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, M.C.SHARMA - '

555 tiMER

AND ITS- APPLICATIONS

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BY

M.e. SHARMA, M. se.

-

PURLlSHERS:

BUSINESS· PROMOTIO~ ~UBLtCATfON'S 316;~ Lalpat Rai ~'Iarir.et" Delbi·}to006

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IlY ,the s?Une author_ Transisto"l=" Nove-Jti€s I:ractH::c<i SeR/~lnfo.C Pro jeets ~~rlmple Audio Pro je_e1is~ - - Easy: to build AI'arms

- U~lng -FielG EffeGt '':t'rs. _ Build youro",n test instrume'nt -Un~1e;rstC\ndtng_. a,rld U~ng Mult~tnet-e:rs

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@ Bu;in-ess Prl\lmotion Bureau Fir.st Edition 1 tt_77

- Seeo.na prin~in&r 197.8;

CONtEN'ES

Page

A. 1. "2. ). 4.

J O~ "W'ali'ble Tone <;;~n€rat0l7.

11. Belayed A4tomatiG l',owet Off,

12. Dda)Cea ~l:ltGmatiG }'_gwer On. r3. Ni·Cd,cBattery Charger.

104:. Wiee "Range""I~tllseGeneratoT. ~15. Frequellcy"Divider.

I 6.. Missing Pulse Detecter. 17. --Light Op,eratee Relay. 18.. TeIIU!!erature - Con~r"€lll€r.

Hl. Brtghtness emilt-tO:} of .LED· Display. 2([). Sequential "Switehing.

- ~11. ; f:;ong Duration Timer.

l~ ~ 19

" 20, 21 22

-i3

28 :26 28 30 32-

2$J 35 J6 -

:38" 40 t!H! 43

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READ & SUBseRI-BE

THE ELECTRONIC HOBBYIST

Everymonth E-H. presents the practical side of

I

electronics to service technicians, Industrial technicians,

experimenters, hobbyists, teachers, students and others with a serious interest in electronics, both on their job and in leisure time. Articles cover simplest to 'the most advanced technical levels of electronics. Features includestate-of-the-art reports, build-it projects, theory explanations, equipment reports, new ,product announc-

-ments=-always stressing the practical. Areas of interest include television, High Fidelity, 'and electronics in general.

" Sample copy available against postal stamps worth Rs.l.50.

BLECTRONI-CS IS AN EXCITING HOBBY START IT WITH ELECTRONICS HOBBYIST

,~ .....

Publishers

Business Promotion Publications, 376, Lajpat Ra_i Market, Delhi-6.

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565 Timer

TIME ON YOUR HANDS! With the monofithic integrated circuit 555 you can get accurate timing ranges oj micro seconds' - to hours.iindependent of supply voltage variations. This versatile --

-. device lias a large -number of interesting practical applications,'

especially for electronic hobbyists. .

-.

Basically, -the 555 timer is a highly stable integratedvcircuit - capable of functioning as an accurate time-delay' generator and - ani: free running multivibrator. When used as an voscillaror the frequency and duty cycle are, accurately controlled by only two-

_ . external resistors .and a capacitors. The circuit may be triggered and reset on falling wave forms. Its prominent features are

summarized below:

* Timing from micro. seconds through hours.

- *' Monostable and astable operation * Adjustable duty .cycle

*' Abili:ty to operate from a wide range of supply voltages.

'" Output compatible with CM"OS, Dl'L and TTL (when used

with a 5 volt supply)

* High current output can sink or sourc(_) 200 rn A ,~ Trigger andreset.inputs are logic compatible-

* Output can be operated normal on and-normal off

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* High temperature stability

c Let as see the make-up-and operation of the 5.55 Ie . .and. see

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how the various features can be develo ped intopractical cirenirs .

. The $55 is available in 8-pin- and 14~pin_ dual-in-line packages or in a Circular TO-?9 metal-can with eight leads.l!iu_ connec-

a

14'PIN DiR

II THR~SHoLD . CONTROL. 5 VOLl'AG£'

a-PIN DJP

TQ'99

Fig. 1. Pin Connections For The _555 rimer. (TOP~VIEWS)

tions for various packages are shown in Fig. 1. The SE: and ,liE versions are similar 'excep~ for maximumtemperature ritings", The precision type SE 'maintains its essential characteristics .overa .tempen!.tnre range of -550 C to + 1250 C' while the-general purpose typeNE operates reliably only 'Over a rangeof 0° C to 70QC; Some manufactures 'use the suffix C to indicate the commercial version for general purpose applications. - Both types have a rniaximum : rating , of 18 volts and' can handle power dissipation of upto 600 D,1.\Y.

The 556 is a dual timer-which is basically two 555's in a single

package. '

.: Comprising of 23 transistors, 2 diodes and 16 resistors, C1!g· 2) th~ 555 has built-in compensation for component tolerance

2

and temperature- drift resulting in a 'temperature coefficient of only 25 parts per million per degree Centigrade.

THRESHOLD

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CONTPIOL VO,,"T.A(;E

TRIGGER

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Fig. 2. 555 Timer Schematic Diai:ram.

Fig. 1. Functional Block Diagram.

OPERATION

A functional-block diagram of ti mer' is shown in Fig. 3, The

device CO,J1S/_Sts of two comparators*ttwo cont'j:61/"transistors, a flip-flop and - a_ bufferedoutput stage. __ The ref~r~p)::e>v0lta]1;¢s for the two comparators inside the ,555 are developed across 'a voltage divider consisting of three equal resistors R of 5I:Vohtns each; The threshold comparator is referenced ~t '-i V cc and the trigger comparator is referenced a t! Vee. The !WO compara tors control the flip-flop, which, in tum, controls the state of the output. When the timer IS in the quiescent state, the internal transistor Tl is conducting and represents a short circuit across timing _ -

, capacitor CT.-The level of the outputtermr~-al is low.

IIi .most practical circuitsj-thejvoltage on pin 2 is held above

-the trigger point-by aresistor connected to Vce. When a negativegoing trigger pulse on pin 2 causesthe potential at this point to fall below i Vee, the trigger comparator- switches the flip-flop, cutting off T\ and forcing the output level high-to.a, value sli'ghtfybelow V cc- Capacitor Ct now starts to-charge and ,- the voltage across it rises exponentially untilitreaches 2/3 V_cc. At this point, the threshold comparator.resets the flip-flop and the output returns to

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TiME OELAY

_Fig. ,t De1ay Times For Different Values Of- Resistors And Capaciters

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"* A comparatorIs an op~Il1l?that compares an input- voltage" and !ndicates-weluher the input is .higher or lower-than the reference voltage. '\¥!hen-. the input swings slightly above the reference value, the op.amp's· output swings into 'saturation. At, the instant the input ar~p~ below the ,·ef.::l'el1ce level, the Op~aTIlp's'otiJPut swings into reverse saturation. Tl'fe output changes state when the input rises 'above or. drops below-the

_referen~ 'voltage level by only _a few htindred microvolts. -

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i t~ low- sta te-just slightly- ab~~~-' gn:~una~. ti\,T!'ansj-st~ T ~ is . turned-

~ . QN •. dischargin-g c- so that itis ready for the .next. ffniirig period. =, -Once trjggere,d:, t~~~C!i'cqit'cap:not -respond.to additional triggering

-1.(Dtil the "tim ed -interval has elapsed,

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"The delay period -'the 'time that the-output i 8 high -in seconds

.is;l,.l Rr_Cr, where'Re is in ohms' and eT in farads. Fig\lre-4 shows.howdelays running from 1O· micro -aeconds to 10 sec~nds can be obtained by 'selecting appropriate values oeer and RT in the. 00 I IL F to 100 Jl F and I K to 10 megohms ranges. In practice RT should not exceed 20 megohms. When you use an' electrolytic capacitor for CT;s'illec't-a unit for low leakage; . The time.. . delay may have to be ;rQJusted QY varying the. value-of RT to com·' pensate for the' very wide tolerance of electrolytics ..

Ali important feature to be noted<hereIs tbaL555, unlike - many RC timers, provides.a .tirued, interval that is virtually inde.penderit of supply' voltage Vec-. This Is because the charge rate of Cr and the reference voltages -to the threshold comparator and trigger' comparator are all di-rectly proportional to the supply voltage. Operating voltage can range from 4.5 volts to a ma;tJ- . mum of 18 volts.

Feeding the Load

_ We have seen how the timed interval or delay is obtained.

Now -let us .see bow we can use 'it, A look at the output- circuit (T~ and T 4 in Fig. 2) shows. it _to be a quasi complementaryTransForrnerless arrangement similar .to many audio olitputstagds .. Pur:ihermore; we' know- that in this type of circuit.xine sroeoffh~ 'load goes to the errAher"colleQtor jl)n~ti'on'of theoutp'llt trall~si~tors .and the other.side-ofvthe load 'can be connected tQ'V CC. or ito .grOll~d.' The same" applies -to the. l~ad connected to the 555,Output pulses developed across load Rzcan be obtained directly frOID· pin 3.

t_- Wlren.theload is conected to Vee, aconsiderable ,.am,0lt.1t.,of~

current flo'Ys through, the loadinto .termi!1a1 3 - when !h(i:nl1I'u~

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·is low. Similarly when the output ishigh, tbecurrent through' the load is quite small, Conditions are reversed whim _the.·lo3o is

. returned to ground. In this, case, . output current through the load isma,ximum when the output potential is high all:g minimum

. when the output is. low. The maximum current at terminal 3 is 200.mAwhen it-is used as a current source or current sink,

_" "

Driving a Relay

A'relay can be substituted for RL in applications where the delay or timed interval is longer than 0.1 second .. The relay should be a DC type with a coil operating at about Vee and not drawing .more than 200 rnA. Figure 5 shows a simple manual timer with the two optional connections for the relay.

, R

, T

e THRESHOLD 555 7 DI5CHA.RGE

Fig, S. Relay Timer Showing Two Optional Connections.

You must be careful when connecting an inductive-load such a~ a relay to the output of the 555 or any.other solid-state device. When the current .through ari inductive load is interrupted, the collapsing magnetic field generates ,_a high reverse emf (transient vol fag e) that can damage the device. The+solution to this problem. is t9 connect a diode (Dl 01; D3) across the reJay coil so

, that.itconducts and absorbs the transient. Note thai the diode must be connected so it is reverse biased in: normal operation.

'Diode D2'milst be inserted in series with the relay coil when it is connected between the' outputterminal.and ·ground.Otl;ter-

.... .:.

6

wise, a voltage equal toone diode-junction drop will appear at pin 3 and-may cause the timer to .latch up.

Triggering

As stated earlier., in most practicalccircuits, the' trigger terminal is generally returned to Vee through a resistor of about 22Hl. However, thesimplest method of' triggering a 555 is -t~ mOlilentarily ground the terminal, This. is OK as long as the ground is removed before the end of the timed interval. Thus,. if -tile: device is used in --a photo-timer application, as in Fig. 5, tapping push button SI is sufficient to triggerthe.circuitand start

the tim er . .

In many applications, the 5~5 must be triggered by a' pulse. The amplitude and minimum pulse width required for triggering are dependent on temperature .and supply voltage. Generally, - the current required for. triggeringis about 0.5 If.A for a. 'period of q..l I-!S. Triggering-voltage ranges from I.67vohs wb,e~ Y~c'js 5 volts to 5 volts 'when Vee is 15 volts.

The- triggeringcircuit is quite sensitive and can be, activated h3' simply touching the terminal with a, finger or bringing your hand

close t~ a length of wire fastened to pin 2. -

Resettlng.

Once a 'timed cycle ~has been initiated by a negative-going pvlseon pin 2, the circuit is immune to further trigger until the cycle has been completed. However, the timed cycle can be "interrupted by grounding the reset terminal (pin 4) or applying a negative-going reset pulse to it; The reset pulse causes timing capacitor Cl to be discharged and the output to return to its quiescent low state. Reset voltage is typically 0.7 volt and reset current is 0.1 rnA. When the reset terminal is not being 'used, it

'should be connected to Vee. . 0

-The Control Termlnal

-"flie. i Vee point on the internal voltage divider- is brought out

to pin 5....,.....{be 'control terminal. The timing cycle can 'be modified

7

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by applyinga DC control voltagetopins. This.permits manual or electronic remote control of the timed interval.

• 0 The coatrolterminal is seldom used when the timer is opera-

, ted in the monstable mode and should be grounded through' a O~Ol /kF capacitor to 'prevenrthe timed interval from being affected by pickup of a stray AC or RF signal.

When the timer is operated as an oscilfator in the-astable mode, the generated signal can be frequency modulated or-pulsewidth-modulated by applying a variable DC control voltage to pin 5.

Menostable Operation

In this mode of operations - the timer acts as a one shot.

Details of. the external connections and the wave-forms are shown . in - 'Fig, - 6. The - external timing capacitor Cr is held initialJydischarged by tl!e:iransi~tor (Tl in Fig, '2) inside the t-imer. Upon application' ofa negative pulse to pin 2, the flip-flop is set which releases the short circuit across the external, capacitor and drives

. the output high. The voltage across the capacitor, now, rises exponentially with the-time constant RrCr. When the voltage across the capacitor equals i Vee, the threshold comparator resets the .Hip-flop which, in turn, discharges the capacitor rapidly and drives th,e. output to its low state. The circuit rests in this state till the

arrival of next pulse.

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Fig, 6, Monostable Hookup For 5"55

8

Thecircuir triggers on a negative going input signal-when the level reaches k V cc. Once triggered the circuit will remain in this state until the set time is elapsed, even 'if it is triggered againduring this interval. The time that the output is in the high .state is given by t=1."1 RTCT. Applying a negative-pulse simultaneously to the reset terminal (pin 4) and t~le trigger terminal{pin 2) -during the timing cycledischarges the. external capacitor CT and causes the cycle to start over again. The timing cycle will now couimence on the positive edge of the reset pulse. During the time the reset pulse is applied, the output is driven to its low state. WhenOthe_

reset function is not in use, it is recommended that it be connected to Vee to avoid any possibility of false triggering.

Astable Operation

If the circuit is connected as shown in fig. 7, it will trigger. itself and free run as a multi-vibrator, The external capacitorcharges through RA and RB and discharges through -RB only .. Thus the duty cycle may be set precisely rby the ratio of these two "resistors.

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CONTROLS IIOL:tAGE

GND

t,. 0.693 (RA + Ratei-. ~t2 :O.6~? (Ra1;Cr

T ~ 0.693 (RA + 2Rilhcr

0"

Fig. 7. Astable Operation Of 555 Timer ..

In this mode of operation, the capacitor charges and discharges between 1 Vee and "5- V ceo As in the triggered mode, the charge, and discharge times and hence the frequencv i~ independent of the supply voltage,

The charge time- (output high) is given by:

SRI Vs EL' :~

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fliZ··~flop· and. drive tlie Q output low. The flip-flop can also be reset by applying a negative- going pulse to 'the reset terminal (Pia 4). In this mode Pin 6ls kept low.

Schmltt Trigger

Apart from tinting functions, the two comparators of the 555 timer can be used independently for other applications. One .exarnple is: a schmitt trigger showri' iii. Fig. 11. The two comparator inputs(p"jn 2 and.6) are-tied "together and biased at t Vee

,~;,;;tiiiougha,volta.ge divider R I and in. Since the threshold corn:~"!rpAra-tot will hip at _i Vee and the trigger comparator will trip at '1 Vee, the bias provided by the resistors R 1 and. R2 is "centred . within the comparators' trip limits .

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J;'Hg·ll. 555 Ti111er As- A Schmitt Trigger.

A -~jne-, wave .input of sufficient amplitude to exceed die reference levels causes the.Internal flipAlop to be 'set and 'reset. In this way, iecTeaU'sa' square wave at.the output. SoJong .as 'R I is equal to R2; the 555 \HI! beairtomatically biased correctly for" almost any supply voltage. The output waveform is 1800 out of

phase with, the applied sine wave. The circuit. can be used asa . ,"",~';':'

signalshaperjbuffer with advantage of availability of high output

current.

By modifying 'the input time constant ofthe circuitshown in . -4;).

Fig .. J 1 (e.g., reducing the value of input capacitorto .00-lIlF)so . that. the input pulses -get differentiated.rthe arrangement can, also

J2

be used either as a bistable device or to .Iavert pulse waveforms. In the Jater case, the fast time constant of the combination of Cl with Rl and ,R2 causes only the edges ,of the input pulse or rectangualr waveform to be passed. These pulses set and reset thefiip·flop and a high level inverted output is the result.

Square Wave 'Oscillator .

A conventional astable circuit using a 555. Ie does not normally produce a symmetrical output Waveform (Fig. 7).

Square waves can be obtained by.circuit shown in Fig. 12.

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6 THRESHOLD

SQ,WAVf. OUTPUT (IOOI-Ill

l<ig, 12, Square Wave Generator.

The assymetry of ~ conventionalastable circuit is a result of the fact that charging and discharging times are not equal, In Fig. 12, capacitor C L is charged through R 1 and R2_ while discharged through R2. If Rl is made very small compared to R2. the.both time constant will be reduced so that they essentially depend on Riand Cl. The frequency of operation (f) is approx-

mately - 0.7 The frequency is of course independent to the

R2 C1

supply voltage.

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13

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Photo_ Timer

, TIME p~IIJ1M 101(

4

Rt - tOk

Fl.ESET ....... "'-'1[\...2 .... :r1l [ GG Ell

5S5

sF!-

START

Fig, 13, Phpto Timer

The circuit shown in Fig. 13 is useful for providing controlled "on' times for such equipment as photo-enlargers, developers. smallheaters, incandescent lamps, ere, - Time is set by potmeter R2 which provides a range of I sec, to 100 second withtiming capacitorCl of 100 ~F.

-The output at pin -3 -is normally low' and the relay is \eld off.

Aroomentary touch on switch $1 energises the relay which is held dosed for a time -1. t· -X{R 1 + R2), CI andthen released, The exact length of the timing interval wiII depend on the actual capacitance of eLM ost electrolytic capacitors are- ra ted on the basis of'minimnm guaranteed value and the actual value may be

-higher. The circuit should be calibrated for various positions of the control knob of R2 after the tim~~g capacitor bas had-a chance to 'age. Once the capacitor ha's\e'ached its stable value" the timings provided should be well within the photographic require-

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merits.

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DJ.,DlI- Ru It. Rio Relal

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roo ifF 12v -electrolytic .01 -"p disc ceramic DR SO or IN-4Qal

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... 1 MQ. petmeter,

12Y, DC-- relay. operating euuent""Jess-them -200~mA

,'" Plisli.:to-QO 8~iteh -~5S J;C",

IS _

Touch Plate Controller

D~ D~50

OUTPU.T",,3~+--+-o--r::J

circ:uit

Fig. 14. Touch Controlled Relay.

Touch the small metal plate and the relay gets energised, kept on for about 100 seconds and then released. Such circuits <Ire ideally suited for making touch-operated call-bells, buzzers or small toys which, once touched, 0Bc,rate for a small time and then switch off automatically.

The input impedance of the trigger comparator of 555 is very high and the circuit can be triggered by 'the-voltage induced in a, human body. This fact is used in making the touch. switch shown in Fig. 14. Toy' motors can be driven directly by deleting the diodes D 1, D2 and the relay and driving a power transistor like AC 12& directly (See Fig. 15) from the output pin 3 of the IC.

Parts List

C! D1,iD2 Rl '

Relay Timer

100 [.IF 12V, electrolytic

I . '

DR" 50 or IN 4001

IMOiW

12V derelay, -operatIng-currellt less th-en 200 rnA. 555 rc

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Auto Wiper Control

CI- + - GND""

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RI 471<:

R2 5001< d.'<ly

RESET Vee

7 O"i 5CHA RGE

555

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Fig. 15.D_ehyelil Auto-Wiper Cycle Timer

A continuously working wiper is a big nuisance whenit is not raining hard. The wiper control shown in Fig. 15 allows the wiper to sweep at rates varying from once a second to once' in 10: second

Basically the circuit is an astable multivibrator, (See Fig. 7) in which the output level at pin 3 remains high for a long time decided by R2 and low for a short time decided by R3. The low going output at pin 3 drives the wiper motor via TJ and. T2 for a time just sufficient to operate the parking switch. The wipers then make one sweep and rest again in their normal parked position tiJI the next pulse. Resistor R5 limits the current and power dissipation in T 1. Transistors T 1 and T2 may be" replaced by a relayif desired.

~"

Parts List 25 liF, 12V, electrolytic 100 t<F; 25V electrolytic 47 kO,!W

500 kO potmeter 22kO, tW

lk Q, iW .

470,3W 2N 6107 2N 3055 555 rc

1 j

17

Automat,i~c He'ad I ight rurn~Off

-Any one who has stu~bled around in a dark garage after leaving, his car for the night will appreciate this automaticbeadlight shut off switch. The switch,when -installed in- a car automatically tarns off the headlights at predetennined period af~er the ignition is.switched off.

51 IGNITION SWITCH

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£1;3~o

_BATTERY

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. Fig, -15(A). Automatic Headlights Turnoff _ ~-'I#l.;"";}':>~""

In Fig. 15(A) when the igintion is first switched on, ,I"ihct,,",e:·c battery voltage is feii} to the relay coil through diode D,I. Switching

off the ignition generates a negative-going pulse on pin 2 that triggers the timer, 'The output of the IC goes high: to energise the relay and keep the headlights on long 'enough for. you to leave

the garage. With the values shown the delay is adjustable from approx, 10 seconds to 1 minute,

Parts List

C1 " 100l<F 12V

C2 0.1 ,.p Ceramic

C3 om flF Ceramic

D], D2.! n, By 126

Rl 4 70K Potrneter

s, '47K 1W

Ra 22K rw

R~ Relay

ix lW

12Y.dc, operating Current less then 200 rnA SS5

.j;(

Timer

18

Tiny Flasher--

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Fig. 16._ LED 'f~asber

.,ff.'"

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A small size LEO flasher operating on self contained batteries-

"

may be useful as a flashing metronome, dark room timer, memo-

reminder and simila:r,<applications. The circuit of Fig. 16 is an a~e mu1tivibr;tfu~ with a dut~ .cycle of about 10~--. LED connected as s16wn m the figure will be on for a short penod -and off for a longer period, The duty cycle will be reversed if R3 and the LED are' connected as shown dotted in the figure and the battery consumption will also increase proportionally.

B

C1 LED - Rl

R2

Ra Timer

Parts List

Battery 3 V, pen light cells. 1 0 ~F 6V electrolytic

- Light Emitting Diode 220 kO, !W

:22 kO, rw

ssn, }W

555.IC.

19

Sol id State Flasher

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Tria:

STC24 MT2

Fig. 17. Solid State Flasher

The mains operated flasher shown in fig. 17 uses a 555 timer to control the ON and OFF times of a triac which controls power 'to the load. The power supply for the IC is obtained by half wave rectifier and a stabilizer Circuit comprising of rectifier diode Dl,

~ zener diode D2, resistor Rl and filter capacitor C I. ~ The lamp in the load circuit remains on for about 1 second and for about ~ . 0.7 seconds. Other timings may be obtained by choosing appropriate R2~ and R3.

Parts-List 200 J.lF 12V electrolytic 10 ilF 12V electrolytic BY 126 or BY l27

BZ 148

10 kil, 5W 47 k!1,!W 100 kn, tw 500n, !W ST024

555 Ie

26

How accurate is. your sense of time? You can find it out for yourself by catching. a flashing LED.

Wben S2 is on, the circuit in Fig 17 operates as -an astable multi vibrator (See Fig. 7) and the -LED is. lit for about 0.1 sec. flashi ng every 1.5. seconds. Since the human reaction time is more then this. you cannot catch it once it is seen on, by pressing Sl , If your sense of time interval is good. and you press 81 within that 0.1 Sec., the discharging of CI stops. and the lamp stays lit. - You -may clia~ge the ON and OFF periods bychii~8~Rl and R2 or CI to suit your convenience.

I'

Sense-of- Tl me Tester

2.2M

505

+-_-,7'"10ISCHARGE

:{

B=- 611

2 TRIGGER

"Fig. 18. Personal Sense- of-Time Tester

Parts List

Battery 6V

. 1 liP 6V electrolytic .01 .uF disc ceramic Light emitting diode 2.1 MO, iW

100 kO, iw 3300, iW Push-to-off switch 555 ic

21

Square Wave Generator

TO V'" or

G"ROU ,.

-
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Rf - 14 . Is
RESET 'Icc
~ THRESHOI.;O~ OUTi>IlT 3
112 555
ND ~
TRIGGER -
, .
... -GNO
te'l 11
- ~ '-,

Fig. 12, 'SquareWave Generator

- . 'J

With only one external resistor and onecapacitor a 355 timer

rc can be made to generate fairly accurate square waves.

The square wave generator circuit shown in fig. 19 makes use of the fact that output voltage iIi a_555 Ie is 1800 out of phase with the capacitor voltage. To understand the circuit operation let us assume a state when-output .is high and the eapacitorCl is. charging ",iaR I. When the voltage acrosscapacitor reaches , i2/3 Ycc the output goes low -and Cl now starts discbarging

I J - . • •

. i through Rl. , When the voltage across Cl falls tOi, t Vee the

circuittrips again.Butput goes high, the capacitor' starts charging and the cycle repeats' endlessly. Since charging an-d discharging takes through Rl only, the output is asymmetrical square wave.

The period of oscillator is given by T=1.4;RC '

The output symmetry depends on the accuracy of the, timer's .. internal _ resistor string· which produces -the IC'scompar\ltor ,- reference voltages. These errors can be eliminated by adding a trimming resistor ·R2and connecting it tosupply line.or\ground

-, depending on the correction needed. .' ~-

i.

22

Linear Saw Tooth Generator

'___~IO~. THRESHOLD

555

6AW TOOTH OUTPUT

DI5CH.o.RGE

r" -

;_

Fig. :fO. Sawtooth Generato(UsiDS ~rrent Source

The voltage across the timing capacitor CT in the monostables, multivibrator circuit of fig. 6 rises to i Vee and then drops to almost Zero. A sawtooth waveform iS,therefore, available across this capacitor, but is not linear because the capacitor voltage rises exponentially. In fig. 20 the capacitor Is allowed to charge via a constant current source comprising of 11, RI, R2, R3 and R4. The voltage now rises linearly and the output is. taken via an emitter follower buffer. stage T2 to isolate the load from the timing circuit. For use as a scope time base,a trigger _ signal may be applied to terminal 2 of the Ie.

_ Another arrangement by which a . linear sawtooth can be produced is by bootstrapping the _output as shownin fig. 21 Capacitor Cl begins to' charge through RI, R2, and R3 towards Vee. The voltage across R5 at the output of emitter follower Tl is almost same as that at pin 7 of the Ie. 'This voltage is _ fed. back to _junction Of Rl and R2. -As a result, the voltage across R2 remains essentially constant during CI',- charging cycle and the

ct ,002 '0 .22 ~f

23

- nf1f

+5)1

4 a

~Es;tF -;

Q..i S ~U!liPUT NGIT.!l.

OUorPllT

HI ,""",«I')

555

s .. w-rOG>TH

Il.s Ou:rPUT

I K 16H:U

~~~L

Fig. 21. Sawtooth Generater Usin~ Boot-Strap Circuit

capacit@t vol'fag~ rises linearlY. Connecting pin 2 to pin 6 causes the cireuit to trigger itself and free run as an astat}le multivjbrator. Al<i;;-.rn-atively, tHe synenronizmg signal may be applied to pin 2.

Resistm ~3 is req;uired tcslow down, the negative discharge ~l()p,~ of the- saw tooth. R3 x 01 is kept greater than 5 rilicrcsec(j)nds.

, Parts List

Fig. 21

.002 to 0.22 u-F mylar .01 p.F ceramic:

.25~F 6V

IMQlW

IMrInV

410 iW

IkQiW

lkOi'W"

BG 149

C1- Cit-

e,

Rj -:

Ra

~8 R, R,

Tl

_Tt Timet

.002 to O.22,..F my,~ar .01 )l,F cer.amjc-

5-55IC.

Warble Tone G~eneratDr

- .

Fig. 22. Warble Tone Genera,tor

The tone generator described 'here is an audio attentf0)l~ gene· - il'jI!.tor. Such circuits-may be nsed for alarm sirens-or for p.rffduc· ing unique tones in cable testing, . which, will not get mioced -up' with other noises.

Pads ListO.lILF, ceramie 0.01 IlF~ ceramic

10 ILF, J2V" electrolytic 1M fl, i W

4.71'0,! W

10k 0,1 W -

·22Jc,Jl,.JW 4ikn,l W ON/OFF switch .

555 Ie two DO!). (or'oae $S~)

25

Delayed AlLto-mati cPowB:r Iff

'\

Fig. 23. Circuit T;urns. Off Power After Delay.

zener

Z6 ,

,

e,

C3~ C,_ Of-

DI FuseRl

:rimer Ti'iac

PutaHit

20Q~F 12V electrolytic-

1000 IlP. elemroly.tic 12V (see text) O.Ol~'F disc.;" cera~c - -

BY 126<6r B¥ ti,,27

'"

BZ148

1 Amp.

- 101dl SW

IMOiW 10k n IW

500 n iWPUsh-ta-On sWitch. liSSIe -ST 024.

•• ,1'

27

O-elayed Automatic Power On

Fig· 2~. Circuit Turns Power On After Delay

The circuit shown in fig 2fl will tur.apowt6r ON fa the load after a pr.-e-detel"l"l'lIJLed d~lay, about 10 "seconds in this case, It might be used te delay the applkatj(1)ll of pmver to a fuel pump or'" "Start the blower of all alr-coadjrioaer before the compressor and simi·lat applications

The circuit again uses a triae as in fig. 23 and utilizes the fact that triac can be switched on by ft negative hias also. C~pacftor C2 starts charging from the instant the plug is put into power socket. When C2 is charged - to i "Vee the out I:ul goes- low_ a_nd thene,gative "\:oltage triggers the triac e-nergizing the load.

- A triac needs larger amount of power in this mode of triggering "and Rl1tas" therefore been reduced to give. more power available in the timer supply.

28

Cj G2

o,

ell

_ oj,

D2 _'Flls.e

_Rr

R2-

Rs _R,

Triac TitneI

Parts LiSt 50U p.F,_ 25V, electrolytic 10 ""F J' 12:V electrolytic O.O~ AAF', Ceramie

0.1 ufO' Ceramic

By 126 or By 127

IZ 12

_ 1 Amp.

5K 10 W 1 M. :!.W 10K t w 500 at ViI. ST024 555 Ie _

.. ...

Read _eur :manthly magaz-;i.n'e )' EleetroRics HQ\~yist _

_ Sample copy a:v;~ilable a&ainst Rs., ,2/- _ postal, ataDips.

29

N i-~rt Bat·tery-Cha.rger

.baHeri~s by a vati,. the on and 9ff potmetfers -

30

Pa~ List

TIle general purpose pulse generator desorib~d here provides awide range of frequencies in decade ranges and independent t:;olltrO'I Qfpulse width and frequency.

of the second

32

position ofS I Erequency,::ange

"Parts List

PositiPJl of S2

1" tOOu-s

'2 1 ms '3 10~s

100 ms S IS

C}',Cl1 C:~, C10· Cat C9. 94! c, 0,2 C7

C~. C12 Cn

R1, R5 \RII

:&3 R. Rs

51' Sa:. S3 Timet'

100 1+F. 12 V elec:tl'o'lytie or tantalam, 10 ~F, 'i2'V electrolytic or .tantahim. I ILF. mylar

O.1yF mylar

.0'1 I!F mylar .01 IlF cemmie .001 ll:F mylar H'IQ K pj;ltmeter 10 K D iW -

4.7 KOl W 10 I{ n i W 6.8 IeOfW' Si~gle' peTe_ 5~l'!ary sw.itch

Single pole :two Way s:w.itGh

555 ic. 2 nos.

. ~-.

~Missing-PulseDeteGtar

Light Operated 'Relay

.\v,>I',,·] DISCKARQE '~2

.... ,... 5.55

...... _........:q6 ,THRES>-!OLD

.GND

....... _~.~2 TRIGGER

Fig. 29. Light Operated Relay

A light dependent resistor (LDR) can be used with a 55-5 timer.to form a photo sensitive relay in an intruder alarm system 'or for switching on a light at SUfi set and of Cat sun rise.

Resistor Rl in Fig. "29 js so adjusted that' under normal conditions when the light is fallingon the photo-cell, the voltage .acr4s,;ihephoIo:celJ Is less, than ~- V cc, The 'actual value of R 1 will depend on the resistance of the LDR, . The output in this condition'is high. A,s the day-light fades. or 'the light on the LDR

is interru p~e§0~y an intruder.the voltage across it rises above i Vee, :trippip:g~e rc flip-flop. The output goes low actuating .the

- .. -r: '.. .

relay, When~fl1e light is' restored, the voltage faHsbelow -5- Vee,

,!gahi ttippipg:;i~eflip-flop causing" the .output go high and the relay drops:'~~,~Ihe difference of ! Vee between turning on and turning off.:';dtt:~ge.s prevents relay chatter. -This differenti~1 can _b~ :r~duce;'¢:;:by connecting ia resistor R2shciwil .dotted 'in the jigu-re.· 1t~}Y-~lue Isabout one and a half times of theLD·~· reS1S~

tance in-its;{illll:riliu!lted condition. .

---..:

-.4

36

. - .

C,i.

. PI .'t:FlR RJ. It; Relay

Plirts.List

.01 liP ~ceramiC ,f)R50 or IN 4001

. Light Depen:de:n-t R"esis~9r .

. Pot~iitiom.e.tedS,ee TeXt) :Se~''t:e'xJ

PC relay 6 V PF 11:V:

oper:~tjJ1g current 200 mA mag': 555 ~C, -

·37

.>_

Temperature Control-Ier

Fig ~O. Temperature Controller

A 555 timer can be used. with a thermistor resistor divider to build a temperaturecontroHer. The advantage offered is that a well regulated-supply Is not requird.

_,

The dividing network ('Fig. 30) consists of adjustable resistance R3, thermistor R4 and fixed resistor R§. When thermistor R4 cools below a set value thevoltage, at pii120f the 555 drops below n3 Vee. This turns on the triac controlled heater and also starts the timing cycle. If the thermistor temperature rises above the set point before the end of the timing cycle the heater shuts off a;t the endiof the timing period. Otherwise the heater continues to stay on,

Thermistors of different-values can be used as.longas R3 + R4 '== 2R5 holds true- at the desired temperature,

38

Parts l.ist

l C1
C2
e, .. "
DJ,
D2-..
'~1
R~
R8
R~
Rs
&.,6 200; ~F, UV eleetr01y.tic 10 ~F, 12V eleoW)lytic

.01 14F, ceramic "" -

By 126 or By 12'7

BZ 148

39

'Bright-ness Control-Of LED Displays

LED- R 7 .

:::;,.. 2.2K

'Pig. -31. Brightness Controller.

ihe visible _Q_rlghtness- ofa light emitting diode or seven segment LED type displayscan be continuously varied by applying a pulsed signal and varying its 'duty' cycle. The seven-segment decoders usually have .a "blanking input" terminal to apply this type of control. If" the frequency' of the pulsed signal is above '50 Hz, the flicker will.nos be tJ.otic.ble.

_ -In Fig.' 31 the charge and discharge times of the timing capacitor CT vary with the setting of potrnerer R2 but the total period remains the same. Thus the output signal frequency remains unaffected while its duty cycle is varied over a wide range. The output controls the brightness of LEO's.

For applying to the ripple-blanking input of the decoder,' a booster transistor may be connected as shownon the right side to provide sufficient drive voltage and power.

Parts List'

O.lILF

1 N 4001 2.2 k Q!W

100 K.Q potmeter 2200 sw

15 K Q iW

Re:

R7 Tl

Times .••

10 KG rw 2.2 KO fw Be 148

555 rc

40

-;_.

> Fig. 32 Sequentiaf Swit_chitrg.

Several timerscQ:n be c.hn:rfected in tffscad~. to

, " ~)w:n .m~ "'f!0Wer: IS, swfkhed~ !!If!, all tim.ernft:€: fn <iff stale-

Toutput loW). P;re.<;:i)ing thnta<l't ,sv,litch - SJ m6rfi~btar.ily 1riggers tne first tinier a,n:d 'its"output ,goes l'iigh.!AJ;ter ,the tim~ 'inteli~al (1~1 x,Rl Cl) its,oul;puta~aJn goes lew;, tr:igg,erittg the ~'~coficll

., .~. . . .~ ~

'-timer' and so·'ab. ~ -

c produ~~an illusion of a revolving wheel and that of a running border are shown in' Fig 33 and 34.

23","

. Fig. 33

E.!.:!..l--i"-'l-~*-.L...._~+-+- j__~_~+-_']__+-+-+-I-, .!m:jL_.4-_'-) _f!l~Y_~~_~ __ ~~ ":'~~"_-7

~~4 __ ~~~-4 __ ~ __ ~ ~~,

c; C4, c., CWo C2., Co, Cs;,_-Cn" Cz, c; c, G:J.2 R1, Ra, R5, R7 R2, R4, Rti, n, Rly 1;2,3 &4

0.1 /.IF disc ceramic

5 /.IF 12V Electrolytic .01 /.IF disc ceramic 10kn sw

IMGiW

12V D.C. relays, operating current less than 200 niA

555 (4 nos.)

Fig. 34

Parts List

Timers .

.'

42

Long_ DUTatio.D Time,

Fig. 35. Long Duration Tim!lr

The 555 1ime~ teamed up witli a 1ilinary '-·divider- can provide €Ielays as c!lluch as sixteen times that set by th€ time constant ufthe frrst timer. J» fig. -35 ~ dual timer 586;s use4 but two -single

- 555 timers caiil.alsobe: use;d instead. 'Iheifrrst timer ,provides a delay of J.S min. a:nd the divide·a. outputs give a -d.c,layof 15 flln,00mn, 1M. 'and 2hrs. respectively. The 'seeoud timer is US'tl6 to obtainthe desk@d output pulse length. Addifional- dividers may be added to give-langeI dd~B.

PattsList

'Finier

100 ILF, 6V elcGtrolytic - .OIILFceramie

19 ILF ev electrolytic 1 ILF -

10k n !'W._ 3~3MOtW

1 M!'l-iW SingJ.:e-pole - 4-way Switch.

586 u'liuil timer or two nos. ,555 timefs, 149.3 TTL IC.

43

'Divider

~-