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Lesson Plan for Secondary Two Mathematics Topic: Graphs for Linear Equations in Two Unknowns

Lesson Objectives
At the end of the lesson, students would have:
• Drawn graphs of linear equations with two unknowns given equations, paired-coordinates, gradient or y-intercept.
• Manipulated and form the equation y=mx + c given the graph
• Understand how the m (gradient) and c (y-intercept) values affect the graph
• Solved various problems involving linear equations and its graphs

Next lesson:
• Review graphs of linear equations.
• Solve simultaneous equations using graphical method

Time Activities Teacher Students Comments


15min Introduce the • Introduce topic using amusement park • Listen carefully to scenario and In the first lesson, I
topic using a cost problem. Giving the scenario and give answers when prompted. will explain the
verbal purpose of
organizing the information in a table on • Write down the questions and
problem grouping.
the board. copy example from the board.
(testing prior • Scenario:
knowledge There is an amusement park that’s recently opened.
and showing You and a bunch of friends are checking out the
relevance of prices so that you can estimate how much money to
request from your parents. There is an admission fee
topic to life) of $10 for students. Each ride and game is $5 per go.
If you are interested in 3 rides and 2 games, how
much money would you spend? Your friend, May is
going on all 12 rides and not interested in games, how
much would she need? If Bob is not interested in rides
or games and just wants to be there to socialize, does
he have to pay? Giving more random nos. and ask
students to come out with a formula for this problem.
• Link using the values on the board to
draw a line graph.
• Test for prior knowledge by asking
students to link the formula to the graph.
• Ask if students are able to identify m
and c.
• Divide students into groups according
to their strengths if necessary.
• Give out worksheet to all students. Explain
how the worksheets work for both groups.
45 mins Activity One – L P L P To cater to
Learning • Go through the key • Explain to students • Work through • Go through the different learning
Track points with how to proceed the worksheets, key points and level, so that
students, with the highlighting do a ‘self-check’ weaker students
get proper
emphasizing the worksheet. important tips by ticking the
explanation and
important points. • Be clear that and fill in the boxes. capable students
• Using examples students are blanks. • Highlight are not wasting
and work through welcome to listen • Answer important tips time listening to
the worksheets with in with the rest of questions when along the way. what they already
students. the class at any prompted and • Proceed to know. They should
• Ask students to time without telling ask questions answering proceed to
complete steps me. when in doubt. questions if ALL practice questions.
along the way. boxes are ticked.
• At any point, if
student feels that
he/she needs
help, they should
listen to the
explanation with
the learners.
5 mins RBT- Refresh • Give a couple of math puzzles on the • Go for toilet break, drink.
Brain Time board. • Try solving the puzzles while
(toilet time) waiting for others to return.
30 mins Activity Two • Explain the activity to the • Students must ‘Randomly’ assign
– Role students. start with the question given and means that I can
reversal match the
• Explain the requirement prepare to verbally explain their
questions to the
of question 4 using examples. working to me.
ability of the
• Assign each student with • While waiting for students so that
a question to start off with ‘randomly’. their turn, students will proceed with everyone can be
• Students must work the rest of the questions. involved in the
through that particular question. activity and
• Using that question, students can build
student must now pretend to be ‘teacher’ on their
and explain that question to me, the confidence.
By students
‘student’.
explaining to me, I
• Students are allowed to can check for
switch question if they genuinely have understanding.
trouble with the one given.
• Give everyone 10 mins
to start on their questions and then
proceed to individual students.
20 mins Question and • Help students with • Students can ask
Answer time questions from school work. questions from homework.
• Hand out solutions to the • If students have no
worksheet given today. questions, they should proceed
• Give out practice to the challenge questions from
worksheet (homework) the worksheet.
• Conclude the lesson by • Students should
asking to students to think of 3 key mark their own work from the
points to share with their neighbour. worksheets and carefully do
• Release students corrections at home.
• Share 3 key points
that they have learnt today with
their neighbour.

Self-reflections:
Name: _______________________
Graphs of Linear Equations- LEARNING TRACK

Introduction:

Formula:
No. of rides
and games Linear Equation: let x be _____________and y
Cost be _____________
:

 1. All graphs of linear equations must be straight lines.


 2. All linear equations takes the form of y = mx + c (m and c will be covered
later)
*Can you identify which of the following equations are linear? Go through
Follow the each key
teacher’s y=6x – 4 x+2=y s =4t +10 x=6 g=3h point
instructio 2 carefully
3x – y +5=0 4x=y – 9 a =3b – 5 2x+y=10 1 – 6u = v
n and fill and tick
in the REMEMBER: each point
blanks. when you
Highlight can
understand
all key
it. Proceed
points! to the
 3. m stands for gradient. Gradient is the steepness of the line. It is like questions
climbing a hill or ladder, for every step you walky across,
y = 6x you are also going only when
you can
up at the same time. confidently
y = 2x
y=x tick ALL
points!

?
Gradient / x
is
‘Rise’
rise Run

run
y=-x

The larger the gradient, the _____________the line.


If the gradient is positive, the line slopes upwards to the ___________.
If the gradient is negative, the line slopes upwards to the ___________.
If two lines have the same gradient, then they must be _______________
You can find the gradient of a line using any 2 points on the graph.

y – y (rise) Example:
m= 2 1
x2 –x1 (run)
 4. c stands for the y-intercept. It is the point at which the line cuts the y-
axis.
*Identify the y-intercept of each graph below.

Value of c
Line s:
v
Line t:
Line u:
Line v:
s
u
t

In the linear equation, it is the constant. (eg. like the entrance fee of the
amusement park)

It is the y value when x = ____

 5. Every straight line has a specific formula, y = mx + c.


Every point that sits on the line must follow this formula or rule.
Therefore, when the paired-coordinate values are substituted into the
equation and the answer is valid, the point must be on the line.

Example: y = - x + 3 (1,6)
Prove that (2,1) sits on the line
and (1,6) does not using substitution.
(2,1)

`
\
\\\

 6. To draw a line graph given the equation, you only need 2 points to link
up,
but use 3 to be sure.
1) Construct a table of x and y values.
2) Choose 3 consecutive x values. *Choose wisely! Keep it low.
3) Substitute the x values into the equation to get the corresponding y
values.
4) Choose your scale carefully. Look at the range of your values.
5) Plot the 3 points on the graph and link up to form the line.
6) Be sure to LABEL your graph with the equation!
Practice time!

1. Complete the table. Then plot the coordinates and draw the graph of each equation on the axes
provided.

a) y = x + 2 b) y = 2x

x x
y y

WAIT!
CHECK!
 m=
1
(+ve slopes
up to the
right)
 c=

c) y = – x – 3 d) y = 5 – x

x
y

e ) 2x + 5y = 10 f) 2y – 3x + 6 = 0
x x
y y

g) 1.5 – y = 0 h) x + y – 3 = 0

x x
y y

2. Sketch the graph of y = mx + c where:


m > 0, c > 0 m < 0, c < 0
y y

x x
0 0

m = 0, c > 0 m < 0, c = 0
y y

x x
0 0

3. Match the equation with its graph.


3x + y = 21 x + 7y = 48 x + 2y = 10
5x + 3y = 30 x + 5y = 51 6x + 7y = 77
x + 2y = 1 2x - 7y = 49 6x - 7y = 7

1. 2. 3.

4. 5. 6.

7. 8. 9.

Now can you do the reverse?

4. Given 2 coordinates, plot the graph and write down the equations of the straight lines.
Use the dice given to generate the x and y values of the coordinates of the 2 points or simply use
your lucky numbers. For those of you who like to challenge yourself, be sure to include lots of
negative numbers. Use the graph paper of the following page for all your equations and make sure
you label each line carefully!

a) Point 1 ( ____, ____) Point 2 ( ____, ____) *Hint:


b) Point 1 ( ____, ____) Point 2 ( ____, ____) All linear equations are
y=mx+c
c) Point 1 ( ____, ____) Point 2 ( ____, ____) Therefore you just need to find
d) Point 1 ( ____, ____) Point 2 ( ____, ____) m and c from your graph.
e) Point 1 ( ____, ____) Point 2 ( ____, ____)
5. Using the graph paper below, draw the graphs of the lines y = 0, x = 6 and y = – x + 1.
Calculate the numerical value of the area of the triangle bounded by the lines y = 0, x = 6 and y
= – x + 1.
6. State if the ordered pair lies on the line. Show working to prove.

a) (– 1, – 4) x – 2y = 7 b) (10,3) 3x +5y =15

c) (–, 2) 4x +y = 0 d) (3,3) 7x – 8y + 3 = 0

7. a) Write down the equation of the vertical line that passes through point (3, - 2).

b) Write down the equation of the horizontal line that passes through point (11, 8).

8. The points (d, 0), (0, e) and (4, f) lie on the line 5x – 4y = 8.
a) Find the values of d, e and f.
b) State whether ( – 3, 4) lies on the line.

9. Find the values of p, q and r if the following points lie on the line 2x + 3y = 9.
a) ( – 3, p) b) (2q – 3, – 1) c) (4r, 5 – 3r)

10. For each of the tables shown, determine whether it is a linear function.
a) b)
x 0 1 2 3 4 5

y 5 1 2 4 8 160
0 0 0 0

c) d)
x 1 2 3 4 5 6

y 2 1 1 9 5 1
1 7 3

Challenge begins…

11. a) The line x = – 3 meets the x-axis at P. Write down the coordinates of P.
b) The line y = 4 meets the y-axis at Q. Write down the coordinates of Q.
c) The line x = – 3 and y = 4 meet at R. Write down the coordinates of R.
d) Calculate (i) the area of ∆PQR and (ii) perimeter of ∆PQR.

12. a) Given the equation 3x – 4y – 12 = 0, complete the table below.

x 0 4 8
y

b) Draw the graph of 3x – 4y – 12 = 0.


c) Given that the point (h, 1.8) is a solution to the equation 3x – 4y – 12 = 0, find the value of h.
d) The graph 3x – 4y – 12 = 0 intersects the x-axis at the point A and the y-axis at the point B.
Find the area of triangle AOB where O is the origin.

13. It is given that the points (2, – 4) and (– 8, 1) lie on the line hx + ky + 6 = 0.
a) Find the values of h and k.
b) Draw the above graph for – 2 ≤ x ≤ 6.
c) Write down the y-intercept of the graph.
d) If (r, – 5) lie on the graph, find the value of r.

14. a) Draw the graph of each of the following equations on the same axis.
(i) x=1 (ii) x = – 2
(ii) y = 2x (iv) y = 2x + 8

b) Name the figure formed by these four lines.


c) Find the area of the figure formed.

15. The point A is the x-intercept of the line x + 3y = 10.Find the coordinates of A. Another
point B is the y-intercept of the line 3x – 5y = 15. Find the coordinates of B. Hence, find the
numerical value of the area of triangle AOB, where O is the origin.