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doi:10.1111/j.1365-2591.2010.01833.

The efficacy of pre-operative oral medication of


lornoxicam and diclofenac potassium on the
success of inferior alveolar nerve block in patients
with irreversible pulpitis: a double-blind,
randomised controlled clinical trial

N. Prasanna1, C. V. Subbarao 1
& J. L. Gutmann2
1
Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha University, Chennai,
India; and 2Professor Emeritus, Baylor College of Dentistry, Texas A&M Health Science Center, Dallas, TX, USA

Abstract responses (negative or positive) were recorded. Access


cavities were then prepared and success of IANB was
Prasanna N, Subbarao CV, Gutmann JL. The efficacy of
defined as the absence of pain during access prepara-
preoperative oral medication of lornoxicam and diclofenac
tion and root canal instrumentation. The data were
potassium on the success of inferior alveolar nerve block in
analysed using chi-squared tests.
patients with irreversible pulpitis: a double-blind, randomised
Results The percentages of teeth giving a negative
controlled clinical trial. International Endodontic Journal.
response to cold test were 42.8% (PLAC), 78.5% (LNX)
Aim To determine the effect of administration of pre- and 67.8% (DP), with no significant differences
operative lornoxicam (LNX) or diclofenac potassium amongst the groups (P > 0.05). The success rates for
(DP) on the success of inferior alveolar nerve blocks the IANB in descending order were 71.4% (LNX),
(IANB) in patients with irreversible pulpitis in a double- 53.5% (DP) and 28.5 (PLAC). A significant
blind randomised controlled trial. (P < 0.001) difference was found between the LNX
Methodology One hundred and fourteen patients and the PLAC groups only.
with irreversible pulpitis of a mandibular posterior Conclusions Pre-operative administration of LNX
tooth participated. Patients indicated their pain scores significantly improved the efficacy of IANB in patients
on a Heft Parker visual analogue scale, after which with irreversible pulpitis, whilst the effect of pre-
they were randomly divided into three groups (n = 38). medication with DP was not significantly different from
The subjects received identical capsules containing the PLAC.
8 mg LNX, 50 mg DP or cellulose powder (placebo,
Keywords: diclofenac potassium, inferior alveolar
PLAC), 1 h before administration of IANB with 2%
nerve block, irreversible pulpitis, local anaesthesia,
lidocaine containing 1 : 200 000 epinephrine. Lip
lornoxicam, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
numbness was assessed after 15 min, following which
the teeth were tested with cold spray and their Received 30 April 2010; accepted 30 October 2010

local anaesthesia for root canal treatment of mandi-


Introduction
bular teeth, it does not always result in successful
Although the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) block is the pulpal anaesthesia. Clinical studies in endodontics have
most frequently used injection technique for achieving found failure with the IAN block occurring between
44% and 81% of the time (Cohen et al. 1993, Nusstein
et al. 1998).
Correspondence: Dr N. Prasanna, Plot 1500, 16th Main Road,
Anna Nagar West, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India (Tel.:
Various mechanisms have been hypothesized to
+91 44 98847 54914; fax: +91 044 2616 3639; explain the failure of local anaesthetics, including
e-mail: prasanna@totaldentalcare.org). anatomical variations, such as cross-innervations and

ª 2010 International Endodontic Journal International Endodontic Journal 1


Lornoxicam and diclofenac on anaesthetic success Prasanna et al.

accessory innervations from the lingual nerve, buccal Ianiro et al. (2007) concluded that acetaminophen or
nerve, mylohyoid nerve or cervical plexus, decreased a combination of acetaminophen and ibuprofen im-
local pH, tachyphylaxis of anaesthetic solutions and proved the success of IANB for teeth with irreversible
activation of nociceptors, including tetrodotoxin and pulpitis.
capsaicin-sensitive transient receptor potential vanil- Lornoxicam (LNX) is a compound of the so-called
loid type 1 (TRPV1) (Rood 1977, Chaudhary et al. oxicam class of NSAIDs, acting in part through the
2001, Hargreaves & Keiser 2002). Interestingly, the nonselective inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase-1 and -2 to
success rates of local anaesthesia were found to be produce analgesic and antipyretic effects (Berg et al.
worse in patients with inflamed pulpal tissues (Aggar- 1999). It is generally prescribed for osteoarthritis,
wal et al. 2009, 2010, Tortamano et al. 2009). rheumatoid arthritis, acute lumbar-sciatica pain and
The high failure rate of local anaesthesia in symp- for post-operative pain management. Various prepara-
tomatic teeth with irreversible pulpitis could be attrib- tions are available, including 4 or 8 mg oral (standard
utable to the prostaglandin-induced sensitization of or quick release) or injection (intravenous or intra-
peripheral nociceptors (Henry & Hargreaves 2007). muscular) preparations. A systematic review concluded
The receptors expressed by the peripheral terminals of that a single dose of 8 mg LNX offered a high level of
nociceptors can detect chemical and physical stimuli. pain relief to patients with moderate to severe post-
This results in activation of various ion channels operative dental pain (Hall et al. 2009). Diclofenac,
expressed on peripheral terminals. Inflammatory which is also a NSAID, is a benzene acetic acid
mediators such as prostaglandins produce their effects derivative used to treat the pain and swelling associated
by binding to these various protein receptors. Prosta- with rheumatic disorders. It is available in two different
glandins (PGs) up-regulate a variety of mechanisms formulations, diclofenac potassium (DP) and diclofenac
that might decrease the efficacy of local anaesthetics: sodium, with the sodium salt used more frequently. The
altering the kinetics of activity of the voltage-gated immediate-release potassium formulation might pro-
sodium channels, resulting in increased depolarization; vide pain relief more quickly (Bakshi et al. 1992).
activation of EG protein-coupled receptors namely P2 Both LNX and diclofenac sodium have demonstrated
or EP3 receptors, which are expressed on trigeminal wide-spread effectiveness in their use, primarily
sensory neurons (Vane & Botting 1998, Gould et al. through their nonselective inhibition of cyclo-oxygen-
2004). There is an increase in prostaglandins in ase. Furthermore, both are provided in an immediate-
inflamed pulps (Reuben & Duprat 1996, Hargreaves release formulation; their impact on inflammation
& Keiser 2002), and activation of nociceptors by PGs is would therefore be beneficial in those cases where an
a major cause of increased incidence of failure of accentuated inflammatory response, because of the
inferior alveolar nerve blocks (IANB) in patients with presence of an irreversible pulpitis, may have an impact
irreversible pulpitis (Modaresi et al. 2006, Wells et al. on the success of mandibular local anaesthesia. More-
2007). Therefore, decreasing the amount of prosta- over, they have a short half-life, which would make
glandins may increase the efficacy of local anaesthetics. them ideal for a single dosage prior to the management
Clinicians prescribe nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory of severe tooth pain, in addition to ameliorating post-
drugs (NSAIDs) on a routine basis for a range of treatment pain (Bakshi et al. 1992, Berg et al. 1999,
mild-to-moderate pain (Mickel et al. 2006). NSAIDs Hall et al. 2009). Therefore, the purpose of this
reversibly inhibit cyclooxygenase (prostaglandin endo- prospective, randomized, double-blind study was to
peroxide synthase), the enzyme-mediating production compare the efficacy of oral pre-medication of LNX, DP
of prostaglandins (PGs) and thromboxane A2. Given and a placebo (PLAC) medication on anaesthetic
the ability of NSAIDs in reducing nociceptor activation efficacy of IANB with lidocaine with 1 : 200 000
by decreasing the levels of inflammatory mediators epinephrine in patients with irreversible pulpitis. The
(Gokin et al. 2001), it has been hypothesized that pre- null hypothesis tested was that there is no significant
medication with NSAIDs will influence the success rate difference amongst the three groups.
of local anaesthesia in patients with irreversible pulpi-
tis. One study concluded that acetaminophen with
Materials and methods
codeine or ibuprofen improved the efficacy of IANB
(Modaresi et al. 2006), whilst another report showed One hundred and fifty adult volunteer subjects, within
that neither ibuprofen nor ketorolac caused any the age range of 21–40 years, who reported to the
improvement (Aggarwal et al. 2010). A report by dental emergency department, were assessed for

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Prasanna et al. Lornoxicam and diclofenac on anaesthetic success

Enrollment Assessed for eligibility (n = 150)

Excluded (n = 36)
• Non vital teeth (n = 10)
• Allergic to NSAIDs(n = 4)
• Patients with active peptic ulcer (n = 8)
• Patients who had taken NSAIDs 12 h
before the study (n = 12)
• Breast feeding (n = 2)

Randomized (n = 114 )

Allocation
Allocated to intervention - Allocated to intervention – Diclofenac
placebo (n = 38) Allocated to intervention - potassium (n = 38)
♦ Received allocated Lornoxicam (n = 38) ♦ Received allocated intervention (n = 38)
intervention (n = 38) ♦ Received allocated intervention
(n = 38 )

Lip numbness
Patients analysed for lip Patients analysed for lip Patients analysed for lip numbness (n = 38)
numbness (n = 38) numbness (n = 38)
Patients eliminated due to lack of lip
Patients eliminated due to Patients eliminated due to lack numbness (n = 0)
lack of lip numbness (n = 0) of lip numbness (n = 0)

Analysis of success of cold


testing and IANB
Analysed (n = 38)
Analysed (n = 38) Analysed (n = 38)

Figure 1 Consort flowchart.

eligibility to participate in this clinical trial, which Technology Corp, Redmond, WA, USA), teeth with
spanned over a period of 4 months (Figure 1). The vital pulp, the absence of periapical radiolucency on
sample size was determined after performing a pilot radiographs, except for a widened periodontal ligament
study with 15 patients per groups. A power calculation (not more than 0.75–1 mm) and patients with the
showed that a sample size of 114 subjects would detect ability to understand the use of pain scales. The results
a 30% difference in the success rate of the two test of the cold testing and electric pulp testing (EPT) were
groups at a power of 80% (a type I error of 0.05 and b used to establish a confirmatory diagnosis of irrevers-
type II error of 0.20). Ethical approval was sought from ible pulpitis. Patient exclusion criteria included those
the Institutional Review Board and Ethical committee with known allergy, sensitivity or contraindications to
of the University. Informed written consent was any opioid or nonopioid analgesics including aspirin or
obtained from each subject. Pre-operative radiographs NSAIDs; those with a history of active peptic ulcer
were obtained. within the preceding 12 months, a history of bleeding
The inclusion criteria were as following: healthy problems or anticoagulant use within the last month,
patients (ASA I or II) experiencing pain in a mandib- or a history of known or suspected drug abuse; those
ular molar with prolonged response to cold testing had taken opioid, nonopioid analgesics, steroids,
(lingering pain for more than 45 s) with Green Endo Ice antidepressants or sedatives within 12–24 h before
(1,1,1,2 tetrafluoroethane; Hygienic Corp, Akron, OH, administration of the study drugs; and those who were
USA) and an electric pulp tester (Kerr, Analytic pregnant or breast feeding. Patients experiencing active

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Lornoxicam and diclofenac on anaesthetic success Prasanna et al.

pain in more than one mandibular molar were also Second, if the patient did not feel pain or sensitivity to
excluded. Following application of the criteria, 36 the cold spray, a rubber dam was placed and a standard
patients were excluded from the study, resulting in the endodontic access cavity was begun with a bur under
enrolment of 114 subjects for this trial. water spray coolant. If the patient felt pain during
Before initiating the treatment, the patients were access, the outcome was recorded as a failure and
asked to rate their pain on a Heft Parker visual supplemental anaesthesia was administered. Success of
analogue scale (VAS) with 170-mm line marked with IANB was defined as no pain during endodontic access
various terms describing the levels of pain (Heft & preparation and root canal instrumentation.
Parker 1984). The millimetre marks were removed The data were recorded on a Microsoft Excel sheet
from the scale, and the scale was divided into four (Microsoft Office Excel 2003; Microsoft Corp, Redmond,
categories: no pain corresponded to 0 mm; faint, weak WA, USA) for statistical evaluation using a commercial
or mild pain corresponded to 1–54 mm; moderate to program (spss 19, Somers, NY, USA). The pre-medica-
severe pain corresponded to 55–114 mm; and strong, tion codes were sent directly to the statistician by the
intense, maximum possible pain corresponded to more pharmacist. Age, initial and post-injection VAS scores
than 114 mm (Claffey et al. 2004). were tabulated and compared using multiple compar-
A trained dental hygienist divided 114 empty cap- ison analysis of variance and post hoc tests. The gender
sules of the same colour and size into three bottles: of the patients and type of tooth were compared by chi-
LNX, DP and PLAC groups. LNX capsules were filled squared test. The significance level was set at P = 0.05
with 8 mg of LNX, DP capsules were filled with 50 mg for these analyses. The proportions of successful IANB
DP and PLAC capsules were filled with cellulose in the LNX, DP and placebo groups were compared
powder. The bottles were masked with an opaque label using the chi-squared test.
and were randomly assigned a three digit alphanu-
meric value by the pharmacist. All the patients were
Results
randomly divided into three groups of 38 patients each
and were given one capsule 1 h before the procedure. The age, gender, mean initial VAS scores and tooth type
Randomization of patients was achieved by simple were tabulated (Table 1). There were no significant
random sampling with a linear congruential generator differences (P > 0.05) between the three groups. One
by a trained dental hygienist who was blinded to the hundred per cent of the patients had subjective lip
treatment procedures. Only the alphanumeric values anaesthesia with the IAN blocks. All patients reported a
were recorded on the data sheets to blind the exper- significant decrease in active pain after local anaesthesia
iment. After 1 h of oral administration of the capsules, (P < 0.05). The post-injection VAS scores are given in
all patients received standard IANB injections using Table 2. There was no significant difference between
1.8 mL of 2% lidocaine containing 1 : 200 000 epi-
nephrine (Xylocaine; AstraZeneca Pharmaceutical
Products, Wilmington, DE, USA). The solution was Table 1 Comparison of age, gender and initial Heft Parker
injected by the same clinician (first author) using self- visual analogue scale (VAS) scores amongst the three groups
aspirating syringes (Septodont, Saint-Maur-des-Fosses Control Diclofenac
Cedex, France) and 27-gauge long needles (Septoject, (Placebo) Lornoxicam potassium

Septodont, France). The solution was deposited at a Total number 38 38 38


rate of 1 mL min)1. of subjects
Age (Mean ± SD) 28 ± 7 26 ± 9 30 ± 6
After 15 min of the initial IANB, each patient was
(years)*
asked whether his or her lip was numb. If profound lip Gender*
numbness was not recorded within 15 min, the block Males 18 22 15
was considered unsuccessful and the patients were to Females 20 16 23
be excluded from the study. However, none of the Initial pain 98 ± 21 103 ± 26 101 ± 22
(Heft Parker
subjects were eliminated as a result of lack of lip
VAS)*
numbness. The tooth in question was tested again with Tooth*
cold spray (Green Endo Ice, Hygienic Corp, OH, USA), First molar 20 19 22
and two possible outcomes were recorded. First, if the Second molar 18 19 16
patient felt pain or sensitivity, the test was recorded as a *There were no significant differences between the three
failure and supplemental anaesthesia was provided. groups (P > 0.05).

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Prasanna et al. Lornoxicam and diclofenac on anaesthetic success

Table 2 Comparison of percentage of


Post-injection visual
successful cold test and inferior alveolar Cold test IANB analogue scale scores
nerve block amongst the three groups Treatment group successful (%) successful (%) (Mean ± SD)

Control – Placebo 16 OF 38 (42.8) 10 OF 38 (28.5) 18 ± 2a


Lornoxicam 30 OF 38 (78.5) 28 OF 38 (71.4) 6 ± 3b
Diclofenac potassium 26 OF 38 (67.8) 24 OF 38 (53.5) 8 ± 3b

Mean values that share a superscript letter were not significantly different at the 5%
level.

LNX and DP in the post-injection VAS scores (P > 0.05), and 80% of the patients with lip numbness had pulpal
whilst both LNX and DP resulted in significantly lower anaesthesia (Fuss et al. 1986, Petersson et al. 1999). In
mean VAS scores than PLAC (P < 0.05). the present study, 100% of the patients exhibited lip
The number and percentage of patients with no numbness. Therefore, lip numbness may not be a good
response to the cold test and successful IAN block (no indicator of pulpal anaesthesia, at least in inflamed
pain during access cavity preparation and canal pulps. However, it was possible to draw a correlation
instrumentation) by the test, and control groups are between success of cold test and IANB. These results are
presented in Table 2. The percentage of patients with comparable to previous reports (Ianiro et al. 2007).
negative response to cold test was as following: 42.8% Thus, cold testing may be considered more reliable than
(16 of 38 patients) for the control PLAC groups; 67.8% lip signs to determine when to begin endodontic access
(26 of 38 patients) for pre-medication with DP; and for patients with irreversible pulpitis. However, it is
78.5% (30 of 38) for pre-medication with LNX. There important to note that negative response to cold testing
were no statistically significant differences amongst the does not necessarily indicate a successful IANB.
three groups. On the basis of absence of pain during The proposed mechanisms for the efficacy of LNX
access and canal instrumentation, the percentage of include inhibition of conduction of C fibres (Sen et al.
successful IAN blocks was as following: 28.5% (10 of 2006), which are more resistant to local anaesthesia
38 patients) in the control PLAC group, whilst pre- than A-delta fibres. Also, opening of the K+ channels
medication with LNX and DP resulted in 71.4% (28 of located in the primary afferent nerve endings produces
38 patients) and 53.5% (24 of 38 patients) successful antinociception and represents an important step in the
IANBs, respectively. The percentage of successful IAN- peripheral antinociceptive effect of several NSAIDs.
Bs was significantly higher in the LNX group when Activation of the NO–cyclic guanosine mono phosphate
compared with the PLAC group (P < 0.001). (GMP) pathway could also induce antinociception
through the opening of K2+ channels. Such a mecha-
nism has been implicated for the antinociceptive action
Discussion
of rofecoxib (Deciga-Campos & Lopez Munoz 2004). It is
The present study evaluated the efficacy of pre-medi- possible that LNX produces a peripheral analgesic effect
cation with LNX or DP on the success of IANB. The via the same mechanism and thereby increase the
results of the present study demonstrate that the success rate of IANB.
success of IANB was significantly greater in patients Transient receptor potential vanilloid channels have
pre-medicated with LNX when compared to PLAC been implicated in pain signalling and thermo recep-
(P < 0.001). There were no significant differences tion. TRPV1 plays a major role in hyperalgesia and
between DP and LNX or PLAC (P > 0.05). allodynia and is expressed in both the parasympa-
Two per cent lidocaine was chosen in this study thetic nervous system and central nervous system,
because several studies comparing lidocaine to other (Patwardhan et al. 2009). The TRPV1 channel is
anaesthetics including articaine, in the success of sensitized by prostaglandins and other inflammatory
pulpal anaesthesia found little or no significant differ- mediators, leading to a potentiation of currents
ence in efficacy. Articaine (4%) with 1 : 100 000 through the channel. This lowers the temperature
epinephrine has been shown to be similar to 2% threshold for activating the channel. It is likely that
lidocaine with 1 : 100 000 epinephrine in inferior TRPV receptors might partially mediate the pain of
alveolar nerve blocks (Mikesell et al. 2005). pulpal origin and thus explain the exaggerated
It is a commonly held belief that lip numbness implies response of teeth with irreversible pulpitis to thermal
pulpal anaesthesia, yet in two clinical trials only 75% stimuli (Alessandri-Haber et al. 2006). The activation

ª 2010 International Endodontic Journal International Endodontic Journal 5


Lornoxicam and diclofenac on anaesthetic success Prasanna et al.

of TRPV4 channel does not occur by the action of a action of inflammatory mediators. The Journal of Neuroscience
single inflammatory mediator but rather through the 26, 3864–74.
concerted action of multiple mediators (Simmons et al. Bakshi R, Jacobs LD, Lehnert S, Picha B, Reuther J (1992) A
2004). The present study revealed that 78.5% of the double blind, placebo controlled trial comparing the anal-
gesic efficacy of two formulations of diclofenac in postoper-
patients pre-medicated with LNX had a negative
ative dental pain. Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and
response to cold testing after IANB in contrast to
Experimental 52, 435–42.
67.8% of patients who were administered DP. Berg J, Fellier H, Christoph T, Grarup J, Stimmeder D (1999)
Although this difference was not statistically signifi- The analgesic NSAID lornoxicam inhibits cyclooxygenase
cant, it is possible that this may be because of the (COX)-1/-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and the
ability of LNX to inhibit TRPV channels more effec- formation of interleukin (IL)-6 in vitro. Inflammation
tively than diclofenac. Further research is, however, Research 48, 369–79.
required in this direction. Chaudhary P, Martenson ME, Baumann TK (2001) Vanilloid
The degree and duration of the damage and receptor expression and capsaicin excitation of rat dental
up-regulation occurring before the prostaglandins were primary afferent neurons. Journal of Dental Research 80,
inhibited by the NSAIDs is also a factor in influencing 1518–23.
Claffey E, Reader A, Nusstein J, Beck M, Weaver J (2004)
success of IANB (Simmons et al. 2004). Prostaglandins
Anaesthetic efficacy of articaine for inferior alveolar nerve
are effectively blocked by LNX and DP, and they have a
blocks in patients with irreversible pulpitis. Journal of
relatively short half-life. From the results of the present Endodontics 30, 568–71.
study, it may be speculated that LNX may be more Cohen HP, Cha BY, Spångberg LSW (1993) Endodontic
effective than DP in inhibition of PGs, though no specific anaesthesia in mandibular molars: a clinical study. Journal
evidence exists in this regard. This also warrants further of Endodontics 19, 370–3.
inspection. Deciga-Campos M, Lopez Munoz FJ (2004) Participation of the
l-arginine-nitric oxide cyclic GMP-ATP-sensitive K2+ chan-
nel cascade in the antinociceptive effect of rofecoxib.
Conclusions European Journal of Pharmacology 484, 193–9.
Oral pre-medication with 8 mg LNX but not 50 mg DP Fuss Z, Trowbridge H, Bender I, Rickoff B, Sorin S (1986)
Assessment of reliability of electric and thermal pulp testing
resulted in significantly higher percentage of successful
agents. Journal of Endodontics 12, 301–5.
inferior alveolar block in patients with irreversible
Gokin AP, Philip B, Strichartz GR (2001) Preferential block of
pulpitis than pre-medication with PLAC. small myelinated sensory and motor fibres by lidocaine: in
vivo electrophysiology in the rat sciatic nerve. Anesthesiology
Acknowledgements 95, 1441–54.
Gould HJ, England JD, Soignier RD et al. (2004) Ibuprofen
The authors wish to thank Dr Matthias Zehnder, blocks changes in Na v 1.7 and 1.8 sodium channels
Universität Zürich for his valuable guidance in pre- associated with complete Freund’s adjuvant-induced inflam-
reviewing the manuscript. mation in rat. Pain 5, 270–80.
Hall PE, Derry S, Moore RA, McQuay HJ (2009) Single dose
oral lornoxicam for acute postoperative pain in adults.
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