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1tion); functioning; Ex. functional modern furniture; CF.


 bastion stronghold; something seen as a source of pro-functionalism
tection; Ex. the last bastion of male chauvinism punctilious minutely attentive (
perhaps too much so)
 growl low, guttural, menacing sound (as of a dog)to ne points; stressing niceties
of conduct or form; N.
 maverick rebel; nonconformist (in a group)punctilio, punctiliousness: careful at
tention payed to
every small exact detail
 lethargic drowsy; dull; N. lethargy: state of sluggish-
ness and inactivity imbecility weakness of mind; state of being an imbecile;
N. imbecile: stupid person; fool
 paraphernalia equipment; odds and ends used in a par-
ticular activity; personal belongings; Ex. photographic rebuke scold harshly; cri
ticize severely
paraphernalia; CF. married woman's property exclusive facile easily accomplished;
ready or uent; supercial;
of her dowrynot deep; Ex. facile solution to a complex problem; Ex.
 mores conventions; moral standards; moral customsfacile speaker; N. facility: ab
ility to do something easily
and well; ease in doing resulting from skill or aptitude;
 timidity lack of self-condence or couragesomething that facilitates an action; am
enity; Ex. with
great facility
 understate state with less truth than seems warranted
by the facts; Ex. He understated the seriousness of the hardy (of people or anima
ls) sturdy; robust; (of plants)
crime; N. understatement; OP. overstateable to stand inclement(stormy) weather
 protocol diplomatic etiquette; ceremony and etiquette penury extreme poverty; sti
nginess; ADJ. penurious:
observed by diplomats; rst copy of a treaty before itsvery poor; stingy
ratication; Ex. Protocol demands that the queen meet
him at the airport. venal capable of being bribed; corrupt; CF. vernal
 it y; y or move lightly or quickly; dart lightly; pass
 braid plait; interweave strands or lengths of; make by
weaving strands together; N: braided segment (as ofswiftly by; Ex. a bee itting f
rom ower to ower
hair) magnate person of prominence or inuence; powerful
or inuential person (in business or industry); Ex. oil
 acquiesce assent; agree passively; comply without
protestmagnate
 botch mismanage; blow
 favoritism display of partiality toward a favored person
 citadel fortress
 wake trail of ship or other object through water; path of libidinous lustful
something that has gone before; Ex. hunger followed in mendicant beggar; ADJ: liv
ing as a beggar
the wake of the war
 oaf stupid awkward person; CF. elf
 draught current of air (through a room or to a re); act
of pulling roads; act of swallowing liquid or amount of voyeur Peeping Tom; perso
n who derives sexual grati-
liquid swallowed at a timecation from observing the sexual acts of others
 betoken signify; indicate; be a sign of docile obedient; easily managed; submissi
ve
 vitiate spoil the effect of; make inoperative; corrupt
 aviary enclosure for birds; large cage
morally
 waggish humorous; mischievous; tricky narrative related to telling a story; N: na
rrated account;
 adapt make or become suitable for a specic use; alter;story; V. narrate: tell (a
story); CF. narration
modify; adjust; N. adaptation: act of adapting; composi- derision ridicule; ADJ.
derisive; CF. derisory
tion recast into a new form; Ex. The play is an adaption
of a short novel. cupidity greed (for wealth); CF. cupid; CF. Cupid
 bugaboo bugbear; object of baseless terror savory pleasant in taste; tasty; pleas
ing, attractive, or
 foliage masses of leaves; CF. defoliateagreeable; Ex. savory reputation
 satellite small body revolving around a larger one rank offensive in odor or avor
 quisling traitor who aids invaders; CF. Vidkun Quisling
 bungle mismanage; blunder; botch; blow; spoil by
clumsy behavior
 tact skill or sensitivity in dealing with people without
 reinstate restore to a previous condition or positioncausing offence
 mnemonic pertaining to memory; assisting the mem-
 fallacious false; based on a fallacy; misleading; N. fal-
ory; N: device, such as as formula or rhyme, used aslacy: false idea or notion;
false reasoning; Ex. popular
a mnemonic aidfallacy; Ex. fallacy of the argument
 conscript draftee; person forced into military service; V. trim make neat or tidy
by clipping; reduce by remov-
ing what is unnecessary; ornament; decorate (round the
 contend struggle; compete; assert earnestly; stateedges); Ex. trim the cost; Ex.
jacket trimmed with fur;
stronglyN. ADJ: tidy; in good order
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space is divided lap take in food or drink with one's tongue; splash gen-
 squander waste; spend foolishlytly; Ex. waves lapping the shore; N: front area f
rom the
 colloquy informal discussion; conversationwaist to the knees of a seated person
 refurbish renovate; make clean, bright, or fresh (make asteroid small planet
new) again; make bright by polishing; Ex. refurbish an adulation attery; admiratio
n that is more than is nec-
old theater; CF. furbish: polishessary or deserved
 desolate make desolate; forsake; abandon and desert array marshal; draw up in ord
er; arrange in order;
 fumble move the ngers and hands awkwardly (inclothe splendidly; adorn; N: ne cloth
es; ordered group;
Ex. in battle array
search of something); mishandle or drop a ball that is
in play; bungle; botch; spoil by mishandling; N. redoubtable formidable; causing
fear
 misapprehension error; misunderstanding; V. misap- approbation approval
prehend
 attrition rubbing away by friction; gradual decrease in
 ameliorate improvenumbers or strength; reduction in the work force with-
out ring employees; wearing away of opposition by
 isthmus narrow neck of land connecting two largermeans of harassment; Ex. a war
of attrition
bodies of land
 secession withdrawal; V. secede: withdraw formally
 skulduggery(skullduggery) dishonest behavior or ac-from membership
tion; Ex. skulduggery in the election
 poignancy quality of being deeply moving; keenness of
 celibate abstaining from sexual intercourse; unmarried;
N. celibacyemotion; ADJ. poignant: touching; deeply moving; (of
sorrow, grief, etc.) painful; keenly distressing to the
 odium detestation; quality of being odious; hatefulness;mind; Ex. poignant memor
y/anxiety; CF. prick
disrepute (resulting from hateful conduct)
 fodder coarse food for cattle, horses, etc.; feed for live-
 deserts what someone deservesstock; CF. food
 nugatory worthless; futile regale entertain
 rendition rendering; translation; artistic interpretation warren tunnels in which
rabbits live; overcrowded liv-
of a song, etcing area; crowded conditions in which people live
 incursion temporary invasion; CF. excursion: short distant reserved or aloof; col
d in manner; Ex. distant
journeygreeting; ADV. distantly
 terrestrial on or relating to the earth
 stigma token of disgrace; brand; V. stigmatize: mark2
with a stigma; characterize as disgraceful entrance put under a spell(condition c
aused by magical
 gross total; fragrant; clearly wrong; (of people's behav-power); carry away(ll wi
th strong feeling) with emo-
ior) coarse; corpulent; Ex. gross insolence/behavior; V:tion; put into a trance;
ll with delight
earn as a total amount; N: 12 dozens
 heterogeneous dissimilar; mixed; not homogeneous;
 doctrine teachings in general; particular principle (reli-consisting of dissimil
ar elements or plants
gious, legal, etc.) taught; dogma; tenet; ADJ. doctrinal
 temperate moderate; restrained; self-controlled; moder-
ate in respect to temperature; CF. temperance: moder-
 misnomer wrong or improper name; incorrect designa-ation and self-restraint; abs
tinence of alcoholic drinks;
tionEx. temperance society
 proliferate grow rapidly (in numbers); spread; multi- glamor compelling charm; AD
J. glamorous
ply; N. proliferation disinterested unprejudiced; free from bias and self-
 hindsight understanding the nature of an event after itinterest; objective
has actually happened mosaic picture made of small colorful inlaid tiles; ADJ.
 lucid easily understood; clear; intelligible; N. lucidity arboreal of or living i
n trees
 impenetrable not able to be pierced or entered; beyond
 uninhibited unrepressed; free in behavior and feelings
understanding; impossible to understand; Ex. impene-
trable mystery amnesty pardon (allowed by government to political
criminals)
 ghastly horrible; terrifying; resembling ghosts; CF.
aghast stint supply; allotted amount of work; assigned portion
of work; limitation; Ex. two-year stint in the army; Ex.
 tremulous trembling; waveringwithout stint
 garish overbright in color; unpleasantly bright; gaudy spin rotate swiftly; make
(thread) by twisting (cotton,
 euphony sweet sound; ADJ. euphoniouswool, etc.); N.
 pithy concise and meaningful; substantial; meaty grumble complain; mutter discont
entedly; grouch; N.
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secrettive
 consonance harmony; agreement aristocracy hereditary nobility; privileged class;
gov-
 enduring lasting; surviving; V. endure: bear (pain orernment by nobility; N. ari
stocrat
suffering) for a long time; remain alive (in spite of dif- innuendo indirect or su
btle (derogatory) hint; insinua-
culties); last; survivetion; Ex. sexual innuendo
 concave hollow; curved inwards; OP. convex rag scrap of cloth; ADJ. ragged:old an
d torn;
seeming unnished and imperfect; Ex. ragged de-
 forward presumptuous or boldbut/performance
 astigmatism eye defect which prevents proper focus;
 conducive helpful; contributive; V. conduce; Ex. con-
OP. stigmatismduce to/towards
 singular being only one; individual; unique; extraordi-
 slight insult to one's dignity; snub; V: treat as if of small
nary; odd; Ex. singular beauty/behaviorimportance; insult; snub; ADJ. small in s
ize; of small
 augury omen; prophecy; sign of coming events; V. au-importance
gur: predict; foretell; be a sign of (something in future)
 tout promote or publicize (one's goods or service);
praise excessively (as a form of advertisement); CF. ad-
 tribulation suffering; ordeal; distress; trialvertise
 cater provide food and drink (for); cater to: try to satisfy repugnance disgust;
strong dislike; loathing; ADJ. re-
(desires of a bad kind)pugnant: arousing disgust; repulsive
 sartorial pertaining to tailors or tailoring; Ex. a man of cue word or signal (as
in a play to prompt another ac-
great sartorial elegance; CF. sartor: tailortor's speech or entrance); reminder
or hint; V: give a cue
 slur slander; insult to one's character or reputation; V.to
 soliloquy talking to oneself (esp. in a play); CF. mono-
 quarry person or animal of pursuit; victim; object of a
hunt; preylogue: soliloquy; long speech by one person (often mo-
nopolizing a conversation)
 queue line (of waiting people or vehicles)
 fruition bearing of fruit; fulllment; realization; Ex.
 funereal sad; solemn; suitable for a funeralcome to/be brought to fruition
 genre particular variety of art or literature termination end; V. terminate
 amphibian able to live both on land and in water; N. intermittent periodic; on an
d off; stopping and starting
 ineluctable irresistible; not to be escaped; unavoidableat intervals
 appall dismay; shock deeply jocose given to(having a tendency of) joking
 analgesia condition of being unable to feel pain blasphemy irreverence; sacrilege
; cursing; bad lan-
guage about God or holy things; V. blasphem; ADJ. blas-
 resign give up (a position, right, or claim); submit (one-phemous; CF. sacrilege
self) passively
 consummate complete; V.
 pang sudden sharp feeling of pain
 consequential self-important; signicant; consequent;
 incontinent lacking self-restraint; not continent; licen-following as a result;
Ex. consequential air; CF. subse-
tious
quent
 stickler perfectionist; person who insists things be ex- gainsay deny
actly right
 abolish cancel; put an end to
 inclined tending or leaning toward; bent; V. incline:
slant; dispose; be disposed; tend convivial pleasantly merry; festive; joyous; ga
y; charac-
terized by joviality; jovial
 episodic (of a story or play) loosely connected; made up
 gawk stare foolishly; look in open-mouthed awe
of separate and loosely connected parts; N. episode: in-
cident in the course of an experience betray be unfaithful; reveal (unconsciously
or unwill-
 seasonable occurring at the proper time or season; op-ingly); Ex. Her trembling
hands betray her anxiety.
portune; Ex. seasonable intervention in the dispute cession yielding to another;
ceding
 astringent binding; causing contraction (stopping cogent convincing
bleeding); harsh or severe; stringent; Ex. astringent
criticism aunt display ostentatiously; Ex. Honey, if you've got
it, aunt it !
 quotidian daily; commonplace; customary; Ex. quotid-
ian routine chaperon older person who accompanies and super-
vises a young unmarried woman
 stanza division of a poem (composed of two or more
 conspire take part in a conspiracy; (of events) work to-
lines)gether; combine; Ex. Events conspired to produce great
 sentinel sentry; lookout
difculties.
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ments; mildness as of the weather; ADJ. clement deadlock standstill resulting fro
m the opposition of two
 nostrum questionable medicine; quack medicine; CF.unrelenting forces; stalemate
our (remedy)
 laconic brief and to the point; using few words; terse
 scrutinize examine closely and critically; N. scrutiny
 fake not genuine; N: one that is not genuine; impostor;
 archetype prototype; primitive patternsham; V: counterfeit; Ex. fake the results
of the experi-
ment/the signature
 trite hackneyed; commonplace
 codify arrange (laws or rules) as a code; classify; N. apparition ghost; phantom
code: system of words used instead of ordinary writ- scurrilous abusive; obscene;
indecent; Ex. scurrilous re-
ing; collection of laws, rules, established social customsmark
 consanguineous(consanguine) having a common an-
 conagration great recestor
 subliminal below the threshold of conscious percep- diabolical diabolic; devilish
; endish
tion; Ex. subliminal advertisement
 wither (of a plant) dry up from loss of moisture; lose
 duplicity double-dealing; hypocrisy; being dishonestfreshness; shrivel; decay
and deceitful; ADJ. duplicitous
 fresco painting on wet plaster (usually fresh)
 epithet word or phrase characteristically used to de-
scribe a person or thing; descriptive phrase to charac- masochist person who enjo
ys his own pain; CF.
terize a person (often contemptous)masochism
 peon landless agricultural worker; bond servant; me- progenitor ancestor
nial worker; N. peonage odoriferous giving off an odor
 thematic of a theme; relating to a unifying motif or idea asperity sharpness; rou
ghness; severity (of temper or
weather); Ex. asperities of a Russian winter
 plight difcult condition; condition or state (esp. a bad salient prominent; projec
ting beyond a line; conspicu-
state or condition); predicamentous; Ex. salient features
 cohorts group of people who share some common qual- brook tolerate; endure; Ex. b
rook no interference; N:
ity; armed band; a group of between 300 and 600 sol-small stream
diers under one commander (in the ancient Rome)
 ductile malleable; pliable; (of metals) easily pulled into
 labile likely to change; unstable; Ex. emotionally labile;shape; exible; (of some
one) easily inuenced or con-
N. labilitytrolled
 panegyric formal praise; encomium; Ex. I don't deserve subversive tending to over
throw or ruin; V. subvert:
such panegyrics.overthrow completely (an established system); destroy
completely; CF. undermine ?
 apothecary druggist; pharmacist
 requisition formal demand or request; Ex. requisition monotony sameness leading t
o boredom; monotonous-
ness; ADJ. monotonous; CF. monotone
for more computing equipment; V.
 ample enough; abundant; spacious; large in size; Ex. inkling hint; slight indicat
ion
ample opportunity/garden; N. amplitude: quality of corrode destroy or wear away g
radually by chemical ac-
being ample; abundance; largeness of spacetion (over a long period)
 unassuaged unsatised; not soothed nirvana in Buddhist teachings, the ideal state i
n which
the individual loses himself in the attainment of an im-
 exigency urgent situation; ADJ. exigent
personal beatitude
 voodoo religion practiced chiey in Haiti ribald marked by vulgar lewd humor; wanto
n; profane;
 furrow long shallow trench made by a plow; deep wrin-N. ribaldry: ribald languag
e or joke
kle in the skin; V. elastic able to spring back into shape; quick to recover
 gerontocracy government ruled by old people(as from disappointment); able to ada
pt to change; Ex.
 rareed made less dense (of a gas); V. rarefy: make lesselastic plans; N: elastic
material
dense; N. rarefaction biennial every two years
 madrigal pastoral song; song for several singers with- pugilist boxer; CF. pugili
sm: boxing
out instruments
 eulogy expression of praise, often on the occasion of
 multilingual having many languages; uent in severalsomeone's death; V. eulogize
languages
 limp walk lamely; ADJ: lacking rmness; weak
 coy shy (irtatiously); showing a (pretended) lack of
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self-condence; modest; coquettish; CF. job offer\¦ ~ÃÎ
 adept expert at; very skilled ¤`¦ M:
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tine; install as a minister, priest, or rabbi; N. ordainment; canny shrewd in mon
ey matters; thrifty
CF. ordination
 inux owing into
 noisome foul smelling; very unpleasant; unwholesome
 semblance outward appearance; guise; Ex. We called overwrought nervous or excited
; extremely agitated;
hysterical; wrought-up; CF. wrought: made or done
in the troops to bring a/some semblance of order to the
city. clientele body of customers
 assert state strongly or positively; demand recognition patent obvious; easily se
en; open for the public to read;
of (rights, claims, etc.); make a claim to (by forceful ac-of or protected by a
patent; Ex. patent to everyone; N.
tion); Ex. assert one's independence
 wane decrease in size or strength (after being full); grow
 calamity disaster; miserygradually to an end; Ex. The moon waxes and wanes
 foil defeat; frustrate; prevent from being successful;every month; N.
thwart; CF. fail fetter shackle; restrict the freedom of; N. chain or
 invocation prayer for help (used in invoking); callingshackle for the foot of a
prisoner; CF. foot
upon as a reference or support; act of invoking regeneration spiritual rebirth; E
x. regeneration of the
 retaliate repay in kind (usually for bad treatment); V.prisoners; V. regenerate:
give or obtain new life; reform
spiritually
retaliate
 complicity participation; involvement (in a question- pedagogy teaching; art of e
ducation
able act or a crime) jubilation rejoicing; great joy
 tangible able to be touched; real; concrete; palpable;
 mete measure; distribute; administer; Ex. mete out jus-
possible to realize or understand; Ex. tangible prooftice/punishment
 numismatist person who collects coins; N. numismat- pulmonary pertaining to the l
ungs
ics: study or collection of money, coins, and medals
 rift narrow opening in a large mass; break in a friendly
 supplant take the place of unfairly; usurp; replacerelation; Ex. through a rift
in the clouds; OP. reconcila-
 progeny children; offspring; descendantstion
 list tilt (as of a ship); lean over (to one side) exonerate acquit; exculpate; fr
ee from blame or guilt
 invoke call and bring into use (a right or law); call untoward unexpected and adv
erse; unfortunate or un-
on/upon (a higher power or god) for help; ask for; beglucky; Ex. untoward encoun
ter
for; conjure (a spirit); Ex. invoke the veto power; Ex. ramp slope; inclined plan
e or roadway (connecting two
invoke one's advisor/Godlevels)
 slither slip or slide juncture crisis; point in time; joining point; joint; act o
f
 precedent something preceding in time which may bejoining
used as an authority or guide for future action; V. pre- perspicuous (of somethin
g) plainly expressed; easy to
cede; CF. unprecedented
understand; Ex. perspicuous comments
 gaunt lean and angular; thin and bony; emaciated; bar-
ren devoid empty; lacking
 pregure be a sign of; foreshadow
 dishearten discourage
 indicative suggestive; implying; serving to indicate
 commensurate equal in extent; of the same size
 denigrate blacken; defame
 ethereal like a spirit or fairy; unearthly light; heavenly;
unusually rened; Ex. She has an ethereal beauty; CF. lexicon dictionary
ether: upper air
 sober serious; solemn; not drunken; abstemious or tem-
 archaic antiquated; no longer used; belonging to theperate; V: make or become so
ber
past; N.
 bode foreshadow; portend
 longevity long life; long duration
 reparation compensation (for loss or wrong); amends;
 pan criticize harshlyEx. make reparation for the damage; CF. repair
 quintessence purest and highest embodiment; per- odious arousing strong dislike;
hateful(causing hatred);
fect example; apotheosis; most essential element; Ex.vile
quintessence of wit; ADJ. quintessential; CF. fth
 maraud move in search of plunder; Ex. marauding
essence
 scanty meager; insufcientarmy
 meager scanty; inadequate
 unseemly unbecoming; not proper in behavior; inde-
cent; Ex. leave with unseemly haste ceremonious marked by formality; extremely fo
rmal
 rebuff reject bluntly; snub; beat back; Ex. She rebuffedand polite; CF. ceremony
: conventional social courtesy
his invitation; N. autonomous self-governing; N. autonomy
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sipid and avorless; Ex. vapid lecturefrom ores; N. metallurgy: science that deals
with ex-
 propitiate appease; conciliate; make peaceful; ADJ. pro-tracting metals from ore
s
pitiatory dutiful(duteous) (of people or their behavior) respect-
 edgling(edgeling) inexperienced; N: young bird thatful; obedient (lled with a sense
of duty)
has acquired wing feathers and is learning to y; inex- indices signs; indications;
Ex. indices of a student's po-
perienced persontential; CF. index: something that reveals or indicates;
 immaculate spotless; awless; absolutely cleansign; Ex. cost-of-living index
 disband dissolve; disperse; (of a group) break up and
 distinctive clearly different from others of the sameseparate; Ex. The club has
disbanded.
kind
 supposititious assumed; counterfeit; hypothetical
 transpose reverse the order or position of
 despot tyrant; harsh, authoritarian ruler; CF. despotism
 momentum quantity of motion of a moving body; im-
petus; moving force
 topple become unsteady and fall down
 apprise inform
4
 exploit brave and successful act; deed or action, partic- tardy slow; sluggish; n
ot on time; late; Ex. tardy arrival
ularly a brave deed; CF. crossing the Atlantic ocean sheer pure; thin and transpa
rent; very steep
 sibylline prophetic; oracular; N. sibyl: woman prophet optician maker and seller
of eyeglasses
(in the ancient world)
 deposition testimony under oath; deposing; dethroning
 serrated having a sawtoothed edge; Ex. serrated leaf
 cohere stick together legend explanatory list of symbols on a map
 wistful sadly thoughtful (because of desires or memo- aseptic preventing infectio
n; having a cleansing effect
ries); sadly pensive; vaguely longing farce broad comedy; mockery; humorous play
full of
 gamely in a spirited manner; with courage; Ex. ghtsilly things happening; ADJ. fa
rcical
gamely against a superior boxer; ADJ. game acrid bitter (to the taste or smell);
sharp; bitterly pun-
 spurn reject disdainfully; scorn; Ex. She spurned all of-gent
fers of help. raconteur story-teller; one who tells stories with wit and
 conservatory(conservatoire) school of the ne arts (es-skill
pecially music or drama); glass-enclosed area; CF. con-
 reduce diminish; bring to a weaker or more difcult
servancycondition; demote; lower in rank; separate into compo-
 malcontent person dissatised with existing state of af-nents by analysis; Ex. red
uced to the ranks; Ex. reduce
fairs; discontented person; ADJ: discontentedthe house to rubble; N. reduction
 killjoy grouch; spoilsport; one who intentionally spoils dart move or throw sudde
nly and quickly
the pleasure of others scholarly full of learning; erudite; like a scholar; Ex.
 discourse serious speech, writing, or conversation; for-scholarly journal
mal discussion (either written or spoken); conversation; cohesion tendency to kee
p together
V.
 epoch period of time
 bifurcated divided into two branches; forked
 canard unfounded false rumor; exaggerated false report
 lucrative protable; producing wealth
 qualms uneasy feelings; misgivings; uneasy fears espe- toss throw lightly; move o
r lift (the head) with a sudden
cially about matters of conscience; Ex. I have no qualmsmotion; ip (a coin) to de
cide something
about giving this assignment to Helen. phalanx formation of infantry carrying ove
rlapping
 fusion union; coalition; V. fuseshields and long spears; group of men packed tog
ether
 clarion shrill, trumpetlike sound; kind of trumpet used(for attack or defense)
in former times bar railing in a courtroom; legal profession; vertical line
 traverse go through or acrossdividing a staff into equal measures; Ex. prisoner
at the
bar; V: shut in or out with bars; forbid; exclude; CF. bar-
 cherubic angelic; innocent-looking; N. cherub; CF. ser-rister
aph: winged angel of the highest order
 lineaments features especially of the face; distinctive
 parasite animal or plant living on another; toady; syco-shape or contour of the
face; CF. line
phant; CF. para-: beside
 validate make valid; conrm; ratify
 decomposition decay; V. decompose: decay; break and compelling overpowering; irre
sistible in effect; holding
separate into simple partsone's attention; that compels one to do something; Ex.
a
 industrious diligent; hard-working; N. industrycompelling adventure story; V. co
mpel
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symbols; arrangement of dancesnation/the exact fare; N: formal offer; money; Ex.
le-
 furor frenzy; great anger and excitement; CF. furygal tender; ADJ: young and vul
nerable; sensitive to the
touch; sore; soft; delicate; Ex. child of tender years; Ex.
 obituary death notice (esp. in a newspaper); ADJ.tender wound
 dialectical relating to the art of debate; mutual or recip- brunt main impact or
shock (of an attack or blow); Ex.
rocal; Ex. dialectical situation; N. dialectic: art of arriv-brunt of the argume
nt
ing at the truth by the exchange of logical arguments junta group of persons join
ed in political intrigue; ca-
 oratorio dramatic poem set to music; long musical workbal; group of military ofce
rs ruling a country after seiz-
with singing but without acting; CF. cantataing power (by force)
 sloth slow moving tree-dwelling mammal; laziness; materialism preoccupation with
physical comforts and
ADJ. slothful: lazy; indolentthings; excessive regard for worldly concerns (rath
er
than spiritual matters)
 simian monkeylike; N: ape or monkey
 inter bury; N. interment analgesic causing insensitivity to pain; N.
 supersede replace; cause to be set aside; make obsolete; jurisprudence science of
law
N. supersession dossier le of documents on a subject or person; le; CF.
 coroner public ofcial who investigates any deathbundle of papers labeled on the b
ack
thought to be of other than natural causes transparent permitting light to pass t
hrough freely; eas-
 perspicuity clearness of expression; freedom from am-ily detected; obvious; clea
r; Ex. transparent lie
biguity virulent (of a disease or poison) extremely harmful or
poisonous; (of a feeling) hostile; bitter; N. virulence; CF.
 succulent juicy; full of juice or sap; full of richness; N:virus; CF. venom
succulent plant such as a cactus
 bluster blow in heavy gusts; threaten emptily; bully;
 ransack search thoroughly; pillage (going through aspeak in a noisy or bullying
manner; CF. breeze, gust,
place); Ex. Enemy soldiers ransacked the town.
gale
 dorsal relating to the back of an animal; Ex. dorsal n capacious spacious
 protean able to take on many forms; versatile; CF. Pro- conspiracy treacherous pl
ot; secret plan against the law
teus: sea god to change his shape at will
(by two or more people)
 conscientious scrupulous; through and careful; Ex. lectern reading desk or stand
for a public speaker
conscientious worker
 aria operatic solo; a song sung by one person in an
 gape open widely; open the mouth wide; stare wonder-opera or oratorio
ingly with the mouth open; CF. agape
 unique without an equal; single in kind
 perverse purposely continuing to do something wrong;
stubbornly wrongheaded; perverted; directed away posterity descendants; future ge
nerations; Ex. go down
from what is right; wicked and unacceptable; Ex. per-to posterity; CF. posterior
, anterior
verse satisfaction; Ex. Hannibal Lecter in a perverse pacist one opposed to force;
antimilitarist; ADJ. N.
mood; N. perversitypacism: opposition to war as a means of resolving dis-
 nexus connectionputes
 mercantile concerning trade or merchants
 inestimable impossible to estimate; (apprec) invalu-5
able; of immeasurable worth insatiable not easily satised; unquenchable; Ex. insa-
 quixotic idealistic but impractical; CF. Don Quixotetiable appetite
 antipathy aversion; dislike or opposition exhilarating invigorating and refreshin
g; cheering; V.
exhilarate: make cheerful and excited; Ex. exhilarated
 chaste morally pure; virginal; abstaining from illicit sex-by the ride in the sp
orts car
ual acts; modest; simple (of a style of writing); not
 bohemian unconventional (in an artistic way)
highly decorated; austere
 incident event; event that causes a crisis ignoble unworthy; not noble; dishonora
ble; Ex. ignoble
deed
 distraught upset; distracted by anxiety; very anxious
 career rush wildly; go at full speed
and troubled almost to the point of madness; Ex. dis-
traught with grief/worry zeal eager enthusiasm (to a cause or ideal); ADJ. zealou
s
 recreant disloyal; cowardly; N: disloyal and cowardly
person miscellany mixture of writings on various subjects; col-
lection of various items
 disport amuse; Ex. disport oneself; CF. divert
 acquittal deliverance from a charge; V. acquit: free from
 proxy authorized agent; authority to act for anothera charge or accusation; disc
harge from a duty; conduct
 leave-taking farewell or departure(oneself) in a specied manner
7

--------------------------------------- 8
 titter nervous giggle; nervous laugh; V.or usefulness); improve
 anesthetic substance that removes sensation with or
 glut overstock; ll beyond capacity (with food); ll to
excess; N: oversupplywithout loss of consciousness; N. anesthesia
 devious roundabout; erratic; deviating from the decadence decay; fall to a lower
level (of morality, civi-
straight course; not straightforward; not completelylization, or art); ADJ. deca
dent
honest; Ex. devious route ejaculation exclamation; abrupt ejection (to discharge
 imperturbable unshakably calm; placidsperm); V. ejaculate
 husbandry frugality; thrift; economy; agriculture; farm- terse concise; abrupt; p
ithy
ing; Ex. animal husbandry; CF. husbandman
 vintner wine merchant; winemaker; seller of wine
 ingrate ungrateful person (not expressing thanks)
 labyrinth maze
 comport bear one's self; behave; Ex. comport oneself;
N. comportment detain keep waiting; prevent from leaving or going; N.
detention
 reprobation severe disapproval; CF. approbation
 self-indulgence excessive indulgence of one's own de-
 arch- chief; rst; Ex. archbishopsire
 incendiary arsonist; ADJ: causing re; of arson; Ex. in- philology study of languag
e or words
cendiary bomb
 recapitulate summarize
 glossary brief explanation of words used in the text
 odorous having an odor
 helm steering wheel of a ship; position of control
 rustle make slight sounds like silk moving or being
 pretext excuserubbed together
 solvent able to pay all depths; N. solvency
 licentious amoral; lewd and lascivious; unrestrained
 nauseous causing nausea; feeling nausea
 physiognomy face (as showing the character and the
 valor bravery; ADJ. valiant: possessing valor; bravemind); art of judging human
character from facial fea-
tures
 impasse predicament(dangerouscondition)from
which there is no escape; situation allowing for no awful terrible; very bad
further progress
 ravenous extremely hungry; voracious
 foreboding premonition of evil; feeling of coming evil;
V. forebode: be a warning of (something unpleasant) earmark set aside (money or t
ime) for a particular pur-
pose
 copious plentiful
 unaccountable unexplicable; impossible to account for;
 overturn turn over; capsize; toppleunreasonable or mysterious
 fawning courting favor by cringing and attering; V. behoove(behove) be suited to;
be incumbent upon; be
fawn: exhibit affection as a dog; seek favor or attentionright and necessary; Ex
. It behooves one to do.
by obsequiousness
 badger pester; annoy continually with demands; per-
 allegory story, play, or picture in which characters are
suade by asking again and again; Ex. The children bad-
used as symbols; fablegered me into taking them into the cinema; N: a kind of
 retain keep; maintain possession of; employ (esp. amountain animal
lawyer or advisor); N. retainer: servant; fee paid to re- rumble make or move wit
h a deep rolling sound (as
tain an advisorthunder or stomach)
 mimicry imitation sojourn temporary stay; V: stay for a time
 extrinsic external; not essential or inherent; extraneous; myopic nearsighted; la
cking foresight; N. myopia
OP. intrinsic
 tortuous winding; full of curves; Ex. tortuous mountain
 duration length of time something lastsroad
 truism self-evident truth
 cross bad-tempered; showing ill-humor; angry
 absolve pardon (an offense)
 murmur low, indistinct, continuous sound; V. CF. mum-
 arsenal storage place for military equipmentble
 centrifugal radiating; departing from the center fret be annoyed or vexed; Ex. fr
et over your poor
 alms money or goods given to the poorgrades; N: irritation of mind; ADJ. fretful
 shrew scolding woman; very small mouselike animal gaffe social blunder
 sordid lthy; foul; base; vile; Ex. sordid bed/story divest strip (as of clothes);
deprive (as of rights); dispos-
 franchise right or privilege granted by authority; rightsess; N. divestiture(div
estment)
to vote; license to sell a product in a particular territory beatitude blessednes
s; state of great happiness
8

--------------------------------------- 9
CF. sine cure: without care; CF. San Serifstereotyped answer
 squat short and thick; stocky; Ex. ugly squat tower; V. brawny muscular; having w
ell-developed muscles
N.
 surfeit satiate; feed or supply to excess; stuff; indulge to
 unintimating unfrighteningexcess in anything; N: surfeiting; excessive amount; E
x.
 provocative arousing anger or sexual interest; annoy-surfeit of food
ing; Ex. provocative in tight jeans; V. provoke: incite to hazard venture; put in
danger; risk; Ex. hazard a guess;
anger; cause (an unpleasant action or feeling); N. provo-N: possible source of d
anger
cation eloquence expressiveness; persuasive speech; ADJ. elo-
 discomt frustrate; put to rout; defeat; disconcert; em-quent: movingly expressive
; expressing ideas well so
barrass; perturbthat the hearers can be inueneced
 tarry linger; delay in starting or going; dawdle fanciful whimsical; visionary; i
maginary; produced by
imagination; Ex. fanciful scheme
 prosperous successful; rich; afuent; well-to-do; well-
off factious inclined to form factions; causing dissension
 apotheosis elevation to godhood; an ideal example of chassis framework and workin
g parts of an automobile;
somethingframework to which components are attached
 pinnace small boat inopportune untimely; inappropriate or ill-timed;
poorly chosen
 transition going from one state of action to another
 maudlin effusively sentimental alcove nook; recess
 vendetta blood feud (esp. between two families); CF.
 chameleon lizard that changes color in different situa-Nina Williams
tions
 aspersion slanderous remark; Ex. cast aspersions on nemesis someone seeking reven
ge; source of downfall
or ruin; CF. Nemesis
 ape imitate or mimic (a person's behavior or manner)
 accrue come to one as a gain; accumulate over time;
 render give; deliver; provide; represent in verbal orcome about by addition; Ex.
benets that accrue from
artistic form; depict; perform; make; translate; Ex. ren-scientic research; Ex. i
nterest accruing in a bank ac-
der the song beautifullycount; N. accrual
 galley low ship with sails (rowed along by slaves) undertaker funeral director; o
ne whose business is to
 curb chain or strap used with a bit to restrain a horse;arrange burials
something that checks; V: check; restrain complementary serving to complete somet
hing
 buffet strike forcefully; slap; batter; knock out; N: table jingoist extremely ag
gressive and militant patriot; war-
with food set out for people to server themselves; meallike chauvinist; N. jingo
ism: extreme nationalism
at which people help themselves to food that's been set aquiline curved; hooked;
of or like an eagle; Ex.
 seemly (of behavior) proper; appropriateaquiline nose
 decrepitude state of collapse or weakness caused by ill- lofty very high
ness or old age
 mordant biting; sarcastic; stinging; (apprec.) incisive;
 protuberance protrusion; swelling; bulgecutting; Ex. mordant pen/wit
 benet advantage; anything that brings helpl, advan- bombast grandiloquent, pompous
speech
tage, or prot; money provided by the government to
 shift change position or place; exchange (one thing) for
the people; fund-raising public entertainment; Ex. un-another; change in directi
on or position; Ex. shift the
employment benet; V: receive benets; be benecial to;stolen goods; N. group of worke
rs which takes turns
give benetswith other groups; working period of such a group
 memorialize commemorate
 deft neat; skillful
 homily sermon; tedious moralizing lecture; serious
6warning; ADJ. homiletic
 condign adequate; (of punishment) severe and well de-
served rankle irritate; fester; annoy
 oscillate vibrate pendulumlike; waver mingle mix together in close association
 indeterminate uncertain; not clearly xed; indenite
 theoretical based on theory; not practical or applied;
hypothetical rotundity roundness; sonorousness of speech
 pundit authority on a subject; expert; learned person enumerate list; mention one
by one
 stereotype one regarded as embodying a set image or congenial pleasant; friendly;
in agreement with one's
type; xed and unvarying representation; standardizedtastes and nature; Ex. congen
ial weather
mental picture often reecting prejudice; Ex. stereotype
of the happy slave; V: make a stereotype of; represent gist essence; main point;
substance
9

--------------------------------------- 10
hardship; want; CF. deprivefertilizer; V: put or make compost
 cataclysm deluge; upheaval; earthquake; violent and heresy opinion contrary to po
pular belief; opinion con-
sudden event or changetrary to accepted religion; ADJ. heretical; CF. heretic
 toxic poisonous; N. toxicity high-own highly pretentious or inated
 mutter utter (complaining words) indistinctly in low maniacal raging mad; insane;
N. maniac: insane per-
tonesson; CF. mania: disorder of the mind; intense enthusi-
 abjure renounce upon oathasm
 extradition surrender of prisoner by one state to an- whorl ring of leaves around
stem; ring; circular ar-
rangement; Ex. whorls on the ngers
other; Ex. extradition treaty; V. extradite
 petulant touchy; peevish; ill-tempered
 quirk sudden sharp turn or twist; startling twist;
caprice; idiosyncrasy; peculiarity of behavior; Ex. by a decimate kill (usually o
ne out of ten or every tenth
quirk of fateman); destroy or kill a large part of
 aspire seek to attain (position or status); long for; Ex. resolve decide; settle;
solve; separate; make a deter-
aspire to become president; Ex. aspire to/after the lead-mined decision; N. reso
lution
ership brave face courageously; Ex. brave the storm
 stratagem deceptive scheme; clever trick viscous (of a liquid) thick and sticky;
gluey; viscid; CF.
 arrogance pride; haughtiness; ADJ. arrogant: unpleas-consistency
antly self-important (with a strong condence in one's grovel crawl or creep on gro
und; remain prostrate; be-
own importance and a lack of respect for other people)have in a servile manner
 commune small (often rural) community whose mem- compliance conformity in fullling
requirements;
bers share work and income; V: exchange thoughts orreadiness to yield; dispositi
on to yield to others; V.
feelings; Ex. commune with naturecomply
 forestall prevent by taking action in advance invalid one incapacitated(disabled)
by a chronic illness;
ADJ: incapacitated by illness; not valid; null; V: allow to
 inundate ood; overow; submerge; cover completely;
Ex. inundated with workleave (a military force) because of ill-health
 spurious false; counterfeit; forged; illogical; Ex. spuri-
 fussy fastidious; nicky; easily upset
ous arguments
 estranged separated; alienated; V. estrange: alienate
 lechery gross lewdness; lustfulness; ADJ. lecherous; N.
(people in a family); N. estrangementlecher: lecherous man
 jetsam things thrown from a ship (to lighten the ship) entomology study of insect
s
 bequeath leave to someone by means of a will; hand molt(moult) periodically shed
or cast off hairs or feath-
down in his will; N. bequesters (for replacement by a new growth)
 dauntless bold; fearless expatiate talk at length; speak or write in detail
 lien legal claim or right on a property tribute tax levied by a ruler; payment ma
de by one na-
 congruent in agreement; harmonious; corresponding;tion to another in acknowledgm
ent of submission; mark
coinciding exactly; CF. congruousof respect (such as praise or gift); Ex. pay tr
ibute to
 expound explain askance with a sideways or indirect look (with disap-
proval or distruct); Ex. look askance at
 obtuse blunt; not sharp; stupid; slow in understanding
 dour sullen; gloomy; stubborn
 detrimental harmful; damaging; N. detriment
 prate talk idly; speak foolishly; boast idly
 mangy shabby; wretched; suffering from mange; of bad
 cardinal chief; most important; N: priest; cardinal num-
appearance
ber: number that shows quantity rather thatn order
 putrefy make or become putrid; N. putrefaction
 pastry paste of our and water (eaten when baked)
 hideous repulsive to the sight; ugly; repugnant; Ex.
hideous face/scream betroth become engaged to marry
 abate subside or moderate valediction saying farewell; expression of leave-taking
 hygiene science and practice of the promotion and
 annul make void
preservation of health; ADJ. hygienic: showing careful
 egotism tendency to speak or write of oneself exces-attention to cleanness (to p
revent disease); Ex. hygienic
sively; conceit; self-importancecondition
 skeptic sceptic; doubter; person who suspends judg- elaboration addition of detai
ls; intricacy
ment until he has examined the evidence supporting a
point of view; ADJ. skeptical; N. skepticism; scepticism homeostasis tendency of
a system or organism to
maintain relative stability or internal equilibrium; CF.
 audacious daring; bold; N. audacityhomeo-: constant; Ex. homeotherm
10

--------------------------------------- 11
so that the other side will do what the enemy demands excerpt selected passage (w
ritten or musical) taken
 resentment indignation; bitterness; displeasure; V. re-from a longer work; V.
sent: feel anger about
 insolvent bankrupt; lacking money to pay; N. insol-
 palimpsest parchment or piece of writing material usedvency
for second time after original writing has been erased
 parley conference (between opponents); CF. speak
 compendium brief, comprehensive summary; ADJ.
7
compendious
 vaporize turn into vapor (steam, gas, fog, etc.) gusty windy
 lackadaisical lacking interest or effort; lacking purpose benison blessing
or zest; lazy; halfhearted; languid
 casualty serious or fatal accident; person killed or don put on; OP. doff
 chafng bantering; joking
wounded in an accident or battle
 bulk size or volume (esp. when very large); main part; hive box for bees; V: caus
e to go in a hive
Ex. The bulk of the work has already been done; ADJ. catapult slingshot; hurling
machine; V: re from cata-
bulky: having great sizepult
 rectitude moral correctness; moral uprightness; moral aspirant seeker after posit
ion or status
virtue; correctness of judgment magistrate ofcial with power to administer the law
 vainglorious boastful; excessively conceited; N. vain-
glory: great vanity nite limited
 ling particle removed by a le supplicant one who supplicates; ADJ.
 scrappy quarrelsome
 inveigh denounce; utter censure or invective; Ex. in-
veigh against the evils of drink intelligentsia intellectuals; members of the edu
cated
elite (often used derogatorily)
 pathetic causing sadness, compassion, pity; touching
 agnostic one who is skeptical of the existence or knowa- crochet make (a piece of
needlework) by looping thread
with a hooked needle; N. CF. crotchet
bility of a god or any ultimate reality
 supererogatory superuous; more than needed or de- epitome perfect example or embod
iment; brief sum-
mandedmary; Ex. epitome of good manners; V. epitomize: make
an epitome of; be an epitome of; embody
 engross occupy fully; absorb
 vagrant wandering from place to place; roving; stray;
 orgy wild drunken revelry; unrestrained indulgence inmoving in a random fashion;
Ex. vagrant thoughts; N.
an activity; Ex. orgy of shoppingvagrancy
 feral (of an animal) not domestic; wild falter hesitate; weaken in purpose or act
ion; walk or
 hilarity boisterous mirth(merriment; laughter); ADJ. hi-move unsteadily through
weakness; N.
larious: full of laughter orid ruddy; (of a complexion) reddish; owery; very
 incandescent strikingly bright; shining with intenseornate; CF. rose
heat; emitting visible light when heated; Ex. incandes- philatelist stamp-collect
or; N. philately: stamp collect-
cent light bulb; CF. candleing
 forebears(forbears) ancestors grotesque fantastic; comically hideous; strange and
un-
natural (causing fear or amusement)
 disenfranchise disfranchise; deprive of a civil right; OP.
enfranchise avalanche great mass of falling snow and ice
 slink move furtively; ADJ. slinky: stealthy; furtive; accessible easy to approach
; obtainable
sneaky (as in ambush) inane silly; senseless; Ex. inane remarks; N. inanity
 besmirch soil; dele; make dirty orientation act of nding oneself in society; orient
ing
 brood sit on in order to hatch; think deeply or worry
 acidulous slightly sour (in taste or manner); sharp;
anxiously; N: the young of certain animals; group ofcaustic
young birds hatched at one time
 beholden obligated; indebted; owing thanks; obliged or crabbed sour; bad-tempered
; peevish; difcult to read
as handwriting
indebted from gratitude
 ay strip off skin; plunder; remove the skin from; criti- lagoon shallow body of wa
ter or lake near a sea; lake
separated from a sea by sandbars or coral reefs
cize harshly unprepossessing unattractive
 sophomoric immature; half-baked; like a sophomore
 airy of air; high in the air; lofty; immaterial; unreal
 exculpate clear from blame or guilt
 acuity sharpness (of mind or senses of sight or hearing)
 perturb disturb greatly
11

--------------------------------------- 12
 dispatch speediness; prompt execution; message sent otsam drifting wreckage
with all due speed; V: send to a specied destination; eclipse darken; extinguish;
outshine; surpass; cause an
nish promptly; kill
eclipse
 knead mix; work dough; mix and work into a uniform
mass (with the hands); Ex. knead dough putative supposed; reputed; generally rega
rded as
such; Ex. putative father of the child
 spry (esp. of older people) vigorously active; nimble
 gerrymander change voting district lines in order to
 addiction compulsive habitual needfavor a political party; N. CF. Elbridge Gerry
+
 bizarre fantastic; violently contrasting; noticeably odd;(sala)mander
strikingly unconventional implicate incriminate; involve incriminatingly; show to
be involved (in a crime); Ex. implicate someone in the
 humane marked by kindness or consideration; kind
and compassionate; humanitariancrime
 sycophant servile atterer; bootlicker; yes man; ADJ.
sycophantic8
 swear-word word considered offensive; Ex. bloody  oblivion obscurity; condition of b
eing completely for-
gotten; forgetfulness
 sedate composed (with no excitement); grave; V: ad-
 incompatible inharmonious; N. incompatibility
minister a sedative to; CF. sedative
 assent agree; accept; N. assessment
 abet assist usually in doing something wrong; encour-
age momentous very important; N. moment; CF. momen-
tary
 monograph scholarly article
 seminal related to seed or semen; germinal; creative;
 preternatural beyond what is normal in nature; super-
providing a basis for further development; inuencing
natural; Ex. preternatural strength/forcesfuture developments; Ex. seminal resea
rch in a new
 jurisdiction right and power to apply the law; authorityeld
 histrionic theatrical; excessively dramatic or emotional;
 despoil plunder; sack; Ex. despoil the villageaffected; of actors or acting; N.
histrionics: histrionic be-
havior
 voluminous having great volume (as of a garment or
container); bulky; large stockade wooden enclosure or pen; xed line of posts
 dapper neat and trim (in appearance); (of small men)used as defensive barrier
neat in appearance and quick in movements; neat; spry stem stop or check (the ow o
f); Ex. stem the bleeding
from the slashed artery; N: main axis of a plant; stalk
 sleigh large vehicle drawn by a horse over snow or ice
 vagary capricious happening; caprice; whim; CF. wan-
 sullen silently showing ill humor or resentment; dark;
gloomyder
 anathema solemn curse; someone or something re- inculcate teach (ideas or princip
les); instill
garded as a curse; V. anathematize countermand cancel; revoke (an order)
 destitute extremely poor; lacking means of subsistence; insularity narrow-mindedn
ess; isolation; ADJ. insular:
utterly lacking; devoid; Ex. destitute of any experienceof an island; isolated;
narrow-minded; CF. peninsula
 dismantle take apart; disassemble discriminating able to see differences; discern
ing; prej-
udiced; N. discrimination
 imperative absolutely necessary; that must be done;
critically important; expressing command; Ex. It is im- vouchsafe grant condescen
dingly; guarantee; Ex.
perative that; N: something that must be donevouchsafe your fair return on your
investment
 disclaim disown; renounce claim to; deny; CF. dis- rubble fragments (esp. from a
destroyed building)
claimer
 abeyance suspended action
 indoctrinate cause to accept a doctrine without ques-
tioning it; Ex.indoctrinated with mindless anti- sate satisfy to the full; satisf
y to excess; cloy
communism asymmetric not identical on both sides of a dividing
central line
 indigence poverty
 rote repetition; memorization through repetition with-
 interstice narrow space between things
out understanding; Ex. learn poetry by rote
 abode dwelling place; home
 immolate offer or kill as a sacrice (by re)
 avuncular of or like an uncle
 malignant tending to cause death; highly injurious; ag-
 matinee(matinee)´dramatic or musical performancegressively malevolent; Ex. maligna
nt tumor
given in the afternoon
 dysentery inammatory disorder of the lower intestinal
 welt raised mark from a beating or whippingtract
12

--------------------------------------- 13
have loose threads developing; cause to become wornfood, nourishment; something
that maintains life; food
out (a person's temper or nerves); CF. rub
 waive give up temporarily; yield; N. waiver: waiving a
 agglomeration collection; heap; V. agglomerate: gatherright or claim; document t
hat waives a right or claim
into a rounded mass; N. aggolmeate: jumbled mass;
 facilitate help bring about; make less difcult
heap
 glean gather leavings; gather grain left behind by
 phylum major classication, second to kingdom, ofreapers; gather bit by bit (facts
or information) often
plants and animals; category ranking below a kingdom
with difculty
and above a class; division
 novelty something new; newness; ADJ. novel: new;
 hiatus gap; pause; gap or interruption in space or time;original
break
 avenge take vengence for something or on behalf of
 irrevocable unalterable; irreversible; impossible to re-someone; Ex. They avenge
d his death by burning the
vokevillage; Ex. He swore to avenge his brother; Ex. They
avenged themselves on their enemy.
 contrivance something contrived; machine or appara-
tus; clever deceitful plan; scheme emanate issue forth; come out
 apostate one who abandons his religious faith or politi- shrivel make or become s
hrunken and wrinkled (often
cal beliefs; N. apostasyby drying)
 ratify approve formally; conrm; verify swell long wave of water that moves continu
ously
 loft room or space under the roof; atticwithout breaking; V.
 defray provide for the payment of; undertake the pay- misconduct immoral behavior
; bad management; V.
ment of; pay fell cruel; (of a disease) deadly
 discerning mentally quick and observant; having in- swear vow; promise; use profa
ne oaths; use offensive
sight; perceptive; able to make good judgments; V. dis-words
cern: perceive immune resistant to; free or exempt from; N. immunity
 chagrin annoyance and disappointment; vexation
(caused by humiliation or injured pride) decry express strong disapproval of; con
demn openly
 magisterial authoritative; imperious; commanding; of(something dangerous to the
public); disparage; Ex. de-
cry the violence of modern lms
a magistrate; Ex. magisterial study of Roman law; Ex.
magisterial manner nomenclature terminology(systemofspecialized
words); system of names or naming things
 warp twist out of shape; N.
 bait harass; tease; torment; Ex. badger baiting; N: food
 phenomena observable facts; subjects of scientic in-
vestigation; SG. phenomenon: observable fact; very un-or other lure used to catc
h sh or trap animals
usual person, thing, or event; marvel; wonder; CF. phe- exposure risk, particular
ly of being exposed to disease
nomenons; ADJ. phenomenal: very unusual; extraordi-or to the elements; unmasking
; act of laying something
nary; of a phenomenon; Ex. phenomenal strengthopen; Ex. exposure of governmental
corruption
 plaudit praise; enthusiastic approval; round(succession ruminant animal that rumi
nates; ADJ.
or series) of applause; ADJ. plauditory; CF. applaud scorch sear; N.
 litter waste material thrown away (as bits of paper scat- stock standard; kept re
gularly in stock or supply; typ-
tered untidily); V: cover untidily with scattered litter
ical; routine; common; Ex. stock sizes of paper; Ex.
 advent arrivalstock excuse/character; N: goods for sale in a shop; OP.
 tenacious holding fast (as to a belief); persistentunique
 imperceptible unnoticeable; impossible to perceive; un-
 touchstone stone used to test the neness of gold alloys;detectable
criterion; standard
 collusion conspiring in a fraudulent scheme to cheat or
 resound (of a place) be lled with sound; (of a sound)deceive others; V. collude
sound loudly; sound back; echo; Ex. hall resounded
 depravity extreme corruption; wickedness; V. deprave
with laughter
 quorum minimal number of members necessary to con-
 aperture opening; hole; adjustable opening in a camera
that limits the amount of lightduct a meeting
 allude refer indirectly; N. allusion: indirect reference
 coalition partnership; league; union of separate politi-
cal parties pendulous hanging; suspended
 defame harm someone's reputation; malign; speak evil pith core or marrow; spongel
ike substance in the center
of; slander; N. defamation; ADJ. defamatoryof stems; essence; substance
 nutrition process of nourishing or being nourished; CF. psychosomatic of the inuen
ce of the mind on the body
malnutrition(esp. with respect to disease)
13

--------------------------------------- 14
money) very small; CF. nominate: propose as a candi-drench; wet throughly; extin
guish; throw water over;
date; appointdowse
 soar rise or y high in the air; Ex. The rocket soared into brooch ornamental clasp
; pin
the sky.
 indict charge; N. indictment
 marred damaged; disgured; V. mar: spoil; disgure gossamer sheer; very light; like c
obwebs; N: soft and
 etymology study of word parts; study of the origins ofsheer fabric; cobweb
words
 pyromaniac person with an insane desire to set things
 reprise musical repetition; repeating of a piece of music;on re
repeat performance; recurrent action; Ex. reprise in the
nale; Ex. constant reprises husband use sparingly; conserve; save; Ex. husband
one's energy; CF. house holder
 mammal vertebrate animal whose female suckles its
young ovoid egg-shaped; CF. ovum; CF. ovulate
 allure entice; attract; tempt desecrate profane; violate the sanctity of
 fracas brawl(noisy quarrel or ght) in which a number relinquish give up something
(with reluctance); yield;
of people take part; meleerelease; Ex. relinquish power/the claim to the land/hi
s
hold on my arm
 embitter make bitter; ll with painful or bitter feelings;
 pervasive spread throughout; V. pervade: (of smells,
make sad and angry; Ex. He was embittered by manyideas, feelings) spread through
out; charge; permeate
disappointments.
 ineffable unutterable; not to be uttered; taboo; that can-
 saunter stroll(go for a leisurely walk) slowly; N.not be expressed in speech; in
describable; unspeakable;
 determinate having a xed order of procedure; pre-inexpressible; Ex. ineffable nam
e/joy
cisely dened; invariable; xed; conclusive; nal
 abstract theoretical; not concrete; nonrepresentational
 alimentary supplying nourishment disproportion lack of proportion (between the pa
rts);
 adore love deeply and respect highlyADJ. disproportionate
 condiments seasonings; spices crevice crack; ssure
 forlorn sad and lonely; wretched; desolate
 extenuate weaken; mitigate; lessen the seriousness of
 certitude certainty(bad behavior)
 outcast one that has been excluded from a society; ADJ. apathy lack of caring; in
difference; lack of concern or in-
terest in important matters; Ex. He was sunk in apathy
after his failure; ADJ. apathetic
 nether lower; Ex. nether garments/regions
 secrete conceal; hide away or cache; produce and re-
 comity courtesy; civility; Ex. comity of nationslease a substance into an organi
sm; CF. secretive
 bout match; short period of great activity; Ex. wrestling meteoric like a meteor;
swift; momentarily brilliant; Ex.
bout; bout of drinking/u
meteoric rise to fame; N. meteor
 fell cut or knock down (a tree or a person); bring down vertex summit; highest po
int; PL. vertices
(with a missile)
 raspy making a harsh noise; grating; harsh
 barefaced shameless and noticeable; blatant; bold; un-
concealed; having no covering on the face; Ex. barefaced authoritative having the
weight of authority; regarded
lieas providing knowledge that can be trusted; reliable;
peremptory and dictatorial; Ex. authoritative dictio-
9nary/manner; CF. denitive
 demented insane tatter torn piece of cloth; ADJ. tattered: (of clothes) old
and torn; (of a person) dressed in old torn clothes
 subsume include (as a member of a group); encompass
 discordant not harmonious; conicting
 shun keep away from; avoid deliberately; Ex. She has
been shunned by her neighbors. recidivism habitual return to crime (even after be
ing
punished); N. recidivist
 unimpeachable that cannot be impeached; beyond
doubt or question; blameless and exemplary commonplace ordinary; N: something ord
inary or com-
mon; trite remark
 retard delay (in development); ADJ. retarded: (as of a
 pandemic widespread; affecting the majority of people;
child) slower in developmentN: pandemic disease; CF. all people
 toga Roman outer robe
 prodigious enormous; marvelous; extraordinary; Ex.
 decree authoritative order; edict; judgment of a court ofprodigious amount/memor
y
law; V: order or judge by decree glib uent (with insincerity or superciality); faci
le;
 conversant familiar with; having knowledge of
slick
14

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feeling; V. effuse: pour out; ADJ. effusive: pouring forth; sportive playful; fro
licsome; merry; CF. sport: play or
gushingfrolic; CF. sportsmanlike
 imprecation curse; swearword spontaneity lack of premeditation; naturalness; free
-
 replicate reproduce; duplicatedom from constraint; ADJ. spontaneous: self-genera
ted;
 hibernal wintry; wintery; of or like winterunpremeditated; happening without bei
ng planned
 unsullied untarnished; CF. sully concede admit; acknowledge as being true (often
reluc-
tantly); yield; grant; Ex. concede a goal
 gure written symbols; number; amount represented
in numbers; outline or silhouette of a thing or human galleon large three-masted
sailing ship
body; person (well-known); impression; diagram; pat- dissemble disguise; hide the
real nature of; pretend
tern; group in a dance; Ex. gure of speech; V. calculate
with numbers; adorn with gures; appear; consider; Ex. missive letter; written stat
ement; CF. sent
My name did not gure in the list.
 temporize gain time as by postponing an action; avoid
 goad urge on; drive with a goad; cause (someone) to docommitting oneself
something by continued annoyance; Ex. They goaded
 veracity truthfulness; adherence to the truth
him into doing it by saying he was a coward; N: sharp-
pointed stick for driving cattle; stimulus; CF. annoy con- valedictory pertaining
to farewell; N: farewell address
tinually(esp. at graduation exercises)
 sow plant or scatter seed tithe tax of one-tenth (contributed to a church); V: pa
y a
tithe
 requite make return for; repay; reciprocate; revenge; N.
requittal lexicographer compiler of a dictionary; CF. lexicogra-
phy: work of compiling a dictionary
 icker burn unsteadily or tfully; move waveringly; N:
ickering movement or light; brief sensation; Ex. icker plumage feathers of a bird;
of excitement molecule the smallest particle (one or more atoms) of a
 reciprocal mutual; given and received in return; ex-substance that has all the p
roperties of that substance
changeable; interacting; Ex. reciprocal trade agreement turmoil extreme confusion
; great commotion and con-
fusion; Ex. throw the country into turmoil
 laud praise; N. ADJ. laudable: praiseworthy; ADJ.
laudatory: expressing praise endue provide with some quality; endow
 expunge cancel; remove a word or name (from a book parsimony stinginess; excessiv
e frugality; ADJ. parsi-
or list); erasemonious
 notch V-shaped cut in a surface; V. gouge tear out; cut out (as if with a gouge);
Ex. gouge
his eyes out; N: chisel for cutting out hollow areas in
 translucent partly transparentwood
 repellent driving away; disgusting; offensive; repul- homely not good-looking; un
attractive
sive; unattractive; N.
 trajectory path taken by a projectile; Ex. trajectory of a
 institution instituting; (building for the) organization;bullet
established custom, practice, or relationship in a society;
mental hospital; Ex. institution of marriage gallows framework from which a noose
is suspended
 obstinate stubborn; hard to control or treat; Ex. obsti-(used for execution by h
anging)
nate cough; N. obstinacy censorious severely critical
 riveting holding one's attention; absorbing; engrossing aggregate sum; total; ADJ
. V: gather into a mass or
 formality ceremonious quality; ceremonious adherencewhole; accumulate; add up to
; Ex. aggregate 100 dol-
to rules; something done just for form's sake; Ex. merelars
formality gnarled twisted
 hinterlands back country; inner part of a country; OP.
 beeline direct quick route
foreland
 baroque highly ornate
 satyr half-human, half-bestial being in the court of
Dionysus (resembling a goat), portrayed as wan- anecdote short story of an amusin
g or interesting event
ton(unrestrained) and cunning; lecher; CF. faun; CF.
goat: lecherous man
 serendipity gift for nding valuable things by accident;
 throttle strangle; regulate the speed of with a throttle;accidental good fortune
or luck; CF. The Three Princes
N: valve that regulates the ow; CF. throat ?of Serendip
 faction party; clique (within a large group); dissension lackluster lacking luste
r(shine; gloss); dull
 pinion restrain or immobilize by binding the wings or ag droop; grow feeble; decli
ne in vigor or strength;
legs; N: bird's wingADJ. agging; CF. unagging
15

--------------------------------------- 16
should be interested in one's self rather than in others;groundless and existenc
e meaningless; absolute skeptic;
selshness; ADJ. egoistic, egoisticalrevolutionary terrorist; CF. nihilism: belief
that nothing
has meaning or value; belief that destruction of existing
 gazette ofcial periodical publication; newspaper
political or social institutions is necessary for future im-
 scurvy contemptible; despicable; N: disease caused byprovement
deciency of Vitamin C
 obliterate destroy completely; wipe out; Ex. obliterate
 stringent (of rules) binding; rigid; marked by scarcity ofthe village
money; Ex. stringent economic conditions
 sleek smooth and shining (as from good health); V.
 unwitting not knowing; unaware; unintentional; Ex.
She was their unwitting accomplice; Ex. unwitting in- relapse return to a former
state (esp. after improve-
sult; CF. wit: knowment); N.
 patois local or provincial dialect acetic vinegary
 frivolous lacking in seriousness;ippant;self-
indulgently carefree; unworthy of serious attention;
10
relatively unimportant; trivial
 exact demand and obtain by force; Ex. exact a promise
from him; N. exaction anomaly irregularity
 emaciated thin and wasted (from hunger or illness) insouciant without concern or
care; unconcerned; indif-
ferent
 guileless without deceit
 commodious spacious and comfortable
 centaur mythical gure, half man and half horse
 prize pry; move with a lever; value highly; esteem; Ex.
 droop bend or hang downward; become weakened; Ex.his most prized possession; N:
something captured dur-
His shoulders drooped with tiredness; N.ing war-time (esp. an enemy ship)
 nished properly made and complete; Ex. nished rapture great joy and delight; ecstas
y; ADJ. rapturous
product/performance
 grotto small cavern
 imbibe drink in
 macerate soften by soaking in liquid; waste away; Ex.
 dissertation formal essay; treatisemacerate powdered wood to make paper
 discursive (of a person or writing) digressing; rambling incite arouse to action;
goad; motivate; induce to exist;
(without any clear plan)
Ex. incite a riot/the crowd to rebellion
 dappled spotted
 crass very unrened; grossly insensible; crude and
 servitude slavery; compulsory labor imposed as a pun-undiscriminating; Ex. crass
behavior
ishment yore time long past; Ex. in the days of yore
 humor indulge; comply with the wishes of; N. quality caloric heat-producing; N. ca
lorie
that makes something amusing; state of mind; mood;
 rake immoral or dissolute person
Ex. in a bad humor; Ex. out of humor
 drudgery hard unpleasant work; menial work invective abuse
 apex tip; summit; climax; highest point judicious sound on judgment; wise
 lancet small surgical tool for making incisions categorical without exceptions; m
ade without any
doubt in mind; unqualied; absolute
 smart intelligent; quick and energetic; fashionable; Ex.
smart pace/restaurant; V: cause or feel a sharp pain; N: chafe warm by rubbing; m
ake sore by rubbing; N.
smarting pain
 captious faultnding; too critical
 foul very bad or disagreeable; very dirty; Ex. foul
 expropriate take possession of (often for public use and
smell/avor/temper/language/air/deed/weather/means;without payment)
N. act against the rules; V. make or become foul; commit
a foul palm conceal in the palm of the hand; palm off: pass
 negate cancel out; nullify; cause to have no effect; deny;off; Ex. palm off some
bad oranges onto the lady/the
painting as a real Renoir
N. negation
 intermediary intermediate; acting as a mediator; N: me-
 comestible something t to be eatendiator; go-between
 plump pleasantly fat; nicely rounded implode burst inward; CF. vaccum tube
 interdict prohibit; forbid; N. credo creed
 urgent compelling immediate action; pressing; persis- malapropism comic misuse of
a word; CF. Mrs.
tent; importunate; Ex. urgent in his demands
Malaprop
 isotope varying from of an element
 pretension pretentiousness; claim (without founda-
 gusto eager enjoyment; zest; enthusiasmtion); Ex. I make no pretensions to skill
as an artist.
16

--------------------------------------- 17
 stint set limits in amount or number; be thrifty; ADJ.stinting, unstinting; CF.
stint:savings causal implying a cause-and-effect relationship; N.causality
 lubricate apply a lubricant to; N. lubricant: substance barterer trader; V. barte
r: trade; exchange good for
that reduces frictionother goods rather than money
 advert refer fundamental basic; primary; essential
 comely attractive; agreeable; having a pleasing appear- hostility unfriendliness;
hatred; enmity; ADJ. hostile
ance
 breed produce young; rear; bring up; produce (an un-
 ambivalence the state of having contradictory or con-desirable condition); N: ki
nd or sort of animal or plant
icting emotional attitudes or opinions
 bereaved deprived of (someone beloved through death) gravity seriousness; ADJ. gr
ave
 enact make (a bill) into law
 glutton someone who eats too much; ADJ. gluttonous: demur object (because of doub
ts, scruples); raise an ob-
given to gluttony; greedy; CF. gluttony: habit of eatingjection (showing qualms)
; hesitate; Ex. demur at the
too muchidea of working on Sunday
 lurk stealthily lie in waiting; slink; exist unperceived
 manumit emancipate; free from slavery or bondage
 profound deep; not supercial; complete; Ex. profound omnipresent universally prese
nt; ubiquitous
thinker/remark/silence/deafness; N. profundity
 stipend pay for services condole express condolences; N. condolence: sympathy
for someone who has experienced great sorrow
 mountebank charlatan; boastful pretender sour having a sharp or acid taste; acid;
tart; bad-
 parchment writing material made from the skin of atempered; V.
sheep or goat
 relic surviving remnant (from an extinct culture); me-
 cursory casual; hastily done with little attention to de-mento; keepsake; relics
: corpse; Ex. ancient relics; Ex.
tailrelics of his travel; Ex. His relics are buried at X.
 vilify slander; speak evil of; N. vilication reckon count; calculate; regard as; t
hink; suppose
 doom condemnation to a severe penalty; ruin; fate (esp.
a tragic or ruinous one); V.11
 apposite appropriate; tting hoax trick which makes someone take action; practical
joke; Ex. hoax mail; V.
 hem surround tightly so that movement is impossible;
Ex. hem in; N. disparage belittle
 venom poison (of an animal); hatred; Ex. remarks full sphinx-like enigmatic; myst
erious
of venom; ADJ. venomous
 base contemptible; morally bad; inferior in value or
 retort quick sharp reply; V.quality; Ex. base motives/conduct; Ex. base metal su
ch
 saline saltyas iron
 extant (of something written or painted) still in exis-
 plausible conceivably true; having a show of truth buttence
open to doubt; specious
 gall annoy; exasperate; chafe; N: skin sore caused by puny tiny; weak; insignicant
rubbing (as on the skin of a horse); exasperation epistemologist philosopher who
studies the nature of
knowledge; N. epistemology
 foster rear; bring up (for a certain period only); encour-
age; promote the development of (feelings or ideas); Ex. sprightly lively
help foster friendly relations; ADJ: giving parental care procurement obtaining;
V. procure: obtain by effort; ob-
although not related by blood; Ex. foster parents
tain (a prostitute) for another
 mortician undertaker; CF. death eugenic pertaining to the improvement of race; N.
eu-
 legerdemain sleight(dexterity) of hand; CF. light ofgenics: study of hereditary
improvement of the human
handrace
 obsessive related to thinking about something con- pedant scholar who overemphasi
zes book learning,
stantly; of an obsession; preoccupying; N. obsession:trivial details of learning
, or technicalities
compulsive preoccupation with a xed idea; compul- hamper obstruct; prevent the fre
e movement of; N: d 
sive idea; V. obsess: preoccupy the mind of excessively«Ñ¾¡§s _4 ¤ 1px`¦ { H ½¨m
 respiration breathing; exhalation; ADJ. respiratory champion support militantly; g
ht for; N: person who
ghts for or supports strongly (a principle, movement,
 charisma divine gift; great popular charm or appeal;person, etc.)
magnetism jargon language used by special group; technical termi-
 empirical based on experiencenology; gibberish; nonsensical or incoherent talk
17

--------------------------------------- 18
out reasoning; ADJ. intuitive; V. intuit: know by intu-meaning; easy to understa
nd
ition cathartic purgative; medicine that causes the bowels to
 orthography correct spelling; CF. ortho-: straight; cor-empty; ADJ.
rect; Ex. orthodontics knell tolling of a bell especially to indicate a funeral,
 rustic pertaining to country people; unsophisticated;disaster, etc.; sound of th
e funeral bell; V.
simple; crude; uncouth; (of furniture) rough with the
bark left on; N. rural person; rustic person welter confusion; turmoil; confused
mass; bewildering
jumble; Ex. welter of data
 diffuse wordy; verbose; rambling; spread out (like a
gas); V: spread out in all directions; disperse; N. diffu- jaundice medical condi
tion in which the skin, the white
part of the eyes, etc. turn yellow; V: affect with jaundice;
sion; CF. suffuseaffect with prejudice, envy, or hostility; bias
 taper very thin candle; gradual decrease in the width of
 deleterious harmful
a long object; V. make or become gradually narrower
toward one end insuperable insurmountable; unbeatable; Ex. insupera-
ble difculties
 bearing deportment; connection
 irksome annoying; tedious; V. irk: annoy
 ideology system of ideas characteristic of a group or
culture component element; ingredient
 sadistic inclined to cruelty; N. sadism: delight in cruelty scintillate sparkle; a
sh; be animated; be full of life; Ex.
scintillating conversation
 malady illness corpus collection (of writings or information); Ex. the
corpus of Shakespear's works; Cf. corpse
 lance pierce with a lance; cut into; N: spearlike weapon
 advocacy support; active pleading on behalf of some- weird eerie; strange; unnatu
ral
one or something dawdle loiter; hang around; waste time doing nothing
 trek travel; journey; V: make a long difcult journey nascent incipient; coming int
o being or existence; Ex.
 wage begin and continue (a war)nascent ability in music
 valid logically convincing; sound; legally acceptable; ef-
 primogeniture seniority by birth; state of being the rst-
born child; right of the eldest child (to inherit the entirefective; Ex. valid r
easoning/passport
property of one or both parents) shambles (place or scene of) complete disorder o
r ruin;
wreck; mess; Ex. After the hurricane, the coast was a
 execrable very bad; detestableshambles.
 catharsis purging or cleansing of any passage of the
 gloss brief explanation note or translation of a difcult
body; purging and weakening of strong emotions as aexpression; V.
result of experiencing a dramatic work of art
 commandeer take (private property) for military use
 malign speak evil of; bad-mouth(criticize spitefully);without needing permission
or giving payment; draft
defame; ADJ: harmful; Ex. malign inuence
for military purposes
 resumption taking up again; recommencement; V. re- rig arrangement of masts and s
ails; V: equip (a ship)
sume: begin or take up again; take or occupy again; Ex.
Kindly resume your seats.with rigging; ADJ. rigging: ropes that hold up a ship's
sails
 denounce condemn; criticize; N. denunciation
 disbar make (a lawyer) leave the bar or the legal profes-
 carat(karat) unit of weight for precious stones; measuresion
of the purity of gold
 tful spasmodic; intermittent; irregular
 enmity ill will; hatred; hostility
 altercation noisy quarrel
 demagogue person who appeals to people's prejudice; apropos with reference to; re
garding; Ex. remarks apro-
false leader of people; CF. demagoguery
pos (of) the present situation; ADJ. ADV.
 misogynist hater of woman; CF. misogyny checkered(chequered) marked by great chan
ges in for-
 lottery contest in which winners are selected in a draw-tune; with many changes
of fortuene; CF. checked: hav-
ing of lotsing a pattern of squares
 buffoon stupid person; clown insinuate hint; imply; suggest indirectly; creep in;
in-
troduce or insert (oneself) by artful means; Ex. insinuate
 horticultural pertaining to cultivation of gardens; N.himself into the boss's fa
vor; CF. ingratiate
horticulture: science or art of cultivating fruits, vegeta-
bles, or ornamental plants; CF. agriculture: science or muted silent; mufed; toned
down; Ex. muted trafc
art of farming or growing cropsnoise
 depredation plundering; destruction dys- abnormal; impaired
 headstrong willful; stubborn; unyielding; determined cornice projecting molding o
n building (usually above
to have one's own way; CF. no 'excessive'columns or pillars); %  © d 
18

--------------------------------------- 19
 temper moderate; make less severe; tone down or re-ful life); restore the former
rank of
strain; toughen (steel) as by alternate heating and cool- bland soothing or mild
(food); agreeable; causing no
ingtrouble or offence
 nefarious very wicked compulsion compelling; strong desire that is difcult to
control; irresistible impulse
 mutilate maim; injure lastingly; deprive of a limb or an
essential part venison meat of a deer; CF. cow: beef; CF. pig: pork,
 infernal pertaining to hell; devilish; N. inferno: place ofham, bacon; CF. calf:
veal; CF. sheep: mutton; CF. lamb:
lamb
ery heat or destruction
 euphoria feelingofexaggeratedorun-
 inated exaggerated; pompous; enlarged (with air orfounded(ungrounded; baseless) w
ell-being; feeling
gas)
of great happiness or well-being (when unreasonable);
 polyglot speaking several languages; multilingual; Ex.ADJ. euphoriaric
polyglot person/society; N.
 tumid (of a part of the body) swollen; distended; bom-
 hail frozen rain drop; V: salute or greet; precipitate hailbastic; pompous
 bent determined; Ex. bent on advancing in the busi- tempo speed of music
ness; N: natural talent or inclination scapegoat someone who bears the blame for
others;
 vindictive disposed to revenge; vengeful; out for re-whipping boy; CF. escape+go
at
venge; spiteful; intended to cause harm; malicious; Ex.
 shove push forward; push roughly; Ex. pushing and
vindictive streakshoving to get on the bus; N.
 perfunctory done routinely and with little care; super- tensile capable of being s
tretched; of tension; Ex. tensile
cial; not thorough; lacking interest, care, or enthusiasm;rubber
Ex. perfunctory kiss
 bound leap or spring; limit or conne; constitute the
 facade(fa¸cade) front or face (of building); supercial or
limit of; Ex. bounded by Canada; N: leap or jumping;
false appearanceboundary; ADJ: certain; having a duty to do something
 bawdy indecent; obscene; about sex in a rude funny(legally or morally); conned by
bonds; Ex. We are
way; CF. bawdbound to be late; Ex. I am bound to say my opinion;
CF. bounce, rebound
 palliate ease pain (without curing); make less severe or
offensive (a crime or illness) tutelary protective; pertaining to a guardianship;
Ex.
tutelary deities
 equitable fair; impartial; OP. inequitable
 odyssey long, eventful, adventurous journey
 prophetic of a prophet or prophecy; having to do with
 abstemious sparing in eating and drinking; temperate
predicting the future; N. prophecy; V. prophesy; N.
prophet gale windstorm; gust of wind; emotional outburst
 impassive without feeling; expressionless; imper-(laughters, tears); Ex. gale of
laughter
turbable; stoical; Ex. impassive face sentimental swayed by sentiment; appealing
to the sen-
timents
 erode eat away; wear away gradually by abrasion; Ex.
The sea erodes the rocks. barb sharp projection from shhook, arrow, or other ob-
ject; openly cutting remark
 provincial pertaining to a province; limited in outlook;
narrow; unsophisticated benecial helpful; useful; advantageous
 trickle ow in drops or in a thin stream; N. billow large wave of water; a great sw
ell or surge (of
 frisk move about playfully; froric; ADJ. frisky: playfulsmoke); V: surge, swell,
roll in billows
 explicit totally clear; denite; outspoken verisimilar having the appearance of tru
th or reality;
probable or likely to be true; plausible
 purse pucker; contract (lips) into wrinkles; N: wallet
 ravage devastate; plunder; despoil; Ex. crops ravaged
 engender cause; produce; give rise toby storms
 queasy experiencing nausea; nauseated; easily nause- disconsolate hopelessly sad
(at the loss of something)
ated; squeamish; Ex. feel a little queasy outmoded no longer in fashion or use; n
o longer stylish;
 bestial beastlike; brutal; inhuman; very cruelold-fashioned
 din continued loud noise; V: make a din; instill by ruminate chew over and over (
mentally or, like cows,
wearying repetitionphysically); mull over(ponder)
 epigram witty thought or saying, usually short
12
 mealymouthed indirect in speech (when something un-
 belie contradict; give a false impression; disguise; Ex.pleasant must be said);
hypocritical; evasive
The poor sales belied our high hopes; Ex. Her smile be- unerringly infallibly; AD
J. unerring: making no mis-
lies her true feeling of displeasure.takes
19

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initiated; Ex. arcane ritual; Ex. arcane process closed to manipulate operate wit
h one's hands; control or play
the uninitiated listenerupon (people, forces, etc.) artfully; maneuver; Ex. how
 founder person who establishes (an organization orto manipulate publicity and me
n; ADJ. manipulative
business)
 gall bitterness of feeling; nerve; effrontery; { av(bile);
 disgruntle make discontentedCF. gall bladder
 monastic related to monks or monasteries; removed obloquy slander; disgrace; infa
my
from worldly concerns
 tint slight degree of color; V: give a tint to
 unfaltering steadfast; rm; not changing
 avarice greediness for wealth
 porous full of pores; like a sieve
 snip short quick cut with scissors; V: cut with scissors utter (of a bird with lar
ge wings) wave (the wings)
lightly, rapidly, and irregularly; vibrate rapidly or errat-
 canto division of a long poemically; y by waving quickly; itter; N.
 elliptical elliptic; oval; of an ellipse; containing an ellip- transpire (of a fa
ct) become known; be revealed; hap-
sis; ambiguous either purposely or because key wordspen; give off (watery waste
matter) through pores
have been left out gracious kind in a generous way (to someone less im-
 tractable docile; easily managed; (of something) easilyportant)
changed or molded; N. tractability console lessen sadness or disappointment; give
com-
 tantamount equivalent in effect or value; Ex. This inva-fort; allay the sorrow o
f; N. consolation
sion is tantamount to a declaration of war; CF. amount
 bravado swagger; assumed air of deance; false show
of bravery
 abbreviate shorten
 unsavory distasteful; disagreeable; morally offensive;
 superuous excessive; overabundant; unnecessary; N.Ex. unsavory activity/reputatio
n
superuity
 claustrophobia fear of being locked in
 unassuming modest; Ex. the champion's unassuming
manner dispirited lacking in spirit
 mannerism distinctive behavioral trait; affected style in historical connected wi
th history; based on events in
art (according to a set of styles)history (whether regarded as important or not)
 inalienable not to be taken away; nontransferable; Ex. circuit closed circular li
ne around an area; circumfer-
inalienable rightsence; regularly repeated journey from place to place
 ephemeral short-lived; eeting elaborate work out carefully; add more detail or inf
or-
mation; ADJ.
 trough long narrow container for feeding farm animals;
lowest point (of a wave, business cycle, etc.); long nar- censure blame; criticiz
e; express strong disapproval; N:
row depression as between wavessevere criticism; strong disapproval
 morbid given to unwholesome or unhealthy thought; vampire ghostly being that suck
s the blood of the living
moody; characteristic of disease; Ex. morbid curiosity;
N. morbidity; CF. disease
 obnoxious offensive; disagreeable; Ex. obnoxious smell
 grandiose affectedly grand; pretentious; high-own;
ridiculously exaggerated; impressive; great in size or
scope; grand; Ex. grandiose ideas cubicle small chamber used for sleeping or work
 itinerant wandering; traveling from place to place (to residual remaining; left o
ver; of a residue; N: residue
perform work); Ex. itinerant preacher vogue popular fashion; Ex. Jeans became the
vogue.
 onslaught vicious assault; erce attack; Ex. unexpected cardiologist doctor special
izing in ailments of the heart
onslaught of the enemy
 executor person designated to execute the terms of a
 purveyor furnisher of foodstuffs; caterer; V. purvey:
will; \VÕüt ¾¡§_ ]j supply (eg. food); furnish; CF. provide
 verbalize put into words; ADJ. verbal: of words; spo- spatial relating to space
ken rather than written; oral; of a verb
 trance hypnotic state; ecstatic state; detachment from
 exemplify show by example; furnish an example; serveone's physical surrounding (
as in contemplation or day-
as an example of; Ex. His pictures exemplify that sort ofdreaming); CF. transiti
on
painting.
 frail weak; N. frailty
 expostulation protest; remonstrance; reasoning with
someone to correct or dissuade; V. expostulate incorporeal without a material bod
y; insubstantial
 temerity boldness; nerve; rashness; Ex. temerity to ask sear burn the surface of;
char or burn; brand; parch;
for a pay increase after only three day's workcause (a plant) to wither
20

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N. chimera: unreal fancy; re-breathing female creature swathe swath; wrap around;
bandage; Ex. one's head
swathed in bandages
 megalomania mania for doing grandiose things; mental
disorder characterized by delusions of wealth, power, or choir group of people wh
o sing together (esp. during
religious services); place for choir
importance
 infringe violate (a law); encroach (the right of another
 caliber ability; quality; diameter of the inside of a round
cylinder; Ex. work of very high caliberperson)
 discord conict; lack of harmony; dissonance (when conundrum riddle; difcult problem
musical notes are played)
 premeditate plan in advance; Ex. premeditated murder
 insubordination disobedience; rebelliousness; ADJ. in-
subordinate pillage plunder
 granary storehouse for grain
 pen fenced enclosure for animals; conning space; Ex.
 moratorium legal delay of payment or action; Ex. de-sheep pen; V: conne in a pen;
enclose
clare moratorium on the building of new houses
 spangle small shiny metallic piece sewn to clothing for
 intolerant not willing to accept ways of thinking differ-ornamentation
ent from one's own; CF. tolerant; CF. tolerate
 avantgarde group of artists whose work is based on the
 contest dispute; argue about the rightness of; competenewest ideas and methods;
CF. vanguard
for; try to win; Ex. contest the election results; Ex. con-
test a seat in Parliament; N. convention social or moral custom; established prac
-
tice; formal meeting; international agreement
 natty neatly or smartly dressed; dapper; smart; Ex.
natty dresser debilitate weaken (esp. through heat, hunger, illness);
enfeeble
 uxorious excessively submissive or devoted to one's
wife; CF. uxor: wife speck small piece or mark; Ex. speck of dust in the eye
 reproach blame (not angrily but sadly); express disap- unctuous oily; bland; insi
ncerely suave
proval or disappointment; N. ADJ. reproachful
 effete having lost one's original power; barren; worn
out; exhausted
13
 epaulet(epaulette) ornament worn on the shoulder (of
 onus burden; responsibilitya uniform, etc.)
 rooster cock; adult male chicken clipper sailing vessel built for great speed
 beguile deceive; mislead or delude; cheat; pass time
pleasantly; charm or attract; Ex. beguiling smile oculist physician who specializ
es in treatment of the
eyes
 herbivorous grain-eating; CF. herbivore
 rabble mob; noisy crowd
 battalion army unit made up of four or more companies
 habituate accustom or familiarize; addict
 academic related to a school; not practical or directly broil cook by direct heat
; N.
useful ingratiate become popular with; bring (oneself) in favor
 ambience environment; atmosphere; Ex. restraurantof another; Ex. ingratiate hims
elf with the boss
with a pleasant ambience; ADJ. ambient: completely
surrounding; Ex. ambient temperature accommodate oblige or help someone; adjust o
r bring
into harmony; adapt; make enough space for; ADJ. ac-
 perdious treacherous; disloyal; N. perdy: treacherycommodative; CF. accomodating:
helpful and obliging
 wring twist (to extract liquid); extract by twisting;
wrench painfully (necks or hands)
 cognizance knowledge; ADJ. cognizant; having knowl-
 dearth scarcityedge; aware
 deport send out of the country; behave; N. deportation, prolong lengthen; extend;
draw out
deportment herd group of animals; crowd; one who looks after a
 superannuated retired or disqualied because of age;herd; Ex. shepherd/goatherd; E
x. herd instinct; Ex.
outmoded; obsoleteherdsman; V: come together in a herd; look after a herd;
Ex. herd cattle
 wag shake repeatedly from side to side; Ex. The dog
wagged its tail; N: humorous person; wit
 equanimity calmness of temperament; composure
 bemused confused; lost in thought; preoccupied
 lethal deadly
 probe explore with a probe or tools; investigate; N: slen-
der instrument used to explore a wound or body cav- apoplexy stroke; loss of cons
ciousness caused by too
much blood in the brain
ity; device designed to investigate an unknown region;
thorough investigation; Ex. space probe fauna animals of a period or region; CF. o
ra
21

--------------------------------------- 22
oughly conscious of; ADJ. appreciable: enough to bemind; equanimity
felt; Ex. appreciable difference inextricable from which it is impossible to get
free; that
 intransigence refusal of any compromise; stubborn-cannot be untied; Ex. inextric
able troubles; Ex. inextri-
ness; ADJ. intransigent: uncompromisingcable two histories
 intellect higher mental powers; person of great intellec- composure mental calmne
ss
tual ability
 inviolable secure from corruption, attack, or viola-
 credulity belief on slight evidence; gullibility; naivete;´tion(or profanation); u
nassailable; Ex.inviolable
ADJ. credulousoath/rights; N. inviolability
 damn condemn; criticize severely; condemn to everlast- avid greedy; extremely eag
er for; Ex. avid learner; N.
ing punishment; doom; bring to ruin; N. damnationavidity
 embark commence; go on board a boat; begin a journey aureole sun's corona; halo;
bright circle of light
 holster leather pistol case (that hangs on a belt around
 exult rejoicethe waist)
 concerted mutually agreed on; done together by agree- blunt having a dull edge; a
brupt and frank in speech or
ment; Ex. concerted effort; CF. in concert: working to-manner; brusque; V: make
or become blunt
gether
 championship position of champion; defense or sup-
 innocuous harmlessport; competition held to determine a champion
 minatory menacing; threatening incline slope; slant; Ex. steep incline
 insurrection rebellion; uprising cog tooth projecting from a wheel
 evanescent eeting; vanishing; soon disappearing; V. apprehensive fearful; discerni
ng
evanesce
 actuate motivate; activate; cause to act
 hoard stockpile; accumulate for future use; N: supply gerontology study of the so
ciological phenomena asso-
stored for future use
ciated with old age
 stealth action of moving secretly or unseen; slyness;
sneakiness; secretiveness; ADJ. stealthy bard poet
 larder pantry; place where food is kept
 incognito with identity concealed; using an assumed
name; ADJ. cleft N: split
 deect turn aside; turn away from a straight course rider amendment or clause added
to a legislative bill
 refectory dining hall; room where meals are served (in jostle shove; bump; push a
gainst (someone) rather
a school)roughly; Ex. jostled by the crowds
 exacerbate worsen; aggravate; embitter coquette irt; irtatious woman; woman who tri
es to
 diverse differing in some characteristics (from eachattract the admiration of me
n without sincere feelings;
V.
other); various; N. diversity: variety; dissimilitude; lack
of resemblance exhume dig out of the ground; remove from a grave
 ovation enthusiastic applause crypt secret recess or vault usually used for buria
l; un-
derground room (under a church)
 plane carpenter's tool for smoothing and leveling
wood; V. CF. at resurrect revive
 verbatim word for word; in the same words; repeating
the actual words exactly14
 agrant conspicuously wicked, bad, or offensive; bla- zenith point directly overhea
d in the sky; summit;
tant; outrageousacme; highest point
 impale pierce (with a sharp point); Ex. impaled by the stamina power of endurance
; strength; staying power
spear
 blurt utter impulsively from nervousness or excitement
 vigor active strength; energy; enthusiasm; ADJ. vigor-
ous extrapolation projection; conjecture; V. extrapolate: in-
 gourmet connoisseur of food and drink; epicurefer (unknown information) from kno
wn information
 precocious advanced in development; N. precocity vagabond wanderer (without a per
manent home);
tramp
 smug self-satised; complacent
 check stop motion; curb or restrain
 seethe be violently disturbed; boil; (of a liquid) move
about wildly as if boiling; Ex. The nation was seething sophisticated worldly wis
e and urbane; rened; com-
plex; N. sophistication; V. sophisticate
with discontent.
22

--------------------------------------- 23
the equatoring a person, group, or institution
 amalgamate (of societies or groups) combine; unite in forte strong point or speci
al talent in a person's charac-
one bodyter
 auspicious favoring success; giving signs of future suc- supple exible; limber; pl
iant
cess; Cf. auspices demerit fault; bad quality
 pediatrician physician specializing in children's dis- callus area of thick hard
skin
eases; N. pediatrics
 defoliate destroy leaves; deprive of leaves (by the use
 elucidate explain; make clear; clarify; enlighten; CF. lu-of chemicals); N. defo
liant
cid
 credence belief
 foolhardy rash; reckless; foolishly daring
 ip send (something) spinning, often into the air, by
 erroneous mistaken; wrong; incorrectstriking with a light quick blow; turn over;
Ex. ip over
 title name (of a book, lm, etc.); mark of rank; formal
appellation as of rank or ofce (such as Lord or Gen- prognosis forecasted course o
f a disease; prediction; CF.
eral); right or claim to possession; championship; Ex.
prognostic
title as head of the family; Ex. title to the estate
 ounder struggle and thrash about; proceed clumsily or
 fallible liable to errfalter (as in water, mud, snow, etc.); proceed in confu-
 alimony payments made regularly to an ex-spouse aftersion
divorce skiff small light sailboat or rowboat
 hirsute hairy; having a lot of hair demoniac(demoniacal) endish; cruel; N. demon:
evil
supernatural being; devil
 militia army composed of ordinary citizens rather than
professional soldiers ruse trick to deceive; stratagem
 sheaf bundle of stalks of grain; any bundle of things tied sequester isolate; seg
regate; seclude; retire from public
togetherlife
 rusticate banish to the country; dwell in the country transgression violation of
a law; sin; V. transgress: go
beyond (a limit); violate; do wrong
 ardor heat; passion; zeal; ADJ. ardent
 analogous comparable; similar
 sonic of sound or its speed in air; CF. subsonic, super-
sonic eclectic selective; composed of elements drawn from
disparate sources; selecting individual elements from a
 leaven add leaven to; cause to rise or grow lighter; en-variety of sources; N. e
clecticism
liven; N: agent, such as yeast, that causes dough to rise
(by fermentation); element that lightens or enlivens mangle tear or cut to pieces
; mutilate or disgure; Ex.
badly mangled bodies
 suborn persuade to act unlawfully (especially to com-
mit perjury); N. subornation waver move or swing back and forth; be uncertain or
 pare cut away the outer covering or skin of (with aunsteady in decision or movem
ent; Ex. wavering be-
tween accepting and refusing
knife); trim; Ex. pare apples/expenses
 buccaneer pirate
 misdemeanor minor crime; misdeed; wrongdoing placid peaceful; calm; Ex. placid ch
ild/lake
 tendentious promoting a particular point of view; bi-
 inscrutable difcult to understand; impenetrable; not
ased; having an aim; designed to further a cause; Ex.
tendentious rather than truth-seeking; CF. tend: movereadily understood; mysteri
ous
in a certain direction gaudy ashy; showy
 throes violent anguish pigment coloring matter (usually powder to be mixed
 nova star that suddenly becomes much brighter andwith water or oil)
then returns to its original brightness skittish inconstant; capricious; frivolou
s; not serious;
 savor enjoy; have a distinctive avor, smell, or quality;Ex. charming but skittish
young woman; CF. skit
N: taste or smell; distinctive quality precept practical rule guiding conduct; Ex
. mother's
 apolitical having an aversion or lack of concern for po-precept
litical affairs contumacious stubborn and disobedient; resisting au-
 emancipate set free; liberatethority (esp. disobedient to an order made by a cou
rt)
 bovine cowlike; placid and dull; slow-thinking; calm
 solace comfort in sorrow or trouble; consolation; V:
 expletive meaningless word; interjection; profane oath;comfort or console in tim
e of sorrow or trouble
swear-word afiction state of distress; trial; cause of distress or suf-
 agape openmouthedfering; V. afict: inict grievous suffering on
23

--------------------------------------- 24
self-examination addendum addition; appendix to book; something that
 contravene contradict; oppose; violate (a rule, law, oris added (as at the end o
f a speech or book)
custom); N. contravention
 anonymity state of being nameless; anonymousness;
 daunt intimidate; frighten; discourage; disheartenADJ. anonymous
 apogee highest point; the point farthest from the earth; maritime bordering on(ad
jacent to) the sea; nautical; of
OP. perigeethe ships or the sea; Ex. Maritime Provinces
 mar spoil the appearance of
 temperament characteristic frame of mind; disposition;15
emotional excess; ADJ. temperamental: of tempera- solicit entreat; request earnes
tly; seek to obtain; Ex. so-
ment; having frequent changes of temper; Ex. tempera-licit votes; CF. solicitor:
one who solicits; chief law of-
mental dislike of sports; Ex. temperamental actresscer
 misadventure mischance; ill luck; Ex. death by misad- fatuous smugly and unconsci
ously foolish; inane; silly;
ventureN. fatuity, fatuousness
 ick light stroke as with a whip; V: move with a light ingrained deeply established
; rmly rooted; Ex. in-
quick blow; strike with a light quick blow (as from a
grained dirt/prejudice
whip); Ex. ick the switch
 inclement stormy; unkind; unmerciful; CF. clement
 plenitude abundance; plenty; great amount; complete-
ness; fullness; CF. plenary, plenty biting sharply painful to the body or mind; E
x. biting
wind/remarks
 preposterous absurd; completely unreasonable; ridicu-
lous pronounced distinct; very noticeable; Ex. pronounced
limp
 benefactor gift giver; patron; person who does good or
who gives money for a good purpose abstain refrain; withhold from participation;
intention-
ally not use one's vote; lݶ
 suspense state of being undecided; anxiety or appre-
hension resulting from uncertainty meditation reection; thought; V. meditate
 gobble eat very quickly unguent ointment
 unfetter liberate; free from chains; V. unfetter sift put through a sieve to sepa
rate ne from coarse par-
 incarnation act of assuming a human body and humanticles; sort or examine carefu
lly
nature; one who personies something; personication; authoritarian subordinating the
individual to the state;
Ex. previous incarnation/reincarnationcompletely dominating another's will; Ex.
authoritarian
 palette boardonwhichpaintermixespig-regime/father
ments(coloring matters) ruddy reddish; (of the face) reddish and healthy-
looking
 erudite (of a person or book) learned; full of learning;
scholarly; N. erudition rig x or manipulate; manipulate dishonestly for per-
sonal gain; Ex. rig the election
 askew crookedly; slanted; at an angle
 ostensible apparent;appearing as such;pro- consort associate with; keep company;
N: husband or
fessed(pretended); pretended; Ex. ostensible purposewife (or a ruler)
of the expedition kaleidoscope tube in which patterns made by the reec-
tion in mirrors of colored pieces of glass, etc. produce in-
 cringe shrink back as if in fear; cower
teresting symmetrical effects; series of changing events;
 perennial something long-lasting; perennial plant; ADJ:Ex. kaleidoscope of Europ
ean history; CF. beautiful
lasting through the year or many years; lasting for a
 deluge ood; rush; V.
long time; enduring
 devout pious; deeply religious; sincere; earnest; Ex. my
 generate cause; produce; create
devout hope
 appraise estimate value of; N. appraisal
 defection desertion
 executioner person administering capital punishment
 conclusive decisive; ending all debate
 imperil put in danger
 headlong hasty; rash; headrst; ADV.
 uncanny strange; mysterious; Ex. uncanny knack
 antique made in an earlier period and usu. valuable; N:
 sonnet 14-line poetic verse form with a xed rhyme pat-object that was made in an
earlier period and that is rare
tern
or valuable
 compromise adjust or settle by making mutual conces-
sions; endanger the interests or reputation of; put into handsome large in quanti
ty; generous; Ex. handsome
reward
danger, disrepute, or a dishonorable position; Ex. com-
promise one's principle; N. pitfall hidden danger; concealed trap
24

--------------------------------------- 25
 dilettante aimless follower of an art or a eld of knowl-edge (not taking it serio
usly); amateur; dabbler; CF. de- trunk main wooden stem of a tree; human body exc
lud-ing the head and limbs; torso; prehensile nose of an ele-
lightphant
 assurance rm statement that something is certainly blase´ bored with pleasure or dis
sipation; uninterested
true; promise or pledge; certainty; condence in one'sor bored
own ability; self-condence; Ex. In spite of all his as-
surances, he did not come back; Ex. assurance of his sophist teacher of philosoph
y; quibbler; employer of
loyalty; Ex. The teacher lacked assurance in fron offallacious reasoning; N. sop
hism: plausible but falla-
his class; V. assure; tell rmly with condence; ensure;cious argument
make (something) certain to heappen; make (someone) dire warning of disaster; dis
astrous; (of needs and dan-
feel sure; give condence to; ADJ. assured: self-assured;gers) very great; urgent;
Ex. dire prediction/need of
condent in one's own ability; showing certaintyfood
 inordinate beyond reasonable limits; unrestrained; ex- sextant navigation tool us
ed to determine a ship's lati-
cessive; Ex. inordinate demandstude and longitude (by measuring the altitudes of
stars)
 macabre gruesome; grisly; ghastly; CF. of death prudent cautious; careful; pruden
tial
 commemorate honor the memory of; serve as a memo-
rial to; Ex. commemorate the 100th anniversary/those seamy sordid; base; lthy; unw
holesome; Ex. seamy
who died in the warside of city life
 constituency voters represented by an elected ofcial;
 belabor harp on; dwell on tediously; explain or go overdistrict so represented;
group of supporters (or con-
excessively or to a ridiculous degree; assail verbally;stituents)
beat severely; attack physically
 quiescent dormant; temporarily inactive; at rest; N. qui- hindmost furthest behin
d; farthest to the rear
escence bog soft wet land; V: hinder or be hindered; Ex. bogged
down in the mud
 complacency self-satisfaction; smugness; ADJ. compla-
cent recluse hermit; loner; ADJ. reclusive
 ventilate admit fresh air into to replace stale air
 conscate seize; take possession of (private property)
by ofcial order (usu. as a punishment); commandeer constraint restraint; compulsio
n; repression of feelings;
reticence; V. constrain: hold back; restrain; compel;
 hierarchy arrangement by rank or standing; authoritar-oblige; conne forcibly; imp
rison
ian body divided into ranks; body of persons having au- horde crowd; swarm
thority
 pandemonium wild tumult(commotion); wild noisy
 notable conspicuous; worthy of note; remarkable; im-disorder; CF. Paradise Lost
portant; distinguished; noted impropriety improperness; unsuitableness
 shard fragment generally of broken pottery (glass, clay ostracize banish from a g
roup; exclude from public fa-
bowl, or cup)vor; ban; Ex. His friends ostracized him. N. ostracism
 abase lower; degrade; humiliate; make humble; make
(oneself) lose self-respect ravine narrow valley with steep sides; gorge; CF. gul
ly,
canyon
 nonchalance indifference; lack of concern; composure;
ADJ. nonchalant: unconcerned; cool; indifferent; Ex. vigilant watchful; on the al
ert; watchfully awake; alert
nonchalant attitude to his debtsto spot danger; N. vigilance
 bargain agreement between two groups or people; sway swing from side to side; inue
nce (someone) to
something for sale at a price advantageous to the buyer;change one's opinion; N.
V: negotiate; trade; Ex. bargaining power
 ascertain nd out for certain; make certain
 appellation name; title eccentric irregular; odd; unconventional; whimsical;
 awry distorted; crooked; bent; Ex. Our plans have gonebizarre; not concentric
awry. rasp (of a sound) grate on (eg. nerves); make a harsh
 diversion act of turning aside; pastime; V. divert: turnnoise; have an unpleasan
t effect; rub with something
aside from a course; distract; amuserough; Ex. The cat's tongue rasped my hand.
 recast reconstruct (a sentence, story, statue, etc.); fash-
 retrieve recover; put right; nd and bring in; regain; Ex.ion again
retrieve the situation
 bafe frustrate; perplex effervescence inner excitement or exuberance; showing
high spirits; emitting bubbles forming inside; bubbling
 bluff pretense (of strength); deception; high cliff; ADJ:from fermentation or ca
rbonation; ADJ. effervescent; V.
rough but good-naturedeffervesce
 succumb yield (to something overwhelming); give in;
4die; Ex. succumb to the illness
25

--------------------------------------- 26
ciphermany elds; having many uses or functions; N. versa-
 complaisant trying to please; obliging; willing to pleasetility
others mediocre ordinary; commonplace; neither good nor
 negligible so small, triing, or unimportant as to bebad
easily disregarded nourishment something that nourishes; food
 import signicance; importance; meaning orthodox traditional; (of someone) conserva
tive in be-
lief; adhering to an established doctrine
 disinclination unwillingness
 adherent supporter; follower
 scale climb up; ascend; remove or come off in scales;
N: ake of epidermis; ascending or descending series of hybrid mongrel; mixed breed
; V. hybridize
musical tones
 glaze cover with a thin and shiny surface; apply a glaze
 precipitous steep; overhasty; precipitateto; N: thin, smooth, shiny coating (as
for pottery); Ex.
 torpor lethargy; sluggishness; dormancy; ADJ. torpid:unglazed pottery
lethargic; lazy; inactive; (of an animal) dormant; hiber- memorial something, suc
h as a monument or holiday,
natingintended to honor the memory of a person or event;
 bliss complete happiness; ADJ. blissfulADJ: commemorative
 buffoonery clowning satiate satisfy fully (physical needs such as hunger);
sate; N. satiety: condition of being satiated
 autocratic having absolute unchecked power; dictato-
rial; N. autocrat, autocracy righteous morally upright; just
 castigation punishment; severe criticism or disapproval
 denomination religious group; unit in a system; name
or designation; CF. denominator: common trait or char-
acteristic incarnate endowed with esh; invested with bodily
form; personied; Ex. devil incarnate; V: give bodily
 rickety (of buildings) likely to break or fall apart; of
rickets; CF. rickets; CF. vitamin Dform to; embody
 expeditious done with speed; quick; N. expedition
 drone talk dully; buzz or murmur like a bee; N.
 impertinent insolent; rude; not pertinent; N. imperti- homespun domestic; made at
home; spun or woven at
home; simple and ordinary; Ex. homespun philosophy
nence
 enjoin command; order; forbid abscission cutting off; separation
 commonwealth nation governed by the people; repub- phoenix symbol of immortality
or rebirth; Ex. phoenix
lic; people of a nationrising from its ashes
 idle not working; not employed or busy; lazy; without perceptive insightful; show
ing a good ability at perceiv-
purpose; useless; lacking substance; baseless; not baseding and understanding; a
ware; wise; of perception
on truth; Ex. idle worker; Ex. talk idly; V. taunt deride or provoke; challenge i
n derision; N.
 exhort urge (by strong argument or advice); Ex. The polarity state of having two
opposite qualities
general exhorted his men to ght bravely; N. exhorta-
tion constituent supporter; voter; member of a constituency;
component
 rout put to rout; stampede; drive out; N: complete de-
feat and disorderly retreat excise cut away; cut out; N: government tax on good
produced and used inside a country; N. excision
 tundra rolling treeless plain in Siberia and arctic North
America prey target of a hunt; victim; V: hunt and eat as prey;
victimize; Ex. Cats prey on mice.
 indisputable too certain to be disputed; beyond doubt
 obsolete outmoded; no longer used
 indulgent humoring; yielding; lenient; showing indul-
gence vying contending; CF. vie
 impuissance powerlessness; feebleness
 arable t for growing crops; Ex. arable land
 imprudent lacking caution; not prudent; injudicious distinct clearly different; c
learly noticed
 impel drive or force onward; drive to take action; urge healthful conducive to go
od health; Ex.healthful
to actionmountain air
 unequivocal plain; clear; obvious
16 proigate wasteful (of money); dissipated; wildly im-
 scrupulous conscientious; extremely thorough; Ex.moral; dissolute; N: proigate pe
rson; N. proigacy
scrupulous worker opportunist individual who sacrices principles for ex-
 rigid hard and unbending; stiff and unyielding; xed inpediency by taking advantag
e of circumstances; N. op-
behavior or views; strict; rigorous; Ex. rigid ruleportunism
26

--------------------------------------- 27
dependent and self-governing; having supreme power;based on a strong belief in o
ne's abilities; strong belief
supreme; excellentin the ability of a person or plan; trust or faith in a per-
son or thing; something conded; secret; Ex. condence
 myriad very large number; ADJ. CF. ten thousand
in your ability; Ex. I'm telling you this in condence;
 unedged immature; not having the feathers necessaryEx. exchange condences about th
eir boyfriends; ADJ.
to y; CF. edglingcondent
 rancid having the odor of stale or decomposing fat; rank preen make oneself tidy
in appearance; feel self-
satisfaction or pride; (of a bird) smooth or clean (feath-
ers) with the beak; Ex. preen oneself on; CF. prune
 pecuniary pertaining to money
 adorn decorate
 hurl throw forcefully; shout out violently
 malingerer one who feigns illness to escape duty; V.
 founder fail completely; sink; CF. ounder
malinger: feign illness to avoid work
 sacrosanct invioably sacred; most sacred; inviolable crotchety (of someone old) e
ccentric; odd; whimsical;
 conviction judgment that someone is guilty of a crime;bad-tempered; N. crotchet:
odd or whimsical notion
strongly held belief ancestry family descent; ADJ. ancestral
 cornucopia horn (or horn-shaped container) overow- quack charlatan; impostor
ing with fruit and grain; symbol of abundance; horn of
 inductive pertaining to induction or proceeding from
plentythe specic to the general
 disgorge surrender something (stolen); eject; vomit; OP. quietude tranquillity; c
almness
gorge
 spartan without attention to comfort; lacking luxury
 emend correct (usually a text); N. emendation: correc-
and comfort; sternly disciplined; Ex. spartan living con-
tion of errors; improvementdition/life
 hindrance block; obstacle; V. hinder surreptitious done secretly; secret; furtive
; sneaky; hid-
 cistern reservoir or water tankden
 cipher nonentity; worthless person or thing; zero; secret undermine weaken gradua
lly; sap; dig a mine beneath
code; V.
 stultify make stupid in mind; cause to appear or be-
 bristling rising like bristles; showing irritationcome stupid or inconsistent; s
uppress; frustrate or hin-
der; Ex. stultifying effect of uninteresting work; Ex.
 cadence rhythmic rise and fall (of words or sounds);stultify free expression
beat; regular beat of sound; rhythm
 querulous given to complaining; complaining; fretful;
 outlaw fugitive from the law (excluded from legal pro-whining
tection); V: declare (someone) to be an outlaw; deprive
 anodyne drug that relieves pain or trouble; : x]j; opi-
of the protection of the law; declare illegal; Ex. Drinking
has been outlawed.ate; ADJ. Ex. anodyne statement
 gratis free; without charge; ADJ. comeuppance deserts; well-deserved punishment o
r
misfortune; rebuke
 stalemate deadlock; situation in which further action is
 largess generous gift (given to people who do not have
blockedenough)
 avert prevent; avoid; turn away (eyes or thought); Ex. endorse approve; support;
write one's signature on the
An accident was averted by his quick thinking; Ex. She
back of; N. endorsement; CF. dorsal
averted her eyes from the terrible sight.
 pall become boring; grow tiresome
 bleak cold or cheerless; frigid; unlikely to be favorable;
depressing frantic wild; distraught as from fear or worry; Ex. fran-
tic with fear
 liquidate settle accounts; pay off (a debt); clear up;
eliminate; kill or abolish voluptuous sensual; of or giving sensual pleasure; in-
dulging in sensual pleasures; Ex. voluptuous lines; Ex.
 concordat formal agreementvoluptuous life of the Romans; N. voluptuary: volup-
tuous person
 prance move about in a spirited manner (proudly and
condently) clip cut off with shears; fasten; N: something clipped off
 conjecture surmise; guess; V.(as a short extract from lm); clasp or fastener
 prodigal wasteful; reckless with money; profuse; Ex. a podiatrist doctor who trea
ts ailments of the feet; chi-
ropodist; N. podiatrics
mind prodigal of ideas; N. prodigality
 philistine narrow-minded person, uncultured and ex-
 dingy (of things and place) dirty and dull; Ex. dingyclusively interested in mat
erial gain; uncultured person
street/curtain
who is indifferent to artistic and cultural values; mem-
 ferocious erce; violent; N. ferocityber of an ancient people in Palestine; OP. ae
sthete
27

--------------------------------------- 28
 boost lift by pushing up from below; increase; raise; N:power; certain; not rela
tive; Ex. absolute honesty/ruler;
CF. absolutism
push upward; increase
 illicit illegal
 diverge vary; go in different directions from the same
point; ADJ. divergent: differing; deviating inveigle deceive; lead astray by dece
ption; whee-
dle(cajole); Ex. inveigle her into joining the club; CF.
 indelible not able to be erased
interest dishonestly
 hoodwink deceive; delude
 prosperity good fortune and nancial success; physical
 fabricate build; lie; make up (a story) in order to de-well-being
ceive; Ex. fabricate the whole story; CF. fabric: underly- blare loud or harsh ro
ar or screech; dazzling blaze of
ing structure; Ex. fabric of societylight
 minuscule(miniscule) extremely small candor frankness; open honesty; ADJ. candid
 bigotry stubborn intolerance talisman charm; object believed to give supernatural
 forthcoming happening in the near future; ready; will-powers to or protect its b
earer
ing to help; Ex. No answer was forthcoming. ubiquitous being everywhere; omnipres
ent; N. ubiq-
uity
 seine seine net; net for catching sh
 multiplicity state of being numerous or multiple; large
 enamored in love; Ex. enamored of his own beauty; V.number; Ex. multiplicity of
details; ADJ. multiple: of
enamor: inspire with love
more than one element
 stammer speak with involuntarily pauses or repetitions
 renovate restore to good condition; renew
 natal connected with birth; CF. prenatal; CF. postnatal
17 nuptial of marriage or the wedding ceremony; N; nup-
tials; wedding ceremony
 hale healthy
 premonition forewarning; presentiment; foreboding
 regent a person who governs in place of a ruler who is
ill, absent, or still a child; ADJ. Ex. the Prince regent tempestuous stormy; vio
lent; impassioned; N. tempest:
violent storm
 ingenue ingenue;´young innocent girl
 ballast heavy substance used to add stability or weight;
 grudge deep feeling of dislike; Ex. grudge ght; V.
V. supply with ballast
 lugubrious mournful; sorrowful
 accolade award of merit; strong praise and approval
 remit transmit (money) in payment; free someone from
 gentility those of gentle birth; high social class; rene-
a debt or punishmentment; quality of being genteel
 glaring (of something bad) highly conspicuous; harshly retentive holding; able to
retain things (esp. facts in the
bright; shining intensely and blindinglymind); having a good memory
 convene come together; assemble; call to meet; Ex. con- desperate having lost all
hope; despairing; reckless and
vene the councilviolent because of loss of hope or despair; undertaken
as a last resort
 obsequy funeral ceremony
 manifesto public declaration of principles; statement of
 subdue less intense; quieter; Ex. subdued lighting; Ex.policy
subdue: conquer; make less intense; quiet; Ex. subdue
one's anger covert secret; hidden; implied; OP. overt
 dominate control; rule; enjoy a commanding position overweening arrogant; presump
tuous
in; overlook from a height; ?/ 9 Ð extort wring from; get money by threats, etc.; obtain
by
 acrimonious stinging; caustic; bitter in words or man-force or threats; CF. exto
rtionate: exorbitant
ner; N. acrimony: bitter ill-natured animosity in speech
 trie something of little importance or value; small
or behavioramount; Ex. a trie; V: treat without seriousness; irt
 inadvertently unintentionally; by oversight; carelessly
 pungent stinging; acrid; sharp in taste or smell; (of
 antiquated obsolete; old-fashioned; outdated
speech or writing) caustic; N. pungency
 dregs sediment in a liquid; lees; worthless residue
 encompass surround; include; Ex. His activities encom-
 peer one who has equal standing with another; noble-pass publishing and computer
s.
man; V: look intently; N. peerage; CF. peeress
 surmise guess; N.
 rabies disease passed on by the bite of an infected ani-
 graze (of an animal) feed on growing grass; cause (an
mal (causing madness and death)
animal) to feed on grass; scrape (esp. the skin) or touch
 rabid of or suffering rabies; like a fanatic; extremelylightly in passing; brush
; Ex. We can't graze the cattle
zealous; furious; CF. rabies: hydrophobiatill summer; N: surface wound
28

--------------------------------------- 29
bias; special fondness; preferenceworked out or solved
 reaper one who harvests grain; Ex. the Grim Reaper; V. supercilious haughty; arro
gant; condescending; pa-
reap: cut and gather (crop); harvest a croptronizing; CF. eyebrow, cilium
 lull moment of calm; period of reduced activity; Ex. a minute extremely small; CF
. minutes: ofcial record of
lull in the rain; V: cause to become less active; cause tothe proceedings at a m
eeting
sleep or rest; Ex. lull the opponents into a false sense of iridescent exhibiting
rainbowlike colors; Ex. iridescent
security; CF. lullabyoil slick; N. iridescence
 politic prudent; judicious; well judged; expedient; well
 precise exact
devised
 papyrus ancient paper made from stem of papyrus depreciate lessen in value; belit
tle; represent as of little
value
plant
 specious seemingly reasonable but incorrect; mislead- immutable unchangeable
ing (often intentionally)
 winsome charming (in a childlike way); agreeable; gra-
 postulate self-evident truth; something assumed with-cious; engaging
out proof; V: assume the truth of (as a basis of an argu-
 optimist person who looks on the bright side; N. opti-
ment)mism
 genealogy record of descent; lineage; ancestry; study of
ancestry inaugurate begin formally; install in ofce; induct into
ofce by a formal ceremony; N. inauguration; ADJ. in-
 melliuous (of words or a voice) sweetly or smoothlyaugural
owing; melodious; having a pleasant tune
 irrelevant not applicable; unrelated
 leonine like a lion
 quaint odd in an old-fashioned way; odd; old-
 assimilate absorb; take (food) into the body and digestfashioned; picturesque
it; understand (knowledge) completely and be able to
use properly; cause to become homogeneous (the peo- studied carefully contrived;
calculated; unspontaneous;
ple of a country or race in the wasy of behaving or think-deliberate; thoughtful
; Ex. studied remark
ing) concentric having a common center
 dally trie with; toy with; treat without the necessary pacify soothe; make calm or
quiet; subdue; bring peace
seriousness; procrastinate; waste timeto
 queer strange; eccentric; deviating from the normal friction clash or conict in op
inion; rubbing against
 tribune ofcial of ancient Rome elected by the plebians scenario plot outline; scre
enplay(script for a movie);
to protect their rights; protector of the peopleopera libretto; outline of possi
ble future events
 fathom comprehend; investigate; determine the depth concession an act of yielding
; conceding; something
of; N. unit of measurement for the depth of waterconceded; point, right, etc. gi
ven unwillingly; privilege
 promulgate announce; proclaim a doctrine or law;of maintaining a business in a c
ertain place; Ex. oil con-
make known by ofcial publicationcessions in the North sea; CF. concessionaire
 lateral of or coming from the side serenity calmness; placidity; ADJ. serene
 onomatopoeia words formed in imitation of natural menial suitable for servants; l
owly; mean; N: someone
soundswho does menial work (esp. servant in a house)
 rudimentary elementary; not developed; crude; N. amputate cut off part of body; p
rune (a limb)
rudiment: fundamental element or principle; Ex. rudi-
 incarcerate imprison
ments of the language
 gambol romp; skip about; leap about playfully; frolic; presumptuous going beyond
what is right; excessively
forward; arrogant; taking liberties
N.
 inclusive tending to include all; all-inclusive; Ex. inclu- blithe(blithesome) ga
y; joyous
sive charge cognitive having to do with knowing or perceiving re-
 wafe speak equivocally about an issue; N.lated to the mental processes; N. cognit
ion: the mental
process of knowing
 sparse not thick; thinly scattered; scanty
 melee ght18
 harrowing agonizing; distressing; traumatic; V. harrow:
 plaintive expressing sorrow; mournful; Ex. plaintive
break up and level (soil) with a harrow; inict great dis-song
tress on; agonize; N: farming machine to break up the
earth rivulet small stream; CF. rill ¡ rivulet ¡ river
 partition divide into parts warranty guarantee; assurance by seller
29

--------------------------------------- 30
of spring and autumn; Ex. vernal/autumnal equinox;emanating from decaying matter
; pervasive corrupting
ADJ. equinoctialinuence; noxious atmosphere or inuence
 vital full of life; animated; vibrant and lively; critical; of deviate turn away
from (a principle, norm); move away
great importance; necessary to stay alive; of life; living;from an accepted stan
dard; swerve; depart; diverge; N.
breathing; N. vitality; V. vitalizedeviation; Ex. deviation of the path of light
by a prism
 impugn dispute or contradict (often in an insulting slapdash hastyandcareless;hap
hazard;
way); attack as false or questionable; challenge; gainsay;sloppy(carelessly done
)
CF. ght maim mutilate; injure lastingly; disable; cripple; Ex.
 yen strong desire; longing; urge; Ex. yen for travelmaimed for life
 decapitate behead
 retrench cut down; cut down expenses; economize
 intractable unruly; difcult to manage; Ex. intractable
 babble chatter idly or foolishly; make continuous
sounds like water running gently over rounded stone;problem/child
N. cordial warmly friendly; gracious; heartfelt; Ex. cordial
 gastronomy art and science of preparing and servingwelcome
good food; CF. gastronome unilateral one-sided; involving or affecting only one
side; Ex. unilateral declaration
 ventriloquist someone who can make his or her voice
seem to come from another person or thing (without verbose wordy; N. verbosity
moving lips or jaws); N. ventriloquism, ventriloquy tonsure shaving of the head e
specially by person enter-
 deplete reduce; exhausting religious orders; V.
 necromancy black magic; sorcery; dealings with the masticate chew
dead; art that professes to communicate with the spirits gestate evolve as in pre
natal growth; N. gestation: pe-
of the dead so as to predict the future; CF. necromancer;
riod of development from conception until birth
CF. necro+divination; CF. necro-: death; Ex. necropolis
 rhetoric art of effective communication; art of using lan-
 chasm abyss; very deep crackguage effectively and persuasively; style of speakin
g or
writing; grandiloquent language; Ex. political rhetoric;
 maternal motherly; N. maternity: motherhood
ADJ. rhetorical; CF. rhetorical question: question to
 daze stun as with a blow or shock; bemuse; benumb; N.which no answer is expected
as Who knows it ?
 melancholy gloomy; morose; blue; N. ADJ. melan-
 caste one of the hereditary classes in Hindu society; so-cholic; CF. melancholia
cial stratication; prestige retiring shy and reserved (of a person); modest; Ex. h
er
 immure imprison; shut up in connement; CF. wallretiring personality
 rhapsodize speak or write in an exaggeratedly enthu- agrarian pertaining to land
or its cultivation; Ex. agrar-
siastic manner; Ex. rhapsodize over the beauty of theian reform
scenery
 visceral felt in one's inner organs; N. viscera: internal
 stupor state of being stupeed; state of apathy; daze;body organs; CF. eviscerate
lack of awareness palate roof of the mouth; sense of the taste
 deface mar; disgure cleave split or sever; cling to; remain faithful to; N.
 revert relapse; backslide; turn back to; return to the for-cleavage; ADJ. cloven
mer owner; N. reversion
 detonation explosion
 parquet oor made of wood strips inlaid in a mosaic levitate rise and oat in the air
(especially by magical
like matter; CF. strip: long narrow piecemeans); CF. light
 ckle changeable (in affections or friendship); faithless t sudden outburst of an il
lness or feeling; convulsion
caused by epilepsy
 inimical (of someone) unfriendly; hostile; (of some-
thing) harmful; detrimental; CF. enemy default failure to act; failure to perform
a task or be
 consonant harmonious; in agreement; N.present; V.
 stampede sudden frenzied rush (of panic-stricken ani-
 gauche clumsy (in social behavior); coarse and uncouth
mals or people); V: participate in or cause stampede; Ex.
stampede before the price rises
 falsify make (something written) false by changing
 factitious articial; produced articially; sham; false;
 repine fret; complain; be annoyed; Ex. repine over theEx. factitious tears
undone work bastard illegitimate child
 integral complete; necessary for completeness; Ex. inte- outlook point of view; v
iew from a particular place; ex-
gral part
pectation for the future; prospect; Ex. outlook on life;
 ursine bearlike; pertaining to a bearEx. pleasing outlook; Ex. weather outlook
30

--------------------------------------- 31
 brevity conciseness; shortness of durationpleasant odor; give out smoke; Ex. ree
king chimney; N:
unpleasant odor; stench
 whimsy whim;tendency to behave amusingly
 staid serious and sedate; sober; Ex. staid during the fu-
strangely; Ex. story full of whimsyneral ceremony
 gust strong abrupt rush of wind; V. CF. bluster satire form of literature in whic
h irony, sarcasm, and
 trinket knickknack; bauble; cheap jewelryridicule are employed to attack human v
ice and folly
 extemporaneous not planned; impromptu; extempore
 solicitor lawyer in the lower court of law
 universal characterizing or affecting all; general;
present everywhere; of the universe; cosmic; Ex. uni- synthesis combining parts o
r separate things into a
whole; the whole so formed; PL. syntheses; V. synthe-
versal agreement; Ex. a subject of universal interest
size
 interrogate question closely; cross-examine; cross- mange skin disease (esp. of d
omestic animals) marked
by loss of hair
question
 camp group sharing a common cause or opinion
 ferment agitation; commotion(noisy and excited activ-
ity); unrest (of a political kind); V. produce by fermen- viable capable of maint
aining life; feasible; practical or
tation; undergo fermentation; cause (a state of trouble)workable; Ex. viable sch
eme
 obviate make unnecessary; get rid of; Ex. obviate the
need
 apothegm(apophthegm) pithy, compact saying
 transport strong emotion; rapture; Ex. in a trans-
port/transports of; V: move to strong emotion; enrap-19
ture confound confuse; puzzle
 conifer pine tree (usu. evergreen); cone-bearing tree;
 tickle touch (the body) lightly so as to cause laughter;
pleaseADJ. coniferous; CF. deciduous; CF. evergreen
 chaff worthless products of an endeavor; husk(outer dissonance discord
seed cover) separated from grain; Ex. separate the dehydrate remove water from; d
ry out
wheat from the chaff
 cauterize burn (a wound or snakebite, etc.) with hot
 irreverence lack of proper respect or reverence; ADJ. ir-iron or caustic substan
ce to stop bleeding and prevent
reverentinfection
 triing trivial; unimportant suture stitches sewn to hold the cut edges of a wound
or incision; material used in sewing; V: sew together a
 chronicle report; record (in chronological order)wound
 gourmand epicure; person who takes excessive plea- epicure connoisseur of food an
d drink; gourmet; ADJ.
sure in food and drinkepicurean; CF. Epicurus
 regal royal; of a monarch; Ex. regal manner prelate church dignitary; priest of h
igh position in the
 earn gain for the performance of service or labor; gainchurch (esp. bishop)
(something that one deserves); deserve defect shortcoming; V: desert (in order to
join the oppo-
site one)
 glower scowl; glare; look or stare angrily
 incriminate accuse of or implicate in a crime; serve as
 prefatory introductory; of a prefaceevidence against; cause to seem or make guil
ty of a
 gruff rough-mannered; (of a voice) rough; hoarsecrime; Ex. incriminating evidenc
e
 harangue long, passionate, and vehement speech; V. sectarian of a sect; narrow-mi
nded; parochial; N: mem-
ber of a sect; narrow-minded person
 carrion rotting esh of a dead body; CF. vulture
 forsake desert; abandon; renounce
 broach introduce as a subject; moot; open up
 inerrancy infallibility
 enigma puzzle; mystery; ADJ. enigmatic: obscure; puz-
zling somatic pertaining to the body; bodily; physical
 disinter dig up; unearth; OP. inter die metal block used for shaping metal or pla
stic; device
for stamping or impressing; mold; CF. dice
 defrock strip a priest or minister of church authority;
 gavel hammerlike tool; mallet(wooden hammer) used
unfrockby a presiding ofcer or an auctioneer; V.
 craft skill (esp. with one's hands); skill in deceiving peo- monochrome painting
in only one color; ADJ.
ple; guile; ADJ. crafty: cleverly deceitful; cunning
 thrash beat with a whip or ail; defeat utterly; talk
 collateral security given for loan; ADJ: secondary; de-
about thoroughly in order to nd the answer; move
scended from the same person but through differentwildly or violently; Ex. The sh
es thrashed about in the
sons or daughtersnet.
31

--------------------------------------- 32
 discretion prudence; ability to adjust actions to circum-
stances; freedom of action or judgment; ADJ. discreet; casual happening by chance
; irregular; occasional; in-
CF. discretionaryformal; showing or feeling little interest; Ex. casual
reader/labor/remark
 dictum authoritative and weighty statement (made by a
judge in court); saying; maxim; CF. obiter dictum: inci- pummel pommel; beat or p
ound with sts
dental, nonbinding remark (something said in passing)
 curmudgeon churlish,miserly individual;bad-
tempered old person
 animus hostile feeling or intent; animosity; hostility;
 coup highly successful action or sudden attack; coup(s)
dispositiond'etat;´CF. coup de grace: deathblow or shot which kills
 acclaim applaud; praise; greet with great approval; an-
nounce with great approval; Ex. The new drung has glimmer shine erratically; twin
kle; N: dim or unsteady
been acclaimed as the most important discoveries forlight; faint indication; Ex.
glimmer of hope
years; N: strong expression of approval and praise
 synchronous similarly timed; simultaneous with; oc-
 reprobate morally disapproved person; person hard-
ened in sin, devoid of a sense of decency; CF. disap-curring at the same time; V
. synchronize
proved by God ? impudence impertinence; insolence
 kleptomaniac person who has a compulsive desire to quaff drink with zest; drink w
ith relish(zest; hearty en-
stealjoyment); ÜãJ, ÜãJ,  r; CF. sip
 tycoon wealthy and powerful businessperson; wealthy paramount foremost in importa
nce; supreme; CF. para-:
leader; magnate; Ex. business tycoonbeyond; above; Ex. paranormal
 resignation patiently submissiveness; statement that violate break (a law); dele;
desecrate; assault sexually;
one is quitting a job; ADJ. resigned: acquiescentEx. violate graves
 microcosm small representative world; world in minia- stellar pertaining to the s
tars; of a star performer; out-
ture; Ex. microcosm of English societystanding; Ex. stellar attraction of the en
tire performance
 prosaic lacking in imagination; dull and unimaginative;
matter-of-fact(concerned with facts, not imagination or affected articial; pretend
ed
feelings); factual; CF. prose notoriety disrepute; ill fame
 fuss: trouble or worry over tries; make nervous; pay uctuate waver; shift; rise and
fall as if in waves;
too much attention to; N: needless concern or worrychange or vary irregularly
(about a trivial thing); anxious nervous condition; dis-
play of attention; Ex. make a fuss over the baby slaughter killing of animals for
food; massacre; V:
butcher (animals) for food; kill in large numbers
 compassion sympathy for the suffering of others; ADJ.
 levee earthen or stone embankment to prevent ood-
compassionateing; CF. raise
 anthropoid manlike; resembling a human being; N.
 embroider decorate with needlework; ornament (a
 pauper very poor personstory) with fancy or ctitious details; embellish
 fallow (of land) plowed but not sowed (to improve the correlation mutual relation
ship
quality); uncultivated
 crossbreed hybridize; N: hybrid; CF. interbreed; CF. in-
 entreat plead; ask earnestlybreed
 disconcert confuse; upset; embarrass; perturb centripetal tending toward the cent
er
 unruly disobedient; lawless; difcult to control malefactor evildoer; criminal
 potion dose (of liquids); liquid dose loquacious talkative; N. loquacity
 bigot one who is intolerant (in matters of religion or pol- garrulous loquacious;
wordy; talkative; N. garrulity
itics)
 Occident the West
 ingenuous naive and trusting; young; unsophisticated; lilliputian extremely small
; CF. Lilliput in Gulliver's
candid
Travels
 illusive deceiving; based on illusion; causing illusion;
deceptive prude excessively modest or proper person (who is eas-
ily shocked by improper things, esp. of a sexual nature);
 orient get one's bearings; adjust; make familiar with aN. prudery; ADJ. prudish:
excessively concerned with
situation; orientatepropriety
 raiment clothing; garments; Ex. I have no raiment t to pallid pale; wan; Ex. palli
d complexion
wear. inch hesitate; shrink back (in fear of something un-
 Bacchanalia the ancient Roman festival in honor of Bac-pleasant); Ex. She did no
t inch in the face of danger.
chus
32

--------------------------------------- 33
 acerbity bitterness of speech and temper; ADJ. acerbic: dilapidated falling to pi
eces; in a bad condition; ruined
bitter; acrid (in taste, manner, or tone)because of neglect; Ex. dilapidated old
car/castle; N.
 cumulative growing by addition; accumulativedilapidation
 cataract great waterfall; eye abnormality (causing a
 dignitary person of high rank or position
gradual loss of eyesight)
 berserk mad with violent anger; frenzied; madly ex-
cited usury lending money at illegal high rates of interest
 impute attribute; ascribe; charge; N. imputation
 languish lose animation or strength
 jaundiced yellowed; prejudiced (envious, hostile, or re-
 outskirts fringes; outer borders (as of a city); Ex. out-sentful) from long and
disappointing experience of hu-
skirts of Boston
man affairs; Ex. with a jaundiced eye
 paranoia psychosis marked by delusions of grandeur or
persecution; N: ADJ: paranoid, paranoiac lace cord used to draw and tie together
two opposite
edges (as of a shoe); delicate fabric made of ne threads;
 paradox something apparently contradictory in natureV: draw together by tying a
lace
(that may nonetheless be true); statement that looks
 prophylactic used to prevent disease; N: something
false but is actually correctprophylactic; condom; N. prophylaxis: prevention of
 innitesimal very smalldisease
 masquerade wear a mask or disguise; pretend; N: cos- paroxysm t or attack of pain,
laughter, rage; sudden
tume party or ball at which masks are worn; pretense;outburst
disguise transmute transform; change; convert to something dif-
 shade slight difference in degree; nuance; degree offerent
color; Ex. shades of meaning/grey submerge place under water; dip; go under water
;
 merit good quality deserving praise; merits: aspectcover completely (as with wat
er); Ex. submerged in
of character or behavior deserving approval or disap-work
proval; Ex. judge each plan on its own merits; V: de-
serve; earn foppish vain about dress and appearance; N. fop: man
who takes too much interest in his clothes and appear-
 charlatan quack; pretender to knowledge (esp.inance
medicine) psychopathic pertaining to mental dearrangement; N.
 legacy gift made by a will; something handed downpsychopath: person with an anti
social personality dis-
from an ancestororder
 suffuse spread through or over (with a color or liquid); porridge soft food made
by boiling oatmeal
charge; Ex. A blush suffused her cheeks. religious of religion; (of a person) pio
us; having rever-
 prelude introduction; introductory performance orence for a deity
event; forerunner cumbersome heavy and awkward to carry or wear; bur-
 cursive (of writing) owing; running; having the suc-densome; Ex. cumbersome parce
l/uniform
cessive letters joined
 volley simultaneous discharge of a number of shots; V.
 alleviate relieve (pain) silt sediment deposited by running water (at the en-
 hireling one who serves for hire (usually used contemp-trance to a harbor or by
a bend in a river)
tuously); one who works solely for compensation; Ex. catcall shout of disapproval
or displeasure (made at the
hireling politician
theater or a sports match); boo; V.
 palatial of or suitable for a palace; magnicent
 sleeper one that achieves unexpected success; some-
 execrate curse; express abhorrence for; detestthing originally of little value o
r importance that in time
becomes very valuable
 disheveled untidy (of hair or clothing); V. dishevel
 geniality cheerfulness; kindliness; sympathy; ADJ. ge- replete fully lled; lled to
the brim or to the point of
being stuffed; abundantly supplied; Ex. report replete
nial: cheerful and good-tempered
with errors
 rakish jaunty; stylish; sporty; morally corrupt; disso-
20
lute; Ex. He wore his hat at a rakish and jaunty angle.
 sanguinary bloody; with much bloodshed
 impediment hindrance; stumbling-block; speech defect
 writhe twist in coils; contort in pain
preventing clear articulation; Ex. speech impediment
 dolt slow-thinking stupid person; CF. dull satirical using satire; mocking
 nauseate cause to become sick; ll with disgust; ll nau-
 sacrilegious desecrating; profane; N. sacrilege: desecra-
sea
tion, misuse, or theft of something sacred muddle confuse; mix up confusedly; N:
state of confu-
 nutritious providing nourishment
sion
33

--------------------------------------- 34
glossy coating produced by using this substance; Ex. victuals food; provisions; V
. victual: provide with food
nail varnish; V.
 chortle chuckle with delight; N. ennui boredom; listlessness and dissatisfaction
result-
ing from lack of interest; CF. annoy
 multiform having many forms
 heyday time of greatest success or power; prime
 dilate expand; dilate on/upon: speak or write at length obese excessively fat; N.
obesity
on (a subject)
 maxim proverb; truth pithily stated
 monarchy government under a single ruler
 layman man who is not a cleric; man who is nonprofes- stupefy stun; make numb (as
with a drug); amaze
sional ecstasy rapture; very strong feeling of joy and happi-
 air talentness; any overpowering emotion; ADJ. ecstatic: causing
or experiencing ecstasy
 uke unlikely occurrence; stroke of fortune; accidental
stroke of good luck; ADJ. uky impotent weak; ineffective; lacking in physical stre
ngth
or power
 ornithologist scientic student of birds; N. ornithology:
scientic study of birds tureen deep dish for serving soup
 statute law enacted by the legislature
 bank heap; piled-up mass; embankment; lateral tilting
(as of an aircraft in turning); V: pile up; protect with a stoop bend forward and
down; lower or debase oneself;
bank; tilt in turningfall to a lower standard of behavior by doing something;
condescend; Ex. stoop to lying
 ruthless pitiless; merciless; cruel
 entail make necessary; require; necessitate; involve; aromatic fragrant; having a
sweet smell; N. aroma:
strong pleasant smell
limit the inheritance of (property) to a specied succes-
sion of heirs; Ex. entail A on/upon B frustrate thwart; defeat; prevent from acco
mplishing a
purpose
 prosody art of versication; study of the metrical struc-
ture of verse hothead person who does things too quickly without
 acme peak; pinnacle; highest pointthinking; ADJ. hotheaded
 delusive deceptive; likely to delude; misleading; rais- abut border upon; adjoin
ing vain hopes; Ex. delusive promises litigation lawsuit; N. litigant: one party
in a lawsuit; V.
 torso trunk of statue with head and limbs missing; hu-litigate
man trunk descry catch sight of (something distant)
 asinine stupid; Ex. asinine remarks squeamish easily shocked or sickened by unple
asant
things; fastidious; Ex. A nurse should not be squeamish.
 adulterate make impure or of poorer quality by adding
inferior or tainted(contaminated) substances
 economy efciency or conciseness in using something; abrogate abolish
thrifty management of resources grill question severely; cook on a grill; broil;
N: cooking
 derelict negligent; (of someone) neglectful of duty; (ofsurface of parallel meta
l bars
something) deserted by an owner; abandoned; N: aban- conciliatory reconciling; so
othing; V. conciliate: recon-
doned property; homeless or vagrant personcile; soothe; win the friendly feeling
s (by removing
 lust intense sexual desire; intense eagerness; V.anger)
 ignite kindle; light; catch re or set re to burgeon grow rapidly; grow forth; send
out buds; Ex.
burgeoning computer industry; CF. bludgeon
 convex curving outward
 vociferous clamorous; noisy; V. vociferate: cry out freebooter pirate or plundere
r who makes war in order
to grow rich
loudly (when complaining)
 knack special talent; art bruise injure without breaking the skin; N.
 amorphous formless; lacking shape or denition
 matrimony state of being married
 sedition conduct or language inciting rebellion; rebel-
 self-righteous sure of one's own righteousness; moral-lion; resistance to author
ity; insubordination; ADJ. sedi-
istictious
 caustic burning; corrosive; able to burn by chemical ac- groom man employed to ta
ke care of horses; V: make
tion; sarcastically biting; (of remarks) intended to hurt;neat and trim; clean a
nd brush (an animal)
bitter; harmful; OP. harmless
 circuitous roundabout
 icon(ikon) religious image; idol; image or representa-
tion determination resolve; rmness of purpose; measure-
ment or calculation; decision
 static having no motion; unchanging; lacking develop-
ment; N. stasis: stable state peerless having no equal; incomparable
34

--------------------------------------- 35
 sultry (of weather) hot; sweltering; sensual; voluptuousto a base of inferior ma
terial); cover; surface show;
fac¸ade; V.
 banal hackneyed; commonplace; trite; lacking original- capillary having a very ne
bore; resembling a hair; ne
and slender; Ex. capillary attraction; N: very ne hair-
ity; cliched´like tube; CF. capillarity
 prehensile capable of grasping or holding (esp. by
 bust piece of sculpture showing a person's head, shoul-
wrapping around); Ex. prehensile tailsders, and upper chest; V: break up; arrest
; Ex. crime-
 unction the act of anointing with oil; Ex. extreme unc-
buster
tion
 lot object used in making a determination at random;
fate; piece of land
21
 repulsion distaste; disgust; act of driving back; ADJ. re- minion servile depende
nt; obsequious follower
pulsive: causing disgust; tending to drive away; V. repel incorrigible uncorrecta
ble
(not `repulse')
 fancied imagined; unreal
 deliberate consider; ponder; ADJ: done on purpose;
slow institutionalize make into an institution; put or conne
in an institution
 carafe glass water bottle; decanter
 forfeit something surrendered as punishment for a
 permissive allowing much freedom; lenient; Ex. per-crime or breach of contract;
V: lose as a forfeit; N. for-
missive societyfeiture
 touching causing a feeling of pity or sympathy; pa- rendezvous meeting place; mee
ting at a set time or
thetic; V. touch: cause to feel pity or sympathy; ADJ.place; V.
touched
 replenish ll up again
 symmetry arrangement of parts so that balance is ob-
tained; congruity; ADJ. symmetrical defunct dead; no longer in use or existence
 serpentine winding; twisting; of or like a serpent; Ex. occlude shut; close; obst
ruct; Ex. A blood clot occluded
serpentine course of the river; N. serpent: snakean artery.
 stymie thwart; present an obstacle; stump arboretum place where different trees a
nd shrubs are
 canvass determine or seek opinions, votes, etc.; gostudied and exhibited
through (a region) to solicit votes or orders; conduct a kindred related; belongi
ng to the same group; similar in
survey; N.nature or character; Ex. kindred languages; N: relative;
kin; kinship
 primary rst in rank or importance; principal; earliest
in time; Ex. primary stages; N. CF. rst intrude put or force in without being aske
d; trespass;
enter as an uninvited person; Ex. intrude one's own
 consecrate dedicate; sanctify; declare as sacred; Ex. con-
secrate one's life to helping the pooropinion into the report; CF. thrust in
 maul handle roughly; batter; injure by beating; Ex.
 provisional tentative; temporary
mauled by his overexcited fans; N: heavy long-handled
 marsupial one of a family of mammals that nurse theirhammer
offspring in a pouch(pocket of skin or leather); CF. kan-
garoo, opossum, wombat fructify bear fruit; produce fruit
 debunk expose as false, exaggerated, worthless, etc.; rife (of something bad) wid
espread; abundant; current
ridicule
 niggardly meanly stingy; parsimonious; N. niggard:
 bilk swindle; cheatstingy person
 well-bred of good upbringing; well-mannered and re- doze sleep lightly; nap
ned
 ratiocination reasoning; act of drawing conclusions
 harbinger forerunner (which foreshadows what is tofrom premises; V. ratiocinate:
reason logically
come)
 mollycoddle pamper; coddle; baby; indulge exces-
 ramshackle (of a building or vehicle) poorly con-sively
structed; rickety; falling apart warble (of a bird) sing; babble; N.
 consensus general agreement; opinion reached by a
 anthem song of praise or patriotism; Ex. national an-
groupthem
 postmortem autopsy; ADJ: occurring after death; of a
 defalcate embezzle
postmortem
 plutocracy society ruled by the wealthy
 robust strong; vigorous
 dismember cut into small parts; cut (a body) apart limb muse ponder at length; N:
source of inspiration (esp. of
a poet)
from limb
35

--------------------------------------- 36
V: pour forth; lose by natural process; repel with-slipshod work
out allowing penetration; radiate; cast; Ex.shed uted having vertical parallel gro
oves (as in a pillar); V.
tears/light/water/skin/leaves
ute: make long parallel inward curves in; N. ute: long
 jocular said or done in jest or playfully; marked by jok-rounded groove incised
on the shaft of a column
ing
 gangrene decay of body tissue caused by insufcient
 appropriate acquire; take possession of for one's ownblood supply (usually follo
wing injury); ADJ. gan-
use without permission; set aside for a particular pur-grenous
pose; allocate; CF. misappropriate dynamic energetic; vigorously active
 corrosive eating away by chemicals or disease; (of lan- fanaticism excessive zeal
; extreme devotion to a belief
guage) erceor cause; N. fanatic; ADJ. fanatic
 paucity scarcity; dearth ambrosia food of the gods
 glutinous sticky; viscous; gluey zealot one who is zealous; fanatic; person who s
hows
 unkempt disheveled; uncared for in appearance; notexcessive zeal
combed; CF. comb inimitable matchless; not able to be imitated
 lionize treat (a person) as a celebrity catalyst agent which brings about a chemi
cal change
 spare give; use; refrain from harming; save from expe-while it remains unaffecte
d and unchanged; CF. catal-
riencing; exempt; Ex. spare me 5 minutes; Ex. Take thisysis
money and spare my life; Ex. The emperor was spared
the onus; ADJ: kept in reserve; free for other use; unoc- synthetic not natural;
articial; resulting from synthe-
sis; Ex. synthetic ber; N.
cupied; Ex. spare time
 grandiloquent (of a person or speech) using high
 barrister counselor-at-law or lawyer in the higher courtsounding or important-so
unding language; pompous;
of law; CF. barbombastic
 turbid (of a liquid) having the sediment disturbed; solitude state of being alone
; seclusion; ADJ. solitary:
muddy; thickexisting or living alone (esp. by choice); remote or se-
 ram male sheep; V. strike or drive against with a heavycluded; single; sole; Ex.
solitary life/inn; Ex. no solitary
impactpiece of proof
 subside sink to a lower level; settle down; sink to the allegiance loyalty
bottom (as a sediment); descend; grow quiet; become
 begrudge envy; give or allow unwillingly; grudge; Ex.
less; moderate; abateWe shouldn't begrudge him his success.
 cower shrink quivering as from fear; cringe
 bereft deprived of (something valuable); lacking
 careen lurch; sway from side to side; move with irregu- faculty mental or bodily
powers; teaching staff
lar swinging movement; stagger infamous notoriously bad; notorious; well known fo
r
 pharisaical pertaining to the Pharisees, who paidbeing bad; Ex. infamous behavio
r; N: infamy: infamous
scrupulous attention to tradition; self-righteous; hypo-act; evil fame or reputa
tion
critical
 importunate urging; always demanding; trouble-
 warrant justication; written order that serves as autho-somely urgent or persiste
nt
rization (esp. a judicial writ); Ex. search/death warrant;
 conformist person who uncritically conforms to the
V: justify; guaranteecustoms of a group; OP. nonconformist: one who does
 polemic attack or defense of an opinion; controversy ornot conform to accepted b
eliefs of norms
refutation; argument in support of point of view; N. prank mischievous trick
polemics: art of debate or controversy
 wily crafty; cunning; artful; N. wile: deceitful stratagem
 tipple drink (alcoholic beverages) frequently; N: alco-
holic drink
 merger combination (of two business corporations); act
 pry inquire impertinently (someone else's private af-
fairs); use leverage to raise or open something; prize;of merging
N. pries: tool for prying
 hackneyed commonplace; trite22
 poise good judgment with composure; balance; V: place heedless not noticing; disr
egarding
in a carefully balanced position provenance place of origin; origin or source of
some-
 humility humbleness of spiritthing; Ex. Gunpowder is of Chinese provenance; CF.
come
 snub ignore or behave coldly toward; Ex. I made a sug-
 detached emotionally removed; free from emotional in-
gestion but she snubbed me; N.volvement; calm and objective; physically separate
; N.
 fetid(foetid) malodorous; fouldetachment; CF. attachment
36

--------------------------------------- 37
 invalidate weaken; destroy; make invalid; nullifywage
 admonish warn or speak to with gentle disapproval; re-
 invert turn upside down or inside out; reverse the posi-
tion or condition ofprove
 bane posion; cause of ruin; ADJ. baneful: harmful; poi-
 plagiarize steal another's ideas or writings and pass
them off as one's own; Ex. ideas plagiarized from mysonous
article; N. plagiarism; CF. kidnap cliche´ phrase dulled in meaning by repetition;
plati-
 forensic suitable to debate or courts of law; of or usedtude; ADJ. cliched´
in legal proceedings and the tracking of criminals; Ex. sovereignty completeindep
endenceandself-
forensic science/medicinegovernment (of a country); supremacy of authority;
power to govern
 culvert articial channel for water; drain crossing under
a road juridical of the law and its administration; CF. judicial:
of courts of law; CF. judiciary
 generic characteristic of an entire class or species; of a
genus mace ceremonial staff used as a symbol of authority;
clublike medieval weapon
 coalesce combine; fuse; N. coalescence
 incrustation hard coating or crust; V. incrust: encrust;
 erotic pertaining to passionate love or sexual lovecover with a crust
 incense enrage; infuriate(make furious); make ex- abject (of a condition) wretche
d; as low as possible;
tremely angry; outrage; N: aromatic substance burned
to produce a pleasant odorlacking pride; very humble; showing lack of self-
respect; Ex. abject apology
 prattle talk idly; babble; N. CF. prate
 aberration deviation from the normal; mental disorder
 imbalance lack of balance or symmetry; disproportion desperado reckless, desperat
e outlaw
 pseudonym pen name; ctitious name assumed by an concurrent happening at the same t
ime; in agreement
author; ADJ. pseudonymous
 subservient behaving like a slave; servile; obsequious;
 supernumerary person or thing excess of what is nec-subordinate; N. subservience
essary; extra; ADJ: additional to the usual or necessary
number civil having to do with citizens; not military or reli-
gious; courteous and polite; Ex. married in a civil cere-
 transitory transient; impermanent; eeting; N. transi-
torinessmony; Ex. civil strife/disorder/law; N. civility; CF. civic
 alacrity cheerful promptness without reluctance
 sully dele; soil; tarnish; Ex. sully one's hands in me-
 remittance remitting of money; amount of money re-nial labor
mitted
 tend have a tendency; take care of; minister; serve at;
 timbre quality of a musical tone produced by a musi-apply one's attention; atten
d
cal instrument (which distinguishes it from others of the
 prone inclined to; likely to (suffer); prostrate; lying with
same pitch)the front downward; Ex. prone to disease/make mis-
 resuscitate revive; bring back to life or consciousness;takes; Ex. accident-pron
e
Ex. resuscitate the drowned child sonorous resonant; producing a full deep sound;
pro-
 culmination highest point; climax; V. culminate in:ducing sound
reach the highest point in; end in; Ex. a series of minor chalice goblet; consecr
ated cup
clashes culminating in war
 blighted suffering from a disease; destroyed
 gurine small ornamental statuette(very small statue)
 lank long and thin; Ex. Lank, gaunt, Abraham Lincoln
 ravel fall apart into tangles; entangle; unravel or un-
twist migrant changing its habitat; wandering; Ex. migrant
birds/workers; N: one that migrates
 stem from arise from; originate from
 collage work of art put together from fragments
 decipher decode; CF. indecipherable
 somnambulist sleepwalker; V. somnambulate; N. som-
 endear make beloved; Ex. endear her to everyone; ADJ.nambulism
dear: loved; cherished; high-priced
 ush redden; blush; ow suddenly and abundantly;
 prohibitive so high as to prohibit purchase or use; tend-wash out by a rapid bri
ef ow of water; N: reddish
ing to prevent the purchase or use of something; pro-tinge; blush; brief rush; r
ush of strong feeling; Ex. ush
hibiting; inclined to prevent or forbid; Ex. prohibitive
of pride; ADJ: having surfaces in the same plane; even;
taxblushing
 obdurate stubborn; refusing to change one's belief
 dismiss eliminate from consideration; no longer con-
 millennium thousand-year period (as in the New Tes-sider; put out of court witho
ut further hearing; reject;
tament); hoped-for period of happiness and prosperitydischarge from employment;
direct to leave; ADJ. dis-
missive; N. dismissal
37

--------------------------------------- 38
 libretto text of an opera or oratorio; CF. book aboriginal being the rst of its ki
nd in a region; primi-
tive; native; indigenous; N. aborigine
 vegetate live in a monotonous way (without interests or
activity); CF. vegetation: plants of an area; CF. vegetar- recount narrate or tel
l (a story); count over again
ian; CF. vegan
 disarray state of disorder; a disorderly or untidy state;
 navigable (of a body of water) wide and deep enough toEx. with her clothes in di
sarray
allow ships to pass through; (of a ship or aircraft) able
to be steered convoluted coiled around; twisted; involved; compli-
cated; intricate; complex; N. convolution: twist; one of
 salacious lascivious; lustful; Ex. salacious monkthe convex folds of the surface
of the brain
 neologism new or newly coined word or phrase indulge yield to; gratify; allow one
self a special plea-
sure; Ex. indulge one's every whim/a child/in a big
 codicil supplement to the body of a will; later additioncigarette; N. indulgence
to a will
 tension stretching; condition of being stretched; mental gesticulation motion; ge
sture; V. gesticulate: make ges-
tures (while speaking)
strain; strained relationship between groups or people
 cordon extended line of men or fortications to prevent vixen female fox; ill-tempe
red woman; CF. shrew
access or egress; (#QL:\ "f ×¼|½Ó x9ܼ-Ð u H) © d  tarnish make or become dull or discolor
o :r; V. hypercritical excessively exacting; too critical (without
 disjunction act or state of separation; disunity; CF. dis-noticing good qualitie
s)
junctive: expressing a choice between two ideas; CF.
conjunction; CF. conjunctive23
 wary very cautious; watchful ofcious meddlesome; excessively pushy in offering
 effectuate effect; produce; achieve; Ex. effectuate a rec-one's services; overly
eager in offering unwanted ser-
onciliationvices or advices; Ex. ofcious bellboy
 vex annoy; distress cow terrorize; intimidate
 clapper striker (tongue) of a bell representational (of a style of art) showing t
hings as
they actually appear in real life
 decollet´e´ (of a dress) having a low-cut neckline; CF.
decolletage:´low neckline (on a dress) viscid adhesive; gluey
 brag boast infraction violation (of a rule or regulation); breach
 injurious harmful; causing injury sunder separate; part; CF. asunder
 ciliated having minute hairs; CF. cilium; CF. cilia: eye- stilted bombastic; stify
pompous; Ex. stilted rhetoric;
lashCF. stiff: formal
 precursor forerunner; predecessor dele pollute; make lthy or dirty; corrupt morally
;
profane; desecrate; N: narrow passage or gorge through
 repudiate disown; disavow; denymountains
 tome large volume; book
 pine long for; yearn; languish from longing or grief; de-
 irt behave in a way that attracts (sexual) attention; dealcline
triingly with; N: one (or woman) given to irting; ADJ.
irtatious revulsion sudden strong feeling of disgust; sudden vi-
olent change of feeling; negative reaction; Ex. revulsion
 diligence steadiness of effort; persistent hard workfrom the scenes of torture
 limn draw; outline; describe; CF. line ? refractory unmanageable; disobedient and
stubborn;
Ex. refractory horse
 beset harass or trouble from all directions; hem in
 platonic purely spiritual; theoretical; without sensual decorum propriety; orderl
iness and good taste in man-
ners; appropriateness of behavior or conduct
desire
 parallel similar; analogous; corresponding; N: parallel tirade long angry denunci
atory speech; diatribe; ha-
rangue; extended scolding; denunciation
line; person or thing that is parallel (to another); simi-
larity; Ex. know of no parallel to the case; Ex. without paradigm model; example
that serves as a model; pat-
parallel; V: be similar to; make parallel; Ex. Your experi-tern; list of all the
inectional forms of a word
ence parallels mine; CF. unparalleled
 sibling brother or sister
 restitution returning something (lost or stolen) to the peripheral of a periphery
; marginal; outer; of minor im-
rightful owner; reparation; indemnication; compensa-
tion for loss, damage, or injuryportance; not central; Ex. peripheral nerve/inte
rest
 squelch produce a splashing sound (when stepping
 unsightly ugly; unpleasant to look at
through mud); crush; squash; CF. f °`¦ 0A\ "f µ1á`¦
 domineer rule over tyrannicallyM:
38

--------------------------------------- 39
dislodge the food caught in his throat; CF. lodgebranching into two parts (espec
ially contradictory ones)
 preeminent outstanding; superior
 hovel shack; small wretched house
 mesmerize hypnotize; N. mesmerism; CF. Franz Mes-
mer artful exhibiting art or skill; deceitful; cunning; CF. arti-
ce
 lax careless; negligent; not paying enough attention; Ex.
lax service deputize work or appoint as a deputy; N. deputy: per-
son who has the power to take charge when the leading
 scoff laugh (at); mock; ridicule; Ex. scoff at their threats
person is away
 responsiveness state of reacting readily to appeals, or-
 infantile childish; infantlikeders, etc.; ADJ. responsive: readily reacting; Ex.
respon-
 imperious domineering; too commanding; haughty;sive to treatment
CF. imperial/emperor precipice cliff; dangerous position; Ex. on the edge of
 pastoral rural; of rural life; idyllic; of a pastorthe precipice
 herald messenger; sign of something to come; V: an- bauble trinket; cheap jewel;
trie
nounce; proclaim; Ex. unheralded researcher primate group of mammals including hu
mans
 hapless unfortunate; luckless
 sterile incapable of producing young; free from mi-
 wan having a pale or sickly color; pallidcroorganism; V. sterilize
 saboteur one who commits sabotage; destroyer of prop- occult mysterious; secret;
supernatural; beyond human
erty; N. sabotage: destruction of property (usually car-comprehension; CF. myste
rious to human ?; OP. bare
ried out secretly)
 opus work (esp. musical composition); Ex. magnum
 curfew regulation requiring all people to leave theopus: masterpiece; CF. opera
streets at stated times; signal (as a bell) announcing the fringe decorative edge
of hanging threads; edge
hour of a curfew
 whet sharpen; stimulate; Ex. whet someone's appetite
 pariah social outcast; Ex. Mariah the pariah
 knoll little round hill; hillock
 slake satisfy (thirst); quench; sate
 graphite black form of carbon used in lead pencils
 unfeigned genuine; real diadem crown
 plebeian common; vulgar; pertaining to the common peripatetic walking about from
place to place (to work);
people; N: common people in ancient Rome; CF. patri-moving; Ex. peripatetic scho
ol of philosophy
cian
 tenet doctrine; dogma
 mock ridicule; deride; imitate often in derision
 coincidence the chance occurrence, at the same time, of aloft upward; high up in
the air
two or more seemingly connected events; V. coincide: nautical pertaining to ships
or navigation
happen at the same time; be in agreement; CF. coinci- acknowledge recognize; admi
t
dent; CF. coincidental
 ulcer sore place appearing on the skin inside or outside
 impregnate make pregnant; ll thoroughly; saturatethe body; Ex. stomach ulcer; ADJ
. ulcerous; V. ulcerate
 vacuous empty; lacking in ideas; inane; stupid; Ex. vac- propound put forth for c
onsideration or analysis; set
uous expression; N. vacuityforth; Ex. propound a problem/theory
 unobtrusive inconspicuous; not blatant affront insult; offense; intentional act o
f disrespect; V:
 devotee enthusiastic follower; enthusiast; Ex. devoteeinsult or hurt the feeling
s of intentionally
of Bach
 accelerate move faster
 veer change in direction; swerve
 beseech beg; plead with
 resonant (of a sound) echoing; resounding(sounding prototype original work used a
s a model by others
loudly); deep and full in sound; producing resonance;
Ex. resonant voice; N. resonance aver state condently; declare as true
 bullion gold and silver in the form of bars simile comparison of one thing with a
nother, using the
word like or as
 somber dark; gloomy; melancholy; depressing; CF.
shadow unravel disentangle; solve
 deprecate express disapproval of; deplore; protest
 amble walking at an easy unhurried pace; V: walk
slowly and aimlesslyagainst; belittle; ADJ. deprecatory
 ramication branching out; subdivision; one branch of
 impecunious without money
a system; one of the results following from an action or
 spectral ghostly; N. specter: spectre; ghost; phantomdecision; Ex. ramications of
a business/the decision
39

--------------------------------------- 40
manner; exchange (words) heatedly; quarrel; Ex. bandy reimburse repay; pay back
words with
 raucous (of voice) harsh and unpleasant; (of people)
 disembark debark; go ashore (from a ship); unload
cargo from a ship; CF. embarkdisorderly and boisterous; Ex. raucous shouts
 blush become red in the face (from embarrassment or baleful evil; malignant in in
tent or effect; deadly; hav-
ing a malign inuence; portending evil; ominous;
shame); become red or rosy; N.threatening; Ex. baleful look
 abash embarrass noose loop formed in a rope
 prevail be widespread; triumph over; gain victory; pre- clamber climb by crawling
with difculties; scramble
vail on: persuade; induce; Ex. Justice has prevailed; Ex.
 accede agree
prevail on someone to do something
 fertile producing many young, fruits, or seeds; (of land)
 raze destroy completely; Ex. raze the city to the ground
producing good crops; V. fertilize
 diaphanous sheer; transparent staccato played in an abrupt manner; marked by abru
pt
sharp sound; Ex. staccato applause
 mystic of hidden meaning and spiritual power; Ex.
mystic ceremonies; N. CF. mysticism weather pass safely through (a storm or difcul
t pe-
riod); endure the effects of weather or other forces
 concoct prepare by mixing or combining; make up in
 cozen cheat; hoodwink; swindle
concert; devise (something false) so as to deceive; Ex.
concoct an elaborate excuse for being late; N. concoction redress remedy; compens
ation; Ex. seek redress for the
damage to your car; V: put right; remedy or rectify (a
wrong); make amends for
 guffaw boisterous laughter; V.
 denouement´nal outcome; nal development of the
 afliation joining; associating with
plot of a play or other literary work; the end of a story
 trigger set off; startwhen everything is explained
 emollient soothing or softening remedy (for the skin); subjective inuenced by pers
onal feelings; occurring or
ADJ.taking place within the mind; unreal; Ex. subjective sen-
 wilt loose freshness; droopsation of the ghostly presence
 iota very small quantity decoy lure or bait; V.
 quash crush; suppress; squash; subdue; annul; Ex. exempt not subject to a duty or
obligation; free from a
quash a rebellion/the decision of the low courtduty; V.
 qualify reach a necessary standard; limit the meaning
 eece wool coat of a sheep; V: shear the eece from; rob
by a trick; swindle; plunderof something stated
 inroad hostile invasion; advance that lessens the quan-
 spoilsport one who spoils the pleasure of others
tity or difculty of something; Ex. The long illness made
serious inroads on his savings; CF. raid
24
 apiarist person who keeps bees
 protrude stick out; jut; project; Ex. protruding teeth
 deign condescend; stoop
 ellipsis omission of words from a text; mark used to in-
 travesty copy or example of something that completely
dicate an omission (when the meaning can be under-
stood without them); PL. ellipsesmisrepresents the true nature of the real thing
; comical
parody or imitation; treatment aimed at making some-
 clasp hold rmly within armsthing appear ridiculous; Ex. travesty of justice; OP.
 demeanor behavior; bearingparagon
 vassal in feudalism, one who held land of a superior scrap small bit or fragment;
discarded waste material;
ght; Ex. a scrap of paper/cloth; V: break into parts for
lord; subordinate or dependent
disposal; discard as worthless; ght; quarrel
 stumble trip and almost fall; proceed unsteadily; act fal-
teringly; N. inconsequential insignicant; unimportant
 fastidious difcult to please; squeamish; fussy; nicky reconcile make friendly again
(after quarrel); make con-
sistent (two ideas in opposition); correct inconsistencies;
 brittle hard but easily broken; difcult; unstable; Ex.Ex. reconcile one's politic
al principles with one's reli-
brittle situationgious beliefs
 dogged determined; stubborn; stubbornly persevering; bevy large group; Ex. a bevy
of starlets
tenacious; Ex. Inspector Javert's dogged pursuit of Jean
Valjean evoke call forth (memory or feeling); Ex. That old lm
evoked memories of my childhood; N. evocation
 bully one who is habitually cruel to weaker people; V.
 legislature legislating branch of government; CF. legis-
 uster confuse; make nervous and confused; N.late: make laws
40
--------------------------------------- 41
 punitive punishing; Ex. punitive measures mote small speck (esp. of dust)
 vantage position giving an advantage (such as a strate- sheathe place into a case
; insert into or provide with a
gic point); CF. vantagepointsheath; Ex. He sheathed his dagger; N. sheath: case
for
 larceny theft; Ex. petit larcenya blade
 attenuate make thin; weaken
 impromptu without previous preparation; off the
cuff(end of a sleeve); on the spur of the moment earthy unrened; coarse; of earth;
Ex. earthy remarks;
 excoriate scold with biting harshness; censure strongly;OP. ethereal
strip the skin off odds chances; probability; disagreement; Ex. The odds
 taint contaminate; cause to lose purity; modify with aare that it will rain. Ex.
at odds with
trace of something bad; Ex. tainted reputation; N: stain; tangential only slightl
y connected; not central; periph-
touch of decay or bad inuence; CF. toucheral; digressing; showing divergence; CF.
tangent
 stricture severe and adverse criticism; critical com- eulogistic praising; full o
f eulogy
ments; limit or restriction
 suavity urbanity; polish; ADJ. suave: smooth and cour-
 olfactory concerning the sense of smellteous
 galvanic of the production of electricity by the action of mogul powerful person;
Ex. oil moguls; CF. Mogol,
an acid on a metal; having the effect of an electric shock;Moghul; CF. Mongolian
Ex. galvanic cell; galvanic effect; CF. Luigi Galvani
 imperial like an emperor; related to an empire; CF. im-
 frock long loose garment (worn by monks)perialism
 implication something hinted at or suggested; imply- dumbfound(dumfound) astonish
(making dumb);
ing; implicatingADJ. dumbfounded, dumfounded, dumbstruck
 neophyte recent convert; new member of a religious sham pretend; feign; ADJ: not
genuine; fake; Ex. sham
group; beginner; CF. plantjewelry; N: something that is not what it appears; im-
postor; pretense; Ex. The agreement was a sham.
 conclave private secret meeting
 distend expand; swell out insightful discerning; perceptive
 pell-mell in confusion; disorderly; Ex. dash pell-mell atrophy wasting away; V: w
eaken and lose esh and
 luminous shining (esp. in the dark); issuing light; Ex.muscle (through lack of b
lood or lack of use)
 nectar drink of the gods; sweet liquid collected by bees
luminous paint/road signs
 pallet small poor bed; Ex. straw pallet augment increase; add to
 frond fern leaf; palm or banana leaf
 bombastic pompous; using inated language
 reprisal retaliation saturnine morose; gloomy; Ex. Do not be misled by his
saturnine countenance.
 accomplice partner in crime
 exiguous small in amount; minute predilection preference; partiality
 sybarite lover of luxury; person devoted to pleasure
 wretch miserable person; bad or despicable person;and luxury; CF. Sybaris: an an
cient Greek city in Italy
ADJ. wretched: miserable; bad; contemptible; vile
 mundane worldly as opposed to spiritual; everyday; of bucolic rustic; pastoral
the ordinary; Ex. mundane existence; CF. world
 internecine mutually destructive onerous burdensome
 hypnosis induced sleeping state; ADJ. hypnotic; V. hyp-
 orator public speakernotize
 sanctuary place of refuge; shelter; shrine; holy place; Ex.
 anneal reduce brittleness and improve toughness by
The outlaw was granted sanctuary in the church.heating and cooling (metal or gla
ss)
 diva operatic singer; prima donna
 ambulatory able to walk25
 umbrage resentment; anger; sense of injury or insult; foray raid; sudden raid or
military advance; V.
Ex. take umbrage at his rudeness
 spasmodic tful; periodic; of or like a spasm; N. spasm:
 timorous fearful; timid; demonstrating fearsudden involuntary muscular contracti
on; sudden burst
 rousing lively; inducing excitement; stirring; V. rouse:of energy or emotion
waken; arouse from sleep or depression; excite; stir up dwindle shrink; reduce gr
adually
 ogle look at amorously; make eyes at; Ex. old men equable tranquil; of even calm
temper; (of temperature)
ogling young girlssteady; uniform
 mottled blotched in coloring; spotted; Ex. mottled face; offhand casual; done wit
hout prior thought or prepara-
V. mottle: mark with blotches of different colorstion
41

--------------------------------------- 42
pledge by one who refuses to take an oath; V. afrm;stall by acting rst; appropriat
e for oneself before oth-
ADJ. afrmative; CF. afrmative action: positive dis-ers; supplant; take the place o
f; displace; Ex. preempt
criminationany attempts; ADJ. preemptive
 reparable capable of being repaired testator maker of a will; CF. testatrix
 malaise uneasiness; vague feeling of ill health (without libertine debauched pers
on; dissolute or licentious per-
any particular pain or appearance of disease)son; roue;´ CF. free
 fecundity fertility; fruitfulness; ADJ. fecund: very pro- consolidation unication;
process of becoming rmer
ductive of crops or youngor stronger; V. consolidate: merge; strengthen
 veto vested power to reject a bill; exercise of this right;
 frieze ornamental horizontal band on a wallV: prevent or forbid by exercising th
e power of veto
 canter slow gallop; V. CF. trot
 dishonor disgrace; N. ADJ. dishonorable
 reserve self-control; self-restraint; formal but distant
manner; reticence; Ex. without reserve: freely and hull husk; dry outer covering
of a seed; frame or body
openly; ADJ. reserved: shy and uncommunicativeof a ship
 inception start; beginning
 whimsical capricious; fanciful; amusingly strange
 grandeur impressiveness; stateliness; majesty
 feebleminded decient in intelligence; very stupid extirpate root up; uproot; destr
oy completely
 exodus departure (of a large number of people)
 bicker quarrel
 collate examine and compare in order to verify authen-
ticity; arrange in order (the sheets of a book before they euphemism mild express
ion in place of an unpleasant
are bound)one; ADJ. euphemistic
 ordeal severe trial or afiction; difcult experience;
 whittle pare; cut away thin bits (from wood); fashion intrial(test of patience o
r endurance); afiction
this way; reduce gradually; trim
 limber exible; supple; pliable; V.
 soporic sleep-causing; marked by sleepiness; drowsy
 astronomical enormously large or extensive
 pterodactyl extinct ying reptile; CF. wing+nger presage foretell; be a warning or s
ign of; N: presenti-
 mass Christian religious ceremony; CF. Mass: ceremonyment; foreboding; omen
of the Eucharist
 uproar noisy confusion
 coagulate congeal; thicken; clot; N. coagulant nuptial related to marriage or the
wedding ceremony;
 metaphysical pertaining to speculative philosophy; ofN. nuptials: wedding ceremo
ny
metaphysics; N. metaphysics: branch of philosophy chaotic in utter disorder
that examines the nature of reality
 shack crude cabin
 compulsive resulting from compulsion caucus private meeting of a group of people
in a polit-
 incumbent obligatory; imposed as an obligation; cur-ical party to select ofcers o
r determine policy; CF. the
rently holding an ofce; N: person who holds an ofceCaucus club of Boston
 inveterate deep-rooted; habitual; CF. grow old
 swipe hit with a sweeping motion; N.
 besiege surround with armed forces; harass (with re-
 deify turn into a god; make a god of; idolize; Ex. Kingsquests); annoy continual
ly
were deied; CF. deity relish enjoy; savor; N: enjoyment; zest
 prodigy highly gifted child; person with exceptional dull (of colors or surfaces)
not bright; cloudy; overcast;
talents; marvel; wonderboring; (of edge or sound) not sharp; not rapid; slug-
gish; slow in thinking and understanding; stupid; V.
 hazy slightly obscure; misty; unclear; N. haze: light
mist or smoke; confused state of mind monumental massive; impressively large; bui
lt as a
 incidental not essential; minor; N: something incidentalmonument
 attire clothe; N: clothing; array; apparel
 decrepit weak and in bad condition from old age or theocracy government run by re
ligious leaders
hard use; Ex. decrepit old chair/man
 cerebral pertaining to the brain or intellect; intellectual
 methodical systematic; N. method: systematic methodrather than emotional; CF. ce
rebrum
of procedure afuence abundance; wealth
 malapropos inappropriate; ADV. carnage destruction of life; slaughter; killing of
large
 capacity mental or physical ability; role; position ornumbers of people or anima
ls
duty; ability to accommodate; Ex. in my capacity as whelp young animal (esp. of t
he dog or cat family);
presidentyoung wolf, dog, tiger, etc.
42

--------------------------------------- 43
Ex. smothered in little stickers
 granulate form into grains or granules; N. granule:26
grain or particle harry harass, annoy, torment (by repeated attacks); raid
 tessellated mosaic; inlaid; Ex. tessellated pattern
 mutablility ability to change in form; ckleness; ADJ. prologue introduction (to a
poem or play)
mutable: able to change; ckle; CF. mutate; CF. mutant piebald of different colors;
mottled; spotted in different
 Epicurean believing that pleasure is good and sufferingcolors (esp. in black and
white); Ex. piebald horse; CF.
is bad and should be avoided; N.pie+bald
 abyss enormous chasm; vast bottomless pit polemical(polemic) aggressive in verbal
attack; dispu-
 retrograde go backwards; recede; degenerate; deterio-tatious (rather than simply
expressing opinions)
rate; ADJ. maroon leave helpless on a deserted island or coast;
ADJ. red brown
 psychic of psyche; mental; of or possessing extraordi-
nary mental powers talon claw of bird
 encircle surround pander cater to (the low desires of others)
 tantrum t of bad temper; t of petulance; caprice; Ex. archives public records; plac
e where public records are
The child went into tantrums.kept
 abhor detest; hate impious irreverent
 lassitude languor; weariness; listlessness discompose disturb the composure of; c
onfuse
 wean accustom a baby not to nurse; accustom (the residue remainder; balance
young of a mammal) to take nourishment other than by febrile feverish
suckling; give up a cherished activity; cause to gradu-
ally leave (an interest or habit); Ex. wean oneself from ebb (of the tide) recede
; lessen; diminish; N. OP. ow:
cigarettesrise of tide
 propellant(propellent) substance which propels or frenetic(phrenetic) frenzied; f
rantic
drives forward (such as an explosive charge or a rocket bacchanalian drunken
fuel)
 tantalize tease; excite by exposing something desirable
 sententious pithy; terse; concise; aphoristicwhile keeping it out of reach; tort
ure with disappoint-
 elysian relating to paradise; blissfulment; CF. Tantalus: Greek mythological gure
 adversity great hardship or afiction; misfortune; diminution lessening; reduction
in size; V. diminish
calamitous event solicitous anxious; worried; concerned; eager; Ex. so-
 hermetic concerning alchemy or magic; obscure andlicitous to do something; N. so
licitude
mysterious; occult
 contiguous adjacent to; touching upon
 artisan a manually skilled worker refrain abstain from; resist; forbear; N: choru
s
 annex attach; add to a large thing; take possession of;
 dissolution disintegration; reduction to a liquid form;
incorporate (territory) into a larger existing political unit
(by force); N: building added to a large onelooseness in morals; sensual indulge
nce; debauchery;
ADJ. dissolute: lacking in moral restraint; leading an
 refulgent effulgent; brilliant; brightly shining; gleam-immoral life
ing; Ex. refulgent moon
 elusive evasive; not frank; bafing; hard to grasp, catch,
 enrapture please intensely; ll with rapture and delightor understand; V. elude: e
scape from; escape the under-
standing or grasp of; Ex. elude the hunter; Ex. His name
 primp groom oneself with care; adorn oneselfeludes me.
 resort turn to for help; Ex. resort to violence; N. aegis shield; protection; def
ense
 beget father; become the father of; produce; give rise to feline of a member of t
he cat family; N.
 rostrum raised platform for speech-making; pulpit downcast disheartened; dejected
; sad; directed down-
 agility nimbleness; ability to move quicklyward
 conjugal pertaining to marriage diatribe bitter scolding or denunciation; invecti
ve;
abuse
 woeful sad; (of something bad) deplorable; deplorably
bad; Ex. woeful housing conditions license ofcial or legal permission; latitude of
action or
speech; excessive freedom that causes harm or damage;
 oatmeal crushed oats used for making porridgeV.
 periphery outside edge especially of a round surface; didactic (of speech or writ
ing) intended to teach a moral
perimeter; Ex. periphery of the townlesson; teaching; instructional; N. didactic
ism
43

--------------------------------------- 44
ganization) sneakily; Ex. inltrate the troops into enemymarked intervals (for use
in measurement); Ex. gradu-
territory; CF. inltratorated ruler
 assumption something taken for granted; the taking amok(amuck) in a state of rage
; Ex. run amok
over or taking possession of; Ex. her assumption of
 verve enthusiasm (as in artistic performance or compo-
power; V. assumesition); liveliness; vigor
 encomiastic praising; eulogistic; N. encomium: very maelstrom violent whirlpool;
violent or tublent situa-
high praise; eulogytion; CF. stream
 behemoth huge creature; something of monstrous size centrifuge machine that separ
ates substances by
or powerwhirling them
 penology study of prison management and criminal re- homogeneous of the same kind
; uniform in composi-
habilitationtion throughout
 meticulous excessively careful (with great attention to edict decree (especially
one issued by a sovereign); of-
detail); painstaking; scrupulouscial command
 embrace hug; clasp with the arms; adopt or espouse; margin border; room; allowanc
e beyond what is
accept readily; encircle; include; Ex. embrace theneeded; Ex. margin of safety
cause/socialism; Ex. all-embracing; CF. brace; CF. vernal pertaining to spring
bracelet skulk move furtively and secretly; Ex. He skulked
 luminary celebrity (in a specic eld); dignitary; objectthrough the less fashionabl
e sections of the city.
that gives light (as a celestial body)
 drip fall or let fall in drops; shed drops; N: action or
 parry ward off a blow; deect; Ex. He parried the un-sound of falling in drops; li
quid that falls in drops
welcome question very skillfully; N. CF. } H H >h¥Æ
s _  rebuttal refutation; response with contrary evidence; V.
rebut: refute; disprove
 desiccate dry up predetermine determine in advance; predestine; settle
or decide beforehand; inuence markedly
 dominant exercising the most inuence; high and eas-
ily seen; stronger than the other part of a system; not paraphrase restate a pass
age in one's own words while
recessiveretaining thought of author; N: restatement of a text in
other words
 poseur person who pretends to be sophisticated, ele-
gant, etc., to impress others; person who poses; CF. pose stoic stoical; impassiv
e; unmoved by joy or grief; N. CF.
stoicism
 oblique indirect; slanting (deviating from the perpen- clap strike the palms of t
he hands together with a sud-
dicular or from a straight line); Ex. oblique referenceden explosive sound; come
together suddenly with a
 reverie daydream; abstracted musingsharp sound; put or send promptly; Ex. clap t
he thief in
jail; N: clapping; loud or explosive sound; CF. applause
 corporeal bodily (rather than spiritual); of a bodily wanderlust strong longing t
o travel
form; material; tangible
 pliable exible; easily inuenced; yielding; adaptable
 thresh beat (cereal plants) with a machine or ail to sep- pedagogue teacher; CF. c
hild leader
arate the grains from the straw
 indemnify make secure against damage or loss; com- protagonist leader or noticeab
le supporter of an idea;
chief character in a play or story
pensate for damage or loss; CF. make uninjured
 scavenge hunt through discarded materials for usable unmitigated (of something ba
d) not moderated; unre-
items or food; search, especially for food; N. scavenger:lieved or immoderate; w
ithout qualication; absolute;
one who scavenges; animal that feeds on refuse and car-Ex. unmitigated disaster
 obelisk tall column tapering(becoming gradually nar-
rionrower toward the end) and ending in a pyramid
 pulse rhythmical throbbing of arteries; brief sudden
change in a normally constant quantity; V: pulsate blowhard talkative boaster; br
aggart
 egress exit; opening for going out; act of going out; OP. interpolate insert betw
een
ingress anarchy absence of governing body; state of disorder
 gradation series of gradual stages; degree in such a pro- felon person convicted
of a grave crime; CF. felony: se-
gressionrious crime
 braggadocio boasting
 incredulity tendency to disbelief
 manifold many in number or kind; numerous; varied curator superintendent; manager
(in charge of a mu-
seum or a library)
 renegade deserter; traitor; ADJ.
 nimble quick in movement; agile; quick in understand-
 haughtiness pride; arrogance; ADJ. haughtying; Ex. nimble climber/mind
44

--------------------------------------- 45
 cajole persuade by praise or false promise; coax; whee-pounding(beating); pliabl
e; (of someone) impression-
dleable(easily inuenced); easily controlled; tractable
 run-down (of a place) dilapidated; in a bad condition; eventual happening at last
as a result; Ex. eventual vic-
tory
(of a person) weak or exhausted
 imponderable weightless; that cannot undergo precise
 swindler cheaterevaluation; CF. pound
 nip snip off; stop something's growth or development;
 pervert corrupt; turn from right to wrong; misuse; Ex.
bite; make numb with cold; Ex. nip the plan; Ex. Aperverted sexual desire/scient
ic knowledge; N: per-
guard dog nipped the postman; Ex. ngers nipped by
the extreme chillson whose sexual behavior is not natural
 climactic relating to the highest point; N. climax; CF. cli-
 parvenu upstart; newly rich person
matic
 impolitic not wise; not expedient; not politic
 supercial of the surface; not deep; shallow; not thor-
 remunerative (of work) compensating; rewarding;ough; trivial; Ex. supercial analy
sis/knowledge
protable; well-paid; V. remunerate: reward; pay
 argot slang; speech spoken by only a small group of
(someone) for work or troublepeople
 epic long heroic poem, novel, or similar work of art (cel-
 genus division of animals or plants, below a family and
ebrating the feats of a hero); ADJ: (of stories or events)above a species
resembling an epic; grand
 withdrawn introverted; retiring; remote
 disparity difference; condition of inequality; OP. parity
 pore study industriously; ponder; scrutinize; Ex. pore
 dispel scatter; drive away; cause to vanishover the book; N.
 brand trademark; mark burned on the hide of an ani- empathy ability to identify w
ith another's feelings,
mal; mark burned into the esh of criminals; mark ofideas, etc.; identication with
and understanding of an-
disgrace; V: mark with a brand; give a lasting bad name;other's feelings; V. emp
athize; CF. sympathy
stigmatize; Ex. The press branded him a liar. demise death
 increment increase
 hyperbole exaggeration; overstatement; ADJ. hyper-
 accost approach and speak rst to a personbolic: of hyperbole; of a hyperbola
 scad a great quantity; Ex. scads of clothes yoke join together; unite; N: crossba
r used to joining
two draft animals
27 lament grieve; express sorrow; N. lamentation
 abstinence restraint from pleasant things, esp. eating or totem animal, plant, or
natural object serving as a sym-
drinking; CF. abstention: act of abstaining from votebol of a clan or family; re
presentation of this; Ex. totem
pole
 slough (of a snake) shed or cast off (dead outer skin); N:
outer layer that is shed autopsy examination of a dead body; postmortem; V.
 execute put into effect; carry out; kill as a lawful pun- venturesome (of a perso
n) bold; adventurous; daring;
ishment; N. execution(of an action) risky
 parochial narrow in scope or outlook; provincial; re- indefatigable tireless; unt
iring; showing no sign of get-
lated to parishesting tired
 afdavit written statement made under oath (for use as insensible unconscious; unre
sponsive; insensitive; un-
proof in a court of law)aware; imperceptible; Ex. insensible of his danger/to
pain; Ex. insensible change; CF. not the opposite of sen-
 chaplain clergyman attached to a chapel
sible
 entourage group of attendants; retinue; CF. surround squabble minor quarrel; bick
ering; V: engage in a mi-
 induct place formally in ofce; install; admit as a mem-nor quarrel; Ex. squabblin
g children
ber; initiate; N. induction: inducting; process of deriv- volatile changeable; of
a quickly changing nature (as
ing general principles from particular factsof temper); mercurial; tending to vi
olence; evaporating
rapidly; Ex. volatile character/situation in the street
 remote distant in manner; aloof
 doldrums blues; listlessness(lack of spirit or energy); ewe female sheep
slack(inactive) period; period of stagnation; ocean area covetous avaricious; des
irous of (someone else's pos-
near the equator where ships cannot move because theresessions); V. covet: desir
e eagerly (someone else's pos-
is no wind; Ex. in the doldrumssessions)
 dulcet sweet sounding; pleasing to the ear; melodious meek submissive; patient an
d long-suffering
 dyslexia word blindness; learning disorder marked by impetuous violent; hasty; ra
sh; impulsive; without
impairment of the ability to readcareful thought; Ex. impetuous decision
45

--------------------------------------- 46
small miscellaneous items hydrophobia fear of water; rabies
 scurry move hastily; hurry; move briskly
 grouch bad-tempered complaint; person who keeps
 ineffectual not effective; not having a desired effect;complaining; V: complain;
grumble
weak tedium boredom; weariness; ADJ. tedious
 potent powerful; convincing; persuasive; greatly inu-
 carcinogenic causing cancer; N. carcinogen
ential
 barrage barrier laid down by artillery re; overwhelm- adage wise saying; proverb
ing profusion; large number of questions or statements; obsidian black volcanic r
ock
Ex. a barrage of criticism
 pulpit raised platform used in preaching (in a church)
 anchor secure or fasten rmly; be xed in place; N. an-
chorage luxuriate take pleasure in great comfort
 skim read or glance through quickly; touch lightly in
 graphic pertaining to the art of delineating; vividly de-
scribedpassing; brush; remove from the surface of a liquid
 cunning clever in deceiving; sly; N: cleverness in de- belligerent quarrelsome
ceiving; deceit vise vice; tool for holding work in place; clamping de-
 subjugate conquer; bring under controlvice
 turgid swollen; distended (as from liquid) dissipate squander; waste foolishly; s
catter
 cascade small waterfall
 scabbard case for a sword blade; sheath
 tart sharp to the taste; acid-tasting; caustic; sarcastic; Ex.
 reactionary strongly opposed to social or political
change; opposing progress; politically ultraconserva-tart apple/reply
tive; N. OP. radical miscreant wretch; wrongdoer; villain; Ex. kindness to
 illimitable innite; limitlessthe miscreant; CF. believe
 undulating moving with a wavelike motion; V. undu- doggerel poor verse
late; CF. und: wave atheistic denying the existence of God; N. atheism
 pass off present falsely; represent falsely to be uninhibited having no inhibitio
ns; free in behavior and
 interloper intruder; one who interferesfeelings
 frolicsome prankish; gay; playful; merry; frisky
 concord harmony; accord
 inexorable relentless; unyielding; implacable; not capa-
 wade walk through a substance, such as water, that im-
pedes movementble of being changed by entreaty or efforts; Ex. inex-
orable price rises
 delusion false belief; hallucination; deluding; Ex. delu-
sions of grandeur; Ex. under the delusion that surge powerful movement of or like
a wave; V.
 sublime causing deep feelings of wonder, joy, respect, surrogate substitute; pers
on or thing used in place of
etc.; exalted; noble and uplifting; utteranother; Ex. surrogate mother; ADJ.
 convoke call together; Ex. convoke Parliament; N. con- hue and cry outcry; loud c
ry or clamor; strong protest;
vocationEx. hue and cry against the new rule
 effective effectual; producing a strong response; pachyderm thick-skinned animal
striking; in operation; in effect; Ex.effective
 emetic substance causing vomiting; ADJ.
speech/photograph
 hortatory encouraging; exhortive; marked by exhorta- ironic expressing irony; occ
urring in an unexpected and
contrary manner
tion; CF. exhort
 discrete separate; unconnected
 squalor condition of being squalid; lth; degradation;
dirty neglected state; ADJ. squalid: dirty; sordid; problematic causing a problem
; open to doubt; doubt-
morally repulsive; Ex. squalid storyful; unsettled; questionable; Ex. Whether th
e arena will
ever be completed is problematic.
 bivouac temporary encampment; camp without tents;
V. purgatory place of spiritual expiation; temporary state
or place in which the souls must expiate their sins
 anguish acute pain; extreme suffering
 severity harshness; intensity; sternness; austerity; ADJ.
severe: harsh; strict; extremely violent or intense28
 insalubrious unwholesome; not healthful; Ex. insalu-
 omnivorous eating both plant and animal food; devour-
ing everythingbrious place
 smear spread or cover with a sticky substance; N: mark meddlesome interfering; V.
meddle: interfere
made by smearing cadet student at a military school
46

--------------------------------------- 47
spruce for your job interview; V. dissent disagree
 jumble mix in a confused way
 centigrade denoting a widely used temperature scale
 grimace facial distortion to show feeling such as pain,(basically same as Celsiu
s)
disgust, etc; V.
 whit small amount; smallest speck; Ex. not a whit of
 humble of low rank or position; modest; having a low arroyo gully; narrow channel
formed by rainwater
opinion of oneself and a high opinion of others; unas-
suming; not proud; V. humiliate: make humble; cause splice join together end to e
nd to make one continuous
to feel ashamed or to lose the respect of otherslength; fasten together; unite;
Ex. splice two strips of
tape; N.
 lurid wild; sensational; graphic; gruesome; horrible; Ex.
lurid details of the murder makeshift temporary expedient or substitute (in the
case of urgent need); Ex. makeshift shelter
 application diligent attention; diligence; V. apply one-
self monochromatic having only one color
 psychosis mental disorder; ADJ. N. psychotic irate angry; CF. ire: anger; wrath
 hoary white with age imposture assuming a false identity; masquerade; CF.
 vacillate waver (in opinion); uctuate; sway to and fro;impostor
N. vacillation ux owing; series of changes; uctuation; Ex. in a state
 sturdy strong and rm (in the body)of ux
 bulwark strong wall built for defense; earthwork or
 emblazon ornament richly (a shield or ag); N. embla-other strong defense; person
who defends
zonment
 harping tiresome dwelling on a subject; V. harp: dwell
 optometrist one who ts glasses to remedy visual de-on(think or speak a lot about)
tediously
fects
 profane violate; desecrate (something holy); treat un-
 impetus moving force; momentum; force of a movingworthily; be profane for; ADJ:
secular; nonreligious; ir-
body; incentive; stimulus; impulsereverent for holy things
 optional not compulsory; left to one's choice; N. option: mincing affectedly dain
ty(delicate); V. mince: cut (esp.
act of choosing; choice; freedom or power to choose;meat) into very small pieces
; walk with exaggerated
something available as a choice; Ex. have no option; Ex.
two optionsprimness; walk in an unnatural way, taking little short
steps; Ex. The actor minced across the stage; CF. mince-
 nadir lowest point; point on the celestial sphere diamet-meat; CF. mincer
rically opposite the zenith
 partial incomplete; favoring one side over another; hav-
 low moo; make the sound of a cowing a liking for something
 pastiche imitation of another's style in musical compo- sedentary requiring sitti
ng; done while sitting; not
sition or in writing; work of art openly imitating themoving from one place to a
nother; settled; Ex. seden-
works of other artiststary job/population
 selective careful in choosing; having an effect only on tan convert (hide) into l
eather; make brown by exposure
certain things; not general; Ex. eclectic weed killerto the sun
 eddy swirling current of water, air, etc.; V. equipoise balance; balancing force;
equilibrium
 languid lacking energy or vitality; weary; sluggish; list- recuperate recover; re
turn to health; regain; Ex. recu-
lessperate losses
 vestige trace; remains; Ex. vestiges of some ancient reli- at command; arbitrary o
rder; Ex. presidential at; CF.
gionlet it be done
 partisan one-sided; prejudiced; committed to a party crave desire; want intensely
(with dislike of any others); N: strong supporter of a
party; guerrilla putrid decayed and foul-smelling; foul; rotten; de-
cayed; N. putridity
 implicit understood but not stated; implied; unques-
tioning and complete; Ex. implicit trust puissant powerful; strong; potent; N. pu
issance: power
 thesis opinion put forward and supported by reasoned vendor seller
arguments
 inrmity weakness
 symbiosis interdependentrelationship(between
groups, species) often mutually benecial; ADJ. shoot new growth from a plant
symbiotic; CF. together + life
 arcade a covered passageway usually lined with shops
 sneak move, give, or take in a quiet, stealthy way; N: propriety tness; quality of
being proper; correct con-
one who sneaks; ADJ. sneakyduct; conformity to prevailing customs and usages; CF
.
 minutiae petty or trivial details; CF. minutiaproprietor, proprietary
47

--------------------------------------- 48
ment; nutrient setting in which microorganisms are cul-force or intensity
tivated; appropriate occupation or means of expression; objective not inuenced by
emotions; fair; N: goal; aim
channel of communication; compromise; middle posi-
tion between extremes; intervening substance through acoustics science of sound;
quality that makes a room
which something else is transmittedeasy or hard to hear in
 deploy spread out (troops) in an extended though shal- savant scholar; learned pe
rson; CF. savoir: know
low battle line; distribute (persons or forces) systemati- fraught lled (with some
thing unpleasant); full; Ex.
cally or strategically
fraught with danger and difculties; CF. freight
 rectify set right; correct; CF. rect-: right nonsense speech or writing with no m
eaning; foolish
 jabber chatter rapidly or unintelligiblybehavior or language; Ex. make (a) nonse
nse of: spoil;
cause to fail
 petrify turn to stone; cause to become stonelike; stun or
paralyze penance self-imposed punishment for sin; Ex.do
penance for one's sins; CF. penitent
 condone overlook; forgive; give tacit approval; excuse
 cede yield (title or territory) to (esp. after losing a war);
 strut pompous walk; V: walk in a self-important man-surrender formally; N. cessi
on
ner
 unanimity complete agreement; ADJ. unanimous
 collaborate work together; cooperate treasonably with
the enemy reprimand reprove severely; rebuke; N.
 rationalize make rational; devise false reasons for expertise specialized knowled
ge (in a particular eld);
expert skill
(one's behavior); offer an excuse; give a plausible rea-
son for an action in place of a true, less admirable ones; amicable peaceful; pol
itely friendly; not quarrelsome;
N. rationalizationEx. amicable settlement
 sensitization process of being made sensitive or acutely
responsive to an external agent or substance; V. sensi-29
tize: make or become sensitive glitter shine brightly with ashing points of light;
Ex.
glittering diamond ring; N: sparkling light; attractive-
 underlying lying below; fundamentalness; glamor; Ex. glitter of the sun on the w
aves
 bureaucracy overregulatedadministrativesystem
 dilatory delaying; tending to delay
marked by red tape; ADJ. bureaucratic
 inept unsuited; inappropriate; lacking skill; incompe-
 martinet strict disciplinarian; person who demands to-tent; CF. inapt: (of state
ments or ideas) inappropriate
tal obedience to rules and orders; CF. Jean Martinet
 remediable reparable gorge stuff oneself (with food); glut; CF. gorgeous: daz-
 urchin mischievous child (usually a boy); CF. urchin:zlingly beautiful
hedgehog; CF. porcupine: pig with spikes ?; CF. sea
urchin vent small opening; outlet (as of fumes or a gas); Ex. He
gave vent to his anger by kicking the chair.
 squash crush; quash; suppress
 skimp provide or use scantily; live very economically;
 impassioned (of speech) lled with passion; ferventEx. skimp on necessities; ADJ.
skimpy: inadequate in
amount; scanty; stingy; niggardly
 perpetuate make perpetual; make something last for a
long time; preserve from extinction; N. perpetuity yeoman man or farmer owning sm
all estate; middle-
class farmer
 anthropomorphic having human form or characteris-
tics construe explain; interpret; Ex. construe her silence as
meaning that she agreed; CF. misconstrue
 nondescript undistinctive; ordinary; ordinary-looking;
 implement put into effect; enforce; carry out; supply
Ex. nondescript fellow in a crowd
 prognosticate predict (according to present indications)with tools; Ex. implemen
t the plan/suggestion; N: tool
or instrument
 audit examination of accounts of a business; ofcial ex-
 agog highly excited; intensely curiousamination; V.
 apparent evident; easily seen or understood; appearing seedy run-down; decrepit;
disreputable; having many
as such; Ex. apparent improvementseeds; Ex. seedy downtown hotel
 bogus counterfeit; not authentic; intentionally false; Ex. juggernaut irresistibl
e crushing force; overwhelming
bogus interviewadvancing force that crushes everything in its path
 miserly stingy; mean vertebrate having a backbone or spinal column; N:
group of animals having a segmented spinal column
 vanguard forerunners; foremost position of an army;
advance forces; foremost position in a trend or move- epitaph inscription in memo
ry of a dead person (as on
ment; CF. rearguarda tombstone)
48

--------------------------------------- 49
mire; N: bog; deep mud; Ex. sucked deeper into themoving spontaneously
mire litotes understatement for emphasis; Ex. not
 revoke cancel; retract; CF. irrevocablebad(=pretty good)
 peruse read through with care; N. perusal renown fame; ADJ. renowned
 indignation anger at an injustice; Ex. righteous indig- blues state of depression
or melancholy; style of slow,
nation; ADJ. indignantmournful music (evolved from southern Black Ameri-
 niggle spend too much time on minor points (esp.can songs)
when nding fault); nd fault; Ex. niggle over details; concomitant that which accomp
anies; Ex. Deafnes is a
ADJ. nigglingfrequent concommitant of old age; ADJ: existing or hap-
pening together with something else
 slag glassy residue from smelting metal; dross; waste
matter conceit vanity or self-love; too high opinion of one's
 asunder into parts; apart; V. sunderown value; extravagant metaphor (in poetry)
 sleazy shabby and dirty; imsy; insubstantial; Ex. decelerate slow down
sleazy back-street hotel/fabric indigent poor; destitute
 hallucination delusion; false idea; false perception of shrewd clever; astute
objects with a compelling sense of their reality; objects incredulous withholding
belief; skeptical; showing dis-
so perceived; V. hallucinate; ADJ. hallucinatorybelief
 impervious impenetrable; incapable of being damaged
 tremor trembling; slight quiver (as of the earth or from
or distressed; incapable of being affected (in one's opin-nervous agitation)
ions); Ex. impervious to water/criticism
 jaunt trip; short journey concur agree; coincide; happen at the same time
 smelt melt (ore) for separating and removing the metal;
 solemnity seriousness; gravitymelt or blend ores changing their chemical composi
tion
 thermal pertaining to heat; producing heat; warm; Ex.
thermal bath; N: rising current of warm air
 hap chance; luck
 scotch stamp out(put an end to); thwart; hinder; Ex. deducible derived by reasoni
ng; V. deduce: infer; de-
scotch the rumor; CF. cut; CF. Ö¸1lx`¦ צs H _p
rive by reasoning
 cameo shell or jewel carved in relief; star's special ap- demolition destruction;
V. demolish
pearance in a minor role in a lm
 unwieldy awkward (to carry or move); cumbersome; aphorism pithy maxim or saying;
ADJ. aphoristic
unmanageable motto brief statement used to express a principle
 stygian unpleasantly dark; gloomy; hellish; deathly; CF. conuence owing together; t
he place where two rivers
Styx: the chief river in the subterranean land of the deadow together; crowd; gat
hering together
 bludgeon club; heavy-headed weapon; V.
 touchy oversensitive; easily offended; irasible; delicate; vile despicable; unple
asant; disgusting; Ex. vile slander
needing delicate handling; Ex. touchy situation
 skinint miser; stingy person
 glare shine intensely and blindingly; stare xedly and
 insurgent rebellious; N.angrily; N.
 replica copy convert one who has adopted a different religion or
 suckle give or take milk at the breast or udderopinion; V: change into another f
orm; (persuade to)
adopt a particular religion or belief
 frolic play and jump about happily; frisk; Ex. frolicking chisel swindle or cheat
; N: wedgelike tool for cutting
young lambs
 expatriate exile; someone who has withdrawn from his avocation secondary or minor
occupation
native land; V: exile; banish; leave one's country nery beautiful clothes for a sp
ecial occasion
 maladroit clumsy; not skillful; awkward; bungling lush (of a plant or grass) grow
ing very well
 lumen unit of light energy (one candle's worth) marrow soft fatty tissue that lls
most bone cavities and
 sever separate; cut off (a part) from a whole; break upis the source of blood ce
lls
(a relationship); N. severance; CF. severance pay: extra vulgar of the common peo
ple; decient in renement;
pay given an employee upon leaving a positionnot rened; coarse; Ex. vulgar displa
y of wealth; N.
vulgarism: vulgarity; crudely indecent word; CF. vul-
 diurnal daily; occurring during the daytimegarian: vulgar person; boor; lout
 predator predatory animal or bird; predatory person;
creature that seizes and devours another animal; person emolument salary; payment
for an ofce; compensa-
tion
who robs or exploits others; ADJ. predatory: living by
preying on other organisms; plundering; N. predation abysmal bottomless
49

--------------------------------------- 50
riages; parade; CF. cavalryll with wonder
 idiosyncrasy individual trait usually odd in nature; be- vouch give a personal gu
arantee; Ex. I can vouch for his
havioral peculiarity; eccentricity; attitude, behavior, orintegrity; N. voucher
opinion peculiar to a person; anything highly individ- lopsided heavier or larger
on one side than the other;
ual or eccentric; ADJ. idiosyncraticEx. lopsided way of walking
 constitution constituting; system of laws; composition indigenous native; Ex. pla
nt indigenous to the New
of something; physical makeup or structure of a person;World
Ex. men with strong constitutions
 rivet metal pin used for fastening metal plates together;
 enterprising full of initiative; showing enterpriseV: fasten with a rivet; engro
ss
 invulnerable incapable of injury; impossible to damage
 overture musical introduction to a long musical piece;
or injurerst offer or proposal (to begin talks in the hope of
 prime period of ideal or peak condition; earliest or be-reaching an agreement);
Ex. overtures for peace
ginning stage; Ex. in the prime of life; Ex. prime of the
 solecism nonstandard grammatical construction; con-
year(spring); ADJ: rst in importance or rank; rst; V:struction that is agrantly inc
orrect grammatically; vi-
make ready; prepareolation of social etiquette
 corollary natural consequence (which naturally follows jaunty cheerful and please
d with life; lighthearted; an-
from something else)imated; easy and carefree; dapper in appearance; Ex.
 brocade rich, gured(patterned) fabricjaunty person/hat
 laceration torn ragged wound; V. lacerate: tear (the skin practical based on expe
rience; of or acquired through
as with broken glass); woundpractice (rather than theory); useful; Ex. practical
man
 pretentious ostentatious; showy; pompous; making un- factotum handyman; person wh
o does all kinds of
justied claims; overambitious; Ex. pretentious lmswork; CF. do everything
that claim to be art parable short simple story teaching a moral
 pharisee Pharisee: member of an ancient Jewish group voluble uent; talkative; glib
; N. volubility
that emphasized strict observance of the Mosaic law
 castrate remove the sex organs (of a male animal or per-
(considering themselves very holy); hypocritical self-son)
righteous person
 malevolent wishing evil; exhibiting ill will; N. malevo-
 chore daily domestic task (such as cleaning, cooking,lence
and shopping); unpleasant task
 ethnic relating to races camaraderie good-fellowship; CF. comrade
 cognate having a common origin; related linguistically; implore beg
allied by blood; similar or akin in nature; Ex. cognate nettle irritate; annoy; v
ex; ADJ. nettlesome
languages; N. blackball vote against (an applicant); ostracize; N: neg-
 stagnant (of water) not owing (often bad-smelling);ative vote
motionless; stale; not developing; inactive; dull; Ex.
 ecosystem ecological community together with its envi-
stagnant industrial outputronment
 hide skin of an animal
 discredit defame; disgrace; destroy condence in; dis-
 consternation great shock; dismaybelieve; N. CF. discreditable: causing discredi
t; shame-
ful
 torrid (of weather) hot or scorching; passionate; Ex. tor-
rid love affairs bilious suffering from indigestion; sick from having too
much bile; irritable; easily irritated
 delirium mental disorder marked by confusion; uncon-
trolled excitement; ADJ. delirious rococo ornate; highly decorated; N. CF. 18th c
entury
 wastrel waster; proigate disapprobation disapproval; condemnation
 overthrow topple; N. shear remove (eece or hair) by cutting; remove the hair
or eece from; cut with or as if with shears; N: shears;
 smattering slight knowledge; small scattered number
or amount; Ex. smattering of Germanpair of scissors
 verbiage pompous array of words; too many unneces-
 throng crowd (of people or things); V.sary words; wordiness
 invincible unconquerable
30
 truncate cut the top off; shorten
 document provide written evidence (for a claim); allay calm; pacify
record with documents; N.
 disdain treat with scorn or contempt
 mongrel plant or animal (esp. a dog) of mixed breed;
ADJ. surmount overcome
50

--------------------------------------- 51
inferior; dishonest; Ex. shoddy goods/trickhumorous twist (expressing displeasur
e)
 phlegmatic calm and unexcitable; not easily disturbed; dowdy untidy (of a woman o
r clothes); slovenly;
CF. phlegm: sticky mucus produced in the respiratorydressed in an unattractive w
ay; shabby; CF. unattractive
tractwoman
 topography physical features of a region (such as the aphasia loss of speech due
to injury or illness
shape and height); CF. topo-: place
 coax persuade by attery
 nurse suckle; take care of (as a nurse); bear in mind;
Ex. nursing mother; Ex. nurse a hope/grudge against jeopardize endanger; imperil;
put at risk; N. jeopardy:
someonedanger
 fractious unruly; peevish; cranky; bad-tempered; Ex. congeal freeze; coagulate
fractious horse recite repeat aloud (something learned); describe; Ex.
 negligence neglect; failure to take reasonable care; ADJ.recite his complaints;
N. recitation
negligent: neglectful; lax; not taking enough care covenant binding agreement bet
ween two groups or
 trappings outward decorations; ornaments (as an out-people; compact; V: enter in
to a covenant; promise
ward sign of rank) primordial existing at the beginning (of time); rudimen-
 amoral nonmoral; having no understanding of righttary
and wrong dynamo generator for producing electricity; energetic
 ascendancy controlling inuence; position of control-person
ling inuence; CF. in the ascendant migratory wandering; V. migrate: move from one
re-
 swelter (of a person) suffer from oppressive heat; be op-gion and settle in anot
her; move periodically from one
pressed by heatregion to another
 exploit make use of, sometimes unjustly; N. exploita- promote advance in rank; ad
vance; help to ourish;
tionadvocate; help actively in forming; publicize or pop-
ularize; Ex. Milk promotes health; Ex. promote a
 slap hit quickly with the at part of the hand; N. CF.
smackmatch/bill; Ex. promote a new product
 magnitude greatness (in size or extent); extent clavicle collarbone
 legato (of music) played smoothly
 slander defamation; utterance of false and malicious
statements; V. ADJ. slanderous modicum limited quantity; small amount; Ex. He doe
s
 insomnia wakefulness; inability to sleepnot have a modicum of sense; CF. moderat
e
 orescence condition or period of owering tacit understood (without actually being e
xpressed);
 plenary (of power) complete; full; fully attended by allnot put into words; Ex.
tacit agreement
qualied members; Ex. plenary power nicety precision; accuracy; minute distinction
or differ-
ence; Ex. to a nicety: exactly; precisely; Ex. distinguish
 portend foretell; presage; be a sign or warning of; N.between niceties
portent: sign; omen; forewarning
 mishap unfortunate accident
 vaunted boasted; bragged; highly publicized; V. vaunt:
boast; brag impiety irreverence; lack of respect for God or piety
 pernicious very harmful; deadly; very destructive; Ex. amass collect (gradually,
in a very large amount)
pernicious effect/anemia
 obfuscate confuse; muddle; cause confusion; make
 philanthropist lover of mankind; doer of good; N. phi-needlessly complex; make s
o confused as to be difcult
lanthropyto understand
 amplify increase in size or effect; expand; broaden or sentient capable of sensat
ion and conscious; aware; sen-
clarify by expanding; intensify; make stronger; Ex. am-sitive; Ex. sentient crea
ture; N. sentience
plify one's remarks with a graph
 grisly ghastly; horrifying; Ex. grisly remains of the bod-
 perforate pierce; put a hole through
ies
 latent present but not yet noticeable or active; dormant; vibrant full of vigor o
r energy; vibrating
hidden; N. latency; CF. potential
 atrocity brutal deed; ADJ. atrocious
 blemish mar; spoil the beauty or perfection of; N: aw
or defect (that spoils perfection); Ex. blemishes in the sanctimonious displaying
ostentatious or hypocritical
crystal; CF. unblemisheddevoutness; N. sanctimony: hypocritical piety
 gibe mock; make jeering remarks; N: jeering remarks underscore underline; emphasi
ze
 inebriate make drunk; intoxicate; N. intoxicated person groove long narrow channe
l made in a surface to guide
the movement of something; Ex. groove of the record
 tertiary third in order or rank incur bring upon oneself
51

--------------------------------------- 52
become rotten (egg)ADJ. rueful
 haggle argue about prices (in an attempt to bargain) abide dwell; abide by: compl
y with; put up with; toler-
ate; Ex. abide by the rules; Ex. I can't abide rude people.
 pious devout; religious; N. piety
 lewd lustful precarious unsafe; lacking in stability; uncertain; risky;
 imbroglio complicated situation (as in a play); painfulEx. precarious living
or complex misunderstanding (as in a play); entangle- stun make unconscious or nu
mb as by a blow; amaze;
ment; confused mass (as of papers); V. embroilastound
 stentorian (of the voice) extremely loud; CF. Stentor: a expedient suitable (for
a particular purpose al-
loud herald in the Iliadthough not necessarily morally correct); practical;
 overwhelm (of water) cover completely; defeat com-politic(prudent); N: something
expedient
pletely by much greater force; Ex. overwhelmed by grief gyroscope apparatus used
to maintain balance, ascer-
tain direction, etc.
 hypochondriac person unduly worried about his irremediable incurable; uncorrectab
le; impossible to
health; worrier without cause about illness; ADJ. CF.remedy
hypochondria: neurosis that one is or is becoming ill;
CF. abdomen shaving very thin piece, usually of wood (cut from a
surface with a sharp blade)
31 unbridled violent; uncontrolled; Ex.unbridled
rage/greed
 conde tell in condence (to a person one trusts); be
condent about cogitate think over; ponder
 steep soak; saturate; Ex. steep the fabric in the dye bath; proselytize (induce s
omeone to) convert to a religion or
ADJ: precipitousbelief; N. proselyte: new convert to a doctrine or reli-
 fugitive eeting or transitory; lasting only a short time;gion
roving(wandering); running away or eeing as from the amalgam combination of differ
ent things; mixture of
law; N: one who ees; Ex. fugitives at largemetals (containing mercury) used for ll
ing holes in
 importune beg persistently; make repeated requests (inteeth
an annoying way) expansive (of a person) outgoing and sociable; broad
 august impressive; majesticand extensive; able to increase in size
 oligarchy government by a privileged few gait manner of walking or running; speed
 rufan violent scoundrel; bully connoisseur person competent to act as a judge of a
rt,
etc. (whose judgments are respected); a lover of an art
 obligatory binding; required; compulsory; V. oblige: alloy mixture as of metals;
something added that low-
constrain; make grateful; do a favor; accommodate
 disquietude uneasiness; anxiety; V. disquiet: make anx-ers in value or purity; V
: mix; make less pure; lower
in value or quality; spoil; CF. unalloyed: not in mixture
iouswith other maetals; pure; complete; unqualied; Ex. un-
 adversary opponent; enemyalloyed happiness
 grueling exhausting; Ex. grueling marathon race wizardry sorcery; magic
 dissection analysis; cutting apart in order to examine abrasive rubbing away; ten
ding to grind down
 vivisection act of dissecting living animals swill drink greedily
 equestrian rider on horseback; ADJ. liability drawback; handicap; debts; obligati
on; respon-
sibility; condition of being liable; ADJ. liable: likely; re-
 wax increase gradually (as the moon); growsponsible (for paying)
 adventitious accidental; casual; happening by chance precipitant something that c
auses a substance in a
 sarcasm cutting ironic remark; scornful remarks; sting-chemical solution to sepa
rate out in solid form; gË> ]j;
ing rebuke; ADJ. sarcasticOP. solvent
 martyr one who voluntarily suffers death for his or her chastise punish as by bea
ting; criticize severely
religion or cause; great sufferer; Ex. martyr to his effulgent shining brightly;
brilliant
rheumatism
 repast meal; feast; banquet lode metal-bearing vein(long deposit of an ore)
 impair injure; hurt; damage
 ferret drive or hunt out of hiding; hunt with ferrets;
drive out (as from a hiding place); expel; uncover or dis- Elysium place or condi
tion of bliss
cover by searching; Ex. ferret out the secret; N. small adamant hard; inexible
erce animal which catches rats and rabbits by going
into their holes vicar parish priest; representative
52

--------------------------------------- 53
 upshot outcome; nal resultN. dispensation: dispensing; religious system; ofcial
exemption from an obligation or a rule
 corpuscle red or white cell in the blood
 germinal pertaining to a germ; creative; Ex. germinal
 plasticity ability to be molded; ADJ. plastic: capable ofidea
being shaped or molded; Ex. plastic material such as
 connotation suggested or implied meaning of an ex-
claypression; V. connote
 espouse adopt; support (an idea or aim); marry; N. es-
 equivocate use equivocal language to deceive people;
pousallie; mislead; attempt to conceal the truth; N. equivoca-
 insubstantial lacking substance; insignicant; frail; im-tion
material deb´ acle sudden disastrous downfall or defeat; com-
 allocate assign; set apart for a particular purposeplete disaster
 sylvan pertaining to the woods or the country beneciary person entitled to benets o
r proceeds of an
 sluice articial channel for directing or controlling theinsurance policy or will
ow of water (with a gate to regulate the ow) grudging unwilling; reluctant; stingy(
giving reluc-
tantly)
 wince move back suddenly; shrink back; inch; Ex. She
winced as she touched the cold body. bromide platitude; chemical compound used to
calm
excitement
 parish area in the care of a single priest and served by
one main church jug pitcher; container for holding liquids
 itinerary plan of a trip; record of a trip apocalyptic prophetic; pertaining to r
evelations espe-
cially of disaster; N. apocalypse
 modulate tone down in intensity; change the intensity
or tone of; regulate; change from one musical key to an- scourge lash; whip (form
erly used for punishment);
other; Ex. modulate from E to Gsource of severe punishment; V: whip; afict
 regiment military unit; V: subject to strict order; Ex. reg- fulsome disgustingly
excessive; offensively attering;
Ex. fulsome praise/expressions of admire
imented society
 mayhem injury to body; crime of willfully maiming or guy cable or chain attached
to something that needs to
be braced or steadied; CF. guide
crippling a person; violent disorder; Ex. mayhem in the
zoo; CF. maim jollity gaiety; cheerfulness; ADJ. jolly: merry; gay
 wrangle quarrel noisily; obtain through arguing; herd subsistence existence; mean
s of subsisting; means of
cattle; N.support; livelihood; V. subsist: exist; maintain life (at
 declivity downward slopea meager level)
 shunt move (a railway train) from one track to another;
 proclivity inclination; natural tendency (esp. towards
something bad)turn aside; divert; sidetrack; Ex. shunt trafc around an
accident; N.
 proscribe prohibit; ostracize; banish; outlaw
 grapple wrestle; come to grips with; take hold of and
 recumbent reclining; lying down completely or in partstruggle with; Ex. grapple
with the burglar
 draconian extremely severe; Ex. draconian punish- simplistic oversimplied
ment; CF. Draco: Athenian politician
 tenacity rmness; persistence
 dispassionate calm; impartial; not inuenced by per-
sonal feelings extrovert person interested mostly in external objects
and actions
 withstand stand up against; resist successfully
 garner gather; store up; amass32
 mediate settle a dispute through the services of an out- pert (esp. of a girl or
young woman) impertinent; for-
sider; act as an intermediary; produce by mediating; Ex.ward; trim; jaunty; Ex.
pert young miss/hat
mediate a cease-re
 steadfast steadily loyal; unswerving; steady
 gibberish nonsense; nonsensical or unintelligible talk wispy thin; slight; barely
discernible
or writing; babbling cartographer map-maker
 resurge rise again; ow to and fro; N. resurgence; ADJ. perpetrate commit an offens
e; do (something wrong)
resurgent: (of ideas or beliefs) experiencing revival;
surging again divulge reveal
 refuse anything discarded or rejected as worthless; disingenuous not naive; not c
andid; sophisticated;
trashworldly wise; OP. ingenuous
 dogmatic opinionated; holding stubbornly to one's recess pause; temporary cessati
on; alcove; secret inner
opinion; arbitrary; doctrinalplace; Ex. parliament in recess; V. CF. recessive
53

--------------------------------------- 54
 gratify please; satisfy; Ex. gratify a desirein actual form; for practical purpo
ses; Ex. virtual
ruler/space
 slack moving slowly; sluggish; inactive; (of a rope) shimmer shine with a ickering
light; glimmer inter-
loose; negligent; lax; Ex. slack season; Ex. slack in one's
work; N. V.mittently; Ex. The moonlight shimmered on the water;
N.
 truculence aggressiveness; ferocity; ADJ. truculent: ag- visionary produced by im
agination; fanciful; mystical;
gressive; pugnacious; erce
showing foresight; N: one having foresight; one given
 healthy possessing good health; healthfulto speculative impractical ideas
 mash crush into mash; convert into mash; N: mixture of prosper become successful
(esp. nancially); thrive;
ground grain and nutrients fed to livestock and fowl
grow well; Ex. children prospering under his care
 humanitarian one devoted to the promotion of human plait braid; interwine; interw
eave strands or lengths of;
welfare; CF. humanism
make by weaving strands together; Ex. plaited hair; N:
 idyllic charmingly carefree; simple and happy; Ex. idyl-braided length as of hai
r o fabric; CF. pigtail, ponytail
lic scene mercurial capricious; quick and changing; ckle; con-
 chase ornament a metal surface by indenting; followtaining the element mercury;
Ex. mercurial temper; CF.
rapidly to catchmood
 recline lie down historic important in history; Ex. historic battle
 militate work against; Ex. militate against the chances imminent impending; near
at hand
of promotion; CF. serve as a soldier wiggle wriggle; move from side to side with
irregular
 astute wise; shrewd; keen; seeing quickly somethingtwisting motions
that is to one's advantage
 curtail shorten; reduce
 cantankerous ill-humored; irritable narcissist conceited person; N. narcissism; C
F. narcissus
 berate scold strongly
 artery blood-vessel; CF. vein pejorative (of a word or phrase) suggesting that so
me-
one is of little value; negative in connotation; having
 mantle loose sleeveless outer garment; cloak; some-
thing that covers or envelops; the layer of the earth be-a belittling effect; Ex
. Many women now considers
housewife a pejorative expression, because it patron-
tween the crust and the coreized them.
 unassailable not open to attack; impregnable; not sub-
ject to question ration xed portion; V: distribute as rations
 levity lack of seriousness or steadiness; frivolity; light-
 gnome dwarf; underground spirit who guards treasure
hoardsness of manner
 quagmire bog; marsh; soft, wet, boggy land; predica-
 limpid crystal clearment; complex or dangerous situation from which it is
 embed(imbed) enclose; place in something; x rmly indifcult to free oneself
a surrounding mass aplomb poise; composure in difcult situations; assur-
 lachrymose producing tears; tearfulance; self-condence
 creep move with body close to the ground; move adhere stick fast; be a devotd fol
lower; N. adhesion: ad-
stealthily or slowly; N.hering; devotion; loyality
 condant(condante) trusted friend (to whom one tells doff take off; OP. don
one's secret)
 corrugated wrinkled; ridged
 ssure crevice; crack esteem respect; value; judge; N.
 draw choosing of a lot or card
 ambiguous unclear or doubtful in meaning; having
 sanction approve; ratify; N: permission; penalty in-more than one possible inter
pretation
tended to enforce compliance
 wrest obtain by pulling violently; pull away; take by vi-
 amend correct; change ; generally for the betterolence; Ex. wrest victory from t
heir grasp
 irony hidden sarcasm or satire; use of words that seem spate sudden ood or rush; E
x. spate of accidents
to mean the opposite of what they actually mean; use of
words to convey the opposite of their literal meaning inanimate lifeless; not ani
mate
 armada eet of warships
 galvanize stimulate or shock by an electric current;
stimulate by shock; shock into action; stir up; coat with polarize split into opp
osite extremes or camps
rust-resistant zinc by using electricity
 rolling (of land) rising and falling in long gentle slopes;
 efface rub out; remove the surface ofhappening continuously by stages; Ex. rolli
ng devolu-
 meander wind or turn in its course; follow a winding ortion of power to local go
vernments
turning course; move aimlessly and idly practicable feasible
54

--------------------------------------- 55
 roster list (of names)into fewer words; N: thick mass of cloth pressed to part
of the body to stop bleeding or swelling, reduce fever,
 delta at plain of mud or sand between branches of aetc.
river
 paste smooth viscous mixture as of our(powder made
 bereavement state of being deprived of somethingby crushing grain) and water (us
ed as an adhesive); V:
valuable or beloved; state of being bereaved or bereftcause to adhere by applyin
g paste
 loll lounge about33
 posthumous after death (as of child born after father's spendthrift someone who w
astes money; CF. thrift: ac-
death or book published after author's death); com-cumulated wealth
ing or occurring after one's death; Ex. posthumous
fame/novel mannered affected; not natural; Ex. mannered way of
speech
 rapt engrossed; absorbed; enchanted; Ex. rapt listener
 marginal of a margin; barely within a limit; Ex.
 gentry people of standing(rank or position); people ofmarginal effect/writing ab
ility
good family or high social position; class of people just ultimatum last demand;
last warning; last statement of
below nobilityconditions that must be met; Ex. They have ignored our
ultimatum.
 idiom expression whose meaning as a whole differs
from the meanings of its individual words; distinctive lascivious lustful
style (of expression); Ex. idiom of the modern popular
 suspend cause to stop for a period; interrupt; hold in
music; ADJ. idiomaticabeyance; defer; hang from above; exclude for a period
 recant disclaim or disavow; retract a previous state-from a position; Ex. suspen
ded state; Ex. suspend judg-
ment; openly confess error; Ex. recant one's faith/ament; Ex. suspended from the
team; N. suspension
statement
 turncoat traitor
 asylum place of refuge or shelter; protection (religious pique irritation; resent
ment from wounded pride (eg.
or political)
loss in a contest); V: provoke; arouse; annoy; cause to
 virus disease communicatorfeel resentment; Ex. pique her curiosity
 aberrant abnormal or deviant discrepancy lack of consistency or agreement as be-
tween facts; difference; Ex. discrepancy between two
 hubris arrogance; excessive self-conceitdescriptions
 leniency mildness; permissiveness; ADJ. lenient: not comprehensive broad; includi
ng a lot or everything;
severe in judgment or punishmentthorough; inclusive
 imply suggest a meaning not expressed; signify dilemma situation that requires a
choice between
 syllogism logical formula consisting of a major premise,equally unfavorable opti
ons; problem; choice of two un-
a minor premise and a conclusion; deceptive or specioussatisfactory alternatives
argument initiate begin; originate; receive into a group; introduce
 propensity natural inclinationto a new eld or activity; Ex. initiate someone into
the
mysteries of a secret religion; N: one who has been initi-
 opaque dark; not transparent; N. opacityated
 fetish(fetich) object believed to have spiritual powers; osseous made of bone; bo
ny
object of excessive attention or reverence; CF. fetishism
 distrait absentminded; distracted
 hummock small hill; hillock
 calligraphy beautiful writing; excellent penmanship
 venial (of a fault or sin) forgivable; trivial
 halting hesitant; faltering; not uent; Ex.halting
 effrontery rudeness without any sense of shame;steps/voice; V. halt: proceed or
act with uncertainty; fal-
shameless boldness; presumptousness; nerve; cheekter; hesitate; waver; stop
 subtlety perceptiveness; ingenuity; delicacy; ADJ. sub- overt open to view; publi
c; not secret; CF. covert
tle: delicate; so slight as to be difcult to detect; upright (sitting or standing)
straight up; honest; moral
able to make ne distinctions; clever; Ex.subtle
mind/differences in meaning pathos tender sorrow; pity; quality in art or literat
ure
that produces these feelings; Ex. pathos that runs
 strew spread randomly; sprinkle; scatter; Ex. ower girlthrough the novel
strewing rose petals
 probity uprightness; honesty; incorruptibility
 canine related to dogs; doglike
 stratied divided into classes; arranged into strata; V.
 boisterous violent; rough; noisystratify
 vituperative abusive; scolding; V. vituperate: berate; embroil throw into confusi
on; involve in strife, dispute,
scold; rail against abusivelyor quarrel; entangle; CF. imbroglio
55

--------------------------------------- 56
exalt the imagination; ADJ. exalted; N. exaltation ail beat with or as if with a ai
l; move wildly; thresh
 scruple hesitate for ethical reasons; fret about; Ex. Shegrain by hand; strike o
r slap; toss about; N: threshing
did not scruple to read his diary; N: uneasy feeling aris-tool consisting of a s
tick swinging from the end of a long
ing from conscience; consciencehandle
 willful wilful; intentional; headstrong environ enclose; surround; N. environs: s
urrounding
area (as of a city)
 sepulcher tomb; V: place in a sepulcher; ADJ. sepul-
chral annihilate destroy
 carping petty criticism; fault-nding; fretful complain- provision act of providing
; something provided;
ing; quibblepreparatory measure; provisions: necessary supplies
(esp. food); stipulation; condition in an agreement; Ex.
 boor rude, insensitive personAccording to the provisions of the agreement
 lucre money; prot; Ex. lthy lucre balmy soft and mild (of air); fragrant
 eerie weird; causing fear because strange remorse deep regret for wrongdoing; gui
lt; self-
 archaeology study of artifacts and relics of earlyreproach
mankind end evil spirit; devil
 gamut entire range incoherent unintelligible; muddled; unable to express
one's thoughts in an orderly manner; illogical; lacking
 plumber one who installs and repairs pipes and plumb-cohesion; not coherent
ing(pipes)
 tyro beginner; novice
 address direct a speech to; speak to; deal with or dis-
cuss; direct one's efforts or attention to; make with a roil make liquids murky b
y stirring up sediment; dis-
destination; N: formal speechturb
 stamp step on heavily (so as to crush or extinguish); put idyll(idyl) short poem
idealizing rural life; simple
an end to; imprint or impress with a mark, design, orhappy period of life (in th
e country); scene from such
seal; shape with a die; characterize; Ex. machine stamp-a time; Ex. idyll of two
young lovers
ing out car bodies; Ex. newspaper stamping him as a repository storehouse
liar; N. stamping; implement used to stamp; impres-
sion stamped; mark; Ex. Her remarks bear the stamp churlish boorish; rude; N. chu
rl: boor; yahoo
of truth. discriminate distinguish; make distinctions on the basis
of preference
 inhibit restrain; prohibit; retard or prevent; N. inhibi-
tion repeal revoke; annul
 celerity speed; rapidity sallow (of the skin) yellowish and unhealthy-looking;
sickly in color; Ex. sallow complexion due to jaundice
 detraction slandering; aspersion; detracting; CF. detrac-
tor
 havoc widespread damage; disorder; chaos
 gruesome grisly; horrible
 chary cautious; unwilling to take risks; sparing or re-
 benecent kindly; doing goodstrained about giving; OP. bold
 knotty intricate; difcult; tangled; CF. knot
 turbulence state of violent agitation; ADJ. turbulent: vi-
 prescience ability to foretell the future; knowledge ofolently agitated or distu
rbed
actions before they occur; ADJ. prescient lithe exible; supple; CF. limber
 vicissitude change (esp. from good to bad); change of
 pushy disagreeably aggressive
fortune; CF. the last emperor of China
 luxuriant abundant; growing healthily and in large
 debauch corrupt morally; seduce from virtue; N. de-amounts; excessively ornate;
rich and splendid; fertile;
bauchery: wild behavior (with sex and alcohol)Ex. luxuriant forests/prose; CF. l
uxurious, luxuriate
 renege break a promise; deny; go back on; Ex. renege trample step heavily with th
e feet; crush under the feet
on the contract/paying off the debt
 contrive invent or fabricate in a clever way (by impro-
 trivia tries; unimportant mattersvisation); manage; Ex. contrive to attract his a
ttention
 inert inactive; lacking power to move; unable to move
or act; Ex. chemically inert; N. inertia: state of being instigate start; urge; p
rovoke; incite; Ex. instigate a
inert; force which keeps a thing in the position or statesearch/quarrel
 arduous hard; strenuous; Ex. arduous work braggart boaster; bragger
 browse graze; feed on growing grass; skim or glance at conne shut in an enclosed s
pace; restrict; keep within
casuallylimits; N. connement
 pertinacious holding tenaciously to an action; stub- motif theme; recurrent thema
tic element in a musical or
born; persistentliterary work; single or repeated pattern; gure
56

--------------------------------------- 57
 apologist one who writes in defense of a cause or insti-one place to another; sl
ide (the feet) along the ground
tution; N. apologiawhile walking; Ex. shufe papers from one pile to an-
other; N.
 cloying distasteful (because excessive); excessively
sweet or sentimental; V. cloy: become unpleasant dirge funeral song; slow mournfu
l piece of music (sung
over a dead person)
through too much sweetness or excess
 Machiavellian crafty; double-dealing; of the political
 seep pass slowly through small openings; ooze; trickle;doctrine of Machiavelli,
which holds that craft and de-
N. seepage
ceit are justied in pursuing political power
 vicarious experienced as if one were taking part in the
experience of another; done by a deputy for other peo- belittle disparage; deprec
iate
ple; acting as a substitute; Ex. vicarious thrill at the
movies; Ex. the vicarious sufferings of Christ patina green crust on old bronze w
orks or copper; tone
slowly taken by varnished painting
 nicky too particular; fussy; difcult to please; too con-
 mischance ill luck
cerned with unimportant details or quality; Ex. nicky
about her food efgy dummy; likeness of a person made of wood, pa-
per, or stone; Ex. burn an efgy of the President
 antithesis contrast; direct opposite of or to; ADJ. anti-
thetic or antithetical nutrient nourishing substance; ADJ: providing nourish-
ment
 culpable deserving blame; blameworthy
 quiver tremble; shake; N. bacchanal noisy party with a lot of drinking
 brawn human muscle; muscular strength; sturdiness virtuoso highly skilled artist
(esp. in music); Ex. piano
virtuoso
 chasten discipline; punish in order to correct; CF. casti-
gate eccentricity oddity; idiosyncrasy
 infer deduce; conclude; N. inference benign kindly; favorable; not malignant (dis
ease); Ex.
benign tumor
 disburse pay out (as from a fund); N. disbursement; CF.
purse wheedle deceive, persuade, or obtain by attery; cajole;
 untenable (of a position, esp. in an argument) indefen-coax; Ex. wheedle a promi
se out of her
sible; not able to be maintained intrinsic essential; inherent; built-in
 demotic of or pertaining to the people placate pacify; bring peace to; conciliate
; appease
 spat squabble; minor dispute; minor quarrel menagerie collection of wild animals
on exhibition; zoo
 persist continue in existence; last; continue in a course
of action in spite of opposition; Ex. persist in/with pulsate throb; beat regular
ly; vibrate regularly
something; ADJ. persistent
 sere sear; parched; dry
 cacophonous discordant; inharmonious; N. cacophony:
unpleasant mixture of loud sounds throb (of a heart or machine) beat rapidly or v
iolently;
N. Ex. hearthrob: heartbeat; sweetheart
34 halfhearted exhibiting little interest or enthusiasm
 lial pertaining to or betting a son or daughter; Ex. l- patriarch father and ruler o
f a family or tribe
ial respect usage act or manner of using; accepted practice; way in
 arrhythmic lacking rhythm or regularity; N. arrhythmiawhich words are actually u
sed
 subaltern subordinate
 plaster paste that hardens to a smooth solid and is used
 hut crude dwelling; shack
for coating walls; V.
 nebula diffuse mass of interstellar dust or gas; galaxy infest inhabit in numbers
large enough to be harmful;
Ex. Mice infested the house; Ex. shark-infested waters
 doddering shaky; inrm from old age; V. dodder
 inevitable unavoidable
 depict portray
 parity equality; close resemblance; CF. disparate
 juxtapose place side by side; CF. next
 incontrovertible indisputable; impossible to dispute;
 lth dirty matter; ADJ. lthynot open to question; unquestionable
 devise think up; invent; plan; bequeath; N: bequest
 tether tie (an animal) with a rope or tether; N: rope
 brackish somewhat saline
or chain to which an animal is tied; limit of one's en-
 pontical pertaining to a bishop or pope; pompous ordurance; Ex. the end of one's
tether
pretentious; CF. pontiff: pope; bishop
 ebullient showing excitement; overowing with enthu-
 reverent respectful; worshipful; V. revere: regard withsiasm; boiling; N. ebulli
ence; N. ebullition: state of boil-
reverence; N. reverence: profound respecting
57

--------------------------------------- 58
ing harmfully in a stealthy manner; Ex. insidiousa subsidy; N.
spreading of dry rot disaffected disloyal; lacking loyality; V. disaffect: cause
 nausea feeling of sickness and desire to vomit; disgust;to lose affection or loy
alty
CF. seasickness
 errant wandering (esp. in search of adventure); straying
 alienate make unfriendly or hostile; estrange; separate;from proper moral standa
rds; Ex. knight-errant
change the ownership of
 rake angle of a slope; V: slant from the perpendicular
 esoteric hard to understand; known only to the chosen assay analyze (to discover
what materials are present);
few, esp. initiates; N. esotericaevaluate (soil or ore)
 contortions twistings; distortions; V. contort: twist vio- prompt cause; urge; pr
ovoke; provide a cue (for an ac-
lently out of shape; CF. contortionisttor); ADJ: done without delay; done at the
right time;
 corpulent very fat; N. corpulencepunctual; on time; N: reminder or cue
 clamor loud continous noise; continuous demand or enclave territory enclosed with
in an alien land
complaint made by a large number of people; V: make bedraggle wet thoroughly; ADJ
. bedraggled: draggled
a clamor; express (a demand) continually and loudly;
ADJ. clamorous holocaust destruction by re; CF. burnt whole; CF.
Holocaust
 amity friendship; peaceful relationship as between na- mawkish mushy(sentimental)
and gushy; icky-sticky
tions
sentimental; excessively and objectionably sentimental
 sensuous giving pleasure to the senses; pertaining to
the physical senses; operating through the senses; sen- liaison contact that keep
s parties in communication;
suous feeling of soft velvet on the skincommunication between groups; one that m
aintains
 continence self-restraint; sexual chastity; sexual absti-communication; go-betwe
en; secret love affair; V. liaise:
nence; voluntary control over bladder and bowel func-keep a connection
tions; ADJ. continent matriculate enroll (in college or graduate school); CF.
 anoint consecrate; put oil on (in a religious ceremony)matrix
 dermatologist one who studies the skin and its diseases tutelage guardianship; tr
aining; function of a tutor; in-
struction
 rational (of a person) having reason; (of ideas) based on adjutant staff ofcer ass
isting the commander; assistant
reason; logical
 callow youthful; immature; inexperienced
 fete(fete) honor at a festival; celebrate or honor with a
feast; N. (outdoor) festival or feast; CF. feast libido psychic and emotional ene
rgy or urges behind
 vortex whirlwind; whirlpool; center of turbulence;human activity; sexual desire
predicament into which one is inexorably plunged persevere continue steadily in s
pite of difculties
 mason one who builds or works with stone or brick; N. galaxy large isolated syste
m of stars, such as the Milky
masonry: work of a mason; stonework or brickworkWay; collection of brilliant per
sonalities
 cadaver corpse; dead human body wholesome conducive to mental or physical health;
healthful
 exotic not native; from another part of the world;
strange; intriguingly unusual; Ex. exotic ower/dress heckler person who verbally h
arasses others; V. heckle:
verbally harass as with gibes (by interrupting a speaker
 exhale breathe out; OP. inhaleor speech)
 substantive substantial; essential; pertaining to the sub-
 reverberate echo repeatedly; resound; Ex. The thunderstance; substantial; consid
erable; Ex. substantive issues
reverberated across the valley.
 rationale fundamental reason or principle (on which a frenzied madly excited; N.
frenzy: violent wild excite-
system or principle is based); fundamental reason orment
justication; grounds for an action
 septic of or causing sepsis; putrid; producing putrefac-
 humus substance or rich soil formed by decaying veg-tion; N. sepsis: poisoning o
f part of the body (producing
etable matter; CF. soilpus)
 defer give in respectfully; submit; delay till later; ex- mime pantomime(act with
out dialogue); mimicry;
empt temporarily; N. deferment; CF. show respect, com-mimer; V: mimic; pantomime
ply with, courteous misogamy hatred of marriage
 carnivorous meat-eating; N. carnivore; CF. herbivore
 blunder error; stupid mistake
 venerate revere; treat with great respect
 dais raised platform for speakers or other important
 carefree free from worries; having no problemspeople
58

--------------------------------------- 59
something secret; Ex. privy chamber government; Ex.thing that may develop into s
omething larger or more
be privy to a discussion; CF. privateimportant; microbe
 docket program as for trial; book where such entries are amboyant ornate; highly e
laborate; richly colored; os-
made; list of things to be done; agenda; label xed to atentatious; showy; CF. ame
package listing contents or directions; V: describe in a magnanimity generosity;
ADJ. magnanimous: gener-
docket
ous
 atypical not normal; not typical
35
 stie suppress; extinguish; inhibit; smother or suffocate enterprise willingness to
take new ventures; initiative;
business organization; plan (that is difcult or daring);
Ex. their latest enterprise to sail round the world in a
 patronize support; act superior toward; treat in a con-
descending manner; be a customer of; N. patron: onesmall boat
 incidence rate of occurrence; particular occurrence; Ex.
that supports; regular customer; N. patronage; CF. boy-high incidence of infant
mortality
cott
 accord agreement
 colloquial pertaining to conversational or common
speech; informal; N. colloquialism: colloquial expres- crestfallen dejected; disp
irited
sion
 imbue saturate(soak thoroughly); ll; Ex. imbue some-
 fester rankle; produce irritation or resentment; (of a cutone with feelings
or wound) generate pus or rot; Ex. His insult festered in eet fast; rapid; N. ADJ.
eeting: passing quickly;
my mind for days.
ephemeral
 skirmish minor ght; minor battle in war; V. pertinent suitable; to the point; rele
vant
 avow declare openly; N. avowal
 surpass exceed
 emboss produce a design in raised relief; decorate with
a raised design demographic related to population balance; N. demog-
raphy: statistical study of human population
 latch fastening or lock consisting of a movable bar that
ts into a notch; V: close with a latch ragamufn dirty child in torn clothes; person
wearing
tattered clothes
 interim meantime; Ex. in the interim; ADJ. taking place
during an interim; Ex. interim paper afterlife life after death; later part of on
e's life
 parameter limit; independent variable; Ex. parameters
 fanfare call by bugles or trumpets; showy display; spec-of the problem; Ex. with
in the parameters of the budget
tacular public display
 craven cowardly condential spoken or written in secret; trusted with
 runic mysterious; set down in an ancient alphabet; N.private matters; Ex. condent
ial secretary
rune: one of the letters of an alphabet used by ancient quarantine isolation of a
person, place, or ship to pre-
Germanic peoples (cut on stone or wood); magic charmvent spread of infection; V:
isolate in quarantine
 passive not active; acted upon; receiving an action with-
 arid (of land) dry; barren; unproductiveout acting in return; accepting without
resistance
 pose assume a particular posture; put forward; present;
 mammoth gigantic; enormous
affect a particular attitude (to impress others); Ex. pose
a threat; N. somnolent half asleep; drowsy; N. somnolence
 listless lacking in spirit or energy; languid sage person celebrated for wisdom;
wise person; ADJ:
 tautological needlessly repetitious; Ex. It was visiblewise
to the eye ; N. tautology: needless repetition of the sidetrack switch (a railroad
car) to a siding; divert from
same sense; statement that is always truea main issue; N. CF. siding: short sect
ion of railroad
 plumb exactly vertical; N: weight on the end of a line;track connected by switch
es with a main track
V: examine very carefully or critically in order to un- limbo region near heaven
or hell where certain souls are
derstand; measure depth (by sounding); Ex. plumb thekept; prison (slang); Ex. Pu
rgatory and Limbo
depth of gregarious sociable; (of an animal) tending to form a
 prune cut away; trimgroup
 amphitheater oval building with tiers of seats; CF. arena slick make smooth or gl
ossy; N: smooth surface; Ex. oil
slick; ADJ: smooth; glossy; deftly executed; adroit; glib
 fulcrum support on which a lever rests or pivots prerogative privilege; unquestio
nable right; CF. ask be-
fore
 befuddle confuse thoroughly
 paragon model of perfection; Ex. paragon of virtue
 heterodox (of beliefs) against accepted opinion; un-
orthodox; unconventional gady animal-biting y; irritating person
59

--------------------------------------- 60
belief; CF. delusionarguments
 artifacts object made by human beings, either hand- pensive dreamily or deeply th
oughtful; sadly thought-
made or mass-producedful; thoughtful with a hint of sadness; contemplative;
CF. think over
 mirth merriment; laughter
 debris´rubble; wreckage; scattered remains of some-
 nomadic wandering; N. nomad: tribe who migrates
from place to placething broken or destroyed
 summation act of nding the total; summing-up; sum- presume take for granted; assum
e; act overcondently;
take liberties; presume on/upon: take unfair advantage
mary (esp. one given by the judge at the end of a trial)of (someone's kindness o
r connection); N. presumption
 knit contract into wrinkles; grow together; join together
 pivotal of a pivot; central; critical; crucial
closely; make (a fabric or garment) by interwining yarn
or thread; Ex. knit the brow; Ex. The bones should knit decant pour off gently (w
ine or liquid)
together in a few weeks. marked noticeable; targeted for vengeance or attack; Ex.
 gruel thin liquid porridgemarked improvement/man
 renounce abandon; give up (by formal announcement);
 alias an assumed name esp. by a criminal (usually todisown; repudiate; Ex. renou
nce one's claim to the
mislead people); ADV. alias
property/one's religion; N. renunciation
 forge counterfeit; reproduce fraudulently; form by boon blessing; benet; something
very helpful
heating in a forge and hammering into shape; move
 embargo ban on commerce or other activity
with a sudden increase of speed or power; Ex. forged
ahead in the last two years; N: furnace where metals are purported alleged; claim
ed; reputed or rumored; Ex.
heatedpurported Satanists
 crux essential or main point; Ex. the crux of the prob- proteg´ e´ person receiving p
rotection and support from a
lem; ADJ. crucial: of deciding importancepatron
 pied piebald; variegated(many-colored); multicolored jibe agree; be in harmony wi
th; gibe
 hysteria excessive or uncontrollable excitement; N. hys- fatalism belief that eve
nts are determined by forces or
teric: person suffering from hysteria; CF. hysterics: at-fates beyond one's cont
rol; ADJ. fatalistic; CF. fatal:
tack of hysteriacausing death
 condescend (derog.) bestow courtesies with a superior peroration conclusion of an
oration; perorating; V. per-
air; descend to the level of one considered inferiororate: conclude a speech; sp
eak at great length
 surveillance close observation of a person (esp. one un- explicate explain in det
ail; interpret; clarify; CF. expli-
cable
der suspicion); watching; guarding
 opulence extreme wealth; luxuriousness; abundance;
 balk stop short, as if faced with an obstacle, and refuse
to continue; foil; stop or get in the way of; frustrateADJ. opulent: possessing
great wealth; abundant
 commiserate feel or express pity or sympathy for
 complement complete; consummate; make perfect; N.
 denotation meaning; distinguishing by name; V. de-
 indenture bind as servant or apprentice to master; bind
by indenture; N: contract binding one party into the ser-note: indicate; refer t
o directly; mean; CF. connotation
vice of another for a specied time (as between an ap-
prentice and his master) scowl frown angrily; N: angry frown
 swagger walk or behave with an over-condent manner seclusion isolation; solitude;
V. seclude: set apart from
others; isolate
 ornate excessively or elaborately decorated
36
 exertion effort; expenditure of much physical work; V.
exert oneself: make a great effort sprout begin to grow; give off shoots or buds;
N: new
growth on a plant; shoot
 ethnology study of humankind; study of the different
races of human beings; CF. anthropology insurmountable overwhelming; unbeatable;
insupera-
ble
 circumspect prudent; cautious; acting after careful waif homeless child or animal
; Ex. waifs and strays
thought
 irresolute uncertain how to act; weak; lacking in resolu-
 debut debut;´rst public appearance; formal presenta-tion; indecisive; N. irresoluti
on
tion of a young woman to society
 furtive stealthy; quiet and secret (trying to escape no-
 taxonomist specialist in classifying (animals, etc.); CF.
tice); sneaky; Ex. furtive glance
taxonomy: science of classication
 yield amount produced; crop; income on investment;
 insipid lacking in avor; lacking interest; dull; Ex. in-prot obtained from an inve
stment; V: produce; give in;
sipid food/charactersurrender
60
--------------------------------------- 61
poses; precincts: space that surrounds a building; Ex.form; compiling
precincts of the college indubitable unable to be doubted; which cannot be
 ora plants of a region or eradoubted; unquestionable
 garnish decorate; add a garnish to; decorate (food or stoke stir up a re or furnac
e; feed plentifully
drink) with small items such as lemon slices; N.
 predispose give an inclination toward (in advance);
 congenital existing at birthmake susceptible to; Ex. predispose people to certai
n
cancer; N. predisposition
 uniformity sameness; monotony; ADJ. uniform: the
same all over ludicrous laughable; ridiculous; triing
 dereliction neglect of duty; abandonment impassable not able to be traveled or cr
ossed
 whinny neigh like a horse; CF. neigh: make the sound combustible easily burned; N
. CF. combustion
which horses make court attempt to gain; seek; woo; risk; behave so as to in-
 junket trip especially one taken for pleasure by an of-vite; attempt to gain the
favor of by attention; Ex. court
cial at public expensedisaster
 inverse opposite tyranny oppression; cruel government; ADJ. tyranni-
cal: of a tyrant or tyranny; despotic; V. tyrannize: treat
 thrive prosper; ourish
tyrannically; oppress
 oe at mass of oating ice quiver case for arrows
 enunciate announce; proclaim; utter or speak, espe-
cially distinctly; pronounce clearly; articulate; Ex. This consanguinity kinship;
relationship by birth
theory was rst enunciated by him. potable suitable for drinking; drinkable
 therapeutic curative; N. therapy crone hag; ugly old woman
 nocturnal done or active at night; Ex. nocturnal ani- gargantuan huge; enormous;
gigantic; CF. the hero of
mals/raids; CF. nocturneGargantua and Pantagruel
 luscious pleasing to taste or smell; delicious seasoned experienced
 hew cut to pieces with ax or sword; chop; N. scuttle sink (a ship) by cutting hol
es in the hull; scrap;
 repulse reject with rudeness or coldness (an offer ordiscard; N: small hatch in
a ship's deck or hull
friendship); drive back (an enemy attack); CF. repulse peregrination journey; V.
peregrinate
6= cause repulsion caption title; chapter heading; text under illustration
 deranged insane
 outstrip outrun; surpass; outdo
 anachronism an error involving time in a story; some-
thing or someone misplaced in time; ADJ. anachronistic stalwart physically strong
; brawny; steadfast; strong in
mind or determination; Ex. stalwart supporter; N: stal-
wart follower
 debar bar; forbid; exclude; Ex. debarred from jury ser-
vices engaging charming; attractive
 trickster person who cheats people iconoclastic attacking cherished traditions; N
. icono-
clast: one who attacks traditional ideas; one who de-
 malecient doing evil; N. maleciencestroys sacred images
 tenant one that pays rent to use property owned by an- parched extremely dry; ver
y thirsty; V. parch: make or
otherbecome extremely dry (by exposure to heat)
 integrity honesty; uprightness; wholeness; state of be- discernible distinguishab
le; perceivable; Ex.dis-
ing whole and undivided; completenesscernible improvement
 doctrinaire unable to compromise about points of doc- decorous proper (in behavio
r, conduct, or appearance)
trine; dogmatic; unyielding; marked by inexible at-
 quail cower; shrink back in fear; lose heart
tachment to a doctrine without regard to its practical
difculties brazen insolent; without shame; bold; Ex. brazen lie; V:
face with bold self-assurance or with unshamed con-
 hermitage home of a hermitdence
 gush (of liquid) pour out in large quantities from a hole;
make an excessive display of feeling (without true feel- comprehend include; unde
rstand
ing); Ex. Blood gushed from the wound. opalescent iridescent; lustrous; like an o
pal; N. opales-
 leeway room to move; margin; latitude; Ex. leeway forcence
the deadline dilute make (a liquid) less concentrated; reduce in
 subpoena writ(written command issued by a court)strength; Ex. dilute the inuence
of the president
summoning a witness to appear in court; V: summon spawn lay eggs (in large number
s); produce offspring
with a subpoena(in large numbers); N: eggs of aquatic animals
61

--------------------------------------- 62
 leash restraining rope fastened to the collar of an animal regatta boat or yacht
race
(to control it); Ex. a dog on a leash
 drab dull; lacking color; cheerless ; Ex. drab coat/life37
 matrix point of origin; array of numbers or algebraic remonstrate protest; object
ion; V. remonstrate: say in
symbols; mold or die; Ex. the matrix of Western civi-protest
lization rent tear made by rending; rip; split
 fervid ardent; zealous; hot
 dissension disagreement of opinions causing strife
 pestilential(pestilent) causing plague; tending to causewithin a group
death; baneful; N. pestilence: fatal epidemic disease velocity speed
(esp. bubonic plague)
 scaffold temporary platform for workers (to work at
 feign pretendheights above the ground); bracing framework; plat-
 podium pedestal; raised platformform for execution
 horoscope diagram of the positions of stars at a given beleaguer besiege or attac
k (with an army); harass; be-
moment (eg. of a person's birth) used by astrologersset
 scion detached plant shoot used in grafting; descendant browbeat bully; intimidat
e
 marshal put in order; guide ceremoniously to the cor-
 vision eyesight; foresight; mental image produced byrect place; Ex. marshal the
children into the museum;
the imagination; experience of seeing the supernaturalN: military ofcer; ofcial
 vulpine like a fox; crafty
 restive impatiently restless (induced by external coer- shirk avoid (responsibili
ty, work, etc.); malinger
cion or restriction); restlessly impatient; obstinately re-
sisting control; Ex. restive horses because of wolves; CF. fermentation chemical
reaction that splits complex or-
not a general synonym for `restless'ganic compounds; unrest; agitation
 deride ridicule; treat with contempt; make fun of; OP.
 bolt door bar; fastening pin or screw; length of fabric;
large roll of cloth; V: dash or dart off; fasten (a door);respect
gobble down
 plume feather, esp. large or showy one; something that
 screech unpleasant high sharp sound; shriek; V.rises into the air (like the shap
e of a feather); Ex. plume
of smoke: !Q$Á ½¨2£§
 conveyance vehicle; transfer; act of conveying; Ex. pub-
lic conveyance penumbra partial shadow (in an eclipse); CF. almost
shadow
 ecclesiastic ecclesiastical; pertaining to the church; N:
minister; priest; cleric; clergyman provender dry food for livestock; fodder
 tepid lukewarm; slightly warm; pHtôÇ; half-hearted; emulate imitate; rival; try to equal o
r excel (through im-
not eager; Ex. tepid reaction to the new lm; Ex. tepiditation)
supporter tawdry cheap and gaudy; Ex. tawdry jewelry
 enthrall capture; enslave; captivate; hold the complete simper smirk; smile in a
silly way; smile affectedly
attention of (as if magic); hold spellbound
 omnipotent all-powerful; having unlimited power
 fathomless too deep to be measured or understood; un- repose resting; state of be
ing at rest; calmness; V: lie at
fathomable
rest; relax; put or place; Ex. repose our hopes in a single
 vivacious lively or animated; sprightlyman
 disperse scatter; Ex. disperse the cloud/crowd surly bad-tempered; rude; cross
 penchant strong inclination; strong liking (esp. for perigee point of moon's orbi
t when it is nearest the
something that is disapproved of by other people); Ex.earth; CF. apogee
penchant for fast cars
 elated lled with excited joy and pride; overjoyed; in
 brindled tawny or grayish with streaks or spots (of an-high spirits; joyful and
proud; Ex. elated crowd; V. elate;
imals)N. elation
 compensatory making up for; repaying sect separate religious body; faction; group
of people
with common beliefs within a larger group
 emissary agent (sent on a mission to represent another);
messenger stolid dull; impassive; showing little emotion when
strong feelings are expected
 ensue follow (as a result)
 desolate (of a place) deserted; unpopulated; (of a per-
 outwit outsmart; defeat by behaving more cleverly
son) lonely; forlorn; joyless
 brisk quick and active; marked by liveliness and vigor morgue mortuary; place whe
re bodies are kept before
 gild cover with a thin layer of gold
burial or cremation
62

--------------------------------------- 63
 wisp small bunch (of hair); faint streak (of smoke)imagination); going on foot;
Ex. pedestrian prose; N.
 belated delayed
 irretrievable impossible to recover or regain; CF. re-
 perpetual everlastingtrieve
 calumny malicious misrepresentation; slander disputatious argumentative; fond of
argument
 obtrude push (oneself or one's ideas) forward or in- woe great sorrow; deep incon
solable grief; afiction;
trude; impose (oneself or one's ideas) on others; buttsuffering; Ex. nancial woes
in; stick out or extrude; thrust out; Ex. obtrude A on
 incubus burden; very worriying problem; mental care;
B; ADJ. obtrusive; N. obtrusion; CF. unobtrusivenightmare; male devil; CF. succu
bus
 compact agreement; contract; ADJ: tightly packed; rm; facetious joking (often inap
propriately); unserious; hu-
brief; concise; Ex. compact statementmorous
 meretricious ashy; tawdry; attractive on the surface cryptic mysterious; hidden; s
ecret
but of no real value; Ex. metericious argument/jewel;
CF. prostitute totter shake or move unsteadily; sway as if about to fall
 polygamist one who has more than one spouse at a
time; CF. bigamy; CF. polyandry drama prose or verse composition to be performed
by
 painstaking taking pains; showing hard work; takingactors; play; exciting and un
usual situation
great care; very careful and through obsequious slavishly attentive; servile; ful
l of servile
compliance; sycophantic
 sinewy (of meat) tough; strong and rm; muscular; N.
sinew: tendon; strong cord connecting a muscle to a mortify humiliate by embarass
ing excessively; shame;
bonepunish the esh; discipline (one's body) by self-denial;
Ex. mortied by her blunder; Ex. mortify the esh; CF.
 stump base of a tree trunk left after the rest has been cut
down; V: walk in a heavy manner; bafe; puzzlecause to die
 anthology book of literary selections by various au-
 bitter having a sharp biting taste; H; causing sharp
pain to the body or mind; lled with resentment, dis-thors; CF. omnibus
appointment, or other unpleasant feelings; Ex. bitter intrigue make secret plans;
plot; arouse the curiosity of;
wind/sorrow/tearsN: secret scheme; plot; secret love affair
 promontory headland nourish provide with food necessary for life and
growth
 cull pick out from others (to kill the weakest members);
reject; select; collect (information); N. whine complain (in a sad voice); make a
high sad sound
(as in pain or supplication)
 induce persuade; lead to do something; bring about; N.
inducement cloister monastery or convent
 petty trivial; unimportant; very small; small-minded; invidious designed to creat
e ill will or envy; tending to
petty-mindedrouse ill will or envy; Ex. invidious comparison
 edify instruct; correct morally turpitude depravity; baseness; Ex. moral turpitud
e
 teetotalism practice of abstaining totally from alcoholic smolder smoulder; burn
slowly without ame; be liable
to break out at any moment; exist in a suppressed state;
drinks; N. teetotaler;; ADJ. teetotal; CF. T + total
 extrude force or push out; thrust out; shape (plastic orEx. smoldering anger
 emasculate weaken; castrate
metal) by forcing through a die
 revelry boisterous merrymaking; V. revel: engage bois-
 potpourri heterogeneous mixture; medley; mixture of
dried ower petals a pot (to give a pleasant smell to aterous festivities; enjoy g
reatly; N: boisterous festivity
room)or celebration
 militant combative; bellicose; N. kismet fate; destiny; Ex. Kismet is the Arabic
word for
fate.
 sporadic occurring irregularly; intermittent
 impeach charge (a public ofcial) with crime in ofce;
 chronic long established as a diseaseraise doubts about; indict; Ex. impeach a w
itness's cred-
 crescendo increase in the volume or intensity as in aibility
musical passage; climax; CF. crescent conjure cause to appear by magic; summon (a
devil or
 adjourn suspend until a later time; move from one placea spirit) by magical powe
r; practice magic (esp. by very
to anotherquick movement of the hands); evoke; conjure up: bring
into the mind; Ex. The magician conjured a rabbit out of
 gingerly very carefully; ADJ.
his hat.
 meter arrangement of words in the form of poetry (by uncouth boorish; clumsy in s
peech or behavior; out-
accentual rhythm)
landish
63

--------------------------------------- 64
solemn promise to give up; CF. abjureaustralis
 canker any ulcerous sore; ulcer; any evil; CF. cancer vitriolic causing sharp pai
n to the mind; caustic; cor-
rosive; sarcastic; of vitriol; N. vitriol: sulphuric acid
 sluggard lazy person(which burns esh deeply); bitterly abusive expression;
 inarticulate speechless; producing indistinct speech;
caustic expression; CF. glass
not articulate; not expressing oneself clearly
 draft rst rough form; conscription; draught; V: make a
 clown act stupidly; play the fool; N.draft of; conscript
 dross waste matter; worthless impurities peremptory demanding and leaving no choi
ce; impera-
 intangible not able to be perceived by touch; vaguetive; Ex. peremptory decree/k
nock
 fraudulent cheating; deceitful; Ex. fraudulent means; bate let down; lessen the f
orce of; moderate; restrain;
N. fraud: deception; swindleEx. with bated breath; CF. abate
 scintilla trace; minute amount; shred; least bit; Ex. disgure mar the appearance o
f; spoil
There is not a scintilla of truth; CF. spark
 mode prevailing style; current fashion; manner; way of
 contingent dependent on something uncertain or in thedoing something; Ex. in the
latest mode; Ex. simple
future; conditional; happening by chance; accidental; N:mode of life
a group of soldiers, ships to a larger force; CF. contin-
 resolve determination; resolution; rmness of purpose
gency: future event that may or may not occur; possibil-
ity; Ex. prepare for every contingency faze disconcert; dismay; embarrass
 linguistic pertaining to language tryst meeting arranged by lovers; arrangement b
etween
lovers to meet
 exchequer treasury; Ex. Chancellor of the exchequer
 municent very generous in giving; Ex. municent
 chip lose a small piece from the surface or edge; N:
small piece broken off something; CF. French fry; Potatobenefactor; N. municience
chip/crisp viper poisonous snake
 variegate change the appearance of (by marking with compile assemble; gather; acc
umulate; make (a report
different colors)or a book) from facts and information found in various
places; Ex. compile a dictionary
 nepotism favoritism (to a relative); CF. nephew
 aptitude tness; talent
 nale conclusion; concluding part
 paean song of praise or joy; Ex. paeans celebrating the
 countenance approve; support; tolerate; Ex. counte-
nance his rude behavior; N: face; appearancevictory
 spectrum colored band produced when a beam of light
passes through a prism; broad and continuous range;
38
Ex. whole spectrum of modern thoughts
 ascetic practicing self-denial; avoiding physical plea-
sures and comforts; austere; Ex. ascetic life of Buddhist automaton mechanism tha
t imitates actions of humans;
monks; N. asceticismmachine that works by itself
 tenancy possession of land or building by rent; period vent release or discharge
through a vent; express (esp.
unfairly); utter; Ex. He vented his wrath on his family.
of a tenant's occupancy
 vain full of self-admiration; conceited; without result; gambit opening in chess
in which a piece is sacriced;
unsuccessful; N. vanityaction made to produce a future advantage
 evenhanded impartial; fair mute silent; without speech; not pronounced; unable to
speak; N: one who is incapable of speech; V: soften the
 cynosure object of general attention; person or thing
that is a center of attention; CF. Ursa Minorsound, color, shade of
 rummage ransack; thoroughly search mortar vessel in which substances are crushed
with a
pestle
 jocund merry
 formidable menacing; arousing fear; threatening; dif-
 uproarious marked by commotion or uproar; verycult to defeat; Ex. formidable foe
/question
noisy (esp. with laughter); hilarious; causing loud censor (in ancient Rome) over
seer of morals (also taking
laughter; extremely funny
the census); person who eliminates inappropriate mat-
 metropolis large cityter; V.
 repertoire list of works of music, drama, etc., a per- recipient receiver
former is prepared to present; CF. repertory
 gloat express evil satisfaction; look at or think about
 pluck courage; V: pull off or out; pull out the hair orwith evil satisfaction; v
iew malevolently; Ex. The thief
feathers of; ADJ. plucky: courageous; bravegloated over the stolen jewels.
 ensconce settle comfortably; place comfortably (in a se- delineate portray; depic
t; sketch; describe; N. delin-
cure place)eation
64
--------------------------------------- 65
urge; plead forgious ceremony; protocol
 fancier breeder or dealer of animals; one who has a spe- taut tight; strained; te
nse; ready; OP. slack
cial interest, as for raising specic plant or animal plummet fall sharply; fall st
raight down; Ex. Stock
 rejoinder reply; retort; comeback; V. rejoin: say in replyprices plummeted.
 kindle start a re; ignite; inspire; arouse
 equivocal (of words or statements) ambiguous; inten- volition act of using one's
will; act of making a con-
tionally misleading; (of behavior) questionable; OP. un-
equivocalscious choice; Ex. She selected this dress of her own
volition.
 context writings preceding and following the passage
quoted; circumstance in which an event occurs capricious unpredictable; ckle
 delve dig; search deeply; investigate
 ominous threatening; of an evil omen
 harbor give protection (by giving food and shelter); pro-
 purchase secure grasp or hold; rm grasp or footing
vide a refuge for; hide; keep in mind (thoughts or feel-
 slur pronounce indistinctly; speak indistinctly; mumbleings); Ex. harbor a grudg
e/criminal; N: place of shelter;
refuge
 impartial not biased; fair; N. impartiality abstruse obscure; profound; difcult to
understand
 peccadillo slight offense or fault; CF. sin
 illusory illusive; deceptive; not real
 abridge condense or shorten
 rapport close relationship; emotional closeness; har-
 incubate hatch; warm (eggs) with the body to promotemony
hatching; maintain at optimal environment conditions
 antecedents preceding events that inuence what
for development; be holding in one's body an infectioncomes later; ancestors or
early background
which is going to develop into a disease; N. incubation;
CF. incubation:disease vie contend; compete
 debonair (of men) friendly, charming, and fashionably murky dark and gloomy; thic
k with fog; vague; Ex.
dressed; aiming to please; CF. of good dispositionmurky night/fog; N. murk: part
ial or complete dark-
ness; gloom
 lope gallop slowly
 whim sudden capricious idea; fancy
 quarry dig into (to get stone); N: mine; G$3 ©
 accessory additional object; useful but not essential
 genuect bend the knee as in worshipthing
 ploy strategem to gain an advantage; tactic; Ex. man-
 indifferent unmoved or unconcerned by; having no in-
agement ployterest in; mediocre; neither good nor bad
 facsimile copy slavish of or like a slave; servile; showing no originality;
 reputed supposed; Ex. reputed father of the child; V.copied very closely; Ex. sl
avish devotion/copy of the
repute: consider; N. repute: reputation; esteemoriginal
 gory bloody; N. gore: blood (from a wound) foresight ability to foresee future ha
ppenings; prudence
 accoutre equip; N. accoutrementin providing for the future
 drone idle person who lives on other people's work; collation a light meal; colla
ting
male bee
 venerable deserving high respect; commanding re-
 azure sky bluespect; CF. command: deserve and get
 repercussion rebound; reaction; reverberation; Ex. seri- balm something that reli
eves pain; oily liquid with a
ous repercussionpleasant smell from trees
 intoxicate make drunk; stimulate or excite; Ex. intoxi- spoonerism accidental tra
nsposition of sounds in suc-
cated by all the money he might wincessive words; Ex. Let me sew you to your shee
t for
Let me show you to your seat ; CF. William Spooner
 attribute essential quality; V: ascribe; explain
 toll sound (a large bell) slowly at regular intervals; N:
 recalcitrant disobedient or resisting authority even aftersound of a bell; xed ta
x or charge
being punished; obstinately stubborn; determined to re-
sist authority; unruly; Ex. recalcitrant child pathological pertaining to disease
; N. pathology: study
 nebulous vague; hazy; cloudy; of a nebula; Ex. nebu-of disease
lous proposal forbearance patience; forgiveness; V. forbear: refrain
 remiss negligent; careless about a dutyfrom (in a generous and forgiving way); b
e patient; Ex.
forbear to send him to prison
 lunatic insane; Ex. lunatic asylum
 impede hide; retard or obstruct the progress of; block
 tinge give a slight degree of a color or quality to; N:
slight degree of a color or quality; Ex. tinged with quench assuage or satisfy (t
hrust); slake; douse or ex-
grey/jealousytinguish; put out; suppress
65

--------------------------------------- 66
39 query inquiry; question; V.
 optimum most favorable; optimal; N: most favorable
condition bemoan lament; moan for; express sorrow or disap-
 tumult commotion of a great crowd; riot; noise; uproar;proval of
ADJ. tumultuous: noisy and disorderly affable easily approachable; easy to talk t
o; warmly
friendly
 bristle short stiff hair; V: (hair or fur) stand up stify
 shudder shake uncontrollably; tremble; V.
 extricate free from an entanglement or difculty; disen-
tangle relevant having importance; pertinent; referring to the
 coin make coins; invent or fabricate (a word or phrase);case in hand; N. relevan
ce, relevancy
N. coinage: word or phrase recently invented ramify branch out; divide into branc
hes or subdivisions
 brusque blunt; abrupt; curt; not wanting to waste time
being nice monolithic solidly uniform; unchangeable; unyielding;
N. monolith: large block of stone
 outlandish bizzare; peculiar; unconventional
 wizened shriveled; withered; Ex. wizened apple/old boorish rude; insensitive
lady precipitate hurl downward; throw headlong; hasten;
cause to happen sooner; condense and fall as rain or
 incessant uninterrupted; unceasing
 noncommittal neutral; refusing commitment to a par-snow; cause (a solid substanc
e) to be separated from a
ticular opinion; unpledged; undecidedsolution; ADJ. hasty; rash; premature; sudd
en
 bask luxuriate; take pleasure in warmth
 distill rene (a liquid by evaporating and subsequent
condensation); concentrate; separate the most impor- trident three-pronged spear
tant parts from; Ex. distill fresh water from sea water; smirk conceited smile; o
ffensively self-satised smile
CF. brew
(often at someone else's misfortune); V.
 refraction bending of a ray of light monotheism belief in one God
 qualied limited; restricted; V. qualify: limit the mean-
 interjection exclamation; Ex. Ouch
ing of; modify succor assist (someone in difculty); aid; comfort; N.
 awe solemn wonder; feeling of respect mixed with won-
der and fear; V: ll with awe; ADJ. awesome merit deserve; ADJ. meritorious: deserv
ing reward or
praise
 waft move gently (in air or in seas) by wind or waves;
Ex. leaves wafting past the window chicanery trickery; deception
 degradation humiliation; debasement; degeneration; V. oblivious inattentive or un
mindful; unaware; wholly
degrade: debase; disgrace; degenerate; reduce (some-absorbed; forgetful(having t
he habit of forgetting)
thing) in worth; demote (someone); reduce in rank unison unity of pitch (in music
al performance); com-
 consistency absence of contradictions; uniformity; de-plete accord; Ex. The choi
r sang in unison.
gree of thickness or rmness; Ex. consistency of thick
cream; CF. viscous nurture nourish; feed; educate; rear; care for while it is
growing or developing; foster; cultivate; N: something
 bid command; utter (a greeting); offer as a price; N:that nourishes; rearing
offer of a price; amount offered; earnest effort to gain
something; Ex. bid for freedom genesis beginning; origin
 ctitious imaginary; non-existent; purposely invented
 debase degrade; reduce in quality or value; degenerate;to deceive; untrue; Ex. ct
itious name/boyfriend; CF.
lower in esteem; disgrace; N. debasementctional
 mausoleum monumental tomb; large stately tomb; CF.
 manifest evident; visible; obvious; V: show plainly
Mausolos
 preclude make impossible; prevent; exclude; eliminate pragmatist practical person
; N. pragmatism: pragmatic
way of dealing with things
 impending nearing; approaching; about to happen requiem mass for the dead; dirge
 abdicate renounce; give up (position, right, or responsi-
bility) annals records arranged in yearly parts; history
 snufe snife; sniff repeatedly (in order to keep liquid
 motley multi-colored (as of a garment worn by a jester);
mixed; heterogeneous; CF. jester: one who jests (as afrom running out of the nos
e)
paid fool at medieval courts) laity laypersons; laymen; persons not connected wit
h
the clergy
 profusion great amount; plenty; overabundance; ex-
cess; lavish expenditure; Ex. profusion of choices; ADJ. libuster block legislatio
n or prevent action in a law-
profuse: plentiful; copious; giving or given abundantly;making body by making ve
ry slow long speeches; N;
extravagantfreebooter
 bedizen dress with vulgar nery comprise include; consist of
66

--------------------------------------- 67
 clandestine secretgouge the public; CF. usury
 tightwad miser; excessively frugal person embody give a bodily form to; incorpora
te; include
 knave untrustworthy person; rogue; scoundrel; jack; N. brochure pamphlet
knavery badinage teasing conversation; banter; joking talk
 debutante young woman making formal entrance into grouse complain; fuss; grumble;
grouch; N: plump
societychickenlike game bird
 escapade prank; ighty conduct; reckless adventure trepidation fear; nervous appreh
ension
that disobeys rules
 trenchant cutting; incisive; keen
 archipelago group of closely located islands
 incommodious not spacious; inconvenient
40
 tiller handle used to move boat's rudder (to steer)
 ordinance decree; authoritative order
 transient staying for a short time; momentary; tempo-
rary; N: one that is transient oversee watch over and direct; supervise; N. overs
ight:
unintentional failure to notice or do something; super-
 concatenate link as in a chainvision
 missile object to be thrown or projected miniature small model; small painting; A
DJ: small
 genteel well-bred; elegant; striving to convey an ap- vivid (of light or color) b
right and distinct; evoking life-
pearance of renement; Ex. genteel povertylike mental images; Ex. vivid red hair/d
escription
 pedantic bookish; showing off learning; marked by an snicker half-stied(suppressed
) laugh; V.
excessive ostentatious concern for book learning; N.
pedantry hibernate sleep throughout the winter; N. hibernation
 pending not yet decided or settled; impending; Ex. wrongheaded stubbornly wrong
pending decision; PREP. while awaiting; until; Ex. delay rend split; tear apart;
N. rent; CF. heartrending: causing
the decision pending his returndeep sorrow
 blotch spot; blot; CF. blot+botch enervate weaken; take away energy from
 distort twist out of shape; give a false account of; mis- convulsion violent unco
ntrollable shaking movement
represent; N. distortion(caused by illness); V. convulse; ADJ. convulsive
 carapace shell covering the back (of a turtle, tortoise,
 gloss over explain away with the intention of deceiving
crab, etc.)or hiding faults
 append attach proviso stipulation; condition in an agreement; provi-
 grievance cause of complaint; complaintsion
 start move suddenly or involuntarily; Ex. start at the denitive most reliable; aut
horative and complete; that
sight of a snakecannot be improved; conclusive; decisive; denite; Ex.
denitive decision by the supreme court
 voracious ravenous; eating large quantities of food;
exceedingly eager; insatiable; Ex.voracious ani- perimeter outer boundary; length
of the outer bound-
mal/readerary; circumference
 proponent supporter; backer; opposite of opponent angular sharp-cornered; having
an angle; not rounded
(body); bony; lean; gaunt; stiff in manner
 conglomeration mass of material sticking together
 ambush act of lying in wait to attack by surprise; sud-
 proximity nearness; ADJ. proximateden attack made from a concealed position; Ex.
lie in
 verge border; edge, rim, or margin; Ex. on the verge of:ambush; V.
very near to; V: border on
 shyster lawyer using questionable methods; unscrupu-
 exquisite delicate; very nely made; extremely beauti-lous practioner
ful; Ex. exquisite piece of jewelry
 denizen (animal, person, or plant) inhabitant or resi-
 purge remove or get rid of something or someone un-
dent of a particular place; regular visitor
wanted; eliminate; free from blame or guilt; cleanse or
purify (esp. of sin, guilt, or delement); N. preponderance superiority of power, q
uantity, etc.; V.
preponderate: be greater in power, weight, or impor-
 yokel rustic; country bumpkin; @r0lutance; ADJ. preponderant
 humid damp; N. humidity laggard slow; sluggish; N: one who lags; straggler
 hackles hairs on back and neck, especially of a dog; Ex. dint means; effort; Ex.
by dint of hard work
make someone's hackles rise
 pedigree line of ancestors; ancestry; lineage; ADJ. (of an
 courier messenger
animal) descended from of a chosen family; Ex. pedi-
 regicide murder of a king or queengree dog; CF. crane's foot
67

--------------------------------------- 68
ish psyche soul; mind
 levy impose (a ne); collect (a payment); impose or col-
lect (a tax); Ex. levy a tax on tobacco eschew avoid habitually; Ex. eschew alcoh
olic drinks
 compatible harmonious; in harmony with; able to exist irrepressible unable to be
restrained or held back; im-
togetherpossible to hold back
 efcacy power to produce desired effect; ADJ. efca- exorbitant (of costs or demands)
excessive; exceeding
cious: effectualreasonable bounds
 collected composed; calm; self-possessed innate inborn
 receptive quick or willing to receive (ideas, suggestions,
 dupe someone easily fooled or deceived; V: deceiveetc.); Ex. receptive to the pr
oposal
 mettle courage (to continue bravely in spite of difcul-
 assuage mak less severe; ease or lessen (pain); satisfy
ties); spirit; ADJ. mettlesome(hunger); soothe (anger)
 salutary tending to improve; benecial; wholesome; Ex.
The punishment had a salutary effect on the boy; CF. inasmuch as since; owing to
the fact that
health expose´ public revelation of something discreditable
 remnant remainder
 precis´abstract; concise summing up of main points;
 burlesque give an imitation that ridicules; imitateconcise summary of a text
mockingly
 abominate loathe; hate
 aerie(aery,eyrie,eyry) nest of a large bird of prey underhand(underhanded) done s
lyly and secretly (be-
 enormity hugeness (in a bad sense); excessive wicked-ing dishonest)
ness; Ex. enormity of the crime; ADJ. enormous atavism resemblance to remote ance
stors rather than to
 salubrious healthful; conducive to health or well-being;parents; reversion to an
earlier type; throwback; ADJ.
socially desirable; Ex. salubrious area; CF. healthatavistic
 vitreous of glass; pertaining to or resembling glass; V. seminary school for trai
ning future ministers; sec-
vitrify: change into glass; CF. petrifyondary school, especially for young women
 premonitory serving to warn personable attractive (in personality or appearance)
 elevation elevated position; altitude; height; at up- muggy (of weather) warm and
damp
right side of a building; angle made by pointing a gun;
Ex. The elevation of her style is much admired; Ex. front stink stench; V: emit a
strong foul odor
elevation of the house duress forcible restraint, especially unlawfully; coer-
 gorge narrow canyon; steep rocky cleft; ravine (madecion by threat; illegal coer
cion; Ex. a promise made un-
by a stream which runs through it)der duress
 contempt scorn; disdain; ADJ. contemptuous; CF. con- peevish bad-tempered; irrita
ble; V. peeve: make angry
temptible swerve deviate; turn aside sharply from a straight
 cache hiding place; V.course; Ex. swerve from the principle; Ex. The car
swerved to the right.
 sophistry seemingly plausible but fallacious reasoning;
sophism indentation notch; deep recess; V. indent; CF. tooth
 quandary dilemma; state of uncertainty; Ex. She is in a
 penitent repentant; N.
 vignette small drawing placed at the beginning or endquandary about whether to g
o.
of a chapter; picture; short literary sketch; short written coiffure hairstyle
description of a character or scene demure (of a woman or child) grave; quiet and
serious;
 extol praise very highly; glorifycoy; pretending to be demure
 slew large quantity or number; Ex. slew of errands left sanguine optimistic; chee
rful; hopeful; of the color of
blood; red
 expenditure payment or expense; expending; some-
thing expended; output; Ex. receipt for the expenditure; bombardment attack (as w
ith missiles or bombs); V.
Ex. expenditure of all the energybombard
 piety devoutness; reverence for God; ADJ. pious accid abby; lacking rmness; weak; Ex
. accid mus-
cles
 delude deceive
 poultice soothing application applied to sore and in- unearthly not earthly; supe
rnatural; weird; ghostly
amed portions of the body asco total failure; CF. bottle
 cynical skeptical or distrustful of human motives; N. threat sign or warning (of
coming danger); Ex. threat
cynicism; CF. cynic: person who believes all people areof rain; V: express a thr
eat; give warning of (something
motivated by selshnessbad); Ex. The cloud threatens rain.
68

--------------------------------------- 69
for something bad; Ex. deplore their violent behav-cellery(chancellory): positio
n of a chancellor
ior; ADJ. deplorable: very bad; deserving severe disap- blatant extremely (offens
ively) obvious; loudly offen-
proval; Ex. deplorable living condition
sive; Ex. blatant lie; N. blatancy
 retribution deserved punishment for wrongdoing; buxom full-bosomed; plump; jolly
punishment for offenses; compensation; vengeance; CF.
 servile slavish; cringing; N. servility
pay back
 titillate tickle; excite pleasantly; Ex. not to titillate the centurion Roman arm
y ofcer (commanding a com-
pany of about 100 soldiers)
audience but to enlighten it
 linger loiter or dawdle; be slow in leaving; delay going;
 manifestation outward demonstration; manifesting; in-
dication of the presence of something; Ex. manifestationcontinue or persist; be
slow to disappear; Ex. The smell
of his pronounced musical bentlingered for days.
 irrefutable indisputable; incontrovertible; undeniable coda concluding section of
a musical or literary compo-
sition
 clangor loud resounding noise; sound of repeated
clanging bolster support; reinforce
 random without denite purpose, plan, or aim; haphaz- premise assumption; postulate
; proposition upon
ard; Ex. random shots; Ex. chosen at randomwhich an argument is based
 reverend deserving reverence; N: priest striated marked with parallel bands; stri
ped; grooved;
Ex. striated rocks; V. striate; N. stria: thin groove or line
 engaged employed; busy; betrothed; involved in con-
ict rejuvenate make young again
 repartee quick clever reply
 apiculture bee-keeping
 enfranchise admit to the rights of citizenship (espe- promiscuous mixed indiscrim
inately; indiscriminate;
cially the right to vote); CF. franchisenot choosing carefully; indiscriminate i
n the choice
of sexual partners; irregular, particularly sexually; Ex.
 suppliant entreating; beseeching; N.promiscuous life/girl; N. promiscuity
 rampant growing or spreading uncontrollably; grow-
 warranted justied; authorized
ing in profusion; unrestrained; Ex. rampant lawless-
ness/weed evasive not frank; trying to hide the truth; eluding;
evading; V. evade: avoid (a duty or responsibility) or
 compute reckon; calculate
escape from by deceit
 fusillade simultaneous ring or outburst (of missiles, nib beak(bill); pen point
questions, etc.)
 tanner person who turns animal hides into leather
41 clairvoyant having foresight; fortuneteller; N. clairvoy-
ance
 deance refusal to yield; resistance; V. defy; ADJ. de-
 redundant superuous; more than is necessary; ver-
antbose; excessively wordy; repetitious
 disabuse correct a false impression; undeceive; free
 dubious questionable; (of something) causing doubt;
from a wrong belief
(of someone) lled with doubt; N. dubiety
 wrath anger; fury elicit draw out fact or information (by discussion or
 transcendental going beyond common thought orfrom someone)
ideas; impossible to understand by practical experi- authenticate prove genuine
ences or practices; known only by studying thoughts or
intuition; OP. empirical; CF. transcendentalism arbitrary unreasonable or caprici
ous; random; tyranni-
 multifarious varied; greatly diversied; Ex. multifari-cal; Ex. arbitrary ruler
ous activities unwonted unaccustomed; unusual; Ex. He arrived
 resourceful clever and imaginative (in dealing with dif-with unwonted punctualit
y.
cult situations); N. resource, resourcefulness ulterior intentionally hidden; beyo
nd what is evident;
situated beyond; unstated and often questionable; Ex.
 omniscient all-knowingulterior motive
 callous hardened; unfeeling; without sympathy for the
 marital pertaining to marriage
sufferings of others; unkind
 choice delicate; of very ne quality
 seduce lead away from proper conduct; entice; ADJ. se- caldron(cauldron) large ke
ttle
ductive
 entrepreneur businessperson (who assumes the risk of
 retroactive taking effect before its enactment (as a law)
or imposition (as a tax); (of a law) having effect on thea business venture); co
ntractor; ADJ. entrepreneurial
past as well as the future tranquillity calmness; peace
69

--------------------------------------- 70
through its substance; impossible to permeate antidote remedy to counteract a poi
son or disease; Ex.
 sly clever in deceiving; secretive; not telling one's inten-antidote to the econ
omic troubles
tions lookout act of keeping watch; high place commanding
 strident loud and harsh; insistent; N. stridencya wide view; person who keeps wa
tch
 catastrophe calamity ; disaster prevalent widespread; generally accepted
 wanton unrestrained; gratuitously cruel; willfully ma- colander utensil with perf
orated bottom used for strain-
licious; unchaste; sexually improper; promiscuous; Ex.ing
wanton spending/killing; CF. having no just cause projectile missile; red or throw
n object (such as stone
 arbitrate act as judge (at the request of both sides)or bullet)
 maculated spotted; stained; CF. immaculate pantomime acting without dialogue; V.
 gleam brief ash of light; glow; V. welter wallow (as in mud or high seas); lie soa
ked (as
in blood); Ex. The victims weltered in their blood.
 pudding hot sweet dish
 slovenly untidy; careless in work habits; slipshod; N.
 ascribe refer; attribute; assignsloven: one who is habitually untidy or careless
 antiquity quality of being very old; ancient times; ¦@/ matriarch woman who rules a
family or larger social
 implacable incapable of being pacied; impossible togroup
appease; Ex. implacable enemy abusive coarsely insulting; physically harmful
 ingenious marked by inventive skill; clever; resource- titanic gigantic; N. titan
ful; N. ingenuity
 entice lure; persuade to do (something wrong); attract;
 outgoing sociable; eager to mix socially with otherstempt
 glossy smooth and shining; N. gloss: shiny brightness hypocritical pretending to
be virtuous; deceiving; N.
on a surface; supercially attractive appearance; Ex.hypocrisy: profession of beli
efs one does not possess;
gloss of good manners
CF. hypocrite
 vulnerable susceptible to wounds or attack; N. vulner- paramour illicit lover
ability
 reprieve postponement or cancelation of a punishment;
 puerile childish; immature; CF. puer: boy
temporary stay; V: postpone or cancel the punishment
 pliant exible; easily inuencedof
 machinations evil schemes or plots; schemes or plots to ligree delicate ornamental
lacelike metalwork
achieve an evil end; V. machinate
 deterrent something that discourages or deters
 colossal huge backslide revert (to bad habits); N. reverter
 insensate without feeling; lacking sense; foolish metamorphosis change of form; E
x. metamorphosis of
 lumber move heavily or clumsily; Ex. The bear lum-caterpillar to buttery; V. meta
morphose: change by
bered through the woods; N: timbermetamorphosis
 ostentatious showy; trying to attract attention; preten- caricature distortion; b
urlesque
tious; N. ostentation: showy display appurtenances subordinate possessions; somet
hing
 guise outward appearance; costume; Ex. in a new guiseadded to a more important t
hing
 animadversion critical remark; V. animadvert: com-
 whiff puff or gust (of air, scent, etc.); short-lasting smell;ment critically wi
th disapproval
hint; Ex. whiff of perfume/scandal
 coercion use of force to get someone to object; com-
 appease pacify or soothe; Ex. appease a crying baby; N.pelling; V. coerce
appeasement
 quell suppress; put an end to; put down forcibly; extin-
 hieroglyphic picture writing; ADJ.guish; quiet; Ex. Army Quells Rebellion in newsp
a-
per; CF. kill
 frigid intensely cold; cold in manner; Ex. frigid zone
 manacle restrain; handcuff; N.42
 austere forbiddingly stern; ascetic; without comfort or terminology terms used in
a science or art; study of
enjoyment; severely simple and unornamented; Ex. anomenclature
monk's austere life; Ex. austere grandeur of the cathe-
dral; N. austerity hover hang about; (of birds or aircraft) stay in the air
in one place; (of people) wait nearby; stay around one
 analogy similarity; parallelism; comparing two similar
place; waver; be in an uncertain state
things
 energize invigorate; give energy to; make forceful and studious given to diligent
study
 antler bony growth on the head of a deer
active
70

--------------------------------------- 71
ble; obvious; Ex. palpable blunder giddy light-hearted; not serious; frivolous; d
izzy; caus-
 palatable agreeable; pleasing to the tasteing dizziness; Ex. giddy youth; Ex. gi
ddy climb/height
 cremate incinerate (a corpse); N. crematory, cremato-
rium implausible unlikely (to be true); unbelievable; Ex. im-
plausible alibi
 tablet small round piece of medicine; at piece of stone
or metal bearing an inscription; Ex. stone tablet on the drudge do drudgery; N: p
erson who drudges
wall suitor man who is courting a woman
 grunt utter a deep guttural sound (as a pig does); N. far-fetched too improbable
to be believed; implausible;
 supine lying on back; passive; inactive; Ex. The de-Ex. far-fetched story
feated pugilist lay supine; Ex. supine acceptance of the
decision intimidate frighten; N. intimidation
 engulf surround and swallow up ventral abdominal
 annotate comment; make explanatory notes utopia ideal place, state, or society; A
DJ. utopian
 personify represent (an inanimate object) as a person; hazardous dangerous
be the embodiment or perfect example of; Ex. She is drastic strong; violent and s
evere; Ex.drastic
evil/patience personied; N. personicationchanges/measures
 muster gather; assemble (troops); Ex. muster up one's impinge infringe; encroach;
inuence; touch; collide
strength for the ordeal; N.with; Ex. The effects are impinging on every aspect o
f
 cohabit live togetherour lives.
 coddle treat gently; indulge excessively; pamper; mol- misgivings doubts
lycoddle; baby; cook in water just below boiling point; siren apparatus for makin
g sounds; womanlike crea-
Ex. coddled eggsture
 acclimate adjust to climate or environment; adapt piecemeal one part at a time; g
radually; in stages; Ex.
read a novel piecemeal
 susceptible impressionable; easily inuenced; sensi-
tive; having little resistance as to a disease; likely to suf- regimen prescribed
course of diet or exercise; pre-
fer; receptive to; capable of accepting; Ex. susceptible toscribed diet and habi
ts; Ex. daily regimen of a dancer
persuasion/colds; Ex. The agreement is not susceptible
of alteration; N. susceptibility
 temporal of time; not lasting forever; limited by time;
 crinkle wrinkletemporary; secular; worldly
 titular of a title; in name only; nominal; having the title relegate put into a l
ower or worse place; banish to an
of an ofce without the obligations; Ex. titular head ofinferior position; delegat
e; assign; Ex. relegate the old
the companyfurniture to the children's room; Ex. relegated to the
 rebus representation of words in the form of pictures orsecond division
symbols; puzzle in which pictures or letters stand for beatic giving or showing bl
iss; blissful
words; Ex. R U 18 is a rebus for Are you 18 .
 arraign charge in court; indict
 rip tear or be torn quickly and violently; Ex. The sail
ripped under the force of the wind; N. antagonism hostility; active opposition; V
. antagonize:
cause to become an enemy; N. antagonist: person who
 brim uppermost edge of a cup; projecting rim (as on ais opposed to another; oppo
nent; adversary; principal
hat); Ex. The glass was full to the brim; V: be full to thecharacter in oppostio
n to the protagonist
brim
 inchoate (of desire, wish, plan) recently begun; not ex-
 aesthetic artistic; dealing with or capable of appreciat-plicit; at the beginnin
g of development; rudimentary;
ing the beautiful (of a person or building); CF. aesthete;elementary; Ex. inchoa
te mass
CF. aesthetics
 bridle harness tted about a horse's head (used to re-
 schism division into factions (esp. within a religiousstrain); curb; check; V: p
ut a bridle on; control or re-
body); splitstrain; show anger
 outt clothing or equipment for a special purpose; Ex. signicant expressing a meanin
g; important; Ex. sig-
cowboy outtnicant smile; N. signicance: importance; meaning; V.
 bookish fond of books and readingsignify: denote; mean; signal; make known; matt
er; be
signicant
 cuisine style of cooking; Ex. French cuisine
 aloof apart; not open in one's relationship with other
 moribund dying; at the point of death; CF. death
people; reserved; ADV.
 upbraid reprimand; severely scold
 stratum layer of earth's surface; layer of society; PL.
 parody humorous imitation; spoof; takeoff; travesty; V.strata
 jovial good-natured; merry; cheerful lounge stand, sit, or lie in a lazy, relaxed
way
71

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 pendant(pendent) hanging down from something; encroachment gradual intrusion; Ex.
I resent all these
pending; N: ornament (hanging from a necklace etc.)encroachments on my valuable
time; V. encroach: take
 modish fashionable; conforming to the current fashionanother's possessions or ri
ght gradually or stealthily;
intrude; Ex. encroach on/upon
 circumvent outwit; defeat by behaving more cleverly;
outsmart; bafe; avoid; get around spoof parody
 livid lead-colored; black and blue (as from a bruise); noxious harmful; CF. obnox
ious
ashen; enraged; extremely angry puzzle bafe or confuse by a difcult problem; ponder
 leery (of someone) suspicious; wary; cautiousover a problem in an effort to solv
e; clarify or solve by
reasoning; Ex. puzzle out the answer; N.
 veracious (of a person) truthful
 reprove censure; rebuke; N. reproof
 vigil keeping watch (during normal sleeping hours);
Ex. all-night vigil paleontology study of prehistoric life or fossils; CF.
paleo-: ancient or prehistoric; Ex. paleography: study
 parlance language; manner of speaking; idiom; Ex. inof ancient written documents
legal/common parlance stout rather fat; strong in body; sturdy; resolute;
 litany supplicatory prayer; prayer in which the priestdetermined; strong in dete
rmination; Ex.stout
calls out and the people replies in the same wordsstick/supporter
 offensive attacking; insulting; distasteful; V. offend: vi- plebiscite direct vot
e by the entire electorate (on an im-
olate; hurt the feelings of; N. offense: offending; vio-portant issue)
lating of a moral or social code; crime; attack; Ex. rst
offense circumlocution indirect or roundabout expression (by
using an uncecessarily large number of words esp.
 stench strong foul odor; reek; stinkwhen trying to avoid answering a difcult ques
tion di-
rectly)
 incapacitate disable; N. incapacity: lack of capacity
 tramp walk with a heavy step; travel on foot; N: va-
grant; one who travels aimlessly about; long walk;43
sound of heavy walking swarm large group of insects moving in a mass; crowd
 functionary ofcial (who performs a particular func-of people or animals; V: move
in a crowd or mass
tion) culprit one guilty of a crime
 rapacious voracious; ravenous; taking everything one generality vague statement;
general statement which is
can; excessively grasping; plundering; subsisting onnot detailed; quality of bei
ng general; greater part; most;
live prey; Ex. rapacious birdsEx. generality of people
 simulate feign; imitate veritable being truly so; real or genuine; actual; not
false or imaginary
 depose dethrone; remove from ofce; give a deposition;
testify respite time for rest; interval of relief; delay in punish-
ment; reprieve
 conduit aqueduct; passageway for uids
 pragmatic practical (as opposed to idealistic); con-
 ighty (esp. of a woman's behavior) capricious; oftencerned with practical worth o
r impact of something; Ex.
changing, esp. from one lover to another; impulsivepragmatic test of the skill
 referendum direct vote by all the people sledge large sled drawn by work animals
 worldly engrossed in matters of this earth; not spiritual; seasonal of a particul
ar season; Ex. seasonal rise in em-
of the material worldployment
 contrived unnatural and forced; articial; not sponta- lag move or develop more slo
wly; straggle; Ex. lag be-
neous; Ex. The ending was rather contrived.hind the rest; N.
 ethos underlying character of a culture, group, etc.; tactful careful no to cause
offence; OP. tactless
character or ideas peculiar to a specic person, group,
 unprecedented having no previous example; novel; un-
or culture; Ex. the company ethosparalleled
 disjointed disconnected; lacking coherence; V. disjoint: opiate medicine to induc
e sleep or deaden pain; some-
disconnect; disjoin
thing that relieves emotions or causes inaction; sleep-
 hallowed blessed; consecrated; Ex. hallowed ground;producing drug containing opi
um
V. hallow: set apart as holy
 musky having the odor of musk; N. musk: odorous
 ecologist person concerned with the interrelationshipsubstance secreted by an As
ian deer
between living organisms and their environment; per-
son concerned with the detrimental effects of human malediction curse
civilization on the environment; CF. ecology fritter waste (time or money on unim
portant things)
 disclose reveal; N. disclosure brandish wave around (a weapon); ourish
72
--------------------------------------- 73
pugnacious: (of people) belligerent; combative in natureCF. come
 distinction honor; excellence; difference; contrast; dis-
 exasperate vex; annoy or make angry (by testing the pa-crimination; Ex. graduate
d with distinction; Ex. a writer
tience)of real distinction
 germinate cause to sprout; sprout converge approach; tend to meet; come together
 memento token; reminder of the past; keepsake; Ex. inconsistency state of being s
elf-contradictory; lack of
memento of your visituniformity or steadiness; ADJ. inconsistent: displaying
a lack of consistency; erratic; contradictory; incompati-
 reconnaissance survey of enemy by soldiers; reconnoi-ble
tering; V. reconnoiter: make a preliminary inspection of
(esp. to gather military information) commemorative remembering; honoring the mem
ory
of; Ex. commemorative stamp
 oath solemn promise; blasphemous use of sacred words
to express strong feelings; swear-word; Ex. For Christ's incorporate introduce som
ething into a larger whole;
sake include; embody; give material form to; ADJ.
 thwart block or hinder; bafe; frustrate hone sharpen (a tool); N: whetstone for sh
arpening a
 vehement forceful; intensely emotional; with markedtool
vigor; strong; N. vehemence amenities convenient features that helps to make life
pleasant; social courtesies
 contraband illegal trade; smuggling; smuggled goods;
ADJ. averse reluctant; disinclined; not liking or opposed; Ex.
averse to cats/doing the house work
 wrench twist; pull; strain; Ex. He wrenched the gun out
of her hands. speechless unable for the moment to speak (because of
strong feeling); Ex. speechless with anger
 dainty delicate; delicately beautiful; fastidious; not easy
to please; Ex. dainty movement/dress prepossessing attractive; CF. preoccupying ?
 zephyr gentle breeze; west wind arrears being in debt; money that should have bee
n
paid; work that should have been done
 waylay ambush; lie in wait for and attack
 providence quality of being provident; divine care;
 contrite penitent; repentant; N. contritiongod's care; Providence: god; Ex. It s
eemed like provi-
 treasure keep as precious; cherishdence that the doctor happened to be there; AD
J. provi-
dential: of divine providence; fortunate
 ford place where a river can be crossed on foot; V.
 witticism witty saying; wisecrack(clever joking remark)
 patrician noble; aristocratic; N: person of high rank;
aristocrat; CF. member of the governing classes in an-
cient Rome; CF. plebian hue color; aspect; Ex. opinions of every hue
 languor lack of physical or mental energy; lassitude; de- brawl noisy quarrel
pression
 misconstrue interpret incorrectly; misinterpret; mis-
 foreshadow give an indication beforehand; be a sign ofjudge
(what is coming); portend; pregure auxiliary offering or providing help; additiona
l or sub-
 germane pertinent; bearing upon(having connectionsidiary; N: helper; assistant
with) the case at hand; appropriate derogatory expressing a low opinion; disparag
ing; V.
 reprehensible deserving blame; blameworthy; V. repre-derogate: detract; disparag
e
hend: blame
 divine perceive intuitively (by or as if by magic); foresee
 eon(aeon) long period of time; an age; longest divisionthe future; foretell; dow
se; ADJ. N. divination
of geologic time containing two or more eras impart grant a share of; make known;
Ex. news to im-
part
 daub smear (as with paint); cover with something
sticky; Ex. daub one's clothes with mud/paint; N: small vertigo severe dizziness;
giddiness
bit of sticky substance; Ex. a daub of paint forerunner predecessor; one that com
es before and in-
 subordinate occupying a lower rank; inferior; submis-dicates the approach of ano
ther
sive; N. V: put in a lower rank or class
 abnegation renunciation; self-sacrice; self-abnegation
 antediluvian antiquated; extremely ancient
 breadth width; extent
 stately formal; ceremonious; grand in style or size; ma-
jestic acrophobia fear of heights
 interminable endless reminiscent suggestive of something (in the past); of
reminiscence
 proverb adage; someone or something well known for
 blight plant disease; V: infect with blight; ruin; destroy
notoriety; ADJ. proverbial: of a proverb; widely known;
ADV. proverbially psychiatrist doctor who treats mental diseases
73

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 kinetic producing motion; of motionin alcohol); seriousness
 graduated arranged by degrees (of height, difculty,
 corroborate conrm; support; strengthen
etc.)
 polity (particular form of) political organization; form thespian pertaining to d
rama; N: actor or actress
of government of nation or state; Ex. student polity
 ligneous like wood
 discount disregard; regard (a story or news) as unim-
portant; deduct from a cost felicity happiness; appropriateness (of a remark, cho
ice,
etc.); quality of being felicitous
 oust expel; drive out; force out; N. ouster: ousting
 malfeasance wrongdoing; misconduct (by a public of-
 hereafter life after deathcial)
 putrescent becoming putrid; putrefying mural wall painting
 institute organization for a special purpose; V: establish forgo(forego) give up;
do without
 fuddle make stupid or confused as with alcholic drink;
 kudos honor; glory; acclaim or praise for exceptionalN. in a fuddle: confused
achievement
 sustain suffer (harm or loss); experience; support; prop;
 feud bitter prolonged quarrel (usually between twomaintain; keep in existence; n
ourish (to maintain life);
peoples or families); V. CF. Romeo and Juliet; CF. feu-Ex. sustain the family/th
e trapped miners
dal, feudalism slacken slow up; loosen; make or become slack
 exceptionable objectionable; likely to cause dislike; of-
 presentiment premonition; foreboding; feeling some-
fensive; CF. unexceptionable: entirely acceptablething will happen; anticipatory
fear
 consign send to a person or place for sale; deliver of- superimpose place over so
mething else
cially; entrust; put into the care of another; set apart
(for a special purpose); N. consignment; CF. consignor, supplicate petition humbl
y; pray to grant a favor
consignee potential expressing possibility; latent; N: capacity for
 parallelism state of being parallel; similarity; analogygrowth
 quip taunt; clever sarcastic remark; V.
 disavowal denial; disclaiming; repudiating; disowning;
V. disavow; CF. disclaim dissuade persuade not to do; discourage; N. dissuasion
 indel unbeliever (with respect to a particular religion)
 hypothetical based on assumptions or hypotheses; sup-
 bantering joking talk; good-naturedly ridiculing; N.V.posed; N. hypothesis
 withhold refuse to give; hold back; Ex. withholding tax
banter
 amorous moved by sexual love; loving; of sexual love; acute (of the senses) sharp
; quickly perceptive; keen;
Ex. amorous advances
penetrating; brief and severe; Ex.acute sense of
 haphazard random; by chance; happening in an un-smell/analysis/pain
planned manner; Ex. haphazard growth of the town
 paltry insignicant; petty; triing; contemptible; Ex.
 reminiscence recollection; V. reminisce: recollect thepaltry sum; CF. trash
past
 travail strenuous work; toil; painful labor; labor of
 restraint moderation or self-control; controlling force;childbirth
restriction
 atone make amends for; pay for; Ex. atone for
 dormant sleeping; temporarily inactive; lethargic; la-
tent requisite necessary requirement; something required;
ADJ: required; necessary
 bump hit or knock against with force; N.
 vernacular living language (as compared to the ofcial
 despise look on with scorn; regard as worthless or dis-language); language spoke
n in a country or region; nat-
tasteful; ADJ. despicable: contemptibleural style; Ex. lapse into the vernacular
 gargoyle waterspout carved in grotesque gures on a
building
44
 unrequited not requited; not reciprocated; Ex. unre- unfrock defrock; strip a pri
est or minister of church au-
thority
quited love
 apocryphal (of a story) widely believed but untrue
 indite write; compose
 mercenary motivated solely by money or gain; N. gnarl protruding knot on a tree;
V.
 ashen ash-colored; deadly pale riddle pierce with holes; permeate or spread throu
gh-
out; Ex. The gunman riddled the car with bullets; Ex.
 conventional ordinary; typical; not nuclear; Ex. con-The whole report is riddled
with errors; N. large sieve
ventional weapons(separating earth from stone)
74
--------------------------------------- 75
rents.action; N: pointed object used to prod; prodding
 unscathed unharmed; Ex. escape the accident un- inequity unfairness; ADJ. inequit
able
scathed
 demean disgrace; humiliate; debase in dignity; behave
 anarchist person who seeks to overturn the established
government; advocate of abolishing authority torque twisting force; force produci
ng rotation
 wallow roll in mud; indulge in; (of a ship) roll in
 strut supporting bar; CF. airplane wings building 1pxa rough sea; become helpless;
Ex. wallow in the
`¦ support
mud/luxury
 luster shine; gloss (of a polished surface) foment stir up; incite; instigate; pr
omote the growth of
 verisimilitude appearance of truth; quality of appear-(something evil or unpleas
ant)
ing to be true or real; likelihood; Ex. verisimilitude of ashy showy; gaudy; givin
g a momentary brilliance
her performance as Lady Macbeth
 inamorata woman whom a man loves
 enliven make lively or spirited; animate forum public square of an ancient Roman
city; public
 vulture carrion-eating birds
place for open discussion; court of law
 owery full of owers; full of ornate expressions blandishment attery
 harass annoy by repeated attacks adjunct something attached to but holding an inf
erior
 sinister evil; ominousposition
 devolve deputize; pass or be passed to others (power, realm kingdom; eld or sphere
; Ex. not within the
work, or property); Ex. devolve on/upon/torealms of possibility
 heinous atrocious; wicked; hatefully bad; Ex. heinous anemia condition in which b
lood lacks red corpuscles;
crimeADJ. anemic
 adverse going against; opposing; unfavorable; hostile pinch squeeze between the t
humb and a nger, or other
 rigor severity; Ex. rigors of the Russian winteredges; Ex. I had to pinch myself
to make sure I wasn't
dreaming. N: amount that can be held between the
 shackle chain; fetter; conne with shackles; N.thumb and a nger
 prop support placed under or against something; V. prurient having or causing lus
tful desires and thoughts;
 sumptuous grand suggesting great expense; lavish;arousing immoderate sexual desi
re
rich; Ex. sumptuous feast erratic odd; irregular in movement or behavior; unpre-
 fulminate thunder; explode; issue a severe denuncia-dictable
tion incinerate burn to ashes
 prim proper to the point of affectation; very precise and adjoin be next to
formal; exceedingly proper
 tactile pertaining to the organs or sense of touch
 clout great inuence (especially political or social); hard
blow with st uency smoothness of speech; ADJ. uent
 prolic producing offspring or fruit in abundance; fer-
 sluggish lazy; slow; inactive; lethargic; CF. slug: nailtile; fecund; abundantly
fruitful; producing abundant
with no shell
works; Ex. prolic writer
 dribble ow or fall in drops; let saliva ow out slowly snivel complain or whine tear
fully; run at the nose;
from the mouth; move a ball; N.snufe; Ex. Don't come back sniveling to me.
 prong pointed projecting part philanderer faithless lover; irt
 sedulous diligent; assiduous; paying attention; N.
sedulity laborious demanding much work or care; tedious
 rancor long-lasting hatred; bitterness; Ex. negotiation
 fashion give shape to; make; Ex. fashion the pot out of
claywithout rancor; ADJ. rancorous
 palpitate throb; beat rapidly; utter; tremble; Ex. Her
 apprehend arrest (a criminal); dread; perceive; N. ap-heart began to palpitate.
prehension
 tread walk; trample; N: grooved face of a tire; horizontal
 panacea cure-all; remedy for all diseasespart of a step
 recurrent occurring again and again mat not shiny; matte; having a dull nish; N: at
piece
 plethora excess; overabundance; Ex. a plethora of ex-of material used as a oor co
vering; V.
cuses
 bloated (unpleasantly) swollen or puffed as with water45
or air
 dissimulate pretend; conceal by feigning; dissemble
 subsequent following in time or order; later enlist (cause to) join the armed for
ces; obtain (help,
 traduce expose to slandersympathy, or support)
75

--------------------------------------- 76
vital powers, etc.); revive or recuperate (after illness orspite of fear; Ex. gr
im smile
difculty); N: act of rallying; mass gathering lavish liberal; wasteful; generous o
r wasteful in giving
 crest top (as of a hill or wave); showy feathers on theor using; abundant; profu
se; great; Ex. decorated lav-
head of a birdishly; V. give in abundance
 cadaverous like a corpse; pale impenitent not repentant
 outrage act of extreme violence or viciousness; resentful obstreperous boisterous
; noisy and uncontrollable
anger; V: commit an outrage on; produce anger in; ADJ. substantial of substance;
material; solid; essential or
outrageous: offensive
fundamental; ample; considerable; well-to-do; wealthy
 reciprocate do or give something in return; repay in
kind; give or take mutually; interchange; move back- afnity feeling of kinship; si
milarity; Ex. strong afnity
for her; Ex. many afnities between two languages
wards and forwards; Ex. reciprocate his invitation by
inviting him; N. reciprocity: reciprocal relationship; executive person having ad
ministrative authority; one
mutual interchange of advantages between two groups;branch of government executi
ng laws; ADJ: relating to
Ex. reciprocity in trading rightsexecuting
 mischief behavior (of children) causing trouble with no gullible easily deceived
serious harm; damage; harm; Ex. mischief to the crops; subsidy direct nancial aid
by government, etc.; V. sub-
ADJ. mischievous: causing mischief; playfully trouble-sidize: assist with a subs
idy
some
 Shangri-la imaginary remote paradise on earth; CF.
 mite very small object or insect-like creature; small coinLost Horizon
 recrimination countercharges; V. recriminate
 placebo harmless substance prescribed as a dummy pill
 procrastinate postpone; delay or put off
 impeccable faultless agitate stir up; disturb
 disquisition formal systematic inquiry; explanation of
 terminal part that forms the end; railroad or bus station;
ADJ. forming an end; ending in death; fatal; Ex. termi-the results of a formal i
nquiry; long formal speech or
written report
nal cancer
 contaminate pollute
 gment invention; something invented; imaginary
thing; Ex. gment of your imagination amiss wrong; faulty; Ex. something amiss; ADV
.
 refute disprove; prove to be false; N. refutation potentate monarch; sovereign
 pristine unspoiled; remaining in a pure state; charac-
 pretend feign; pretend to: claim to possess; make pre-
tensions to; Ex. I don't pretend to much expertise; N.teristic of earlier times;
primitive; Ex. an old book in
pretensepristine condition
 rampart defensive mound of earth homage honor; tribute; great respect; Ex. pay/do
homage to
 wont (the stated person's) habit or custom; habitual
procedure; ADJ. wonted: customary choleric hot-tempered; bad-tempered; irritable;
easily
angered; CF. cholera
 animated lively; spirited
 heed pay attention to; N: close attention
 indomitable unconquerable; unyielding
 extraneous not essential; irrelevant; superuous; ex-
 feasible practical; able to be carried out; practicableternal; coming from the o
utside; Ex. extraneous de-
 indignity treatment or situation that causes shame ortails/noise/to the subject
loss of dignity, respect; offensive or insulting treatment; suffragist advocate o
f the extension of voting rights (for
humiliating or degrading treatment; Ex. I suffered thewomen); CF. suffrage
indignity of having to say that in front of them.
 nesse delicate skill; V: handle with nesse
 contusion bruise
 propagate increase in number by producing young;
 dotage senility; feeblemindedness of old age; Ex. Inmultiply; spread; Ex. Most p
lants propagate by seed;
one's dotageEx. newspaper propagating their ideas
 wrinkle small ridge on a smooth surface (face or cloth); foil contrast; one that
by contrast enhances the distinc-
V.tive characteristics of another
 amazon female warrior transcendent exceeding ordinary limits; superior; sur-
 ambidextrous capable of using either hand with equalpassing; V. transcend: go be
yond; exceed; surpass; N.
easetranscendancy
 malicious hateful; spiteful; expressing malice; N. mal- hermetic sealed by fusion
so as to be airtight; airtight
ice: desire to harm others; spite ablution washing
 disseminate distribute; spread; scatter (like seeds) dinghy small boat (often shi
p's boat)
76
--------------------------------------- 77
imity; kinshipin a scattered group; Ex. straggling marathon racer; Ex.
straggling branch
 innovation change; something newly introduced; intro-
duction of something new; V. innovate: begin or intro- piquant pleasantly tart-ta
sting; spicy; pleasantly stimu-
duce (something new); be creative; ADJ. innovativelating; Ex. piquant situation
when my old enemy asked
 writ written command issued by a court (telling some-for my help
one to do or not to do something) compunction remorse; strong uneasiness caused b
y
guilt
 schematic of a schema or scheme; relating to an outline
or diagram; using a system of symbols; N. schema: dia- circumscribe limit; conne;
draw a line around
grammatic representation; outline
 takeoff burlesque; act of leaving the ground
 ego one's opinion of oneself; self-esteem
 elope run away secretly with the intention of getting
 score number of points; written form of a musical com-
married
position; reason; group of 20; notch or incision; Ex.
full/vocal score; Ex. Don't worry on that score; V: mark season enhance the avor o
f by adding a spice, etc.; in-
ure; harden; N. seasoning: something used in seasoning
with lines or notches; Ex. score the paper to make it easy
to fold
 venture risk; expose to risk; dare; undertake a risk; N. fancy imagination (of a
whimsical or fantastic nature);
capricious liking; V: imagine; be fond of; ADJ. decora-
 garbled mixed up; jumbled; distorted; V. garble: mixtive; elaborate
up or distort (a message) to such an extent as to make
misleading or unintelligible zany comic; crazy; N: clown; comical person (given t
o
outlandish behavior)
 iniquitous wicked; immoral; unrighteous; N. iniquity;
Ex. den of iniquity
46
 existential pertaining to existence; pertaining to the
philosophy of existentialism overblown inated; exaggerated
 catholic (of likings and interests) universal; general; artless without guile; op
en and honest
broad; including many different parts; wide-ranging
liberal; Ex. catholic opinions/tastes perjury false testimony while under oath; V
. perjure
oneself: testify falsely under oath
 lunar pertaining to the moon
 sagacious wise; perceptive; shrewd; having insight; N.
 mirage unreal reection; optical illusionsagacity
 tawny brownish yellow verity quality of being true; lasting truth or principle;
 actuary someone who advises insurance companiesEx. the verity of his testimony;
Ex. one of the eternal
verities
 predecessor former occupant of a post
 idolatry worship of idols; excessive admiration or de-
 axiom self-evident truth requiring no proof
votion; ADJ. idolatrous
 cessation stoppage
 hedonist one who believes that pleasure is the sole aim
 rafe lottery; V: award as a prize in a rafe; Ex. rafe offin life; CF. hedonism: pra
ctice of living one's life purely
a new carfor pleasure
 indecisive marked by indecision; inconclusive; Ex. in- rile irritate; vex; muddy
decisive battle
 fortitude bravery; courage; strength of mind
 euthanasia mercy killing
 piscatorial pertaining to shing; CF. Pisces
 sodden thoroughly soaked; dull or stupid as if from
drink out reject; mock; show contempt for; scorn; Ex. out
the rules
 precedent preceding (in time, rank, etc.)
 introvert one who is introspective or inclined to think
 evince show clearlymore about oneself; ADJ. introverted
 ourish grow well; prosper; make sweeping gestures;
 felicitous (of a word or remark) apt; suitably expressed;
wave; brandish; Ex. The trees ourished in the sun.well chosen
N: showy movement or gesture; embellishment or or-
namentation (esp. in handwriting) jab poke abruptly with something sharp; punch w
ith
short blows
 rescind repeal; annul; cancel (a law, decision, or agree-
ment) panache air; manner of doing things without any dif-
culty (causing admiration); amboyance; bunch of
 intrepid fearlessfeathers (on a helmet); Ex. with great panache; CF. ïß-
 recourse resorting to help when in trouble; Ex. withoutA-Ð ;`¦ NS?/ H 5Åu}
recourse to
 stanch stop or check ow of blood; Ex. stanch the gush-
 alliteration repetition of beginning sound in poetrying wound
77

--------------------------------------- 78
tempered; N. testinessscience; excessive; beyond reason; Ex. unconscionable
 solvent substance that dissolves another; ADJ: capabledemand
of dissolving another substance morose ill-humored; sullen; sullenly melancholy
 animosity active enmity maneuver(manoeuver) strategic military or naval
 cantata story set to music to be sung by a chorusmovement (done for training pur
poses); carefully
planned process; stratagem; V: carry out a military
(shorter than an oratorio)maneuver; use maneuvers in gaining an end
 mandatory obligatory; compulsory; of a mandate
 lout clumsy person; ADJ. loutish; CF. from countrysides
 perspicacious (of someone) having insight; penetrating;?
astute amnesia loss of memory
 coma deep prolonged unconsciousness caused by dis-
 pedestal support or base as for a pillar or statue
ease, poison, or a severe blow
 clime climate
 retract withdraw; take back; draw back; Ex. retract a
statement/an offer/claws; N. retraction; CF. retractile martial warlike; of war;
Ex. martial art/law
 espionage spying rebrand piece of burning wood; hothead; trouble-
maker; person who stirs up trouble
 coterie group that meets socially; select circle; close
group of people with shared interests moodiness ts of depression or gloom; ADJ. mo
ody:
given to changeable moods; subject to periods of de-
 verdant green; covered with green plants or grass; lush
in vegetation; Ex. verdant meadowspression; gloomy CF. mood: state of mind or em
otion
 difdence shyness; lack of self-condence; timidity;
ADJ. difdent gurative not literal but metaphorical; using a g-
ure(impression) of speech
 compulsory obligatory; that must be done
 peddle travel about selling (wares); CF. foot
 halcyon calm; peaceful; Ex. halcyon days
 unceremonious not done politely without due formali-
 suppress put an end to forcibly; subdue; stie; over-ties
whelm; inhibit the expression of; check; prevent from
being published or made public; Ex. suppress a smile; festive joyous; celebratory
; relating to a feast or festival
Ex. suppress the magazine/truth
 sap diminish; weaken; undermine the foundations of (a typhoon tropical hurricane
or cyclone
fortication); Ex. The element kryptonite sapped his
 antecede precede
strength.
 apiary a place where bees are kept
 fortuitous accidental; by chance; N. fortuity humdrum dull; monotonous
 intervene come between; interfere; Ex. intervened to
 nostalgia homesickness; longing for the past; Ex. nos-
prevent a ght; N. intervention
talgia for the clothes of 1920s; ADJ. nostalgic
 cant insincere speech or expression of piety; jargon of pomposity self-important
behavior; acting like a stuffed
thieves; special words used by a particular group of
peopleshirt(pompous person); ADJ. pompous: self-important
 wangle achieve by cleverness or trick; wiggle out; fake; exuberance overowing abun
dance; joyful enthusiasm;
Ex. She tried to wangle an invitation to the party.amboyance; lavishness; ADJ. ex
uberant: high-spirited
and lively; growing abundantly and strongly
 phobia morbid fear
 diorama life-size, three-dimensional scene from nature
 igneous produced by re; of re; volcanic; (of rocks)or history; three-dimensional s
cene with modeled g-
formed from lava; Ex. igneous meteorite
ures against a painted background
 cerebration thought; working of the brain communal held in common; public; of a g
roup of peo-
 annuity yearly allowanceple; of a commune
 unexceptionable entirely acceptable; not offering any eminent rising above others
; high; lofty; distinguished;
basis for criticismEx. eminent position
 scufe struggle confusedly; move off in a confused conception beginning; forming of
an idea; fertilization;
hurry; N. CF. scufing twins ?V. conceive: form an idea in the mind; devise; becom
e
pregnant; CF. inception
 platitude trite remark; commonplace statement; ADJ.
platitudinous roseate rosy; optimistic; Ex. roseate views
 charm quality of pleasing; amulet; action or formula forthright straightforward;
direct; frank
thought to have magical power; spell; V: attract; cast a
 degenerate become worse in quality; deteriorate; ADJ:
spell on; bewitchhaving become worse; Ex. a degenerate species; N: de-
 hubbub confused uproar; loud noise; dinpraved or corrupt person
78

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 smudge dirty mark with unclear edges made by rub-quickness of the hands in doing
tricks
bing; V. actuarial calculating; pertaining to insurance statistics
 antiseptic substance that prevents infection in a wound; ramble wander aimlessly
(physically or mentally); di-
ADJ.gress
 virtue goodness; moral excellence; good quality; advan- lustrous shining; brillia
nt; Ex. lustrous hair
tage; Ex. by virtue of; Ex. make a virtue of necessity substantiate support (a cl
aim) with evidence; establish
 exemplary serving as a model; outstanding; Ex. exem-
with evidence; verify
plary punishment/behavior; N. exemplar: typical ex- resolution determination; res
oluteness; ADJ. resolute:
ample; model
rm or determined in purpose
 indecision irresolution; inability to make up one's mind
 awl pointed tool used for piercing
 ponderous having great weight; weighty; unwieldy; urge drive or force forward (by
causing impulses); drive
lacking lightness; dull; Ex. ponderous body/style ofto take action; impel; entre
at earnestly; Ex. urge horses;
writingN: impulse that prompts action
 frugality thrift; economy; ADJ. frugal: practicing econ- vigilante one who withou
t authority assumes law en-
omy; costing little; inexpensiveforcement powers
 posture assume an affected pose; act articially; N: hatch deck opening; lid coveri
ng a deck opening; V:
pose; attitudeemerge from an egg; produce (young) from an egg
 comeback retort; quick clever reply; return to former irreparable not able to be
corrected or repaired; impos-
statussible to repair
 acclivity sharp upslope of a hill; OP. declivity herpetologist one who studies re
ptiles; CF. herpetol-
 dummy imitation of a real object used as a substitute;ogy: branch of zoology tha
t deals with reptiles and am-
efgyphibians
 purport intention; purpose; meaning; V: claim; profess; saturate soak thoroughly;
imbue; impregnate; charge;
Ex. order which purports to be signed by the generalll to capacity
 terminus last stop of railroad; end medley mixture
 nuance shade of slight difference in meaning or color; improvident thriftless; no
t providing for the future
subtle distinction
 connivance pretense of ignorance of something wrong;
 bewitch cast a spell over; captivate completelyassistance; permission to offend;
V. connive: feign igno-
rance (of a wrong); cooperate secretly in an illegal ac-
 libel defamatory written statement; act of writingtion; conspire
something that smears a person's character; V. ADJ. li-
belous verdigris green coating or patina on copper which has
 incantation singing or chanting of magic spells; magi-been exposed to the weathe
r
cal formula; (the saying of) words used in magic; CF. pusillanimous cowardly; lac
king courage; fainthearted
enchant
 acne skin disease (on the face) clique small exclusive group of people
 metrical metric; written in the form of poetry; Ex. met- congruence correspondenc
e of parts; harmonious rela-
rical translation of Homertionship; CF. congruity
 impregnable invulnerable; impossible to capture or en- dexterous skillful; skill
in using hands or mind; N. dex-
ter by force; Ex. impregnable fort/argument; CF. taketerity
 beware be cautious (of)
 inherent rmly established by nature or habit; intrinsic
 delity loyalty; accuracy relent become less severe; give in(surrender); ADJ. re-
lentless: unyielding; continuously severe
 senility old age; feeblemindedness of old age; ADJ. se-
47nile: resulting from old age; showing the weakness of
 standstill condition of no movement or activity; stopbody or mind from old age;
Ex. senile dementia
 adjuration solemn urging; V. adjure: entreat earnestly; xenophobia fear or hatred
of foreigners; N. xenophobe
enjoin solemnly
 jest playful remark or act; V. act or speak playfully
 habitat natural home of a plant or animal; CF. habita-
 expository explanatory; serving to explain; N. exposi-
tiontion: explaining; exhibition
 obeisance bow (to show respect and obedience)
 catechism book for religious instruction in question-
 carillon a set of bells (often in a tower) capable of beingand-answer form; reli
gious instruction by question and
playedanswer; V. catechize
79

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sively important; Ex. overbearing manner/importance;relationship; familiar; priv
ate; personal; Ex. intimate
V. overbear: dominateknowledge/thoughts in the diary; N: close friend or
 indissoluble permanent; impossible to dissolve or dis-condant; CF. intimacy
integrate retinue following; attendants
 rotund (of a person) fat and round dabble work at in a nonserious fashion; splash
around;
move noisily in a liquid
 contention assertion; claim; thesis; struggling; competi-
tion penetrate enter into; pierce; permeate; see through;
 treatise article treating a subject systematically andgrasp the inner signicance
of; understand
thoroughly swamp wetland; marsh; V: ood; overwhelm; drench in
 exude ow out slowly; discharge (gradually); givewith liquid
forth; N. exudation inquisitive eager for knowledge; unduly curious
 creed system of religious or ethical belief feint trick; shift; sham blow; feigne
d attack to draw
 scrimmage disorderly ght between two or more peo-away defensive action; V.
ple portly stout; corpulent
 delete erase; strike out irreproachable beyond reproach; blameless; impecca-
ble; Ex. irreproachable conduct
 mandate order; charge; authoritative command; power
to govern another country; power to given to a govern- couple join; unite; OP. un
couple
ment; region under administration; V: give a mandate caprice whim; sudden change
of mind without any real
to; place under a mandate; Ex. mandated territorycause
 astral relating to the stars compound combine; produce by combining; increase;
 quicksilver mercurymake worse by adding to or increasing; exacerbate; Ex.
compound an error; ADJ: consisting of two or more
 buoyant able to oat; cheerful and optimistic; N. buoy-parts; N: combination of tw
o or more parts; area en-
ancy; Ex. buoyancy of wood/water/American market
closed by a wall containing a group of buildings; Ex.
factory compound; CF. complex
 prostrate stretch out full on ground; make prostrate; en- capsize (of a boat) tur
n over
ervate; Ex. prostrating illness; ADJ: lying face down;
having lost all strength nonentity person of no importance; nonexistence
 embryonic undeveloped; rudimentary; N. embryo: or- mulct defraud a person of some
thing; swindle; Ex.
ganism in the early stage of developmentmulct the boy of his legacy
 exegesis explanation, especially of biblical(of the bible) egregious notorious; c
onspicuously bad or shocking
passages
 attentive alert and watchful; listening carefully; paying
 quizzical curious; suggesting puzzlement (without say-attention; considerate; th
oughtful; politely helpful; Ex.
ing); questioning; teasing; mocking; bantering; Ex.attentive audience; Ex. He wa
s attentive to the old lady;
quizzical glanceN. attentions: act of courtesy and consideration
 retrospective looking back on the past; N. retrospection; propitious favorable; a
uspicious; advantageous; fortu-
V. retrospectnate; Ex. propitious day/sign
 monetary pertaining to money synoptic providing a general overview; summary; N.
 sidereal relating to stars; Ex. sidereal daysynopsis
 opprobrium infamy; disgrace arising from shameful
 quibble minor objection or complaint; V: raise minorconduct; vilication(slander);
scorn; contempt; Ex. op-
objections; carp; cavilprobrium hurled against him; ADJ. opprobrious: ex-
 controvert oppose with arguments; attempt to refute;pressing contempt; shameful
or infamous
contradict; ADJ. controversial; N. controversy despondent without hope and courag
e; depressed;
 ordination ceremony conferring holy orders; ceremonygloomy; N. despondency: loss
of hope with gloom; de-
of ordaining a priestjection
 coeval living at the same time as; existing during the derivation deriving; origi
n or source of something; Ex.
same period of time; contemporary; of the same agethe derivation of the word
 nullify make invalid; make null; invalidate concise brief and compact
 prolixity tedious wordiness; verbosity; ADJ. prolix: exclaim cry out suddenly; N.
exclamation; ADJ. exclam-
wordy; verbose; diffuseatory
 equity fairness; justice; OP. inequity chuckle laugh quietly
 derivative unoriginal; obtained from another source; ossify change or harden into
bone; become hard and
Ex. derivative prose style; N.unchanging in one's ideas
80
--------------------------------------- 81
 chapel small church (in a prison, college, or hospital)governments
 molten melted; Ex. molten lava memoir memoirs; autobiography; biography
 egotistical egotistic;excessivelyself- aghast lled with great surprise or fear; ho
rried
centered(egocentric); self-important; conceited regime method of system or govern
ment
 rave overwhelmingly favorable review; V: talk wildly
 bowdlerize expurgate; CF. Thomas Bowdler
as if mad; Ex. raving lunatic
 discombobulated discomposed; confused
 usurp seize another's power or rank (without legal au-
thority); supplant; appropriate; N. usurpation; CF. take proscenium part of stage
in front of curtain; front arch
for one's own useof a stage
 reiterate repeat dormer window projecting upright from roof; CF. sleep-
 compliant readily acting in accordance with a rule, or-ing room
der, or the wishes or others; yielding; comforming to panoramic denoting an unobs
tructed and comprehen-
requirementssive view; N. panorama: unbroken view of a wide area
 dote be excessively fond of; show signs of mental de-
cline endemic prevailing among a specic group of people or
in a specic area or country; peculiar to a particular re-
gion or people; CF. pandemic
48
 obstetrician physician specializing in delivery(assisting chorus phrase repeated
throughout a song or poem
in giving birth) of babies; N. obstetrics; CF. midwife except exclude; N. excepti
on: objection; exclusion; ADJ.
 musty stale (in odor or taste); spoiled by age; CF. moistexceptional: unusual; o
f unusually high quality
 attest testify; bear witness fervor glowing ardor; intensity of feeling; quality
of be-
ing fervent or fervid; zeal; intense heat
 thrifty careful about money; economical; N. thrift
 urbane suave; rened in manner; elegant
 nish surface texture; completeness of execution
 cite quote; commend; Ex. cited for bravery in an ofcial
 oracular of an oracle; prophetic; uttered as if with di-
vine authority; mysterious or ambiguous; hard to un-record
derstand; N. oracle: wiser person; prophecy made by ignominy deep disgrace; shame
or dishonor; ADJ. ig-
an oraclenominious; Ex. ignominous defeat
 anomalous abnormal; irregular inured accustomed; hardened; Ex.inured to the
 dowry money or property brought by a bride to herAlaskan cold; V. inure: make us
ed to something unde-
husband at marriagesirable; harden; CF. unfeeling
 rebate return of part of a payment; discount; V. unearth dig up; discover (facts)
by careful searching;
Ex. He unearthed some secrets about her; OP. conceal
 conglomerate corporation made up of several different
companies in diversied elds; mass of various material
gathered together; rock consisting of small stones held padre chaplain (in the ar
med forces)
together by clay; V.
 predicament difcult situation; tricky or dangerous sit-
 chant tune(melody) in which a number of words areuation; dilemma
sung on the same note; V: sing (a chant); utter (a slogan) torpedo underwater exp
losive apparatus; V.
in the manner of a chant
 prestige respect or admiration; impression produced by
 gustatory affecting or relating to the sense of taste
achievements or reputation; ADJ: causing admiration;
 droll queer and amusingADJ. prestigious: having prestige
 incentive spur; motive; something which encourages scheme systematic plan; plot;
clever dishonest plan; or-
one to greater activityderly arrangement of elements; Ex. health insurance
 sound in good condition; showing good judgmentscheme; Ex. a scheme to escape tax
es; Ex. a color
or good sense; thorough; complete; Ex.soundscheme; Ex. a story with no scheme; V
: contrive a
mind/investment/trainingscheme
 secular worldly; not pertaining to church matters or re- rhapsody excessively ent
husiastic expression of feeling;
ligion; temporalmusical composition of irregular form (as if made up as
 blue gloomy; depressedone plays it)
 expurgate clean; remove offensive parts of a book entity real being
 gratuity tip distract take (one's attention) off something; upset emo-
tionally; make anxious; ADJ. distracted
 latitude freedom from narrow limitations
 anthropologist student of the history and science of hu-
 equine resembling a horse; Ex. equine facemankind
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necessarilystate
 malodorous foul-smelling crust hard outer covering (as of earth or snow)
 tribunal court of justice digression wandering away from the subject; V. digress
 quay dock; wharf; pier; landing place (for boats)
 milieu social environment; means of expression; Ex. adjacent adjoining; neighbori
ng; close by
feel out of one's milieu; Ex. His proper milieu is wa- troth pledge of good faith
especially in betrothal; be-
tercolor.trothal; Ex. by my troth
 reticent inclined to silence; uncommunicative; re- fervent ardent; zealous; hot
served; Ex. He was reticent about the reasons; N. ret- log record of a voyage or i
ght; record of day-to-day
icenceactivities; section of a trunk; V.
 inhibited (of a person) unable to express what one re- rail complain bitterly; sc
old; rant; Ex. the weaker railing
ally feelsagainst injustices
 dolorous sorrowful; N. dolor
 incongruity lack of harmony; absurdity; ADJ. incongru-
 remission temporary moderation (of disease symp-ous: lacking in harmony; inappro
priate
toms); remitting of a debt or punishment; cancelation
 comatose in a coma; extremely sleepy
of a debt; pardon; Ex. The disease went into remission;
Ex. Christians pray for the remission of sins. outspoken candid; blunt
 exorcise drive out evil spirits resilient elastic; having the power of springing
back;
able to recover quickly (as from misfortune)
 caulk(calk) make watertight (by blocking up cracks as
in a ship) grate make a harsh noise; have an unpleasant effect;
shred by rubbing against a rough surface; Ex. grated
 estimable (of a person) worthy of esteem; admirable;
deserving esteem; possible to estimatecheese N: framework of metal bars to hold
fuel in a re-
place
 bouillon clear beef (or meat) soup prevaricate lie; hide the truth (by equivocati
ng)
 taciturn habitually silent; talking little natation swimming
 loath reluctant; unwilling; disinclined; Ex. Romeo and
 articulate effective; distinct; expressing ideas clearly;
Juliet were both loath for him to go.having clear sounds; having joints; Ex.arti
culate
 saccharine cloying sweet; characteristic of sugar or sac-speech; V: express thou
ghts and feeling clearly; pro-
charinnounce clearly; unite by joints
 indiscriminate choosing at random; confused; not arbiter person with power to dec
ide a matter in dis-
based on careful distinctionspute; judge who is in a position ot make inuential j
udg-
ments; Ex. supreme arbiter of fashion in beachware
 impalpable imperceptible(not easily understood); in-
tangible; OP. palpable: tangible; easily perceptible aversion rm dislike
 jettison throw overboard (from a ship or plane) preamble introductory statement
 futile useless; hopeless; ineffectual
 altruistic unselshly generous; concerned for others; N.49
altiruism: unselsh concern for the welfare of others; illuminate brighten; clear u
p or make understandable;
unselshness; OP. egoismenlighten; enable to understand; Ex. illuminating re-
 viand food; CF. livemarks
 foible small weakness of character; slight fault; CF. fee- ichthyology study of sh
; CF. ichthyo-: sh
ble polar of a pole; characterized by opposite extremes; Ex.
polar opposites
 mauve pale purple
 immobility state of being immovable
 solder repair or make whole by using a metal alloy; N:
metal alloy (usually tin and lead) used in the molten haggard wasted away; gaunt;
Ex. haggard faces of the
state to join metallic partsrescued miners
 prominent protruding(sticking out); conspicuous; no- unwarranted unjustied;having
no justication;
table; eminentgroundless; baseless; undeserved
 tract propaganda pamphlet (esp. by a religious or po- proletarian member of the w
orking class; blue collar
litical group); expanse of land; region of indenite size;guy; N. proletariat: wor
king class (who have to work
system of related organs; Ex. digestive tractfor wages)
 novice beginner pulchritude beauty; comeliness; ADJ. pulchritudinous
 mutinous unruly; rebellious; Ex. mutinous teenagers; embezzlement taking for one'
s own use in violation of
N. mutiny: open rebellion; CF. mutineertrust; stealing (of money placed in one's
care)
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dish of a meal; Ex. entree into the exclusive circlewater or minerals
 toady servile atterer; yes man; sycophant; V: be a miscellaneous made up of a vari
ety of parts
toady to; fawn
 bountiful generous; graciously generous; showing
 disparate basically different; impossible to compare;bounty
unrelated
 glacial like a glacier; of an ice age; extremely cold; Ex.
 abscond depart secretly and hideglacial epoch; CF. iceberg
 mendacious lying; habitually dishonest; N. mendacity expedite hasten; make go fas
ter
 anticlimax letdown in thought or emotion; something expiate make amends for (a si
n)
unexciting, ordinary, or disappointing coming after ward administrative division
of a city; division in a hos-
something important or exciting
pital or prison; incompetent person placed under the
 inquisitor questioner (especially harsh); investigator;protection of a guardian;
V: guard; ward off: avert
person making an inquisition
 ippant lacking proper seriousness; Ex. ippant re-
 pilfer steal things of small value; lch; snitchmarks about death; N. ippancy
 efuvium noxious(harmful) smell embellish adorn; ornament; enhance as a story (by
 sardonic scornfully mocking; disdainful; sarcastic; cyn-adding ctitious details)
ical; Ex. sardonic smile indolent lazy
 amulet charm; talisman; an object worn believed to pro- impersonal not being a pe
rson; not showing personal
tect against evil, bad luckfeelings; Ex. impersonal force/manner/organization
 transcribe copy; write a copy of; N. transcription conformity harmony; agreement
with established rules
 rant speak violently or excitedly; rave; talk excitedlyor customs; similarity; E
x. behave in conformity with;
showing anger; scold; make a grandiloquent speech; Ex.V. conform: be similar; ac
t in agreement; comply; Ex.
conform to the rule; CF. conformance
The priest ranted about the devil.
 vindicate clear from blame; free from blame or accu- brink edge (at the top of a
cliff); Ex. on the brink of the
sation (with supporting proof); exonerate; substantiate;Grand Canyon
justify or support; avenge; Ex. vindicate one's client; Ex.
 nubile marriageable; of marriageable age; CF. connu-
vindicate one's claim; CF. vindicatorbial
 drivel nonsense; foolishness; V: talk nonsense criteria standards used in judging
; CF. criterion
 unregenerate making no attempt to change one's bad soothsayer one who foretells t
he future
practices
 clot half-solid lump formed from a liquid (or blood); V.
 haven place of safety; refuge; harbor; Ex. tax haven
 artice deception; trickery
 foist insert improperly; impose upon another by coer-
cion; palm off; pass off as genuine or worthy; CF. st prowess extraordinary abilit
y; military bravery; Ex.
prowess in battle
 fruitful producing results; protable; prolic; produc-
 contagion infection (by contact); ADJ. contagious; CF.
infectious: that can be passed by infection in the airing in abundance
 subterfuge stratagem(deceptive scheme);pretense; adroit skillful (in using mind o
r hand)
evasion; Ex. resort to a harmless subterfuge agenda items of business at a meetin
g
 windfall fallen fruit; unexpected lucky event
 guile deceit; duplicity; wiliness; cunning; Ex. persuade
 stipple paint or draw with dots or short strokesher by guile
 irascible irritable; easily angered cemetery place for burying the dead
 trilogy group of three related works (connected by a bourgeois middle class; selsh
ly materialistic; too inter-
shared subject but each complete in itself)ested in material possessions
 carousal drunken revel; V. carouse loathe detest; ADJ. loathsome: arousing loathi
ng; offen-
sive; Ex. loathsome smell
 pedigree ancestry; lineage
 calculated deliberately planned; likely
 orice mouthlike opening; small opening (esp. to a cav-
ern or passage of the body); CF. mouth obscure dark; vague; unclear; not well kno
wn; Ex. ob-
scure meaning/village; V: darken; cover; make unclear;
 sinuous twisting; winding; bending in and out; not
morally honestEx. obscure the moon/meaning
 nonplus put at a loss; bring to a halt by confusion; per- physiological pertainin
g to the science of the function
of living organisms; N. physiology
plex; CF. no more
 bellicose warlike
 earthly of this earth; terrestrial; worldly; not divine;
possible; Ex. no earthly reason headrst moving with the head leading; headlong
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ment); make express conditions; specify; Ex. He stip-ous yielding to another's w
ish or opinion (showing re-
ulated payment in advancespect); ADJ. deferential; OP. effrontery
 zest outer skin of an orange used for giving a special cavalier casual and offhan
d; arrogant; N: knight
taste to food; spice; interest; avor; spirited enjoyment;
 stodgy dull; stuffy; boringly conservative; Ex. stodgy
Ex. add a certain zest to the affair; Ex. zest for lifebook
 virile manly; having masculine spirit or strength; full of ungainly (of someone)
awkward in movement;
strength
clumsy; (of something) unwieldy; Ex.ungainly
 opportune timely; well-chosendancer/instrument
 benevolent generous; charitable; having a wish to do judiciary judicial branch of
government
good
 loiter hang about/around; stand idly about; linger
 perversion corruption; turning from right to wrong
 aggrandize make greater; increase in power, wealth,
 protract prolong; lengthen in time; draw out
rank, or honor; N. aggrandizement
 effeminate having womanly traits
 elixir cure-all; panacea; something invigorating
 anvil iron block used in hammering out metals
 improvise compose on the spur of the moment
 ooze (of a thick liquid) pass or ow slowly; N: mud or
thick liquid as at the bottom of a river mollify soothe an angry person
 deciduous falling off at a specic season or stage of deadpan wooden; impassive; wi
th no show of feeling;
with an expressionless face
growth as of leaves; Ex. deciduous tree/teeth
 rightful legally correct; Ex. rightful owner
 recital act of reciting publicly; detailed account; perfor-
mance of music or dance (by a solo performer) naivete(naivety)´quality of being uns
ophisticated; sim-
 effectual able to produce a desired effect; validplicity; artlessness; gullibili
ty; ADJ. naive(na¨ve): ingen-
uous; lacking worldliness; simple; credulous
 chauvinist blindly devoted patriot; zealous adherent of
a group, cause, or sex; ADJ. chauvinistic; CF. chauvin- roue´ lecherous man
ism; Nicolas Chauvin char make or become black by burning; reduce or be re-
 swarthy (of a skin or complexion) dark; dusky; Ex.duced to carbon or charcoal(bl
ack substance made by
swarthy Italian ?burning wood) by incomplete combustion
 alluvial pertaining to soil deposits left by running water recession withdrawal;
retreat; time of low economic ac-
tivity
 quadruped four-footed animal; ADJ. CF. biped colossus gigantic statue; person or
thing of great size or
 facet small plane surface (of a gem(precious stone)); aimportance
side magniloquent boastful; pompous
 epilogue short speech at conclusion of dramatic work pestle tool for mashing or g
rinding substances in a hard
bowl or mortar
 permeable that can be permeated; penetrable; porous;
allowing liquids or gas to pass through; V. permeate: irreconcilable impossible t
o reconcile; incompatible;
spread or ow throughout; charge
not able to be resolved
 bicameral two-chambered as a legislative body
 ecliptic path of the sun and the planets
 primal rst in rank or importance; being rst in time;
 sherbet avored dessert ice
original; Ex. man's primal innocence
 capitulate surrender; give up all resistance
 kneel go down on one's knee(s)
 eck spot; mark with ecks; N: small mark or spot
 repress hold back (the natural expression of); restrain;
crush; oppress; Ex. repressed child; Ex. repress a rare (of air) thin in density;
rareed; Ex. rare air of the
laugh/rebellionmountains
 celestial heavenly hegemony dominance especially of one nation over
 counterpart thing that completes another; things veryothers
much alike; thing that has the same purpose in a differ- insolence impudent disre
spect; haughtiness; ADJ. inso-
ent systemlent; CF. haughty + rude
 infallible unerring; never making mistakes
50
 pinnacle peak; highest point; acme; Ex. pinnacle of
 gratuitous given freely; unwarranted; uncalled for;
fame
done without good reason; Ex. gratuitous comment
 spatula broad-bladed instrument used for spreading or
 bulge protruding part; swelling of a surface; Ex. Themixing
apple made a bulge in his pocket; V: swell outward; pro-
trude chide scold; rebuke (someone who has done wrong)
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ually; visit (a place) regularly; frequent; Ex. hauntedseparate good parts from
bad; CF. wind
house; Ex. haunted by his last words; N: place much
frequented abortive unsuccessful; fruitless
 statutory created by statute or legislative action; regu- rotunda circular buildi
ng or hall covered with a dome
lated by statute; Ex. statutory age limit revile attack with abusive language; vi
lify(slander)
 carnal eshly; sensual; concerning the desires of the blanch bleach; whiten; make w
hite or pale
body breach breaking of contract or duty; ssure or gap;
 thrall slave; bondage; slavery; Ex. Her beauty held himopening; V.
in thrall; CF. enthrall
 hurtle crash; rush; move with great speed; Ex. hurtling
 gull trick; deceive; hoodwink; N: person who is easilyrunaway train
tricked; dupe circlet small ring; band of gold, silver, jewel, etc. (worn
 amenable obedient; compliant; readily managed; re-on the head, arms, or neck as
decoration)
sponsive; willing to be led; answerable or accountable sensual devoted to the ple
asures of the sense; carnal;
legally; responsible; able to be tested by; Ex. amenable
voluptuous; Ex. sensual woman/curves/lips
to sensible suggestions; Ex. He is very amenable; Ex.
amenable to the usual tests credential evidence concerning one's authority; writt
en
proof of a person's position; Ex. The new ambassador
 seismic pertaining to earthquakes
presented his credentials to the court.
 vagrant homeless wanderer
 culinary relating to cooking or kitchen
 pessimism belief that life is basically bad or evil; ultimate nal; not susceptible
to further analysis; fun-
gloominess; tendency to take the gloomiest possibledamental; Ex. The sun is the
ultimate source of energy.
view of a situation; ADJ. pessimistic
 sublimate rene; purify; replace (natural urges) with supposition assumption; hypot
hesis; surmise; V. sup-
socially acceptable activities; change between a solidpose
state and a gaseous state
 tenure holding of an ofce or real estate; time during
 reputable respectable; having a good reputationwhich such an ofce is held
 salvage rescue (goods or property) from loss; N: saving; impoverish make poor; de
prive of natural strength or
property savedsomething important; Ex. impoverished soil
 repel drive away; disgust; Ex.repel the at- perquisite(perk) any gain above stipu
lated salary; Ex.
tack/moisture; Ex. repelled by the dirty room; CF. re-
perquisites such as free meals and a car
pulsion
 pillory punish by placing in a wooden frame or pillory;
 disengage uncouple; separate; disconnect; stop ght-subject or expose to criticism
and ridicule; N.
ing; OP. engage
 propulsive driving forward; N. propulsion
 exacting extremely demanding; Ex. exacting standard
of safety accretion growth or increase in size by gradual addi-
tion; growth; increase; increase by natural growth; Ex.
 endearment fond word or act; expression of affectiontowers and other accretions
of the castle; V. accrete
 cabal small group of persons secretly united to promote provident providing for f
uture needs; displaying fore-
their own interestssight; thrifty; preparing for emergencies; OP. improvi-
dent
 jaded tired or uninterested by surfeit; fatigued; sur-
feited; worn out; wearied; Ex. jaded appetite elegy poem or song expressing lamen
tation (for the
 glow shine brightly without a ame (as of eyes or met-dead); ADJ. elegiacal, elegi
ac
als); show redness and heat (in the face) after hard work ancillary serving as an
aid or accessory; auxiliary; N.
or because of strong feelings; N: light produced by a
heated body; brilliance of a color redolent odorous; fragrant; suggestive (of an
odor); Ex.
redolent of onions/mystery
 abominable detestable; extremely unpleasant
 buttress support; prop up; N. stationary structure to
 feature distinctive part of the faces (as the eyes orsupport wall; Ex. ying buttr
ess
mouth); features: overall appearance of the face; promi- dyspeptic suffering from
indigestion; N. dyspepsia: in-
nent or distinctive quality; prominent article; lm; V:
make prominentdigestion; difculty in digesting food
 percussion striking one object against another sharply; tentative not fully worke
d out or developed; provi-
sional; experimental; uncertain; hesitant; not denite or
Ex. percussion instrument; N: striking together of twopositive; Ex. tentative ag
reement/reply
bodies; sound caused by percussion
 acumen mental keenness; sharpness of judgment; abil-
 engage attract; employ; hire; pledge oneself; confront;
ght; enter into coniction; interlock; lock together; par-ity to judge quickly and
well; Ex. business acumen
ticipate; N. engagement: agreement to marry; arrange- dissident dissenting (with
an opinion, a group, or a
ment to meet someone or to do something; battlegovernment); rebellious; N.
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 domicile home; V. ADJ. domiciled: having one's domi-cile; Ex. He is domiciled in
Britain.
 loom appear or take shape (usually in an enlarged, in-
distinct, or distorted form); Ex. The shadow of the gal-
lows loomed threateningly. N: apparatus for making
thread into cloth
 resplendent brilliant; splendid in appearance; dazzling;
glorious
 monogram design composed of one or more initials of
a name; V.
 visage face; appearance
 threadbare worn through till the threads show; shabby
and poor; hackneyed; Ex. threadbare excuses
 kernel central or vital part; core; whole seed (as of corn)
 traumatic (of an experience) deeply shocking; pertain-
ing to an injury caused by violence; N. trauma: serious
wound; emotional shock that causes lasting psycholog-
ical damage
 defeatist resigned to defeat or failure; accepting defeat
or failure as a natural outcome; N. CF. defeatism
 gentle kindly; soft; mild; of good family
 correlate either of the correlated things; V.
 incisive (appreciatively) cutting; sharp; Ex. incisive re-
marks; V. incise: make a cut into
86