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Predisposing Factors: Precipitating Factors:

Sex; Race; Age; Lifestyle


Seasonal Trend Environment
Streptococcus pneumoniae

Normal flora in the nasopharynx invades other organs Foreign bacteria inhaled from an infected carrier

Bacteria pass through the lower respiratory tract


S/Sx: cough,
C inflammation, fever, Invasion into the lungs
O nausea & vomiting,
N rapid-shallow
Adhesion to the endothelial cells of the alveoli
G breathing, diaphoresis
E
S Rapid replication of the bacteria due to virulence factors
T (presence of capsule polysaccharides causing resistance from phagocytes)
I
O Stimulation of inflammatory chemical mediators (cytokine, interleukin, histamine)
N
Increased vascular permeability

Increase secretion of fluids, RBCs, and neutrophils S/Sx:


RED
↑RBC &
HEPATIZATION
neutrophils
Arrival of inflammatory exudates

GRAY Accumulation of WBCs & macrophages S/Sx:


HEPATIZATION ↑WBC count &
Purulent exudates remain (+) Pus

COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED PNEUMONIA
RESOLUTION

Complete regeneration of alveolar Autolysis


epithelium without residual scar formation
Decreased bacterial Release of
clearance pneumolysin, H2O2
Treatment:
1. Antibacterial
drugs Necrosis of lung
2. Nebulization parenchyma Cytotoxic effects
3. O2
administration
4. Mucolytics Death of body’s normal cells
5. Nasal
decongestants
Septic shock

GOOD PROGNOSIS DEATH