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All credit for this post goes to Alex_Mahone who originally posted this in the C

hennai Dream Team thread.From my side it's just ctrl+c & ctrl + v job.
FALLACIES OF REASONING
1. Hasty/ Sweeping Generalization
Absolute situations are rare. Reality is in degrees.
Avoid: "Everyone has fond memories of high school." "Men are better at sports th
an women." "All advertising is lies." Be careful with terms like "all", "always"
, "everybody", "nobody", "none".
2. False Extremes--Either/Or Position
Don't reduce a complex issue to only two possibilities.
Things are seldom black or white. eg. "The department must either raise its grad
ing standards or bury forever the ideal of academic excellence." This is mislead
ing because it ignores the existence of other less extreme possibilities.

3. Straw Man
A straw man argument occurs when you misrepresent an opposing view to make it se
em weaker than it is. eg. "Opposition to nuclear weapons testing in Canada is si
mple anti-Americanism."
4. Circular Reasoning/Vicious circle
This error occurs when a person restates a generalization as a reason for accept
ing the same proposition. eg. "Exercise is healthy because your body needs exerc
ise." "The play was popular because the audience liked it"
5. Post Hoc Arguments/Unfounded assumption of cause
This error occurs when a person assumes that because one thing followed another
thing the first item caused the second item. or Since 'B' followed 'A', 'A' caus
ed 'B'. eg. "I broke my leg because it was Friday the 13th." "Some students who
work part-time fail a course; therefore, working part-time causes students to fa
il." These are not logical consequences.
6. Two Wrongs
A bad action is not justified by another wrong action. eg. "That chemical compan
y pollutes the river; therefore, we were right to blow it up." "He was a creep,s
o I will be a creep too."

7. False Analogies
Analogies may make strong emotional appeals, but their logic may be weak. Analog
y is effective only when there is a basic similarity between compared terms. eg.
"University administration argues for new rules because it should be run like a
business" But University is not equal to a business.
8. Prediction of Consequences
Be careful when predicting that an act will have positive or negative consequenc
es. ex. 'If you take our course, you too will become rich."
9. False Assumptions
One false assumption can cause all of your arguments following to be invalid. eg
. "Without advertising, no cities could exist."

10. Faulty Evidence Misuse of authority


Beware or incomplete quotations. eg. The critic said, "Most of the movie was unb
elievably bad, but there were a few moments of high comedy." The ad the next day
read, "High Comedy"...The Toronto Dispatch.
Watch also for misuse of statistics, skewed samples, and anecdotal information.
11. Non Sequitur (It does not follow)
Eg. If a famous actress uses Crest toothpaste that has no relation to the qualit
y of the toothpaste. eg. "A man does not beat his wife;therefore, he is a good h
usband."

12. Begging the Question


When you beg the question you assume the truth of what needs to be proven. eg. A
politician says, "Our feeble government, greatly in need of reform must be plac
ed in new hands." eg. A student challenges a "C" grade on the grounds that she i
s an "A" student. The premise in both of these is what is under question
13. Ignoring the Question
Sometimes in arguing people raise irrelevant points that distract from the real
issue.
A) Red Herring --eg. A government defends itself on a charge of corruption by sa
ying that the budget is balanced.
B) Ad Hominem --Attack The Man/Woman eg. "I'm a liar...so are you." "I'm a crook
, well you're a racist" "Your mother wears
army boots."

14. Stereotypes
Watch out for any stereotypes. eg. "People such a you..." Ex. "A nurse must chec
k her patients."
15. Argument to ignorance
Watch out for these types of claims:
1. It must be true it hasn't been proven false.
2. It must be false it hasn't been proven true.
16. Loaded Question/Fallacy of the complex
Eg. "Have you stopped beating your wife yet?" This demands a yes or no answer an
d both are answers may be wrong. Lawyers sometimes try to use these questions.
17.Gambler's Fallacy
Eg. "It hasn't happened for a long time ;therefore it's bound to happen." or "It
keeps happening ; therefore, it will keep happening"
Hope this helps.