fibreboards
are connected by butt joints, rebate joints can be used under roof covering as
or tongue-and-groove joints. The panels water- and airtight layers. The bitumen
are loosely laid and then mechanically content renders them resistant to mois-
fastened or glued. Special joint adhesive ture, rot, fungi and insects.
sealing may be required to ensure air
tightness.

Like untreated wood, wooden fibreboards


must be protected against UV-radiation
and humidity. With a wood moisture con-
tent of less than 20 per cent, these
boards are highly resistant to wood pests
and other sources of damage (bacteria,
fungi, and insects).
Wood fibreboards are available as insu-
lating plaster-base elements for exterior
walls. They are also suitable as elements
for composite or sandwich construction in
combination with hardboard or gypsum
board.

Dimensions Manufacturer® (selection) "isions


Thickness [mm]: Emfa Baustoff GmbH nickness [mm]:
6-80 GlunzAG 16-25 Manufacturer® (selection)
Width [mm]: Gutex Wdth [mm]: Emfa Baustoff GmbH
400-1,220 Holzfaserplattenwerk Schonheide GmbH [400-1,220 Gutex
Length [mm]: Pa vat ex Length [mm]: Isofloc Warmedammtechnik GmbH
1,200-2.500 Steinmann [2,440,2,500 Pavatex
Insulating Materials Insulating Materials
Cork Expandable Polystyrene

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• Manufacturer • Manufacturer
• DIN • DIN
• Application type • Application type
• Thickness • Grade
• Width • Thickness
• Length • Width
Calculated per m2 • Length
Calculated per m2

Cork Material Manufacture Expandable Polystyrene (EPS) Material Manufacture


Cork, the outer bark of the cork oak tree, Cork is processed into insulating materi- Plastic foams are oil-refining products The product is manufactured in three
DIN 18161-1 is available - as natural or expanded als in a variety of ways depending on the DIM 18164-1 that are manufactured by foaming the raw stages:
Thermal conductivity: granulated material (expanded cork, cak- intended use. Thermal conductivity: material and simultaneously adding pro- • Frothing
XH = 0.040-0.055 W/mK ing cork) - in the form of insulating panels , = 0.035-0.040 W/mK pellants or blowing agents. Plastic foams The compact beads are heated with hot
Vapour diffusion resistance factor; and fill. Natural granulated cork is manufactured Vapour diffusion resistance factor: are porous in structure and are mainly vapour and inflated under pressure with
H = 5-10 The cork oaks, predominantly indigenous by crushing raw cork; it is used without = 20-100 available as HR-foams. pentane blowing agent to make foam
Raw density: to the western Mediterranean region, can additives as insulating fill. Raw density: pellets.
p - 80-200 kg/m3 be debarked every 8 to 10 years. They p= 15-30 kg/m3 Expandable polystyrene, also called sty- - Intermediate storage
Building material classification: have a lifespanof 100 to 150 years. Expanded granulated cork is manufac- Building material classification: ropor, is a predominantly closed-cell, The beads are cooled and dried.
B2 tured by adding superheated vapour to B1 hard plastic foam. The "styropor" granu- • Foaming
Thermal capacity: Applications) the natural granulated cork under pres- Thermal capacity: late is processed into boards, mouldings The trothed beads are further inflated
C = 223 kJ/m;lK Cork is mould and rot resistant even when sure in a hermetically sealed container. C = 43 kJ/rrfK and sheets. The material is rot, mould and with vapour into solid forms and bonded
Application types: thoroughly moist. However, exposure to The natural cork resin (suberin) shifts to Application types: pest resistant. It is not resistant, however, to each other. Block mouldings are pro-
T. TR, TS moisture over an extended period may the outside of the granules and bonds T, TV, TR, TS, IC to constant moisture or humidity. duced to manufacture the polystyrene
result in fungal decay. them to each other. The required vapour boards, which are saw-cut or hot-wire
Cork insulating boards are laid down temperature depends on the resin con- Appiication(s) cut.
loosely, then nailed, plugged or glued. tent. The blocks are then cut into slabs or It is typically used in non-ventilated flat
Granulates are poured or injected. Insu- granulated. roofs (which must be protected against
lating cork is especially suitable for use hot bitumen), and composite insulation
in areas subjected to pressure loads Impregnated cork is manufactured by systems for exterior walls.
and as impact sound insulation. Cork can adding a bonding agent such as syn- Rigid plastic foamboard is not very suita-
also be employed in composite insulating thetic resin or bitumen to the heated ble for use in timber frameworks, how-
systems. granulate. ever, because it does not compensate for
wood shrinkage.
EPS boards are frequently employed in
sandwich constructions in combination
with a variety of materials, for example,
with fibrated cement panels as fagade
elements, or with timbering and plaster-
board as wall and roof elements.
In floor construction, EPS boards are
used as impact sound and thermal insula-
tion. Loose polystyrene particles can also
be used as fill.

Manufacturers) (selection)
Cortex Manufacturers) (selection)
Emfa Baustoff GmbH BASF
Dimensions Gradl & Sturmann tOimensions Joma
Thickness [mm]: Heck Dammsysteme GmbH •Thickness [mm): Schwenk
20-100 Henjes Naturschrot I 10-200
Format [mm]; Rdthel GmbH & Co KG Format [mm]: Information
500 x 1,000, 600 x ,200 Zipse Korkvertrieb 500 x 1,000 Industrieverband Hartschaum e.V.
Insulating Materials Insulating Materials
Extruded Polystyrene Polyurethane

For invitations to tender and orders: For invitations to tender and orders:
• Manufacturer • Manufacturer
•DIN -DIN
• Application type • Application type
• Thickness • Thickness
• Width • Width
• Length • Length
Calculated per m2 Calculated per m2

Extruded Polystyrene (XPS) Material Manufacture Polyurethane (PUR) Material Manufacture


Extruded polystyrene (XPS) is a closed- In the production of extruded polystyrene Polyurethane is composed of various PUR HR-foam boards are manufactured
DIN 18164-1 cell, hard plastic foam. It differs from foam, polystyrene - which is heated and DIN 18164-1 crude oil products with different cross- in two different processes:
Thermal conductivity: expandable polystyrene (EPS) in the melted in an extruder - is foamed by Thermal conductivity: linking densities and raw densities.
A.R = 0.030-0.040 W/mK manner of manufacture. Extruded polysty- admixing a blowing agent. The resulting ^ = 0.020-0,030 W/mK Polyurethane HR-foam is characterised In the double-belt process, the foamed
Vapour diffusion resistance factor: rene foam is characterised by its low foam is continuously pressed through air Vapour diffusion resistance factor: by its low moisture absorption and its blend (with pentane blowing agent] is
ji = 80-200 moisture absorption and resistance to rot, jets into boards, whose characteristic fea- H = 30-100 resistance to rot, ageing and decay. It is, applied to a bottom surface layer and
Raw density: ageing and decay; it is not, however, ture is their smooth, sealed foamed skin. Raw density: however, not resistant to UV-radiation. then bonded to a top surface layer.
p = 25-45 kg/m3 resistant to UV-radiation. They are suitable for use as perimeter p = 22-100 kg/m3 In contrast to polystyrene, PUR HR-foam Mineral fibrous mats, glass fibrous mats,
Building material classification: insulation for building components that Building material classification: can withstand temperature stresses of up paper, metal- or compound (sandwich)
B 1.B2 Applications) are in direct contact with the soil and as B1.B2 to 250 °C. foil, roof sheeting and moisture-proof roof
Thermal capacity: Extruded polystyrene foam is employed insulation for pitched roofs. For other Thermal capacity: sheeting are used as surface layers.
C = 58 kJ/m3K for all insulation purposes. It is not. how- uses, blocks are foamed and cut into C - 43 kJ/m3K Polyurethane is manufactured as both
Application types; ever, used in manufacturing impact panels. Application types: HR-foam and in-situ foam. In the block foam process, the reaction
T, TR, TS sound insulating boards. Its principal T, TR, TS, TRS • Polyurethane HR-foam is a strongly mixture is poured into an ingot mould.
applications are the insulation of pitched cross-linked, thermosetting synthetic The resulting blocks are cut into boards
roofs and perimeters. material, which is usually foamed into a once the foam has hardened and settled.
Rigid plastic foamboard is not very suita- closed-cell structure (closed-cell ratio of
ble for use in timber frameworks, how- approximately 90 per cent]. Open-cell
ever, because it cannot compensate for grades are also manufactured for spe-
wood shrinkage. cial applications. Boards are available
in both laminate and non-laminate form.
• PUR in-situ foam is manufactured on
site. It is used to insulate roofs and to fill
and seal building joints of doors and
windows, etc.

Application^)
PUR foam is used:
• as flat roof insulation (PUR HR-foam is
resistant to hot bitumen),
• as insulation for high pitched roofs,
between and underneath rafters,
• as insulation for external walls on venti-
lated facades (cavity walls),
• as a component in sandwich and com-
posite construction.

Rigid plastic foamboard is not very suita-


ble for use in timber frameworks, how-
Dimensions Manufacturers) (selection) Dimensions ever, because it does not compensate for Manufacturers) (selection}
Thickness [mm]: BASF Thickness [mm]: wood shrinkage. Bauder
20-200 DOW Deutschland 10-300 Correcthane
Width [mm]: Gefinex Width [mm]: Puren Schaumstoff GmbH
600 500-1,200
Length [mm]: Information .Length [mm]: Information
1,250,2,500 Industrieverband Hartschaum e.V 3-3,000 Industrieverband Hartschajm e.V.
Insulating materials Insulating Materials
Mineral Wool Sheep's Wool/Cotton Wool

For invitations to tender and orders: For invitations to tender and orders:
• Manufacturer • Manufacturer
• DIN • Certification No.
• Application type • Application type
• Thickness • Delivery format
• Width • Thickness
• Length • Width
Calculated per m2 • Length
Calculated per mJ

Mineral Wool Material Manufacture Sheep's Wool Material Manufacture


Mineral wool is a synthetic fibre manufac- Glass wool is composed of quartz sand, Sheep's wool is one of the oldest materi- The wool is thoroughly washed with soap
DIN 18165-1+2 tured from a glass, stone and slag smelt. sodium carbonate (or: soda ash), lime- luildmg authority certification: als used by humans to protect them- and soda. The cleansing agent is then
Thermal conductivity: It is supplied as insulation in the form of stone, dolomite, feldspar, borax, with a Z-23.11-1022 selves against cold. Sheep's wool fibrous completely removed through repeated
\, = 0.035-0.050 W/mK sheets, mats, felting or panels of differing recycled glass content of up to 70 per Z-23.11-332 mats are composed entirely of shorn rinsing in cold water. Next, the wool is
Vapour diffusion resistance factor: density. A distinction is made, depending cent. Z-23.1.3.-253 sheep's wool. Up to 50 per cent of all mechanically bonded and impregnated.
u=1-2 on the raw material used, between glass Basalt or diabase, limestone, dolomite hermal conductivity: recycled wool is used for sheep's wool During the final rinse, some manufactur-
Raw density: wool (yellow colouring] and rock wool and flux additament are used to manufac- = 0.040 W/mK felt. With the addition of borax, sheep's ers add borax as well as a urea-deriva-
p= 12-250 kg/m3 (olive green colouring). ture rock wool, /apour diffusion resistance factor; wool is largely resistant to insects and tive, such as sulcoforen, as a legally
Building material classification: Mineral fibre insulation, including mineral The raw materials are melted at a temper- mould fungi. authorized preservative against keratin-
A 1, A 2 wool, must be protected against moisture. ature of 1,200-1,400°C, before being law density: digesting insects (e.g.. moths, carpet
Thermal capacity: It is resistant to micro-organisms and blown or spun through fine nozzles, defi- p = 20-80 kg/m3 Application^) beetles). Some manufacturers also use
C = 115 kJ/nr'K pests and does not rot. Composite mate- brated and subsequently felted into wool- 3uilding material classification: Sheep's wool is used in the form of insu- polyester or cotton wool as binding fibres
Application types: rials of felting and panels with paper-, alu- like materials. Synthetic resins are also B2 lating mats, braided insulation and pack- to improve the dimensional stability of
T TV, TR, TS, TRS, TF, I, IC minium- and synthetic laminate are avail- added as bonding agents. Water-repel- application types: ing wool to provide thermal and sound insulating rolls with a thickness greater
able as required. lent oils are employed to bind the fibre T TV insulation in roofs, walls and ceilings; it is than 120 mm.
dust. Waterproofing and bonding agents also employed in the form of felting as
Application^) are also used. ')etivery formats/dimensions impact sound insulation. Manufacturer® (selection)
Mineral wool insulating materials have a Wool and braided wool packaged in sacks Doppelmayer
wide range of applications as sound, vials/rolled felting: According to various manufacturers, Falke Game KG
impact sound and thermal insulation, with Thickness [mm]: 20-220 sheep's wool has an excellent moisture Klober
a special material for each particular use. Width [mm]: 450-1,000 absorption capacity (up to 30 per cent), Purwoll GmbH
Sheets are used on ceilings and walls as [Length [mm]: 1,000-8,000 combined - in contrast with other fibrous ROWA F. Rothmund GmbH
insulating and sound absorbing layers. insulating materials - with extremely good Thermowoll Dammstoff GmbH
Composite materials composed of min- insulating properties.
eral wool and paper/aluminium foil are Cotton wool
designed with special edges so that they
can be fastened between squared tim- lilding authority classification: Material Manufacture
bers (e.g. rafters). Z-23.11-251 Cotton wool insulation is composed of the Cotton harvested in tropical to subtropical
Panels or boards have a variety of uses in Z-23.11-308 hull fibres (up to 97 per cent) of the cotton cultivation areas is processed into fibrous
walls, for example, on the exterior side of Z-23.11-1056 bush. The long fibres of the hulls contain mats, which are then layered to achieve
masonry beneath a weather protection iermal conductivity: more than 90 per cent cellulose. The insu- the desired thickness.
layer, in composite insulating systems, = 0.040-0.045 W/mK lating material contains borax additive (as Cotton wool is available in the form of
and (provided permission has been 'apour diffusion resistance factor: much as 3 percent), mats, felting, padding and injection wool,
obtained) as core insulation. = 1-2 and as braided insulation.
They are used as impact sound insulation tew density: Applications)
in floors. Due to their relatively high p= 20-60 kg/rri! This material is used as thermal and
degree of compressibility, the thinnest Juilding material classification: sound insulation in roof, wall and ceiling
possible mineral wool impact sound insu- 81,B2 cavities. Insulating feltings are employed
lation panels should be used. application types: as impact sound insulation.
Dimensions Since mineral wool is non-combustible, it Manufacturer(s) (selection! T,TV Cotton wool insulation is mould resistant.
Thickness [mm]: is suitable in areas with special fire-pro- Deutsche Heraklith Damage caused by moths, carpet bee-
20-200 tection requirements. Deutsche Owens-Corning Glasswool )e//Ve/y formats/dimensions tles, insects and rodents can be pre-
Width [mm]: Deutsche Rockwool Siting (thickness [mm]: 2-20): vented.
600, 625, 1,200 Pfleiderer Width [mm]: 625, 1,200, 1,800 Manufacturers) (selection)
Length [mm]: Saint-Gobin Isover G+H AG lats (thickness [mm]: 50-180): Isocotton GmbH
1,200, 1,250,6,000 Thiiringer Dammstoffwerke Idth [mm]: 500-1,200 K + K ISO Baumwolle

60 61
Insulating Materials Insulating Materials
Flax/Hemp Coconut Fibre

For invitations to tender and orders: For invitations to tender and orders:
• Manufacturer • Manufacturer
• Certification No. • DIN
• Application type • Application type
• Thickness • Delivery format
• Width • Thickness
• Length • Width
Calculated per m2 • Length
Calculated per m2

Flax Material Manufacture Coconut Fibre Material Manufacture


Flax is a textile fibre (belonging to the After the harvest, the stalk of the flax plant Coconut fibre is gathered from the outer, The fibrous layer, which is up to 10 cm
Building authority certification: group of bast fibres) harvested from the is separated into seed capsules and DIN 18165 fibrous layer of the coconut. It is available thick, is manually removed from the coco-
Z-23.11-239 roughly 1-metre-long flax plant. As insula- leaves and then roasted to free the fibre i Thermal conductivity: in the form of rolled felting, insulating nut and then stored for 6 to 10 months in
Z-23.11-276 tion, flax is resistant to mould and can bundles of bonding agents. These steps \ \ , = 0.045-0.050 W/mK mats or boards, braided insulating mate- seawater, during which process all per-
Z-23.11-1010 absorb and release up to 20 per cent of are followed by washing, drying, break- Vapour diffusion resistance factor: rial and packing wool. ishable components decay (retting). The
Thermal conductivity: its own weight in moisture. ing, tumbling (separating the fibres from usable fibres are dried, aerated, refined
V 0.040 W/mK the wood of the stalks) and chopping. Raw density: Applications) and pressed and formed as needed.
Vapour diffusion resistance factor: Application(s) The cellulose content of the resulting p = 50-140 kg/m3 Coconut insulating mats are available as:
H=1-2 Insulating mats of flax are used for roof, short fibres constitutes the thermal insu- Building material classification: • screed insulating boards, multiple
Raw density: wall and floor insulation. lating material. Polyester is usually added I B2 needle-felted and pressed layers, for
p= 25 kg/m3 Insulating feltings are used as impact as a stabilising and binding fibre to [Thermal capacity: wet and dry screed as well as for
Building material classification: sound insulation. Cavity flocks (insulating achieve good recovery. Some manufac- i C = 22-57 kJ/nrK poured asphalt;
B2 mats cut into small pieces) and shives turers also include borax, soluble sodium Application types: • coconut wall panels for airborne sound
Application types: (wooden parts of the stalks) are used to or ammonium phosphate to protect the T, TV, I, IC insulating facing shells and partitions;
T, TV fill cavities, (or example, sound-boarded fibres against fire. • needle-felted coconut rolled felting for
ceilings. cavity insulation in walls and floors; ther-
Dimensions Flax, in the form of pipe casing, is also mal insulation for roofs and walls; sound
Thickness [mm]: used to insulate ducts and pipes. Manufacturer(s) (selection) insulation; fill material for door and win-
40,60,80, 100 Deutsche Heraklith GmbH dow joints.
Width [mm]: Flachshaus GmbH Coconut insulating materials are available
500-1,200 Pa vat ex GmbH in the form of boards and rolled felts.
Length [mm]: Stattbauhof GmbH
10,000 Best Naturdammstoffe

Hemp

Building authority certification: Material Manufacture


2-23.11-1341, Hemp fibres are tear-resistant and also The cultivation of non-intoxicating types of
ETA 02/0015 (European certification] highly stress-resistant, which makes them hemp has been permitted in Germany
Thermal conductivity: suitable as impact sound insulation. Since since 1996. Hemp fibre is gathered from
X,,= 0.045 W/mK hemp fibres do not contain protein, they the fast-growing hemp plant, which can
Vapour diffusion resistance factor: are naturally protected against pests and be harvested biannually. Dimensions:
M-0.5-1 mould, thus obviating the need for addi- Safe and harmless agents, such as soda Boards:
Raw density: tives. Hemp fibres can absorb up to 18 or ammonium phosphate, are added to Thickness [mm]:
p= 20-40 kg/m3 per cent of their own weight in moisture provide flame protection. 13, 18, 20,23, 25, 28,40
Building material classification: and release the moisture when the air is Hemp insulation is available in pure form Width [mm]:
B2 dry. They therefore have a balancing and with an admixture of sheep's wool. 625
Application types: effect on the interior climate. The mixed grade must be protected Length [mm]:
T, TV Hemp insulating materials are recyclable. against pests. Textile fibres, (e.g. polyes- 1.250
ter), are added for support. Rolled felting:
Dimensions Applications) Thickness [mm]:
Thickness [mm]: Hemp mats are used as thermal insula- Manufacturer(s) (selection) 20. 25. 35 ': Manufacturers) (selection)
20-240 tion in walls, ceilings and floors, as sub- Emfa Baustoff GmbH Width [mm]: EZO Isolierstoffe GmbH
Format [mm]: or common-rafter insulation and as Hock Vertriebs-GmbH & Co KG 400.500, 670, 1,000 Emfa Baustoff GmbH
575/600/625/635 x 1,200 impact sound insulation (d = 15/20/ Saint-Gobin Isover G+H AG Length [mm]: Rothel GmbH & Co KG
1,000x2,000 30 mm) below floor screeds. Treuhanf AG 10,000 Zipse Korkvertneb

i 63
Insulating Materials
Insulating Materials
Cellulose
Perlite/Swelling Clay

For invitations to tender and orders: For invitations to tender and orders:
• Manufacturers Perlite:
• Certification No. • Manufacturer
• Application type • Delivery format
• Thickness • Certification No.
Calculated per m3 Swelling clay:
• Manufacturer
•DIN
Calculated permVm 3

Cellulose Material Manufacture Manufacture


Perlite Material
Old newsprint provides the base material Cellulose is recycled newsprint, pulped The base material is crude perlite rock, The crude rock is crushed, ground and
Building authority certification; for all cellulose flocks. Borate is added for from finely flocked stock, which is impreg- Non-standardised an aluminium-siliceous rock resulting then flash-heated to over 1200 JC. During
Z-23.11-280 protection against rot and flammability. nated with borates (borax and boracic from volcanic activities with temperatures this process, the rock softens, and as the
Building authority certified
Use is subject to compliance with Cellulose flocks are loose in structure and acid) to protect it against fire, rot and pest [Thermal conductivity: in excess of 1000 °C. It is mined in open- combined water in it evaporates, the raw
DIN 18165-1 for fibre insulating materials. injected into cavities or onto horizontal, attack. pit mines in countries with natural depos- perlite expands to 15 to 20 times its origi-
, = 0.55-0.66 W/mK
Thermal conductivity: curved or inclined surfaces. The paper is pre-shredded, the borate is its such as Greece and the United States. nal volume (rock foam). The outcome is a
Vapour diffusion resistance factor:
K = 0,040-0,045 W/mK Injection pressure compresses the flocks added in pulverised dosages, and both Expanded perlite contains a wide variety white granulate with granules measuring
Vapour diffusion resisfance factor: to a density of approximately 45-60 kg/m" components are blended in a milling of additives, chiefly bitumen, natural and 0-6 mm in diameter.
[Raw density:
H = 1-2 in roof pitches and 60-70 kg/m3 in walls. process and mechanically bonded. The p = 60-300 kg/m3 synthetic resins and mineral bonding The surface of the granules, which are
Raw density: cellulose mix is freed from dust, slightly agents. composed of microscopic cells, is open-
fBuilding material classification:
p = 30-80 kg/m3 Application(s) compacted and packaged in paper pored, providing good interlocking quali-
A 1, for bitumen casing
Building material classification: Cellulose is typically used to provide ther- sacks. ties for loose, dry in-fill. The surface is
B 2, for natural resin casing Applications)
B 1 , B2 mal insulation in roof, wall and ceiling also highly temperature-resistant.
Expanded perlite is used as insulation in
Thermal capacity: cavities. Various agents are added to relieve the
floors and roof slopes, as a levelling layer
C = 100 kJ/m-K The mode of application varies: pouring under floor construction, as sloping insu- inherent sensitivity to moisture or to
Application types: or blowing for open ceilings; injection for lation on flat roofs and as core insulation increase the compressive strength.
T,TV roofs and ceilings; spraying for walls. in double-layered masonry. Perlite is also Fibres and bonding agents are combined
According to DIN 18165-1, the insulating used for chimney linings and as a light- to produce compression-proof panels.
flocks cannot be assigned any specific weight aggregate for gypsum plasters (TR, TS)
type of application. They can only be and mortar.
'Delivery formats/dimensions
employed in closed cavities. They must Owing to their extraordinary load capac-
Paper bags
not be subjected to pressure loads and ity, perlite boards are even employed
Panels: Manufacturer(s) (selection)
must be protected against damp. beneath screeds and floors that are sub-
Thickness: 20-200 mm Morgan Thermal Ceramics GmbH
Compliance with the wood preservation jected to high load stresses.
Format: 600x1,200 mm Perlite Dammstoff GmbH
regulation for hazard classification 0
under DIN 68800 is a prerequisite for use
of this material.

Swelling Clay

Non-standardised Materiai Manufacture


Thermal conductivity: Swelling clay is a mineral granulate com- The clay is prepared, finely ground,
\ = 0.13-0.20 W/mK posed of clay. Swelling clay is dimension- granulated and fired in revolving kilns in
Vapour diffusion resistance factor: ally stable, water repellent, rot resistant a countercurrent process at roughly
Manufacturers) (selection) and also resistant to micro-organisms and 1,200 "C The organic matter enclosed in
Besin Mehren GmbH Raw density; pests. As a mineral material, it is non- the clay is burnt off. Supported by heavy
Dobry GmbH p = 325-800 kg/m3 combustible. oil, the clay granules expand while the
Climacell GmbH Building material classification: surface melts to some degree and forms
Climatizer A1 Application® a sintered outer skin.
C.F.F, Cellulose Thermal capacity; Swelling clay is used as cavity fill for
CWA Cellulose C = 252 kJ/nrK sound and thermal insulation (e.g., in ceil-
Homann Dammstoffwerk GmbH & Co.KG ing cavities) or loosely as a lightweight Manufacturer® (selection)
Intercel GmbH Delivery format aggregate for bricks, plaster, lightweight Fibrolith WilmsGmbH
Delivery format
Paper sacks of 12.5 kg and 13.6 kg
Isofloc Warmedammtechnik GmbH
ibv rship
I Loosely packaged in bags of 50, 62.5 concrete, etc. Leca Deutschland

lr ™
Stattbauhof GmbH Lias Franken
64 65
Sheathing Paper Sheathing Paper
Vapour Retarding Layer/Vapour Barrier Damp-Proofing

Vapour Retarding Layer/Vapour Barrier For invitations to tender and orders: Damp-Proofing For invitations to tender and orders:
• Manufacturer • Manufacturer
DIN 4108-4 • sD-value DIN 18195-1 to 10 • DIN
• Thickness • Thickness
• Width • Width
• Length • Length
Calculated per m2 Calculated by m2

Vapour retarding layers or vapour barriers Metal foils with a thickness greater than simple and safe to install, but also take Building seals that meet the requirements Separating layers become necessary Descriptions
are essential layers in multi-shell or 0.05 mm are classified as absolutely into consideration inevitable deforma- of DIN 18195 are designed to prevent when different building materials are Bitumen sheeting
multilayer wall structures, whose impor- vapour-tight under DIN 4108-4. A material tions. Their correct installation can be damage caused by pressing or non- connected in such a way that their effec-
tance with regard to building physics layer with a diffusion resistance of so= checked using a blower door test. pressing water as well as by ground tiveness is impaired or completely lost. Brief Designation
and construction engineering is increas- 1500 m is considered vapour-tight for moisture on the outside along the border- description
ing as ever greater requirements are construction purposes. These materials This requirement applies to vapour- ing building elements. Typical examples of this are separating R500" Asphalt roofing felt with
placed on thermal insulation and energy can be used as vapour barriers. permeable or ventilated exterior wall layers on anticapillary courses under- roofing felt intermediate ply
savings. constructions and especially to those Damp-proofing is also required to avert neath reinforced concrete floor slabs, G 200 DD Asphalt roofing seal
A material with a diffusion resistance where the airtight level is also the vapour damage to wooden elements that could separating layers between impact-sound sheeting
Material 2 < s0 < 1500 m can be used as a vapour barrier. The sealing materials must be emanate from adjacent building elements insulation and wet lines, or between sheet V 13 Glass fibre asphalt
Vapour retarding layers are composed retarding layer. co-ordinated and selected in accordance such as concrete or masonry (building covering and timber formwork, etc. roofing felt
of coated or uncoated special papers with wood construction requirements. As damp) or be caused by damp from the J300D Bitumen seal sheeting
and foils. They ensure that the outward Materials with an sD-value < 0.3 m are a rule, the air seal is attached inside and subsoil or weather. The following materials can be consid- with jute cloth
diffusion of water vapour forming in a considered diffusion-open. may be identical to the vapour retarding ered for use as separating layers Al 0.2 D Bitumen seal sheeting
building can be metred and controlled layer or vapour barrier, For these seals, which are not included in between different building elements: with steel tape interply sheet
through its thermal insulation. Permeated Diffusion-open sD< 0.3 m DIN 18195, other types of bituminous • Polyethylene foil V60S4 Asphalt sheeting
or condensed water vapour has to be Vapour retarding layer sD 2-1,500 m The wind seal, however, is fastened on sheeting can be used than listed bare • Polyester felts with glass fibre interply sheet
dissipated either directly or by ventilation. Vapour barrier sD ;> 1,500 m the outside of the thermal insulation. It bitumen sheeting, asphalt roofing felt, • Foam mats PV200 Polymer bitumen
A seasonal balance at least must be protects the thermal insulation from asphalt roofing seal sheeting, bitumen • Oil paper PYDD Roofing felt with polyester
maintained to ensure that the thermal Recommendations for sealing joints, over- excessive cooling and prevents exterior seal sheeting, asphalt sheeting with dif- • Sodium bicarbonate kraft paper fleece interply sheet
insulation remains serviceable, laps, junctions and penetrations of vapour air from infiltrating, for instance, through ferent interply sheets: e.g. thick PE foil or G200PYS5 Polymer bitumen sheeting
retarding layers and vapour barriers are the joints between the wooden construc- other flexible plastic sheeting. i with glass fibre interply sheet
Vapour barriers are vapour-tight sheets contained in DIN 4108-7. tion and the thermal insulation. To satisfy
of plastic, metal foil or layered paper the requirement of increasing vapour Plastic Sheeting
and/or synthetic materials, which prevent Building papers and sheeting, in addition permeability from the inside to the out-
the outward diffusion of water vapour to their function as a vapour retarding side, a diffusion-open wind seal should Brief Designation
from the inside. Their vapour diffusion layer or a vapour barrier, can also per- be chosen. description
resistance is determined by the vapour form the following functions in the struc- EPDM Ethylene Propylene
diffusion resistance of the individual ture of a wall or roof construction: For the dimensions and materials Diene Monomer
layers from the inside out. As a basic • Air-tight layer see table p. 68 and 69 CSM Chlorsulfonated
principle, each building element layer • Windproof layer Polyethylene
should permit more diffusion than the • Waterproof underlay Manufacturers) (selection) MR Butyl rubber (isobutylene-
layer below it. • Moisture barrier Alkor Draka Handel GmbH isoprene elastomer)
The effectiveness of a vapour barrier is • Separating layer Ampack Bautechnik NBR Nitrile rubber (nitrile
fundamentally dependent on the techni- Pay attention to the vapour diffusion A.W. Andernach KG butadiene rubber)
cal and permanent connections that are resistance! Bauder
made. Perforations and permeation can Binne & Sohn GmbH&Co.KG
significantly reduce the functioning of Use Braas Dachsysteme GmbH Manufacturers) (selection)
vapour barriers. Air-tightness is a basic principle for a Deutsche Heraklith GmbH A.W. Andernach KG
wood construction designed to function in Deutsche Rockwool Mineralwoll GmbH Paul Bauder GmbH Co.
Properties line with the requirements of building DIB Potthast GmbH Georg Borner GmbH & Co.
The su-value, the water vapour diffusion- physics and construction engineering. Ewald Dorken GmbH Braas GmbH
equivalent air-layer thickness, specifies The high insulation values, which are EmfaBaustoffGmbH DLWAG
by how much lower the flow of water relatively easy to achieve, of the exterior Forbo-Stamoid Dimensions Phoenix AG
vapour is through a building element surfaces will only be effective if they KlbberGmbH&CoKG Bitumen sheeting Saar-Gummiwerk GmbH
layer in comparison to an air layer of are not cancelled out by leakages Koster Bauchemie GmbH Thickness (mm]: 4-5 Vedag AG
equal thickness. The value is specified in involving condensation problems and Moll Bauokologische Produkte GmbH Width [cm]: 100
metres and is the product of the thickness draughts. Rothel GmbH S Co KG Length [m]: 5 Information
of the building material (s) and its water What is required is a continuous, airtight Samt-Gobin Isover G+H AG Plastic sheeting Industrieverband Bitumen-
vapour diffusion resistance coefficient u. level with a minimal number of junctions Vedag AG Thickness [mm]: 1-3 Dach- und Dichtungsbahnen e.V.
s D =uxs(m) and penetrations as well as joints and Wanit Universal GmbH Width [cm]: 100,120, 130, 170,200 Wirtschaftsverband der
junctions which are not only technically WIKA Isolier- und Dammtechnik GmbH Length [m]: 10,20,25 deutschen Kautschukindustrie e.V.

67
Sheathing Paper Sheathing Paper
Product overview Product Overview

SD = u x d u Thickness Width Length Material Product Company SD = M x d u Thickness Width Length Material Product Company
[m] [mm] [cm] [m] [mm] [cm] [ml

0.008 15 0.50 100 100 wool fibre board, Perkalor WIKA 21 53,304 0.40 100 100 Paper one-sided IMepa WIKA
impregnant and normal coated
cellulose fibre 23 68,800 0.33 150, 180 100,50 PP fibre fleece with Ampatex DB Ampack
0.008 15 0.50 100 50 wool fibre board, Perkalor WIKA~ PP filling layer 90
impregnant and Diplex 25 0.30 140, 280 100, 50 PP fleece with PP coating, DB 25 Bauder
cellulose fibre, transparent
reinforced 26 77,000 0.33 100 100 plastic coated UmodaniO WIKA
<0.02 - 150,280 100 high-pressure PE Tyvek Soft Klober kraft paper
50 0.2 200 30,60 PE foil Difunorm Saint-Gobin
<0.02 150 100 high-pressure PE Tyvek Dry Klober IsoverG+H AG
58 187,000 0.31 150, 180 100,50 PP fibre fleece with Ampatex DB Ampack
<0.02 150 50 high-pressure PE/PP Tyvek Plus Klober PP filling layer 95
75 300,000 0.25 400 25 PE foil vapour barrier Braas
0.09 423 0.22 125 50 impregnated kraft paper Sisalit 50 Ampack PE
100 0.20 200 50 Polyethylene Rockfol PE Deutsche
0.12 250 25 special acrylate coating Stamisol DW Forbo- Rockwool
on polyester fleece Stamoid 100 150 50 Aluminium layer Delta-Fol Dorken
0.2-5 0.005 200 30,60 Polyamid Difunorm Saint-Gobin between polyester foil and Reflex
Vario IsoverG+H AG mesh-reinforced PE foil
0.30 0.30 150 50 special PE fleece with Herafol Deutsche 100-130 0.1 392 50 laminate of two PE vapour Koster
mjcrofibre structure Heraklith PE foils barrier (highly tearproof)
0.50 2,000 0.25 75,105, 100 recycling cellulose, pro clima Moll 111 58,500 0.20 400,600 25,50 polyethylene DIB vapour DIB Potthast

0.80
135
200 50
with glass fabric
diffusion-open Tyvap
KS+
Klober
I 112 45,000 0.25 600 25 extruded high pressure
retarding sheeting
Alkorplus Alkor
PP spunbonded fabric polyethylene 81010
0.80 0.20 165 100 sodium bicarbonate Volint Klober 120 300,000 0.40 400 25 PE foil vapour barrier Braas
kraft paper fk
2.00 8,700 0.23 150 50 kraft papers with flame- Sisalex 500 Ampack "13O" 150 50 mesh-reinforced PE foil Delta-Fol Dorken
retarding paraffin intermed- DS130
iate ply and glass fibre mesh 155 62,000 0.25 400, 600 25,50 polyethylene DIB vapour DIB Potthast
2.00 150 50 spun fleece with Delta-Fol WS Dorken retarding sheeting
vapour retarding 285 69,000 0.40 400, 600 25,50 polyethylene DIB vapour DIB Potthast
coating retarding sheeting
2.30 0.23 75,135 100 building paper EMFA- Emfa 310 125,000 0.30 100 100 kraft paper with Umodan DS WIKA
reinforced with recycling PWD plastic coating and
cellulose paper aluminium foil
2.30 0.35 105 50 special paper made of EMFA- Emfa 379 1,895,000 0.20 100,125, 50 two impregnated kraft Insulex311 Ampack
building paper reinforced PWS 150 papers with glass fibre mesh
with cellulose and one-sided aluminium
2.30 10,000 0.23 75, 105, 100 recycling cellulose pro clima DB Moll coating
135 >500 0.14 150 25 double-ply alu foil with Wandufol Wanit
2.30 10,000 0.23 14,21,75, 100 recycling cellulose, with pro clima Moll intermediate glass mesh Technonorm
105, 135 glass fabric DB+ 620 1,240,000 0.50 100 100 kraft paper with Umodan WIKA
2.30 5,000 0.45 105 50 recycling cellulose, with pro clima Moll plastic coating and Super
glass fabric DA+ aluminium foil
2.90 0.20 100 100 double ply sodium Difulint Klober 4,000 0.12 150 100 aluminium laminated DIB aluminium DIB Potthast
bicarbonate kraft paper with foil with double-sided laminated
giass fibre reinforcement special plastic lamination foil
<3.00 0.18 150 25 laminated film made of PP Wandufol Wanit 4,500 11,250,000 0.40 122,200 50 two watertight kraft Insulex718 Ampack
and LDPE coating papers with an intermediate
>3.00 0.25 150 25 double ply kraft Wandufol Wanit ply of bitumen and sisal
paper and glass-grid fibres, one-sided aluminium
vapour retarder coating
4.39 17,560 0.25 100,125, 50 laminate of two kraft Sisalit 303 Ampack vapour-tight 2.50 110 50 PE with aluminium foil Umodan 3- WIKA
150, 215 papers and a glass and polyester fibre Plus
fibre mesh

68
Joints and Fasteners Joints and Fasteners
Dowels Anchors/Bolts

Dowels

Dowels are predominantly used as joints


and fasteners subject to shearing stress. o : 0 o o

Type A TypeC Typs D

Rectangular wooden dowels, Rectangular anchor made of steel. Specially designed anchors Anchors Bolts Shear pins
made of dry hardwood Flat steel anchors DIN 1052-2 DIN 1052 Bolts DIN 601, DIN 931, DIN 933, DIN 7968
(groups A - C ) . DIN 6914

Use Use Use Material Material Material


Wooden rectangular dowels are inserted Flat steel anchors are inserted into Permissible load and installation require- Anchors are pin-shaped fasteners made Bolts are pin-shaped fasteners made of Shear pins are bolts, which - like anchors
in the direction of the grain into recesses recesses across the grain, held with ments; minimum timber dimensions; mini- of round steel with headless chamfered round steel with heads, threads and nuts; - are driven into tight pre-drilled holes.
in the elements to be connected. They splices and secured with locking bolts. mum spacing and initial wood lengths; ends; they are driven into pre-drilled they are driven into drilled holes with a DiameterM12-M24,
are secured with locking bolts. size and depth of cut; hexagonal stud holes. The bore must not be greater than maximum diameter 1 mm greater than Length 35-100 mm.
Ordering bolts matching the anchors as per DIN the diameter. Minimum diameter 6 mm, their own, with washers on each side,
Ordering Flat steel anchors 1052-2 in use 8-10-12-16 mm. Diameter M8-M24 (for load-bearing con- Use
Hardwood dowels Number I x b x d in mm Lengths 60-160 mm. nections greater than 12 mm), Shear pins are used for securing anchor
Number I x b x d in mm Steel quality Type A Anchor Split ring connector Length 16-200 mm. connections.
Wood species Surface (shear plate previously Appel System) Use Bolts should be fitted so that they can be
Timber quality 0 65-190 mm Fitted by hand; the number and size of re-tightened to compensate for wood Ordering
1
anchors required is to be calculated in shrinkage. Steel shear pins
Type B Anchor Split ring connector relation to the load and type of load and Surface hot-dip galvanised
(round wooden dowel made of oak; to the thickness of the material and the Use Diameter, DIN
previously Kiibler System) installation location. The numbers and dimensions of the bolts
0 66 and 0 100 mm The anchor spacing is determined in rela- are calculated in relation to the different E . g . P B M i 6 ( 0 16)
tion to the diameter and to the position of hole soffit strengths, e.g. of solid wood, DIN 1052
Type C Anchor Force fitted dowel the anchors vis-a-vis the load-bearing glued laminated timber, wood-based
(previously Bulldog System) edge and the direction of the grain. Steel material or sheet steel-to-timber joints.
0 48-165 mm sheet timber joints using anchors require The direction of the grain must be taken
a minimum thickness of 3 mm for the into account when determining distances
Type D Anchor Force fitted dowel internal sheets. to the load bearing and non-load bearing
(previously Geka System) At least 2 anchors are required per joint. edges.
0 55-115 mm
Material Ordering
Anchor type E Split ring connector, SteelS 235, S 275, S 355 Bolts
force fitted dowel (previously Siemens- in accordance with EN 10025 Steel quality 3.6, 4.6/4.8, 5,6/5.8, 6.8 in
Bauunion System) Surface galvanised/stainless steel accordance with EN 20 898
0 55 and 0 80 mm Surface hot-dip galvanised
Ordering
Transverse connector for cross-grain DIN E.g. B M 1 6 ( 0 16) DIN 1052
joints with a fitting or wind rod with cross Diameter
thread in the corresponding bore. Length
Steel quality
Ordering Surface
Quantity
Type of anchor E.g. S Anchor DIN 1052 0 16x160
one-sided/two-sided S 235, galvanised
plates

E.g. 2 x 2 anchors 0 65-A


plate 0 58/6

Manufacturers) (selection) Manufacturers) (selection)


Manufacturer Manufacturer Bierbach GmbH S Co. KG Bossard AG Schrauben Manufacturers) (selection) Manufacturers) (selection)
Trade Trade Bulldog-Simpson GmbH Bulldog-Simpson GmbH Bossard AG Schrauben Bossard AG Schrauben

70 71
Joints and Fasteners Joints and Fasteners
Screws/Staples Nails/Nail Plates

Screws Staples Nails

Wood screws Dry wall screws Staples Special nails Nail plates
Nails
DIN 95 Raised countersunk head DIN 18182 Dry wall screws U-shaped bent wires, Special nails, with the German building These are 1-2 mm thick steel sheets with
IDIN 1151 wire nails
wood screw, slotted for fastening Diameter dn 1.2-2.0 mm. authority certification, in load-bearing nail or claw-shapes punched and bent
"DIN 1143 machine nails
ds = 3 - 6 mm plasterboard, Back min. 15 mm. capacity categories I - III. V.a. for nailed out on one or both sides.
I = 12-80 mm phosphated Length of shank approx. 30-90 mm. joints using sheet steel brackets. The German building authority certifica-
Smooth shank, mostly round nails.
d s = 3.5 mm Diameter dn from 1.8 to 8.8 mm. tion has been issued for the different sys-
DIN 96 Round head wood screw, I - 25-70 mm Use Length ln from 35 to 260 mm. Groove, ridge/anchor nails tems e.g. BAT-Muttm, BMF, Gang-Nail,
slotted Fitted by hand or with a nail gun, in Countersunk, deep countersunk, com- wilh horizontally profiled shank (barbed Hydro-Nail, TTSTwinaplatte.
d s = 3 - 6 mm non-standardised accordance with Ihe German building pression, flat-head, clout, round-head or profile).
I = 10-80 mm chipboard screws authority certification. lentil. Head diameter in accordance with Diameter dn from 2.5-6 mm. Use
countersunk (Spax) with EC 5 min. 2 dn. Length In from 35-100 mm. The size of the nail plates must be calcu-
DIN 97 Countersunk head wood • cross recessed head, Material lated. The nail plates are pressed into the
screw, slotted • posidrive cross recessed Steel - electrogalvanised Self-piercing screws/rafter nails equally thick (single) timbers using
Use
ds = 3-8 mm head, • rustproofing paint with screw threads. hydraulic jacks.
The numbers and dimensions of the nails
I = 10-100 mm • Torx hexagon socket Diameter dn of 4.2 and 5.1 mm,
(used are to be calculated to take into
ds = 2.5-10 mm Ordering account the material, its thickness and the Lengths lr from 100-320 mm. Material
DIN 571 Hexagon head wood screw I = 10-400 mm Staples installation location (single-, double- or Hot-dip galvanised steel
d 5 = 4-20 mm Wire diameter d, x length of shank I multi-jointed). The impact depth and the Use
I = 20-350 mm Use dn, ln in mm spacing of the nails from the edge and Use in accordance with the German Ordering
Self-tapping, usually inserted without pilot Staple spacing e in mm from each other is dependent on the building authority certification Nail plates
Use holes. thickness of the material, the wood spe- Size b x h in mm, Type
The screw spacing as ior pre-drilled nails. E.g. Kl 1.53x44 e = 7.5 cies and grade as well as on the materials Material
Pilot hole: Material that are to be jointed (e.g. solid wood with electrogalvanised E.g. NaPI 66x166
Steel
smooth shank with ds, Steel • galvanised wood-based material, steel, concrete....). phosphated GN200
threaded portion with 0.7 ds. • phosphated (partially) By using pilot holes (< 0.9 dn), the splitting stainless
Load-bearing assemblies: • stainless effect of the nails can be diminished, the
Nominal diameter d, = min. 4 mm spacing reduced and the load-bearing Ordering
Observe minimum thicknesses of building Ordering capacity increased. Nails should not be Type of nail
elements to be connected. Quantity
Abbreviation Sr/Type
used in cross-grained timber, not even for
lower level building elements.
<u.
Material Material
Nominal diameter x length in mm Surface
Steel • natural bright DIN (for dry wall screws for Material
galvanised fastening plasterboard) E.g. ridge nail 4/50, electrogalvanised

k
[Steel • natural bright
nickel-plated Surface • electrogalvanised product
brass-plated load-bearing capacity category III
• hot-dip galvanised
E.g. 10 xSr 0 3 . 5 x 4 0 - D I N 18182 • possibly tempered
Ordering phosphated • stainless
Quantity
aluminium (partially); copper (partially)
Abbreviation Sr
Nominal diameter x length in mm
Ordering
DIM Type of nail, DIN,
Surface Diameter dn x Length I
d n in 1/10 mm, ln in mm
E.g. 10 x Sr 0 8 x 50 - DIN 97 galvanised. Material Manufacturer(s) (selection)
Manufacturer(s) (selection) Surface Eleco Bauprodukte GmbH (Gang-Nail)
Raimund Beck KG Mi-Tek Industries GmbH (Hydro-Nail)
Manufacturer® (selection) Joh. Friedr. Behrens AG E.g. nails 38x100 DIN 1159, steel hot- J. Wolf GmbH & Co Systembau KG
Altenloh, Brinck + Co Manufacturer(s) (selection) Bostitch GmbH Manufacturers) (selection) (Wolf Nagelplatlen)
dip galvanised
Bierbach GmbH & Co. KG Altenloh, Brinck + Co Duo-Fast GmbH Bierbach GmbH & Co. KG
Bossard AG Schrauben Bierbach GmbH & Co. KG Haubold-Kihlberg • BMF Holzverbinder GmbH Information
Manufacturers) (selection)
MAGE Geriring GmbH Bossard AG Schrauben Karl M. Reich Bulldog-Simpson GmbH Informations- und Giitegemeinschaft der
Bierbach GmbH & Co. KG
Adolf Wurth GmbH 8 Co. KG Adolf Wurth GmbH & Co. KG Paslode GmbH GH-Baubeschlage Hartmann GmbH
j Bossard AG Schrauben Nagelplattenverwender e.V.
72 73
Joints and Fasteners Joints and Fasteners
Sheet Steel Brackets Sheet Steel Brackets

Sheet Steel Brackets

Sheet steel brackets are made out of


2-4 mm thick sheet steel, punched and
cold-formed.

A German building authority certification Perforated steel strips Angle connectors Rafter-to-purlin connectors/purlin Track anchors/profile anchors/wood Pillar bases
has been issued for the various shapes anchors connection anchors
and their mountings, The terms used to Use As a perforated plate angle or from Use
describe the same fastenings vary from As connectors for smaller constructions. punched sheet Use Use Pillar bases (pillar bracket, post holder)
supplier to supplier. For connecting crossing beams. To fasten wooden elements into anchor serve to connect the pillar with the foun-
Dimensions Use tracks or with steel profiles. dation or the ceiling. The connection is
The selected sheet steel brackets do not 20 x 1.0/1.5 mm For connecting and fastening. Ordering made by fixing base plates and dowels
represent the complete product range, 25x2.0 mm "unufacturer, Type Ordering onto the concrete or by using ribbed rock

(
and relate to the forces appearing in the Ordering lil type, d n x in Manufacturer, Type, Length dowels and grouting in the recesses in
examples chosen. Ordering Dimensions, Type Nail type, d n x l n the concrete.
Dimensions, Type Nail type, dn x ln A distinction is made between the follow-
The use of modern beam constructions Nail type, d xl ing types:
has rendered traditional carpentry joints
affordable once again. For this reason • Pillar base made of U-shaped bent flat
they are being increasingly used in mod- steel with a welded-on wing rod or cir-
ern wood construction. Canvas bands Z-Profile Beam supports/suspended supports cular tube.
Rafter foot joints/rafter holders
(T-shaped) Fastened with wood screws or anchors,
Use Use Use Use fixed or height adjustable.
Sheet steel brackets are fastened with For bracing roof constructions. Tighten to For the frontal tastening of the cross- For connecting rafters to inferior purlins or Use
authorized special nails that are chosen ensure the load-bearing capacity e.g. beams to the main beam. ceilings. For fastening crossbeams to the main • Pillar base made of T-profile with
according to the installation location, using a ratchet clamp. beam or from beams to pillars. welded-on wing rod or circular tube.
(wood-to-wood, wood-to-concrete/steel) Ordering Ordering Fastened to the main beam/pillar with Fastened with wood screws or anchors,
Dimensions Dimensions b x h (mm) Manufacturer, Type, Length special nails; slotted into the crossbeam fixed or height adjustable.
Material 40 x 2.0/3.0 mm Manufacturer, Type Nail type, d, x li and fixed with anchors.
Hot-dip galvanised steel, 60x2.0 mm Nail type, d n x l r i • Pillar base made of round steel or
Stainless steel (partly) 80 x 2.0 mm Material threaded rod with plate (glulam pillar
Hot-dip galvanised steel support).
Ordering Drilled and secured with a steel spike
Dimensions, Type Ordering and if necessary glued, fixed or height
Nail type, d x l Type, Quantity, Dimensions adjustable
Nails/anchors
• Pillar base made of two flat steel pro-
files.
Flat connector Beam hangers Main and cross beam-connectors/ Fastened with wood screws
integral connectors
Made of perforated panels in different, One or two-piece, sides bending inward Ordering
partially standardised dimensions. or outward. Use Company-specific type designation
For connecting main and cross beams.
Use Use Fastened to the main beam/pillar with
For connecting flat building elements. To fasten beams to beams/ special nails; slotted into the crossbeam
walls. and fixed with anchors.
Ordering
Dimensions, Type Dimensions Dimensions
Nail type, dn x I For wood widths from 36-200 mm with Heights from 80-240 mm
fixed heights.
Customised dimensions may sometimes Ordering ~~ • Manufacturerfs) (seiection)
be ordered. . . j Manufacturer, Type Hot-dip galvanised steel
Anchor/nail type, dn x ln Bierbach GmbH & Co. KG
Ordering (BILOFormteile)
Dimensions BMF Holzverbinder GmbH
Manufacturer, Type Bulldog-Simpson GmbH
Nail type, d n x I., GH-Baubeschlage Hartmann GmbH

74 75
Wood Preservation Wood Preservation

Wood Preservation

DIN 68800 1 to 5
DIN 68364
DIN EN 350-2
DIN EN 460

Wood and wood-based materials are at Wood Selection: The standard merely makes recommen- A wood moisture content of below 20 per Pay attention to the manufacturers' The processing of wood preservatives on
risk from vegetable pesls (fungi) and ani- It is important to select well-dried and dations for non-bearing building elements cent is required to avoid fungal decay. instructions. the construction site should be limited to
mal pests (insects). When infestation seasoned timber (wood moisture content which are dimensionally unstable. If Insect attacks can be prevented by tak- Wood preservatives can be divided into: the treatment of sawn edges, etc. Further-
occurs, the outward appearance, the effi- u < 20 %) and, where possible, to use a written agreement has been reached ing structural protection measures, e.g. • water soluble wood preservatives, more, the wood preservative should be
ciency and the load-bearing capacity of timber species with great durability or between the architect and the builder, the by using suitable cladding or by keeping • solvent based wood preservatives, applied by brush and not sprayed.
wooden structures can be reduced to high resistance (see appendix). wood need not be chemically preserved. the wood moisture content below 10 per • oleaginous wood preservatives.
such an extent that they are completely Large-area application of wood preserva- cent. If the wood remains open and can Identification:
destroyed. Structural wood preservation: tives should generally be avoided on the be inspected for insect attacks, chemical Only products whose effectiveness and
Water soluble wood preservatives:
This must be taken into consideration dur- interior. od preservatives can also be avoided, These preservatives contain inorganic or harmlessness have been demonstrated in
Fungi require organic material (cellulose) ing the design phase e.g. when choosing 'e.g. in undeveloped roof trusses, if organic salts as agents which act as tests may be used as chemical wood pre-
for their development. They thrive particu- the location of the building, designing the Chemical wood preservatives need not accessibility is ensured. biocides. servatives. They are subject to the
larly well in moist, warm areas without an facade or planning protective roof projec- be used on windows and exterior doors if A problem with inorganic water-soluble approval mark regulation of the German
air-flow. There are different types of tions. When working out the details, how- heartwood complying with certain durabil- wood preservative salts is leaching caused Lander and are issued with the Institute of
Nearly all load-bearing and reinforcing
mould, e.g. "real dry rot". As a rule the rot ever, what must be avoided, above all, is ity grades is used (see appendix). by moisture, e.g. rain. Salts for hazard Structural Engineering in Berlin approval
building elements can be classified as
caused by fungi requires a wood mois- contact to the ground, the formation of classes 1 and 2 are always leachable and mark when their usability has been
GK 0, with the exception of sills (GK 2).
ture content of at least 20 %. condensation, and continual moisture need to be covered on site to protect them proven,
Durability grades in accordance with Chemical wood preservatives can also be
penetration of the wood by rain and DIN 1052: [dispensed with here if sap-free pine, against moisture. Non-leachable salts for The area of constructed wood that has
Insects, primarily beetles, e.g. wood ticks, splashing water. Damp timbers must be 'larch or Douglas fir is used. hazard classes 3 and 4 contain chromates been treated must be provided with long-
use the sap area of the wood (predomi- able to dry out. Thus a fundamental (chrome-VI-compounds) and require a fix- term visible identification by the contrac-
Grade Description
nantly softwood), as a source of food and aspect of structural wood preservation 1 ing period of several weeks in the wood. tor in accordance with DIN 68800-3.
very durable Chemical wood preservatives:
to house their larvae. The fully developed involves aerating and ventilating the con- They need to be stored and protected from
durable Wood preservation by design should be
ticks leave the wood through characteris- struction and the building element layers rain during this time.
reasonably durable given priority in every case when building Waste disposal:
tic entrances. Not only living trees can be in order to allow any moisture to escape.
not very durable wood constructions. If it is pursued con- Organic water-soluble salts are approved Remains of wood preservatives as well as
attacked, but also dry built-in timber, A sistently chemical wood preservatives can for hazard classes 3 and 4 and fix in empty containers and contaminated
non-durable
wood moisture content of at least 10% is Chemical wood preservation: be avoided completely. Even under DIN, wood without the addition of chromates. packages are hazardous waste. Timber
a precondition for infestation. Fungus and insect infestation should be preventative chemical wood preservation treated with wood preservatives must be
Hazard classes:
prevented by using chemical wood pre- Under DIN 68800-3. timber building ele- is only a supplementary measure, and Solvent based wood preservatives: incinerated as hazardous waste. Landfill-
Wood preservation is subdivided into servatives. ments and wood-based materials are should be taken only when wood selection These comprise organic solvents and ing is prohibited.
remedial wood preservation, which is allocated a hazard class ranging from GK and design measures prove inadequate. organic compounds which act as bio-
necessary when infestation has already DIN 68800-3 differentiates between 0 to GK 4 - not at risk to highly at risk - cides. There is a controversial public
taken place, and preventative wood pres- chemical wood preservatives for: according to their area of application. debate about some of the fungicides and
DIN 68800-3 specifies how the wood
ervation, which stops infestation by • load-bearing and reinforcing wooden Hazard class 0 does not require chemical insecticides used (e.g. pyrethroid). Spe-
preservatives are to be applied:
destroying the preconditions under which building elements wood preservation. cific problems arise when pentachloro-
• according to the inspection grades:
the pests thnv9. • non-bearing timbers which are dimen- phenol (PCP) and lindane-containing Manufacturer(s) (selection)
- insect repelling Iv
sionally unstable The application of chemical agents is not - inimical to mould P agents are used indoors. For this reason AURO-Pflanzenchemie GmbH
Preventative wood preservation • dimensionally stable non-bearing tim- mandatory for classes GK 1 to GK 4 - weatherproof W PCP has been banned in Germany since BeeckGmbH 8 Co KG
Preventative wood preservation can be bers for windows and exterior doors either, e.g. if timbers are used which are 1990. Desowag GmbH
- inimical to mildew E,
achieved in several ways: considered sufficiently "naturally durable" each preservative can be applied indi- Kulba-Bauchemie GmbH
- wood selection Preventative wood preservation is com- for the hazard class in question. vidually or in combination depending on Oleaginous wood preservatives: Leinos-Naturfarben GmbH
• wood preservation by design pulsory for load-bearing building ele- the hazard class. These are creosote compounds and Livos Pflanzenchemie GmbH
• chemical wood preservation ments. However chemical wood preser- A special certificate can also be obtained creosoles. RCH Fluorchemie GmbH
• according to the wood species (round
vatives are only required for certain haz- to assign a structure to a lower hazard timber, sawn timber, laminated wood ...) Remmers Chmie GmbH & Co
ard classes, which are listed in DIN class. To obtain this certificate, special • according to the method of application Processing: Wehl GmbH
68800-3 (see appendix). structural measures must be taken to (painting, spraying, dipping, borehole For reasons of occupational health and Dr. Wolmann GmbH
destroy destructive fungi and prevent impregnation, vacuum and boiler pres- safety during processing, and to protect
insects from accessing covered timbers. sure impregnation ...), including pos- subsequent occupants from exposure to Information
sible pre-treatments of wood species the agents and solvents contained in the The Deutsche Institut fur Bautechnik
that are difficult to impregnate and the wood, it is principally recommended that (DIBt) Berlin (German Institute for Struc-
appropriate amounts to be applied for closed equipment be used to introduce the tural Engineering) issues a list of
the hazard classes stipulated, whilst preservatives into the wood (boiler pres- approved wood preservation products
observing occupational health and sure impregnation, possibly also trough annually.
safety measures. impregnation, spray tunnel procedure). Gutegemeinschaft Holzschutzmirtel e.V.

76 77
Joint Sealing Tapes

Joint sealing tapes For invitations to tender and orders:


• Manufacturer
DIN 18542 • Thickness
• Width
• Length
• Colour
Calculated per metre

Material Use Processing:


Open-pored and closed-cell materials are Joint sealing tapes are used to function- Sealing tapes are normally supplied pre-
used for joint sealing tapes. ally connect building elements and build- compressed (to approx. 20 per cent of
Common types of sealing tapes are: ing element layers to each other. Accord- the original thickness), whereby the
• foam sealing tape ing to the level of compression, they are retraction to the width of the joint is so
• silicon sealing tape either driving rain or wind-proof, and can gradual that it allows sufficient time dur-
• butyl rubber tape therefore create both rain and wind barri- ing application to position the tape into
ers along joints. the joint.
Open-pored sealing tapes are made of To prevent the formation of condensation The seal effect of the joint sealing tape
polyuretriane soft foam, for example, at a joint's edges, the joint must have a depends on its residual compression
which is impregnated with pre-set flame- vapour-tight structure on the inside. when in position:
retardant synthetic resin, partially impreg-
nated with bitumen, and can be pre-com- < 20 % Delivery condition
pressed at the factory for the application up to 25 requirements in
in question. accordance with
DIN 18542
Closed-cell materials made of plastic are up to 35 % ' seals against strong rain,
usually used for damp-proofing. good sound insulation
up to 50 % [ water repellent,
Open-pored materials have good sound draught-proof, dust-tight
insulation properties, but are only effec- 100' original thickness
tive as damp- and wind-proof seals when
compressed. The adhesive strength at the edges of the
joints is primarily determined by the
Joint sealing tapes are available as single restoring force of the expanding tape.
or double-sided adhesive tapes. The self-adhesive tape surface serves as
an application aid,

Manufacturers) (selection)
Hanno-Werk GmbH & Co.KG
Dimensions: Henkel Bautechmk GmbH
Length of reel [m]: 2-10, according to Henkel Teroson GmbH
thickness Nlbruck Bautechnik GmbH
Thickness (uncompressed) [mm): 10-150 KAWOKarlWolpers
Width [mm]: 10-1,000 Slka Chemie GmbH
Timber Structures
Overview Timber Structures
Built Examples

[Temporary Bank in Nuremberg

I ami architekturwerkstatt Isometric (not to scale)


[Matthias Loebermann, Nuremberg Vertical section scale 1:20

Built Examples
ie "Blue Box" meets the requirements of the middle of the space. A room-height
81 fthe brief by providing a flexible, low-cost, window can be installed in every module,
Temporary Bank in Nuremberg 1
temporary structure with a pleasant inter- with pivoting louvres to provide sunshad-
ami architekturwerkstatt nal ambience. The modular system con- ing. The system can also be used for
Isistsof a basic unit 3 m wide and 9 m exhibition or information pavilions.
82 Weekend House in Vallemaggia I long, Three modules are combined here 03 DETAIL 4/2001
Robert Briccola, Gibiasco ' to create a single structure 9 x 9 m on
i plan with a room height of 2.50 m.
84 House near Bad To'lz 1 roof construction, waterproof membrane
(The elements are laid on a supporting 19 mm three-ply laminated sheeting
Fink + Jocher, Munich base, consisting of three beams. The 40 mm ventilated cavity; 40-80 mm wood finings
wall, roof and floor panels are in timber- 160 mm thermal insulation;
86 80/160 mm timber rafters
Church Community Centre | frame construction with insulation. To 15 mm oriented strand board
and Youth Centre in Lenting reduce the span of the minimally sloping 2 softwood casement with insulating double glazing
Andreas Meek und , roof, a row of columns was inserted along 3 30 mm five-ply larch laminated sunshade louvres
4 flat steel movable fixing for louvres
Stephan K6ppel, Munich

Housing Development in Trofaiach


Hubert Riess, Graz

90 Lakeside Bathing Facilities in Zug,


Switzerland
Alfred Krahenbuhl, Zug

92 School Building in St Peter,


Switzerland
Conradin Clavuot. Chur

94 Media Library in the Cantonal School


in Kusnacht
Betrix & Consolascio mit
Erich Maier, Erlenbach

96 Parquet Showrooms in Lmdau


Karl Theodor Keller, Munich

81
Timber Structures
Timber Structures Built Examples
Built Examples

roof construction:
Weekend House in Vallemaggia Reflecting the tradition of the Walser Val- is entirely in timber. The structural ele- plastic sheet sealing layer
27 mm three-layer fir laminated boarding
ley granaries, this small weekend house ments are in fir. Externally, the house is 160 mm miners I-woo I thermal insulation
was designed to impinge as little as pos- clad on all faces with larch boarding. 100/200 mm fir rafters
sible on the natural surroundings. The Internally, it is lined with three-layer lami- vapour barrier
19 mm three-layer tir laminated boarding
siting of the simple cubic volume allows nated sheeting. IQ DETAIL 3/2001 wall construction:
for later additions. Raised on four corner 27 mm larch ton gued-and-grooved boarding
piles, it seems to hover above the Alpine 27 mm battens
140 mm mineral-wool thermal insulation
meadow. vapour barrier
The ground floor houses the entrance, 27 mm battens
19 mm three-layer fir laminated boarding
living and dining areas, with an integrated 27 mm three-layer fir laminated boarding
kitchen strip. The living realm extends 100/160 mm (ir rafters
out into a sheltered loggia, On the upper 19 mm three-layer hr laminated boarding
27 mm three-layer fir laminated boarding
floor are two simple sleeping cells and a vapour barrier
shower. Apart from the concrete piles and 160 mm mineral-wool thermal insulation
19 mm orientsd-stranfl board
Roberto Briccola, Giubiasco the raking, welded-steel porch, the house Floor plans • Sections scale 1:200

Horizontal seotici
Vertical section
scale 1:20
83
82
Timber Structures
Timber Structures
Built Examples
Built Examples

House near Bad Tolz

Fink + Jocher, Munich


Dietrich Fink
Thomas Jocher
Horizontal section First floor • vertical section
Erected within a period of nine months cal members. The walls are in a two-skin advantage of this system is that it allows scale 1:20
with prefabricated timber elements, this form of construction and are braced by the use of cheaper off cut products. The 1 roof construction: concrete roof tiles
two-storey, low-energy house reflects the internal plywood lining. The inner leaf, floor also has great rigidity, with a struc- 30/50 mm battens, 24/46 mm counter-battens
the vernacular of the local farm buildings in which the mechanical services are tural depth comparable to that of a rein- moisture-diffusing roof sheeting
24 mm sawn tongued-and-grooved boarding
through the use of a few simple details. housed, bears the loads from the floor, forced concrete slab. No chemical pre- 160 mm cellulose-fibre thermal insulation
The transparent areas in the north fa- which stops short of the vapour barrier. servatives were used for the wall, floor or between 60/160 mm ratters
aluminium foil vapour barrier
cade were kept to a minimum in order to This ensured a simple assembly of the roof timbers. ty DETAIL 1/1998 40 mm thermal insulation
reduce energy losses. To avoid extremes house and a safe, airtight construction. The between 40/60 mm battens
of temperature, sliding shutters with lou- wall is insulated with a total thickness of 12.5 mm plasterboard
2 wall construction:
vres set at different angles were installed 22 cm cellulose fibre. The problem of noise 30/50 mm untreated larch strips
for the large areas of glazing in the south, transmission via the continuous vertical insect screen, 30/50 mm battens
west and east faces. studs was reduced by building the inner moisture-diffusing wind proof building paper
24 mm softwood tongued-and-grooved boarding
The timber stud walls were based on the leaf of the wall with horizontal members. 160 mm cellulose-fibre thermal insulation
American balloon-frame system, using The floor is in a simple, hand-nailed verti- between 60/160 mm timber studs
12 mm plywood construction board
full-height elements with continuous verti- cally stacked plank construction. The Floor pla-is • Section scale 1:250 polythene sheet vapour barrier
60 mm thermal insulation between 60/60 mm
timber battens, 12.5 mm plasterboard
3 larch strips splay cut on both edges;
white glazed on edges and rear lace

EDO

• D
oLJa

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M11111111111111
Ll.H i. ,'
• II [

• — :
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85
84
Timber Structures
Timber Structures Built Examples
Built Examples

Church Community Centre


and Youth Centre in Lenting roof construction:
2 mm plastic sealing layer
180-280 mm insulation finished to falls
vapour barrier
180 mm vertically stacked plank floor
30/50 mm battens
18 mm beech-laminated board
wall construction:
24/52 mm larch cladding
40/60 mm battens
windproot layer
15 nim onented-strand board
130 mm thermal insulation
vapour barrier
15 mm oriented-strand board
30/50 mm battens
2x 12.5 mm plasterboard
Andreas Meek und 8 mm mosaic tiles Horizontal section • vertical section scale 1:20
Stephan Koppel, Munich

This lightweight, largely prefabricated


timber structure was erected close to
the site boundary, with the hall and group
rooms overlooking the garden. Access
from the road is via an elevated walkway,
with the entrance to the community centre
at upper floor level. The large hall can
be divided into smaiier units by sliding
partitions that disappear into recesses in
the wall.
The youth centre on the lower floor has its
own entrance, but is linked with the main
foyer by an internal staircase. The walls
are in timber stud construction braced on
both faces with oriented-strand board
sheets. The roof over the hall is a nailed
beam structure, while the floors are in a
stacked plank form of construction, The
external walls and foyer walls are clad in
larch boarding in a warm red tone.
CP DETAIL 1/2000

Longitudinal section
Up pel floor plan
Ground tloor plan
scale 1:400
Timber Structures
Timber Structures Built Examples
Built Examples

Housing Development in Trofaiach

Hubert Riess, Graz

This housing development, which occu-


pies an entire street block, comprises
two three-storey linear tracts with a pro-
tected landscaped zone between them.
The strips are divided by straight-flight
staircases Ihat extend over the full width
ot the blocks. Each staircase provides
access from the courtyard side to two
dwellings on each floor. The dwellings
themselves have an east-west orienta-
tion.
All external walls and party cross-walls
are load-bearing and were prefabricated
in storey-height units. The facade ele-
ments, extending over the full width of a
dwelling, are connected by laminated
timber beams and fixed to the floors.
The roofs and staircases are also in a
prefabricated unit construction system.
V DETAIL 4/2001

Floor plans
scale 1:500

Horizontal section
Vertical section
scale 1:20

1 stainless-steel standing-seam roofing,


leaded
30 mm sawn timber boarding
80/180 mm limber rafters, ventilated
windproof building paper
19 mm chipboard
240 mm thermal insulation between
100/240 mm softwood purlins
polythene sheeting
19 mm chipboard
24 mm open-joint boarding
15 mm gypsum fibreBoard
2 160/480 mm laminated timber beam
3 19 mm larch boarding
30/60 mm battens
windproof building paper
10 mm gypsum fibreboard
12.5 mm gypsum fibreboard
160 mm thermal insulation between
80/160 mm softwood posts
polythene sheeting with welded joints
12.5 mm gypsum fibreboard
10 mm gypsum fibreboard
Timber Structures
Built Examples Timber Structures
Built Examples

Lakeside Bathing Facilities in Zug,


Switzerland

Alfred Krahenbuhl, Zug Horizontal section


Vertical section
scale 1:20

TTT7TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT

Floor plan scale 1:500

These simple timber structures, housing


facilities for bathers, screen the lake shore
from the railway line to the north. The tim-
ber stud walls and the box-beam roof con-
struction were both prefabricated. When
closed, the doors and shutters form an
integral part of the facade. In an open
position, their natural wood inner faces are
contrasted with the continuous white board
cladding. Along the south side is an open,
covered arcade; and a shading pergola
has been erected in front of the kiosk.
Solar panels on the planted roof augment
the hot water supply. QJ DETAIL 1/2000

1 wood casement with double glazing


2 225/21 mm boarding
3 27 mm sandwich slab
4 120/1 SO mm beam
5 120/120 mm post
6 2x 60/140 mm pairs Of beams
7 0.8 mm sheet copper gutter
8 roof construction:
60 mm planted layer
separating mat
two-layer polymer-bitumen waterproof membrane
timber box-section element:
2x 15 mm oriented-strand board
and 60/200 mm wood framing
120 mm rock-wool insulation
9 wall construction:
225/21 mm boarding
25/50 mm battens
15 mm oriented-strand board
80/120 mm timber stud posts
27 mm sandwich slab
7.8 mm tiles
10 25 mm larch strip paving .' ;-

90
91
Timber Structures
Timber Structures Built Examples
Built Examples

School Building in St Peter,


Switzerland

Conradin Clavuot, Chur

The new complex is well integrated into


the intact local vernacular. The external
walls of the school building are in a two-
layer form of conslruction. The inner layer
consists of a flexible system of 11.5 x 20
cm planed, tongued-and-grooved, but
otherwise untreated horizontal beams.
Shrinkage in the beams, caused by the
drying out of residual moisture, together
with heavy snow loads in winter, resulls in
movement within the walls, which are up
to 36 m long and 7.5 m high. To allow the
wall beams to settle and still perform a
load-bearing function, Ihey are flexibly
Isometric of standard wall construction
"laced" to fan-dovetailed sections
screwed to a rigid system of vertical
posts. The thermal insulation, casements
and larch facade boarding are also fixed
to the rigid posts. CP DETAIL 1/2000

Sections
Fourth floor plan
Second floor plan
scale 1:800

Section through facade of school building


scale 1:20

roof construction: sheet copper roofing


separating layer
27 mm boarding; 75 mm to projecting eaves
260/310 (160) mm beams
waterproof membrane
2x 60 mm rock-wool insulation
vapour barrier
27 mm boarding
120/200 mm joists
wall construction:
40 and 60 mm larch boarding
battens/ventilated cavity
wind proof paper
2X BO mm rock-wool insulation
vapour barrier
120 mm cavity between posts
26 mm sandwich slat),
as bracing only in casement area
45 mm space for service runs
115/200 mm horizontal laced
softwood beams

92
Timber Structures
Timber Structures Built Examples
Built Examples

Media Library in the Cantonal School in


Kiisnacht

Marie-Claude Betrix &


Eraldo Consolascio
Eric Maier, Erlenbach

•- • — >-

r

- "T ;

—i i bo
Sections • Floor plans scale 1:250

In this new building, which seeks to evoke


the spatial atmosphere of classical librar-
ies, the shelving forms part of the load-
bearing structure. The closed side walls,
the intermediate floor and the roof consist
of prefabricated timber box elements. The
sides of the shelving, in laminated timber
sheeting, function as vertical columns, —•10
As tension elements, they also bear the
loads from the cantilevered section of the
upper floor, which is suspended from the
roof. The highly insulated external walls
and roof, the extremely low U-value of the
glazing, and the controlled ventilation of
the internal spaces coupled with a heat
recovery system ensure a low energy
consumption that complies with the Swiss
"minergie" standard. CP DETAIL 5/2002

Details section scale 1:20 1 1:


40 mm fine stone chippings on separating layer
two-layer waterproof membrane with
root-resisting layer
27 mm laminated timber sheeting
330-440 mm cellulose thermal insulation
33 mm laminated limber sheeting
demountable masking sheet 1-7 - I F TT ft IT „——H n~ " 7

100/431 mm lam. timber sheet column


33 mm lam. timber shelf
6 mm linoleum with cork backing
27 mm lam. timber sheeting
230 mm expanded clay filling
27 mm lam. timber sheeting
6 fabric blind
7 low-E glazing; U = 0.54 W/m=K ] 1 II ] ] II II
a 10 mm screen-printed toughened safety glass
9 sheet-copper gutter and covering
10 softwood cover strip
95
94
Appendix
Timber Structures
Contents
Built Examples

Parquet Showrooms in Lindau

Karl Theodor Keller, Munich

Based on a rectangular plan, this simple zontal band of glazing - openable in part Appendix
building replaces an earlier house of the - extends along all faces of the building.
same form. On the ground floor is a sales It is complemented by conventional win- 98 Grades
area and a store; on the upper floor, an dows. I4J DETAIL 7/1998 99 Material classes
office and exhibition space. The load- 100 Standards
bearing structure consists largely of a Standard facade details 101 Literature
scale 1:10
thermally insulated timber skeleton frame. 1 wall construction: impregnated formwork panels 102 References
In the area of the shop, however, the with galvanized steel edge strips 107 Subject index
outer walls and the first floor are in a solid saw-tooth battens/cavity Index of projects
wmdproof sheeting
109
form of construction. Externally, the build- rock-wool insulation belween 1007180 mm 110 Picture Credits
ing is clad with common formwork planks posts and rails
vapour barrier
articulated by glass strips of the same 16 mm untreated lam. building board
size. This determined not only the dimen- 2 double-glazing strip; opening light
sions of the external grid, but also the 3 stainless-steel frame
4 saw-tooth battens
form of construction. A continuous hori- 5 fixed double glazing

97
96
Appendix
Grades Appendix
Material classes

Grading criteria for squared timber, visually graded in accordance with DIN 4074-1
Maximum values for the moisture of woods for load-bearing and reinforcing building elements; these values must not be exceeded
Grade characteristics during the period of use. (Table 2 DIN 68800-2)
Grade Grade Grade
S7 S10 S13 Material Moisture
class max u

1. Wane all four sides must be up to 1/3; in each cross- 20 15% (12 for The boards must not become moist, or only to the extent that their moisture content
up to 1/8; in each cross-
stripped continuously section at least 1/3 of each 1
section at least 2/3 of each fibreboard) increases over a short period and does not exceed 15 mass-% at any point,
with a cutting tool cross-section side must cross-section side must Penetrating moisture must be able to escape unhindered.
be wane free be wane free
100 If surrounding air conditions permit either a higher long-term equilibrium moisture content (EMC)
in the boards or a short-term increase in their moisture content provided the latter does
2. Knots up to 3/5 not exceed 18 mass-% at any point and any additional penetrating moisture can escape unhindered.
up to 2/5, up to 1/5,
not exceeding 70 mm no more than 50 mm
100 G 21 % If surrounding air conditions permit a higher long-term EMC or higher moisture content in boards
and penetrating moisture can only escape over an extended period of time.

3. Avg. width of annual up to 6 mm up to 4 mm


rings for Douglas fir - up to 8 mm Required material classes (Table 3 DIN 68800-2)
up to 6 mm

Line Material Area of Application


4. Grain slope up to 200 mm/m up to 120 mm/m class
up to 70 mm/m
1 Cladding on the room side of walls, as well as on ceilings and roofs in residential buildings
and in buildings used for comparable purposes.
5. Cracks:
1.1 20 In general:
• Radial shakes (checks) permissible permissible permissible 1.2 Surface panelling as well as load-bearing or reinforcing panelling of ceilings below
• Lightning shakes not permissible not permissible not permissible attic floors that have not been fitted out.
Frost cracks
20 a) ventilated ceilings
Round shakes b) n on-ventilated ceilings
100 - without an adequate insulation layer
20 -with an adequate insulation layer (1/A £0.75 m2K/W)
6. Stains:
• blue-stain permissible permissible 2 Outside panelling on exterior walls
permissible
• brown and red stripes: permissible for up permissible for up 2.1 100 Ventilated cavity between exterior cladding and weatherproofing skin.
permissible for up-
low nail-holding capacity to 3/5 of the cross to 2/5 of the cross- to 1/5 of the cross 2.2 100 Weatherproof ing skin, cavity insufficiently ventilated, d iff us ion -open, and water-draining
section or the surface section or the surface section or the surface covering over the panelling.
• red rot not permissible not permissible not permissible 2.3 100 Thermal-insulating composite system directly attached to panelling. . .
• white rot 2,4 Masonry facing shell, cavity insufficiently ventilated, panel covering with;
100 a) water-draining layer with so > 1 m
b) HR-foam panels at least 30 mm thick.
7. Compression wood permissible for up to 3/5 up to 2/5 of the cross-section permissible for up to 1/5 3 Top panelling of roofs, load-bearing or reinforcing roof-boarding
of the cross-section or permissible for the surface of the cross-section or 3.1 Panelling or boarding in contact with the room air
or the surface the surface 3.1.1 20 Attached thermal -insulating layer (e.g. in residential buildings, heated halls)
3.1,2 100G Without attached thermal -insulating layer (e.g. flat roofs on unheated halls)
3.2 Roof cross-section ventilated beneath the panelling or boarding
8. Insect holes boreholes, caused by insects boreholes, caused by insects 3.2.1 100 Pitched roof with covering
boreholes, caused by insects
attacking green wood, attacking green wood, attacking green wood, 3.2,2 100G Flat roof with moisture-proof roofing
of up to 2 mm in diameter of up to 2 mm in diameter of up to 2 mm in diameter 3.3 Roof cross-section not-ventilated beneath the panelling or boarding
permissible permissible permissible 3.3.1 100G Ventilated cavity above the panelling or boarding, material covered on the upper
side with water-repelling foil or similar material
3.3.2 100 No vapour-barriers (e.g. foils) beneath the panelling or boarding,
thermal insulation mainly above the panelling or boarding
9. Misteltoe attack not permissible not permissible not permissible
Cases not mentioned here are to be classified in accordance with the above when determining the required material class. Classes
20 or 100, which have been determined in this way, may not- under any circumstances - be replaced by class 100 G.
10. Camber, up to 15 mm/2 m up to 8 mm/2 m According to DIN 68800-5, wood-based materials serving as load-bearing and reinforcing elements must be protected against fungi
up to 5 mm/2 m
longitudinal curvature, in cases where moisture loads are high; this measure is expedient for wood-based materials not used as load-bearing elements.
twisting
The German Ordinance on Energy Saving (EnEV 2002), thermal insulation ordinance, the ordinance on energy-saving thermal
protection in buildings.

gg
Appendix
Appendix
Literature
Standards

Standards Literature

Arbeitsgemeinschaft Holz e.V., GoizK.-H., HoorD.. MohlerK,, Sell J.,


DIN 1052 Part 1: Structural use of timber; specifications for building works: carpen- DIN EN 300 Oriented Strand Boards
design and construction Natterer J., Eigenschaften und KenngroBen von Holz-
try and timber construction work (OSB) - Definitions, classification and Informationsdienst Holz,
Timber Design & Construction, 1989 arten, 1987
specifications; German version Hol2bau Manual
DIN 1052 Part 2: Structural use of timber; DIN 18542 Sealing of outside wall joints Series 1: Entwurf und Konstruktion
mechanically fastened joints with impregnated sealing tapes made of DIN EN 309 Particleboards; definition and Graubner W., The Woodbook,
Series 2: Tragwerksplanung
cellular plastics - Impregnated sealing classification Holzverbindungen, 1986 2002
DIN 1055 Action on structures Series 3: Bauphysik
tapes - Requirements and testing
DIN EN 312 Particleboards - specificati- Series 4: Baustoffe
DIN 1101 Wood wool slabs and multi- Grosser D., The Woodworker's Handbook, 1987
DIN 18560 Screeds in building construc- ons Series 6: Ausbau und Trockenbau
layered slabs as insulating materials in Die Holzer Mitteleuropas, 1997
building tion
DIN EN 313 Plywood - classification and Volland K.,
BairstowJ.E.N.,
DIN 68100 Tolerance system for wood terminology Grosser D., Einblicke in die Bausioffkunde, 1999
DIN 4070-1 Softwood; cross-sectional Practical & Decorative Woodworking
working and wood processing; concepts,
dimensions and static values for sawn DIN EN 316 Wood fibreboards - defini- Joints, 1987 Pflanzliche und tierische Bau- und
series of tolerances, shrinkage and The German Ordinance on Energy Saving
timber, square timber stock and roof tion, classification and symbols Werkholz-Schadlinge, 1985
swelling (EnEV 2002), thermal insulation ordi-
battens Bayerische Architektenkammer,
DIN68122Tongued-and-grooved DIN EN 335 Durability of wood and deri- Gutdeutsch G., nance, the ordinance on energy-saving
DIN 4070-2 Coniferous timber; dimen- Baustoffinformationssystem
chamfered boards of coniferous timber ved materials; definition of hazard classes Building in Wood - Construction and thermal protection in buildings.
sions of cross-sections and static values, Baustoffe-Umwelt-Gesundheit, 2000
of biological attack
goods sawn for dimensions and specifi- Details, 1996
DIN 68123 Weatherboards made of
cation coniferous timber DIN EN 338 Timber structures - strength Bayerisches Staatsministerium
classes des Inneren - Oberste Baubehorde - Kordina K., Meyer-Ottens C,
DIN 4071-1 Unplaned boards and planks DIN 68126-1 Profile boards with chamfer Wohnungen in Holzbauweise, Holz Brandschutz Handbuch, 1994
made of coniferous timber; dimensions and broad root: dimensions DIN EN 350 Durability of wood and wood-
Wohnmodelle Bayern Band 2, 1997
based products - natural durability of Krenov J.,
DIN 4072 Boards tongued and grooved, DIN 68126-3 Profile boards with chamfer solid wood
made of coniferous timber and broad root; grading for white-wood Bosshard H., Worker in Wood, 1981
and redwood DIN EN 351 Durability of wood and wood- Holzkunde Band 1 bis 3, 1982
DIN 4073-1 Planed boards and planks, based products - preservative-treated Landsberg H., Pinkau S.,
made of coniferous timber; dimensions DIN 68364 Properties of wood species: solid wood Holzsysteme fur den Hochbau, 1999
Bund Deutscher Zimmermeister im
density, modulus of elasticity and Zentralverband des
DIN 4074-1 Strength grading of wood; DIN EN 384 Structural timber - determina-
strength LeifeB.,
coniferous sawn timber Deutschen Baugewerbes e.V.,
tion of characteristic values of mechanical
DIN 68365 Structural timber for carpentry; Technik im Zimmererhandwerk, 1997 Holzschutzmittel im Einsatz, 1992
DIN 4102 Fire behaviour of building mate- properties and density
quality conditions
rials and building components DIN EN 386 Glued laminated timber - Nakahara Y.,
Bund Deutscher Zimmermeister im
DIN 68705-2 Plywood - Part 2; Block- performance requirements and minimum Japanese Joinery. A handbook for joiners
DIN 4108Thermal protection and energy Zentralverband des
board and laminboard for general use production requirements and carpenters, 1983
economy in buildings Deutschen Baugewerbss e.V.,
DIN 68705-3 Plywood; structural plywood DIN EN 460 Durability of wood and wood- Holzrahmenbau, 1993
DIN 4109 Sound insulation in buildings; - Herzog T,, Natterer J., Schweitzer R., Volz
requirements and testing DIN 68705-5 Plywood; structural plywood based products - natural durability of
Bund Deutscher Zimmermeister im M., Winter W.
made of beech solid wood - guide to the durability
Zentralverband des Timber Construction Manual, 2003
DIN 17440 Stainless steels - technical requirements for wood to be used in
delivery conditions for drawn wire DIN 68755 Wood-fibre products for insu- hazard classes Deutschen Baugewerbes e.V,,
lation of buildings Holzrahmenbau mehrgeschossig, 1996 Odate T.,
DIN 18161-1 Cork products as insulating DIN EN 622 Fibreboards - specifications Japanese Woodworking Tools: Their
building materials; insulating materials for DIN 68762 Chipboard for special purpo- traditions, spirit and use, 1984
DIN EN 633 Cement-bonded particle- Detail Review of Architektur,
thermal insulation ses in building construction; concepts,
requirements, testing boards: definition and classification Timber Construction, 1/2000, 5/2002
DIN 18164-1 Cellular plastics as insula- ScholzW., HieseW.,
ting building materials - Part 1: Insulating DIN 68764 Particle boards; extruded DIN EN 634 Cement-bonded particle- DIN. Beuth-Komentare Holzschutz, Baustoffkenntnis 14. Auflage, 1999
materials for thermal insulation boards for the building; terms, properties, boards - specifications Baulich-Chernisch-Bekampfend,
testing, supervision Erlauterungen zu DIN 68800-2,-3,-4 Schriften des Deutschen Instituts
DIN 18165 Fibrous insulating building DIN EN 635-1 Plywood - classification by
fur Bautechnik (DIBt),
materials DIN 68765 Particle boards; decorative surface appearance - Part 1: General
Engel H., Holzschutzmittelverzeichnis, 51. Auflage,
laminated particle boards; terms, require-
DIN 18180 Gypsum plasterboard; types, ments DIN EN 636 Plywood - specifications Tragsysteme-Structure Systems, 1967 1999
requirements and testing
DIN 68800-1 Protection of timber used in DIN VENV 1995-1-1 Eurocode 5: design
FinkD., JocherT., Schulz H.,
DIN 18182 Accessoires for use with of timber structures; Part 1-1: general
buildings; general specifications Wohnungen 3-und 4-geschossig in Holz Holzbau, Wande-Decken-Dacher, 1996
gypsum plasterboards rules and rules for building
DIN 68800-2 Protection of limber; preven- gebaut, 199?
DIN 18195-1-5 Water-proofing of buil- DIN V ENV 1995-1-2 Eurocode 5 - design SchunckE., OsterH.J.,
tive constructional measures in buildings
dings of timber structures-Part 1-2: General Gerner M., Barthel R., Kiessl K.,
DIN 68800-3 Protection of timber; preven- rules; structural fire design Handwerkliche Holzverbindungen der Roof Construction Manual -
DIN 18203-3 Tolerances for building; buil- Pitches Roofs, 2003
ding components of timber and wood tive chemical protection Guidelines for the application of DIN V Zimmerer, 1992
based panel products ENV 1995-1-1 Eurocode 5: design of tim-
DIN 68800-5 Protection of timber used in SeikeK.,
ber structures; Part 1 - 1 : general rules and Gockel H.,
DIN 18334 Contract procedures for buil- buildings; preventive chemical protection The Art of Japanese Joinery,1986
rules for buildings Konstruktiver Holzschutz,
ding works - Part C: General technical for wood-based materials
Bauen mit Holz ohne Chemie, 1998
101
mn
Appendix Appendix
References References

References

Altenloh, Brmck + Co Eternit AG Getinex-Jackon Vertriebs GmbH Haas Fertigbau GmbH


Bauder Paul GmbH S Co. KG BMF-Simpson GmbH Cortex GmbH DOBRY Dammsysieme GmbH
KolnerStraGe 71-77 Ernst-Reuter-Platz 8 Carl-Benz-Strafle 8 IndustriestraRe 8
Kornlaler LandstraGe 63 Bosohstrafie 9 Am Schallerseck 32 Dauner StraBe 23
D-582 56 Ennepetal D-10908 Berlin D-33803 Steinhagen D-84326 Falkenberg
D-70499 Stuttgart D-28857 Syke D-90765 Furth D-54552 Dockweiler
Tel. +49/2333/7990 Tel. +4&30734 85-0 Tel. +49/5204/1000-0 Tel. +49/8727/18-0
Tel. +49/711/8807-0 Tel. +49/4242^594-0 Tel. +49/911/93635-0 Tel. +49/6595/90093-0
Fax. +49/2333/799199 Fax. +49/30/34 85-319 Fax. +49/5204/1000-59 Fax. +49/8727/18-593
Fax. +49/711/8807-300 Fax. +49/4242/60778 Fax. +49/911/93635-30 Fax. +49/6595/90093-93
p. 72 pp. 50, 51 p. 58 pp. 36, 41
pp. 59, 66, 67,69 pp. 70, 71,73, 75 p. 56 p, 64

Ampack Bautechnik GmbH EZO Isolierstoffe GmbH GH-Baubeschlage Hartmann GmbH Hanno-Werk GmbH 8 Co. KG
Raimund Beck GmbH S Co. KG Georg Borner GmbH & Co. KG Council of Forest Industries Dorken GmbH & Co. KG
Alte Biberacher SlraBe 5 Ladestrafte 1 HintermSchloG8-10 Hanno-Ring 5
SiemensstraBe 7-9 Heinnch-Borner-SiraBe 31 Suite 1501, 700 West Render Street WetterstraBe 58
D-88447 Warthausen D-37249 Neu-Ei Chen berg D-32549 Bad Oeynhausen D-30880 Laatzen
D-84478 Waldkraiburg D-36251 Bad Hersfeld Pender Place 1, Business Building D-58313 Herdecke
Tel +49/7351/198-10 Tel. +49/3638/957-0 Tel. +49/5542/2017 Tel. +49/5731/7580-0 Tel. +49/5102/7000-0
Tel. +49/6621/175-0 CDN-Vancouver, British Columbia Tel. +49/2330/63-0
Fax +49/7351/198-50 Fax. +49/8638/957-180 Fax. +49/5542/72159 Fax. +49/5731/7580-90 Fax. +49/5102/7000-10
Fax. +49/6621/175-200 V6C1G8 Fax. +49/2330/63-355
pp. 66, 68, 69 p. 73 p. 63 pp. 73, 74, 75 p. 78
p. 67 Tel.: +1/604/6840211 pp. 66, 68, 69
Fax.: +1/604/6874930
Ania-Holz GmbH Glunz AG Haubold-Kihlberg AB
Beek'sche Farbwerke Bossard AG p.42 Dold Holzwerke GmbH Falke Game
Im Inkerfeld 1 GrecostraBe 1 Industrigatan 37
Beeck GmbH S Co. KG SteinhauserstraGe 70 TalstraBe 9 Kutscherweg 1
D-55969 Bromskirchen D-49716Meppen S-54422 Hjo
Burgauer Sirafie 2 CH-6301 Zug CWA Cellulose Werk D-79256 BuChenbach D-57392 Schmallenberg
Tel. +49/2984/3080 Tel. +49/5931/405-0 Tel. +46/503/328-00
D-70567 Stuttgart Tel. +41/41/749966-11 Angelbachtal GmbH Tel. +49/7661/3964-0 Tel. +49/2972/307-0
Fax. +49/2984/8977 Fax. +49/7661/3964-119 Fax. +49/2972/307-323 Fax. +49/5931/405-209 Fax. +46/503/328-01
Tel. +49/71J/90020-0 Fax. +41/41/749966-22 Etzwiesen straBe 12
p. 35 D-74918 Angelbachtal pp. 41,42 p. 61 pp. 40, 42, 46, 48, 50. 54 p. 72
Fax. +49/711/90020-10 pp. 71,72, 73
P-77 Tel. +49/7265/9131-0
APA-The Engineered Wood Fax +49/7265/9131-21 Fels-Werke GmbH Holzwerke Gmach GmbH HALJSprofi Bausysteme GmbH
Bruynzeel Multipanel European Federation of Timber
Association p. 64 Geheimrat-Ebert-StraGe 12 MuhlbachstraGe 1 Rudolf-Diesel-StraBe 12
Joh. Friedr. BehrensAG An der Giimpgesbrucke 15 Construction
7011 Souih 19th Street D-38640 Goslar D-93483 Posing D-72250 Freud enstadt
Bogen straBe 43-45 D-41564Kaars1 2 Circuit de la Foire Internationale
US-Tacoma WA 98466 D-22926 Ahrensburg Tel: +49/5321/703-0 Tel. +49/9461/403-0 Tel. +49/7441/866-0
Tel. +49/2131/67045 Danogips GmbH Luxembourg - Kirchberg
Tel: +1/253-565-6600 Tel. +49/4102/78-0 Fax: +49/5321/703-321 Fax. +49/9461/403-33 Fax. +49/7441/84551
Fax.+49/2131/65385 Schisss-Strafie 55 PB1604
Fax: +1/253-565-7265 Fax. +49/4102/78-140 p. 41 p. 72
p, 42 D-40549 Dusseldorf LU-1016Luxembourg pp. 52, 53
p. 42 p. 72 Tel. +49/211/53086-0 Tel.: +352/424511 1
Fi brol ith -Dammstoffe Grossmann Bau GmbH & Co. KG Anton Heggenstaller AG
Bund Deutscher Zimmermeister e.V. Fax. +49/211/53086-20 Fax.:+352/424525
Armstrong DLWAG p. 52 Wilms GmbH AuGere Munchner Strafie 20 MuhlenstraBe 7
Besin International Kronenstrafie 55-58
Stutigarter StraBe 75 Hannebacher StraGe 1 D-83026 Rosenheim D-86556 Unterbernbach
Postbus 120 D-10117 Berlin Fritz Doppelmayer GmbH
D-56746 Kempenich Tel. +49/6031/4401-0 Tel. +49/8257/81-0
D-74321 Bietigheim-Bissingen NL-3850 AC Ermelo Tel. +49/30/20314-0 Eugen Decker Holzindustrie KG Am Petzenbuhl 3
Tel. +31/341/369836 Tel. +49/2655/9592-0 Fax. +49/8031/4401-99 Fax. +49/8257/81-170
Tel. +49/7142/71-0 Fax. +49/30/20314-560 Hochwald straBe 31 D -87439 Kempten
Fax. +31/341/554200 pp. 34, 35, 42 Fax. +49/2655/9592-18 p. 36 i p. 35
Fax. +49/7142/71-799 D-54497 Morbach Tel. +49/831/59219-0
p. 67 p. 64 Tel. +49/6533/73-0 Fax. +49/831/59219-29 p. 65
G utesc h utzg erne i nschaft F Aug. Henjes GmbH 8 Co.
Bundesverband der Gipsindustrie Fax. +49/6533/73-111 p. 61
AURO-Naturfarben Holzwerk Ambros Fichtner Sperrholz e.V. An der Autobahn 46
Bierbach GmbH & Co KG e.V. p. 35
Alie Frankfurter Strafe 211 Tegernseer Weg 15 WilhelmstraBe 25 D-2 887 6 Oyten
Befestigungstechnik Birkenweg 13 DOW Deutschland Inc.
D-38211 Braunschweig D-83727 Schliersee D-35392 GieBen Tel. +49/4207/698-0
Rudolf-Diesel-Strafie 2 D-64295 Darmstadt Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Am Kronberger Hang 4
Tel. +49/531/28141-0 Tel. +49/8026/9405-0 Tel. +49/641/97547-0 Fax. +49/4207/698-40
D-59425 Unna Tel. +49/6151/36682-0 Holzforschung e.V. DGfH D-65824 Schwalbach
Fax. +49/531/28141-62 Fax. +49/8026/6512 Fax. +49*11/97547-99 p. 56
Tel. +49/2303/28O2-0 Fax. +49/6151/36682-22 BayerstraGe 57-59 Tel. +49/6136/566-0
p. 77 Fax. +49/2303/2802-129 p. 52 Fax. +49/6196/566-444 p. 35 p.42
D-80335 Munchen
Henkel Baufolien
pp. 70, 72, 73. 74, 75 Tel. +49/89/516170-0 p. 58
Finnforest Deutschland GmbH Gilte- und Informationsgemeinsctiaft Am Rosen garten 5
AWA GmbH Dachbaustoffe Bundesverband Deutscher Fax. +49/89/531657
MaarstraGe 48 Louis-Krages-StraBe 30 der Nagelplattenverwender e.V. D-63607 Wachtersbach-Neudorf
Binne 8 Sohn GmbH 8 Co. KG Holzhandel e.V. p. 36 Eleco Bauprodukte GmbH
D-53227 Bonn D-28237 Bremen GartenstraBe 6 Tel. +49/6053/708-0
Muhlen straBe 60 Rostocker StraBe 16 Erdingar StraGe 82 a
Tel. +49/228/405-0 Tel. +49/421/6911-0 D-37181 Hardegsen Fax. +49/6053/708-130
D-25421 Pinneberg D-65191 Wiesbaden Deutsche Herakliih GmbH D-85356 Freising
Fax. +49/228/405-309 Tel. +49/611/5069-12 Fax. +49/421/6911-100 Tel. +49/180/5446675 pp. 66, 87
Tel. +49/4101/5005-0 HeraklithstralJe 8 Tel. +49/8161/8796-0
pp. 66, 67 Fax. +49/4101/208037 Fax. +49/611/5069-69 Fax. +49/8131/8796-33 pp. 42, 43 p. 62
D -84359 Simbach/lnn
p. 66 pp. 34, 35. 42 Henkel Bautechnik GmbH
Tel. +49/8571/40-0 p. 73
BASF AG Flachshaus GmbH Gutex Holzfaserplattenwerk Erkrather StraGe 230
Fax. +49/8571/40-261
D-67056 Ludwigshafen Pritzwalker StraBe 1 H. Henselmann GmbH & Co. KG D-40233 Dusseldorf
Blomberger Holzindustrie CFFGmbHSCo KG pp. 60,61,62,66,68 Emfa Baustoff GmbH
Tel. +49/621/60-0 D-16928Giesensdorf Gutenburg 5 Tel. +49/211/7379-0
B. Hausmann GmbH 8 Co. KG Amstadter StraBe 2 Stockerweg 10
Fax. +49/621/60-42525 Tel. +49/3395/700796 D-79761 Wa Ids hut-Tien gen Fax. +49/211/7379-304
Konigswinkel 2 D -98 708 Gehran Deutsche Rockwool D-89331 Burgau
pp. 57, 58 Tel. +49/8222/9662-0 Fax. +49/3395/301925 Tel. +49/7741/6099-0 p. 78
D-32825 Blomberg Tel. +49/3683/882-0 Mineralwoll GmbH S Co. OHG
Tel. +49/5235/966-0 Fax. +49/3683/882-252 Fax. +49/8222/9662-80 p. 62 Fax. +49/7741/6099-57
RockwoolstraGe 37-41
Ba u -Barth- H ol z bau e I em e nte p. 64 pp.54, 55, 56,62, 63,66 pp. 47. 54, 55 Henkel Teroson GmbH
Fax. +49/5235/6851 D-45966 Gladbeck
Zeppelinrmg 7-13 Fulgurit Baustoffe GmbH Henkel Teroson StraBe 57
p.42 Tel. +49/2043/408-0
D-88969 Owing en Postf ach 1208 Gyproc GmbH D-69123 Heidelberg
Colfirmit Rajasil GmbH S Co. KG Fax. +49/2043/408-444 EPF European Panel Federation
Tel. +49/7551/9232-0 D-31513Wunstorf Scheifenkamp 16 Tel. +49/6221/704-0
BMF Bygningsbeslag A/S Tholauer StraBe 25 p. 60, 66, 69 Allee Hof-ter-Vleest 5 Box 5
Fax. +49/7551/9232-50 Tel. +49/5031/51-0 0-40878 Ratingen Fax.+49/6221/704-698
Boulstrup D-95615Marktredwitz B-1070 Brussels
p. 37 Fax. +49/5031/51-203 Tel, +4&2102/476-0 p. 78
DK-8300 Odder Tel. +49/9231/802-0 DIB Potthast GmbH Tel. +32/2/55625-89
Tel. +45/8781/74-00 p. 56 Sonnenhang 33 Fax +32/2/55625-94 pp 50, 51 Fax. +49/2102/476-100
Fax. +49/8781/74-09 D-51570 Windeck-Schladern p. 47 p. 52
pp. 73, 74, 75 Tel. +49/2292/2426
Fax. +49/2292/2155
pp. 66, 69

103
102
Appendix Appendix
References References

Hess Holzleimbau-Technologie Industrieverband Hartschaum e.V. Johann Kirchhoff GmbH S Co. KG La large Dachsysteme GmbH Phoenix AG Rigips GmbH Schollmayer Holz GmbH
Merk Holzbau GmbH & Co. KG
GmbH & Co. KG Kurpfalznng 100a BahnhofstraBe 13 Frankfurter LandstraBe 2-4 SchanzenstrafSe 84 HauptstraBe 173
Indusiriestrafie 2 Hannoversche StraBe 88
Postfach 1460 D-69123 Heidelberg D-57413 Finnentrop D-40549 Diisseldorf D-55246 Mainz-Kostheim
D-61440 Oberursel D-86551 Aiohach D-21079 Hamburg
D-63884 Mi Hen berg Tel. +49/6221/776071 Tel. +49/2395/9191-0 Tel. +49/6171/61-001 Tel. +49/211/5503-0 Tel. +49/6134/1811-0
Tel. +49/8251/908-0 Tel. +49/40/7667-01
Tel. +49/9371/4003-0 Fax. +49/6221/775106 Fax.+49/2395/9191-40 Fax.+49*171/61-2300 Fax. +49/40/7667-2211 Fax.+49/211/5503-208 Fax. +49/B134/24952
Fax. +49/8251/6005
Fax. +49/9371/4003-45 pp.57, 58, 59 p. 35 pp. 66, 67, 69 p. 67 pp. 52, 53 p. 35
pp. 36, 43, 44
pp. 35, 43, 44
Isofloc Warmedammtecnmk GmbH KI6ber GmbH SCO. KG Lafarge Gips GmbH Merkle Holz GmbH PIGROL Farben GmbH Rothel GmbH 8 Co. KG Schwenk Dammtechnik
Hess Co. AG Am FieselerWerk 3 Scharpenberger Strafe 72-90 Frankfurter Landstrafte 2-4 HospitalstraBe 39/71 OdersfraBe 74 GmbH S Co. KG
S1raBerWeg24
Sperrholzfabnk Toni Ackermann D-34253 Lohfelden D-58256 Ennepetal D-61440 Oberursel D-91522 Ansbach D-24539 Neumunster IsoiexstraBe 1
D-89278 Nersingen-Oberfahlheim
CH-5312D6ttingen Tel. +49/561/95172-0 Tel. +49/2333/9877-0 Tel. +49/6171/61-020 Tel. +49/981/6506-0 Tel. +49/4321/9992-0 D-86899 Landsberg
Tel. +49/7308/9646-0
Tel. +41/56/2687505 Fax. +49/561/95172-95 Fax. +49/2333/9877-199 Fax. +49/6171/61-3999 Fax.+49/981/6506-59 Fax, +49/4321/9992-33 Tel, +49/8191/127-0
Fax. +49/7308/9646-46
Fax. +41/56/2454576 pp. 55, 64 pp.61, 66, 68 p. 52 p. 77 pp. 63, 56, 66 Fax. +49/8191/32954
p. 35
p. 42 p 57
ITW Paslode Befesligungssysteme Knaui Alcopor GmbH LecaA/S MiTek Industries GmbH Probstl Holzwerke GmbH Rosenauer Holzverarbeitung GmbH
Hock Vertriebs-GmbH 8 Co. KG GmbH, Paslode & Duo-Fast IdsteinerStralteSI Randersvej 75 Am Bahnhof 6 Rosenau 48 Sika Chemie GmbH
Deutz-Kalker-StraBe 1
IndustriesiraBe 7 Gutenbergstrafie 4 D-65232 Taunusstein DK-8900 Randers D-86925 Fuchstal/Asch A-4581 HengspaB Kornwestheimer StraBe 103-107
D-50679 Kbln
D-76297 Stutensee-Spock D-91522 Ansbach Tel. +49/612&9752-0 Tel. +45/87/610201 Tel. +49/8243/9691-0 Tel. +43/7566/241-0 D-70439 Stuttgart
Tel. +49/1805/37620-0
Tel. +49/7294/9471-0 Tel. +49/981/9509-0 Fax. +49/6128/9752-22 Fax. +45/87/610205 Fax. +49/8243/2613 Fax. +43/75667241 -37 Tel. +49/711/8009-0
Fax. +49/1805/37620-1
Fax. +49/7294/9471-25 Fax.+49/981/9509-175 p. 60 p. 65 p. 42 Fax. +49/711/8009-321
p. 73 p. 41
p. 62 p. 72 p. 78
Knauf Gips KG Leinos-Naturfarben GmbH Moll Bauokologische Produkte Proholz Holz information Rougier SA
Homatherm GmbH & Co. KG Janssen Holzbau GmbH & Co. KG Am Bahnho! 7 WeilenburgsfraBe 29 155, avenue de la Rochelle Stamoid AG
GmbH Uraniastrasse 4
Ahorrtweg 1 Balinhoistralte 93 D-97346lphofen D-42579 Heiligenriaus BP 8826 Beschichtungswerk
BheinlalstraBe 35-43 A-1010Vienna
D-06536 Berg a D-49753 Werlte Tel. +49/9323/31-0 Tel. +49/2056/9326-0 F-79028 Niort Cedex 09 Waste rkinger Weg
D-68723 Schwetzingen Tel. +43/1/7120474-0
Tel. +49/3465/1416-0 Tel. +49/5951/9566-0 Fax. +49/9323/31-277 Fax. +49/2956/9326-25 Tel. +33/549/7720-30 CH-8193 Eglisau

r
Tel. +49/6202/2782-0 Fax.+43/1/7131018
Fax. +49/3465/1416-39 Fax. +49/5951/9566-66 •.52 P-77 pp. 34, 42 Fax. +33/549/7720-40 Tel. +41/18682626
Fax. +49/6202/2782-21
p. 64 p. 37 p. 42 Fax.+41/18682727
pp. 66, 68
Knauf Perlite GmbH LiaporGmbH & Co. KG Puren Schaumstoff GmbH pp. 66, 68
Hornitex Werke Joma-Dammstoffwerk GmbH Kipperstrafie 19 ROWA F. Rothmund
Industnes1ra(3e 2 Nexfor Inc. Rengolclshauser StraBe 4
Gebr. Kunnemeyer GmbH S Co KG Jomaplatz 1 D-44147 Dortmund D-88662 Oberlingen GmbH 8 Co. KG Stanley Bostitch
D-91352 Hallerndorf-Pautzfeld Suite 500 , 1 Toronto Street
BahnhofstraRe 57 D-87752 Holzgiinz Tel. +49/231/9980-01 Tel. +49/7551/8099-0 Eisensohmiede 20 110 Walker Drive
Tel. +49/9545/448-0 CDN-Toronto, Ontario
D-32805 Horn-Meinberg Tel. +49/8393/78-0 Fax. +49/231/9980-138 Fax. +49/7551/B099-20 D-73432 Aalen-Unterkochen CDN-Brampton, Ontario L6T 46H
Fax. +49/9545/448-80 M5C 2W4
Tel. +49/5234/848-00 Fax, +49/8393/78-15 p. 65 p. 65 p. 59 Tel. +49/7361/9872-0 Tel. +1/800/5677705 .
Tel. +1/416/64388-20
Fax. +49/5234/848-202 p. 65 Fax. +49/7361/9872-52 p. 72
Fax. +1/416/64388-27
pp. 40. 48, 47 Kobjs Industrieholz- und Lignum p 61
p. 42 RCH Fluorchemie GmbH
Kaufmann Holz AG Moniagebau GmbH Holzwirtschaft Schweiz Hauptstralie 35 Stattbauhof GmbH
Hiister-Holz GmbH S Co. KG Vorderreuthe 57 Einharting 12 Falkenstrafie 26 D-50126Bergheim SaarGummi GmbH Markgrafendamm 16 "
Odenwald Faserplattenwerk GmbH
Innerweg 15 A-6970 Reuthe D-83567 Unterreit EisenbahnstraBe 24 D-10245 Berlin
CH-8008 Zurich Dr. -F. A. -Freundt-Stralie 3 Tel. +49/2271/451-61
D-59581 Warsiein Tel. +43/5574/804-0 Tel. +49/8638/9870-0 D-66687 Wadern-Buschfeld Tel. +49/30/29394-0
Tel. +41/1/26747-77 D-63916Amorbach Fax. +49/2271/451-58
Tel. +49/2902/9798-0 Fax. +43/5574/804-201 Fax. +49/8638/9870-97 Fax.+49/30/29394-104
Fax. +41/1/26747-78 Tel. +49/9373/201-0 p. 77 Tel. +49/6874/69-0
Fax. +49/2902/9798-99 pp. 36, 37, 41 p. 37 pp. 34, 38. 42 Fax. +49/9373/201-130 Fax. +49/6874/69-248 pp. 64, 62
p. 35
p. 47 Reich Karl M. p. 67
Kaufmann Leimliolz GmbH Kbster Bauchemie AG Lindner Holding KGaA Verbindungstectinik GmbH STEICO AG
ICI Paints Deco GmbH G uteri berg straBe 7 DieselstraBe3-10 BahnhofstraBe 29 Samt-Gobain Isover G + H AG Hans-Riedel-Stralte21
Otto-Graf-Institut (FMPA) der KisslingstraBe 1
Itterpark 2-4 D-86399 Bobingen D-26607 Aurich D-94424 Arnstorf Burgermeister-Griinzweig-Stra(!e 1 D-85622 Feldkirchen
Universitat Stuttgart D-72622 Nurtingen
D-40724 Hilden Tel. +49/8234/9610-0 Tel. +49/4941/9709-0 Tel. +49/8723/20-0 D-67059 Ludwigshafen Tel. +49/89^91551-0
Pfaffenwaldring 4 Tel. +49/7022/71-0
Tel. +49/2103/2058-00 Fax. +49/8234/8572 Fax. +49/4941/9709-40 Fax.+49/8723/20-2147 Fax. +49/89/991551-99
D-70569 Stuttgart Fax. +49/7022/71-233 Tel. +49/621/501-0
Fax. +49/2103/2058-63 p. 36 pp. 66, 69 pp. 52, 53 p. 54
Tel. +49/711/685-3323 p. 72 Fax.+49/621/501-988
p. 77
Fax. +49/711/685-6820 pp 60, 62. 66. 68, 69
Kaufmann Massivholz GmbH Kronospan Luxembourg S A. Livos Pflanzenchemie p. 36 Remmers Bauatofftechnik GmbH Studiengemeinschaft Hoizleimbau
Illbruck Bautechnik GmbH Max-Eyth-StraBe 25-27 B. P. 109 GmbH 8 Co. KG Bern hard -Remmers-Stralte 13 Sauerlander Spanplatten e.V.
Burse heid er StraBe 454 D-89613 Oberstadion LU-4902 Sanem, Luxembourg Auengrund 10 GmbH & Co. KG Gutegemeinschaft Hoizleimbau e.V.
Pavatex GmbH D-49624 Loningen
D-51381 Leverkusen Tel. +49/7357/921346 Tel. +352/590311-1 D-29568 Wieren Zur Schefferei 12 Elfriede-Stremmel-SiraBe 69
Wangener StraBe 58 Tel. +49/5432/83-0
Tel. +49/2171/391-0 Fax. +49/7357/921101 Tel. +49/5825/88-0 D-59821 Arnsberg D-42369 Wuppertal
Fax. +352/590311-500 D-88299 Leutkirch Fax. +49/5432/3985
Fax. +49/2171/391-586 p. 37 Fax. +49/5825/88-60 Tel. +49/2931/876-0 Tel. +49/202^7835-81
p. 42 Tel +49/7561/9855-0 p. 77
p. 78 p. 77 Fax.+49/2931/876-118
Fax.+49/7561/9855-50 Fax. +49/202/97835-79
KAWO-Dichtstoffe KunzGmbH & Co. Rettenmeier Holz Industrie p. 49 p. 42
p. 47, 54, 55, 62
Industrieverband Bitumen-Dach- u. Karl Wolpers Im Biihlfeld 1 Maier Holzbau GmbH & Co GmbH & Co. KG
Dichtungsbahnen e.V. (VDD) P
Bavenstedter StraBe 73 D-74417Gschwend Tussenhauser StralBe 30 IndustnestraBe 1 Holz Schmidt GmbH Matthaus Sturm GmbH
Karlstraf)e21 Pfleiderer Holzwerkstoffe GmbH &
D-31135Hildesheim Tel, +49/7972/690 D-86842 Turkheim Co. KG D-91634 Wilburgstetten Zum Flugplatz 8 Holzverarbeitung
D-60329 Frankfurt/M Tel. +49/5121/7619-0 Fax. +49/7972/808 Tel. +49/8245/9698-0 Tel. +49/9853/338-0 D-35091 Colbe-Schonstadt Eselsburger SiraBe 17
Postfach 2760
Tel. +49/69/2556-1314 Fax. +49/5121/7619-29 pp. 48, 47 Fax. +49/8245/9698-20 Fax. +49/985^338-100 Tel. +49/6427/9220-0 D-89542 Herbrechtingen
D-597 53 Arnsberg
Fax. +49/69/2556-1602 p. 78 p. 36 p. 35 Fax. +49/6427/9220-30 Tel. +49/7324/953-0
Tel. +49/2932/302-0
p. 65 p. 35 Fax. +49/7324/953-100
Fax. +49/2932/302-341
p. 35
pp. 40. 48, 60

104 105
Appendix Appendix
References Subject Index

Subject Index

15,27 cover strips 30 floor structure 15, 19,27


TS Teutoburger Spetrholz GmbH Verband der Deutschen Lolhar Zipse Korkverlrieb airborne-sound insulation
Pivrtsheider StraBe 22 Holzwerkstoffindustrie VHI e.V. TullasiraBe 26 14, 18 cross-rafters 28, 29 foundations 24, 25
airtight
D-3 2 758 Detmold Ursulum 18 D-79341 Kenzingen
anchors ' 70, 71,75 cross-band veneer 40 frost blanket gravel 22
Tel. +49/5232/981-00 D-35396 Gieten Tel. +49/7644/9119-0 22 damp-proofing 22, 67 furniture construction 40, 47
anchor bolts
Fax. +49/5232/981-999 Tal. +49/641/97547-0 Fax. +49/7644/9119-34
73 wood from deciduous trees 34 fungi 76
p. 42 pp. 56, 63
anchor nails
Fax. +49/641/97547-99
74 diaphragm action 26 gable area 17
pp. 42, 46 angle connectors
31 dimensional tolerances 13 gable wall 17
Thermal Ceramics Deutschland angle sealed with tape
76 draught-proofing 12, 14, 16, GEKA dowels 70
GmbH & Co. KG Westag 8 Getalit AG animal pests 67
Borsigstrafle 4-6 Hellweg 15 backfill insulation 31 17, 18, 19,27 glass fibre
D-21465Reinbek D-33378 Rheda-Wiedenbruck 74 drainage 28 glaze 13
beam hangers
Tel. +49/40/72709-100 Tel. +49/5242/17-2000 75 dry rot 76 glued laminated timber 26, 28, 31, 36
beam supports
Fax. +49/40/72709-5100 Fax, +49/5242/17-72000
bitumen sheeting 67 dry screed board 15,27,52 glued laminated beams 26, 28,31, 37
p. 65 p. 42 55 72 glulam pillar support 75
biluminated wood fibres dry wall screws
55 15, 27 grading 34
bituminated fibreboards doorframe
ThermowoH Dammstoffe GmbH WIKA Isolier- und Dammtechnik 40 15 granulates 56
Hoheimer StraGe 1 blockboard and laminated board door reveal
GmbH
66 22, 25, 70 grey 13
D-97318 Kitzingen Bischof-Neumann-Strafie 23a blower door test dowel
38 24 groove nails
73
Tel. +49/9321/322-01 D-85051 Ingolstadl boards/planks "dry" construction method
23 gutter bracket
16
Fax. +49/9321/322-06 Tel. +49/8450/937-0 board mater iais dry screed 15, 24, 27, 52
71 gypsum baseboard
52
p. 61 Fax.+49/8450/1647
bolt eaves flashing 28
PD 66,68.69 51-53 edge beam 17 gypsum fibreboard 18, 23, 24, 53
building boards
Ttiuringer Dammstoffwerke GmbH
70 edge of ceiling 14 gypsum plasterboard 52
Am Schlossberg 3 Wilhelmi Weike AG Bulldog dowels
18 edge rafter 17 hardwood 34, 40, 70
D-99438 Bad Berka Dr. Hans-Wilhelmi-Weg 1 butt joint
74 energy saving 14, 66 hazard classes 22,76
Tel. +49/36458/37-0 D-35633 Lahnau canvas bands
62 equalising unevenness 25 heavy-duty bolt 12, 13
Fax. +49/36458/37-198 Tel. +49/6441/601-0 cavity flocks
p. 60 Fax. +49/6441/63439 63 expandable polystyrene 57 hemp 62
cavity insulation
p. 47 65 expanded mica 23 heat loss 12
cavity fill
TreuHanf AG 64 expansion joint 19,31 high-expansion cement mortar 12,22,25
cellulose
Am Treptower Park 30 Holzwerka Wimmer GmbH 23,64 exterior boarding 17 horizontal rails 13
cellulose flakes
D-12435 Berlin Max-Breiherr-SiraBe 20
24 exterior corner 18 HR-foam 57, 59
Tel. +49/30/5369915-3 cemented chipboard
D-84347 Pfarrkprchen
23 exterior lining 12 humid rooms 23
Fax. +49/30/5369915-4 Tel. +49/8561/3005-0 centre distance
18 exteriorwall 12, 14, 16, 17, humidity 53,57
p. 62 Fax. +49/8561/3005-55 ceramic tiles
16,42, 18,22 ,24,31,66 impact-sound insulation 15,24,54,
p. 35 chemical wood preservative 12,
Trus Joist 76, 77 exterior wall elements 23 57, 60, 67
BehringstraDe 10 Johann Wolf GmbH 8 Co. 65 external cladding 38 in situ foam 59
chimney linings
D-82152Planegg Systembau KG 24 , 46, 49 extruded particle boards 49 insects 76
chipboard
Tel. +49/89/8550-96 Am Siacltwald 20 13 extruded polystyrene 58 insulating board 12,56
Fax. +49/89/8550-886 coat of paint
D-94486 Osierhofen
13, 63 face veneer 40 insulating materials 14 , 19, 54-65
pp. 43, 44, 45 Tel. +49/9932/37-0
coconut
13 , 23, 63 facing panels 30 insulation value 23
Fax, +49/9932/2893 coconut fibre
63 facing shell 31, 63 integral connectors 75
UPM-Kymmene Wood GmbH p. 73 coconut insulating mats
63 fascia 28 interior lining 13
Postfach 105728 coconut rolled felting
D-20039 Hamburg 63 fibrated concrete slab 24 interior wall 15, 25, 27
Dr. Wolmann GmbH coconut wall panels
Tel. +49/40/248446-0 Dr.-Wolmann-StraBe 31-33 12 fibreboard 29,47 interior wall elements 23
coarse gravel strips
Fax. +49/40/248446-10 D-76547 Sinzheim 54 fibre cement board 12, 22, 51 joint sealing tape 14,78
p. 42
composite elements
Tel. +49/7221/800-0 37 fibre-reinforced cement board 50 joints and fasteners 38, 70-75
composite construction
Fax. +49/7221/800-290 53 fibrous insulating material 12 joists 14-16
0 b erwach u ng s geme i n so haft p. 77 composite board
60 fire resistance 31 joist hangers 14
Konstruktionsvollholz e. V. composite materials
34,50 fire resistance class 19 laminated construction board 42
Postfach 6128 Adolf Wurth GmbH S Co. KG coniferous wood
D-65051 Wiesbaden 43 fire protection plasterboard 52 laminated strand lumber 45
Reinhold-Wurth-StralBe 12-17 connecting plates
Tel. +49/611/97706-0 25 five-ply panel 41 lintel beam 15
D-74653 Kunzelsau-Gaisbach continuous footing
Fax +49/611/97706-22 flakes 12 load-bearing lathing 38
Tel. +49/7940/15-0 converted building timber 34,35
p. 35 Fax. +49/7940/15-1000 74 loose fill 15
core insulation 60,65 flat connector
p. 72 48 machine nails 73
core plywood 40 flat-pressed boards
Vedag AG
40 flat roofs 57, 65 manufactured wood products 40-50
Flinschstraf3e 10-16 core-stripe blockboard
Ulrioh Zeh GmbH 8 Co. KG
56 flat steel anchors 70 manufacturers 104-108
D-60388 Frankfurt/Main Holz- und Leimbau cork
15 flax 62 matched fibreboards 39
Tel. +49/69/4084-0 Obersteig 2 cork strip
31 floating foundation 22 material class 41,44-48
Fax. +49/69/4258-24 D-88167 Maierhofen/Allgau corner
pp. 66, 67 31 floorboards 15 mineral wool/fibre 19,26,60
Tel. +49/8383/92051-0 corner design
Fax. +49/8383/92051-99 18 floor covering 50 moisture 12,25
corrosion stains
p. 36 28 floor construction 24 multi-ply boards 47
corrugated sheet roofing
61 flooring 15 nails 18,73
cotton wool
29 floor beneath roof void 16, 17 nail plates 73
counter battens
107
106
Appendix Appendix
Subject Index Index of projects

non-press ing water 67 self-piercing screws 73 wall elements 22, 23, 26 Index of projects
Ordinance on Energy Saving 14, separation layer 16 weather boarding 17, 18, 19
Oriented Strand Board fOSB) 13, 46 service lines 19 weatherboards 14,39 page 81 page 90
overlapping vertical weatherboard ing services shaft 18. 19.27 weather protection 50, 52 Temporary Bank in Nuremberg Lakeside Bathing Facilities in Zug,
17, 18, 19 shadow gap 30 weather protective layer 13 Client: Switzerland
panelling 13, 22, 23,42,49 shear pins 71 windows 18, 26 Hypo-Vereinsbank, Munich Client:
paper 28 sheathing 16 window frame 14,26 Architects: Einwohnergemeinde Zug
parallel laminated veneer 43 sheathing papers 66-69 wire nails 73 ami architekturwerkstatt Architect:
Parallel Strand Lumber (PSL) 44 sheep's wool 26,61 wooden house construction 35. 41. 47. 52 Matthias Loebermann, Nuremberg Alfred Krahenbuhl, Zug
party wall 19 sheet bay width 17 wood fibre 54 Associates: Associate:
patinated wood species 13 sheet flooring 15 woodfibreboards 47, 54, 55 Werner Feldmeier, Eric Alles Reto Keller, Construction manager
perimeter insulation 12, 58 sheeting 28, 66, 67, 68, 69 wood preservative 12, 42, 76 Structural planning:
PE-foil 24,67 sheet-metal covering 16 wood preservation 76 page 82 Ernst Moos AG, Zug
perforated steel strips 74 sheet steel brackets 74,75 wood preservation by design 76 Weekend House in Vallemaggia Xaver Keiser Zimmerei Zug AG
perlite 65 shrinkage ratio 23 wood ticks 76 Client:
pillar bases 75 sill 13,22 wooden sill plate 12 Roberto Briccola, Giubiasco page 92
pillar bracket 75 skirting boards 13 Z-profile 74 Architect: School Building in St Peter,
planking 18. 19.41 softboard 12 Roberto Briccola, Giubiasco Switzerland
planks 38 softwood 23, 34-41 Structural planning: Client:
plasterboard 18, 22, 23, 24, 31, 52, 57. 72 sole plate 22 Flavio Bonalumi, Giubiasco Politische Gemeinde St. Peter,
plastic 26 solid door frame 15 Graubunden
plastic sheeting 28. 67 solid wood 34, 35, 36 page 84 Architect:
plywood 13,16,22,25,28,30 sound insulation 15, 19, 23, 31, 60, House near Bad Tolz Conradin Clavuot, Ctiur
plywood panels 30 61,63,67 Client. Associates:
polymeric bitumen sheet 25 span 18 private Claudia Clavuot-Merz, Norbert Mathis,
polyurethane HR-foam 59 special nails 73 Architects: Alex Jdrg, Paula Deplazes
polyurethane in-situ foam 59 split ring connector 70 Fink + Jocher, Munich Structural planning:
polystyrene particles 57 spring shackles 31 Dietrich Fink, Munich Jurg Conzett, Chur
post holder 75 stairs 40 Thomas Jocher, Munich
posts 12,17 standards 100 Associates: page 94
products 33-78 staples 72 Nicole Hernminger, Thomas Pfeiffer Media Library in the Cantonal School
profile anchors 75 stone bolt 25 Structural planning: in Kiisnacht
profile boards 39 storage capacity 29 Toni Staudacher. Tegernsee Client:
protective layers 13, 29 structural solid wood 35 Baudirektion Kanton Zurich,
protective measures 30 structural wood 34,76 page 86 Hochbauamt, Zurich
purlin anchors 75 styropor 57 Church Community Centre Architects:
ragbolt 12 subsoil 67 and Youth Centre in Lenting Betrix & Consolascio mil Eric Maier,
rafter arrangement 17 substructure 18,29,30 Client: Erlenbach
rafter foot joints 75 support grid 16 Pfarrgerneinde St. IMikolaus, Lenting Project management:
rafter holders 75 suspended supports 75 Architects: Yves Milani
rafter nails 73 swelling clay 65 Meek Koppel Architekten, Munich Supervision:
rafter spacing 16 tension 18 Andreas Meek, Munich Ghisleni Bauleitung GmbH, CH-Jona
rafter-supporting purlins 28 thermal bridge 29 Stefan Koppel, Munich Structural planning:
Rafter-to-purlin connectors 75 thermal insulation 12, 16.22,24, Associates: Bauingenieur Walt + Galmarini AG, Zurich
rail 14 28,29.31,57.60,62 Werner Schad. Eva Maria Krebs,
rectangular wooden dowels 70 thermal protection in summer 29 Susanne Frank, Peter Fretschner page 96
resistance class 12, 42 threshold 15 Structural planning: Parquet Showrooms in Lindau
ridge nails 73 track anchors 75 Ingenieurburo H. L. Haushofer, Client:
roof boarding 16, 17 three-ply panel 41 Markt Schwaben Hartl-Parkett-GmbH. Lindau
roof covering 16 timber 34-39 Architect:
roof edge 17 tingles 28 page 88 Karl Theodor Keller. Munich
roof members 29 tolerances 12, 13,26 Housing Development in Trofaiach Structural planning:
roof overhang 16, 30 tongued-and-grooved floor covering 15 Client: Dr. GernotPittioni, Munich
roof panels 41,43 upper headpiece 26 GIWOG-Gemeinnutzige Industrie
roof void 17 vapour retarding layer 13, 14, 16, 17, Wohnungs GmbH, Linz
rotary cut veneers 40 18, 19, 22, 24, 26, 27, 28, 31,66 Architect:
"sand honeycombs" 27 vapour barrier 25, 66 Hubert Riess, Graz
sandwich constructions 54, 57 vegetable pests 76 Associate:
screws 18, 30, 72 ventilation 12, 13, 19, 66 Christoph Platzer
sealing material 25, 26 ventilated roof 17 Structural planning:
"secondary" meltwater 28 verge 17 Rudolf Prein, Leoben

108 109
Appendix
Picture Credits

Picture credits

p. 7:
Kazunori Hiruta. Tokyo
pp. 34-36, 40, 42-48, 50, 52-55:
ARGE Holz, Dusseldorf
p. 37:
Kaufmann Massivholz GmbH, Oberstadion
pp. 38, 41,51,62, 63:
Friedemann Zeitler, Penzberg
p. 39:
Michael Weinig AG
p. 49:
Sauerlander Spanplatten GmbH & Co. KG
pp. 56-61,64,65:
Frank Kaltenbach, Munich
pp. 79, 86, 87:
Michael Heinrich, Munich
p. 81:
Oliver Schuster, Stuttgart
pp. 82, 83:
Friedrich Busam/Architekturphoto,
Dusseldorf
pp. 84, 85:
Thomas Jocher, Munich
pp. 88, 89:
Damir Fabijanic, Zagreb
pp.90, 91:
Guido Baselgia, Baar
pp. 92, 93:
Ralph Feiner, Malans
p. 94:
Thomas Jantscher, Colombier
p. 95:
Jan Schabert, Munich
p. 96 top;
Johanna Reichel-Vossen, Munich
p. 96 bottom:
Karl Theodor Keller, Munich

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