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Key

AE AEROSPACE
ENGINEERING
GATE 2011
MODEL EXAM
(KEY)

1/27/2011 22
(1) – (b)
(2) – (b)
3(c)
(4) –(c)
(5) – (d)
(6) –(b)
(B is any Point)
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Second level
● Third level

● Fourth level

● Fifth level
(6) – (b)
(7) – (b)
(8) – (c)

Find the Wrong staement on Load


Factor
a) It is traditionally referred to as ‘g’,
because of the relation between
load factor and apparent
acceleration of gravity felt on board
the aircraft.
b) Although, it is traditionally referred
to as ‘g’, it does not take the unit of
acceleration due to gravity (m/s2)1111,
1/27/2011
(9) – (c)
(10) -b

Find the wrong staatement on tail wing


a) The conventional configuration with
a low horizontal tail is a natural
choice since roots of both horizontal
and vertical surfaces are
conveniently attached directly to the
fuselage.
b) In conventional configuration, the
effectiveness of the vertical tail is
http://adg.stanford.edu/aa241/stability/taildesign.html

large because interference with the


1/27/2011 1313
11 – (d)
(13)=C

k=1.4
T1 = 323 deg K,
p1= 206785 N/m2
C1= 150 m/s
M2=1

T2=?

C2=?
Is=?
a1 = 360.25 m/s

M1 = C1/a1 = 0.416

To1/T1 = 1.034

T01 = 334 K

T02 = T01 ( no heat is added)= 334 K


To2/T2 = 1.2

T2 = 278 K

a2 = 334.33 K

a2=C2 = 334.33 K

Is = C2/g = 34 s
(14) – (b)
(15) – (d)
3600 cm/s

A 0.6 cm B

2100 cm/s
0.3 cm
2000 cm/s

D C

3800 cm/s
Solution

B C D A


ÑABCD
Vcosθds = ∫ Vcosθds + ∫ Vcosθds + ∫ Vcosθds + ∫ Vcosθds
A B C D
B C D A


ÑABCD
Vcosθds = (3600)(1)∫ ds + (2100)(1)∫ ds + (3800)( −1)∫ ds + (2000)( −1)∫ ds
A B C D

K = Γ = (3600)(1)(0.6) + (2100)(1)(0.3) + (3800)( −1)(0.6) + (2000)( −1)(0.3)


K = Γ = −90cm2 / s (Taking CW as positive)
16 - (d)

Kelvins theorem in fluid dynamics


states that the circulation (defined as
the line integral of the component of
velocity tangential to the closed
contour) in an inviscid and
incompressible fluid subject to only
conservative forces is constant.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kelvin's_circulation_theorem
http://www.eng.fsu.edu/~dommelen/courses/flm/flm00/topics/vort/node2.html

http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Kelvin's+circulation+theorem
(16)

In fluid mechanics, Helmholtz's


theorems, named after
Hermann von Helmholtz, describe the
three-dimensional motion of fluid in
the vicinity of vortex filaments. These
theorems apply to inviscid flows and
flows where the influence of
viscous forces is small and can be
ignored.
Helmholtz’s three theorems are as
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helmholtz's_theorems
(17) - b
(17) (b)

a small aerofoil shaped device


attached just in front of the wing
leading edge to properly direct the
airflow at the front of the wing to
make it to flow more smoothly over
the upper surface while at a high
angle of attack.

1/27/2011 2525
(18) (b)
(19) - C

In a supersonic flow, a sphere


encounters a
Bow shock wave

1/27/2011 2727
20 – (d)
Limitations of Airy’s Stress functions

The Airy’s Stress function is applicable only to plane strain or plane stress problem [3].

The Airy’s Stress function can only be used if the body force has a special form [3].

Specifically, the requirement is

∂Ω ∂Ω
where F = F =
is a scalar function of position, F1 & 1F2 are body forces.
2
∂x1 ∂x2
The Airy’s Stress function approach works best for problems where a solid is subjected to prescribed
tractions on its Ω
boundary, rather than prescribed displacements [3].

2828
21 – (d)

ρ2
= 2.95
ρ1
ρ 2 − ρ1
% change in density =
ρ1
= 195%
22 - C

M 1 = 2.0
T2 = 450K
T1 = ?
T2
= 1.687
T1
T1 = 266.67 K
23 - b

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wave_drag

http://www.answers.com/topic/wave-
drag
24) (a) and 25 (d)
(26) – b , 27 (c)
28 (a)
 σ yt 
σ n1 =  
 FS 
 σ yt 
2
σ1 + σ 2 σ −σ 2 
+  1  + τ 2
=  
2  2   FS 
2
σ1 + σ 2 σ −σ 2 
+  1  + τ = (σ pt )
2

2  2 
2
σ1 σ 
+  1  + τ 2 = (σ pt )
2  2 
2 2
12730  12730   6365 
+  2 
+  2  = (100 )
2d 2  2 d   d 

1  12730  12730 
2 
 +   + ( 6365)
2  = (100 )
d2  2  2  
 
15365
2
= 100
d
d = 12.4mm
29 –(C)
 (σ yt / 2) 
τ max =  
 FS 
 (σ yt / 2) 
2
σ
 1 − σ 2 
 + τ =  
2

 2   FS 
 (σ yt / FS) 
2
 σ1 − σ 2 
 + τ =  
2

 2   2 
 (σ pt ) 
2
 σ1 − σ 2 
 + τ =  
2

 2   2 
9000  100 
2
= 
d  2 
d = 13.42mm
30 - b

2
 σ1 + σ 2   σ1 − σ 2 
σ n1 =   +   + τ 2

 2   2 
15635 N
σ n1 =
d 2 mm 2
2
 σ1 + σ 2   σ1 − σ 2 
σn 2 =  −   + τ 2

 2   2 
− 2635 N
σn 2 =
d 2 mm 2
σ n 2 σ yt
σ n1 - =
m FS
σ yt
σ n1 - ν σn 2 =
FS
σ n1 - ν σn 2 = σ pt
16156
2
= 100
d
d = 12.7mm
(31) – b, 32 - d
T/Theta = kt=
GJ/L

k/m  kt/I
(33) - c

Given data :
p01 = 100 kPa
T01 = 288K
Dh = 0.13m
Dt = 0.3 m
m = 8 kg/s
N = 16200rpm
beta1 = ??? at tip and root
M1t =???
πDh N m
u1h = = 110.27
60 s
πDt N m
u1t = = 254.47
60 s
πDh N m
u1h = = 110.27
60 s
πDt N m
u1t = = 254.47
60 s
p01 kg
ρ 01 = ρ = = 1.2 3
RT01 m

π 2
A f = ( Dt − Dh )
2

4
A f = 0.0574m 2

kg
m = ρA f C f 1 = 8
s
m
C f 1 = 116.7 = C1
s
2
C
T01 = T1 + 1
2c p
T1 = 281.2 K
γ
p1  T1  γ −1
=  
p o1  To1 
p1 = 92kPa
34 -d
m
w1h = u + C = 165.29
2
1h
2
f
s
m
w1t = u1t + C f = 282.7
2 2

s
Cf
tan β1h =
u1h
β1h = 48.15 

Cf
tan β1t =
u1t
β1t = 25.8 
35 –©

m
w1t = u + C
2
1t
2
f1 = 282.63
s
m
a1 = γRT1 = 335.87
s
w1
M1 = = 0.842
a1
36 -
36 - C
ρa = 0.7476kg/ m
3

pa = 55kPa
Ta = 255K
aa = γRTa = 320.09m / s
Ci = 220m / s
Ci
Mi = Ma =
aa
M i = M a = 0.687
T0 a γ −1 2
= 1+ Mi
Ta 2
T0 a
= 1.094
Ta
T0 a = 279.07 K
γ
p0 a  T0 a γ −1
=  
pa  Ta 
p0 a = 75.41kPa

a − 1 : Isentropic Process
p01 = p0 a = 75.41kPa
T01 = T0 a = 279.07 K
Compression
γ −1
T02  p02  γ γ −1
=   = ( 5) γ
T01  p01 
T02
= 1.58
T01
T02 = 441.99 K
p02
=5
p01
p02 = 377.05kPa
Heat Addition

p03 = p02 = 377.05kPa

T03 = Tmax = 1200 K


Turbine

Pt = Pc
m a c p (T03 − T04 ) = m a c p (T02 − T01 )
T04 = 1037.08K

γ
p04  T04  γ −1
=  
p03  T03 
p04 = 226.25kPa
37 - b
γ −1
T5  p5  γ
=  
T04  p04 
γ −1
T5  pa  γ
=  
T04  p04 
T5 = 692.33K

C5 = C j = 2c p (T04 − T5 )
C j = 832.4m / s
38 - d pc = 7000000 Pa
pa = 102000 Pa (Sea level)
Tc = 2700 K
m = 3kg / s
R = 285 J / kg − K
γ = 1.22
Ce = ???
C* = ?
Ae / A* = ???
 γ −1

γ   p  γ

Ce = 2 
RT0 1 −   e
 = 2132m / s
γ −1   pc  
 
39 - C

T   2 
*
  =  
T
 c  γ + 1 
T = 2432.43K
*

a = C = γRT = 919.6m / s
* * *
γ   2 
C* = 2 RT0 1 −  
γ −1   γ + 1 
C* = γRT * = 919.65m / s
40 - b
γ −1
 Te   pe  γ
  =  
 Tc   pc 
Te = 1259.4 K
ae = γRTe = 661.75m / s γ +1
2 ( γ −1 )

Ce Ae 1  2 γ −1 2 
Me = = 3.224 =  + M 
ae A*
M  γ +1 γ +1 
Ae
*
= 8.579
A
41 -a
A single stage turbine has been designed for
following parameters:

Inlet temperature : 1000K


Axial velocity : 260 m/s (Ca)
Mean Blade speed : 360 m/s (u)
Nozzle efflux angle : 65° (2)
Stage swirl angle : 10° (3)
Ca
φ=
u
φ = 0.7222
1
= ( tan α 2 − tan β2 )
φ
β2 = 37.2
1
= ( tan β3 − tan α 3 )
φ
β3 = 57.44 
42 -b
φ
R = ( tan β3 − tan β 2 )
2
R = 0.291
ψ = φ( tan β3 + tan β 2 )
ψ = 1.67
w
ψ = 2 = 1.677
u
w w
ψ = 2
,
= 2 2 = 2ψ = 3.3547
u /2 u
43 c

Ca
φ=
u
φ = 0.7222
w = uC a ( tan β 2 + tan β3 )
J
w = 217256
kg
44 - b
75

w2
10

w1

U=150 m/s

C2

35
C1

85

1/30/11 7474
Ca2=
75
w2
10 wt
 2
 2 Ca
2 2 wt

U = 150m/s
1
w1

1
Ca
1 1
ct
C2 2
35 ct
C1 1

Ca1 =
85
1/30/11 7575
T01 = 340 K
Po1 = 185 kPa

1/30/11 7676
(a) Specific work

wt1 = U – Ct1 = 150 - 35 =115 m/s


Ct2 = U – wt2 = 150 – 10 = 140 m/s

work, w = U (Ct2 - Ct1)


= 150 (140-35)
= ???

1/30/11 7777
(a) Specific work

wt1 = U – Ct1 = 150 - 35 =115 m/s


Ct2 = U – wt2 = 150 – 10 = 140 m/s

work, w = U (Ct2 - Ct1)


= 150 (140-35)
= 15,750 J/kg

1/30/11 7878
(b) Static temperature at
exit
w = c p ( T02 − T01 )
 T02 
w = c pT01  − 1
 T01 
 γ γ−1 
w = c pT01  Ro − 1
 
 
Assume,η = 100%
Ro = ???
1/30/11 7979
 γ −1

w = c p T01  R γ
− 1
 o

 
Assume, η = 100%
R o = 1.1708

1/30/11 8080
 γ −1

w = c p T01  R γ
− 1
 o

 
Assume, η = 100%
p 02
Ro = = 1.1708
p 01
p 02
= 1.1708
p 01
p 02 = ???
1/30/11 8181
45 - d

 γ γ−1 
w = c p T01  R o − 1
 
 
Assume, η = 100%
p 02
Ro = = 1.1708
p 01
p 02
= 1.1708
p 01
1/30/11
p 02 = 216.6kPa 8282
w = cp (T02 – T01) if efficiency is
100%
T02 = ???

1/30/11 8383
w = cp (T02 – T01) if efficiency is
100%
T02 = 355.67 K

1/30/11 8484
C =C +C
2
2
2
t2
2
a2

C 2 = ???

2
C
T02 = T2 + 2
2c p
T2 = ???
1/30/11 8585
C =C +C
2
2
2
t2
2
a2

C 2 = 158.82m / s

2
C
T02 = T2 + 2
2c p
T2 = 343.13K

1/30/11 8686
(c) Static pressure at the
exit
γ
p 2  T2  γ −1
=  
p 02  T02 
p 2 = ???
1/30/11 8787
(c) Static pressure at the
exit
γ
p 2  T2  γ −1
=  
p 02  T02 
p 2 = 191.00kPa
1/30/11 8888
46 - d

C =C +C
2
1
2
t1
2
a1

C1 = ???

2
C
T01 = T1 + 1
2c p
T1 = ???
1/30/11 8989
C =C +C
2
1
2
t1
2
a1

C1 = 91.92m / s

2
C
T01 = T1 + 1
2c p
T1 = 335.79
1/30/11 9090
γ
p1  T1  γ −1
=  
p 01  T01 
p1 = ???

1/30/11 9191
γ
p1  T1  γ −1
=  
p 01  T01 
p1 = 177 kPa

1/30/11 9292
p1
ρ1 =
RT1
ρ1 = ???

1/30/11 9393
p1
ρ1 =
RT1
ρ1 = 1.84kg / m 3

1/30/11 9494
w = w +C
2
1
2
t1
2
a1

w 1 = ???

p 2 − p1
Cp =
1
ρ1w 12

2
C p = ???

1/30/11 9595
w = w +C
2
1
2
t1
2
a1

w 1 = 143m / s

p 2 − p1
Cp =
1
ρ1w 12

2
C p = 0.75

1/30/11 9696
47 – a and 48 -d
49 – a and 50 -d