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SLOTLESS PERMANENT MAGNET IND-

SYNMOTOR
ABSTRACT

In modern industrialized country, about 65% of electrical energy is


consumed by AC motors with the world wide trend to energy conservation, there is
a need to increase the efficiency of AC motors small and large .To cope up with
this, the improvement of materials and optimization of design strategies have been
tried out.

The slotless Permanent magnet Ind-syn motor (SPMISM) have been


developed in the recent years and gained popularity in various industrial
applications. Owing to rare earth permanent magnets and slotless stator, these
motors have higher efficiency, less core loss and higher power factor .The use of
SPMISM has become a more attractive option than induction motors .It is quite
possible that this SPMISM will become predominant in the near future .The
SPMISM has a slotless stator and cage rotor with permanent magnets buried inside
the rotor. The main advantage of SPMISM are their simple construction, minimum
maintenance, provides excellent torque to volume and power to volume ratios,
linear current versus torque, no commutator or slip rings due to slotless stator and
permanent magnet cage rotor design.

Hence this work aims at the design and development of SPMISM


.This motor starts as an induction motor, gets synchronized and runs at
synchronous speed. Attractive features of the proportional model are compactness,
energy efficient operation, reduction in losses and active materials used in motor.
A prototype can be designed and developed. Results validate the superior
performance of this new technology. The above feasible design and simulation of
motor has been done through the CAD/CAE software, namely AUTOCAD2000
and MOTORPRO.

Exercising the energy conservation measures plays an important


role in the electricity, particularly in industrial and agricultural sector. In this work
a 2.2KW,415V,4 - pole ,delta connected 3-phase slotless permanent magnet
induction synchronous motor ( SPMISM) was designed. The permanent magnets
were fitted in rotor.

The performance of the SPMISM was compared with conventional


motors. The machine offers greater feature because of its unique characteristics of
self synchronization and high efficiency, power factor and small size. The
prototype motor has been run with load at speeds of up to 6000
rpm and without load up to 10,000 rpm. It is concluded that the
slotless motor have substantially lower losses.

INTRODUCTION:

AC DRIVE MOTORS
AC synchronous motors play an important role in the applications
where fixed speed is necessary at the line frequency as well as variable speed drive
with inverter fed variable frequency supplies. The valuable point of conventional
synchronous motor is it’s DC excitation winding and zero/poor starting torque in
order to over come this unconventional AC synchronous drives had to be tried out.
The chief criterion for this selection was the omission of the DC excitation and
associated slip rings and brushes, which requires periodic maintenance. The
elimination of the field winding gets rid of the associated losses, leading to higher
Efficiency.
When the brushes and slip rings are not acceptable because of
environmental constraints, brushless excitation can be achieved by means of a
small built in generator called exciter. But the resultant configuration is large. So
their applications are limited to medium and low power industrial application.

IMPORTANCE OF ENERGY SAVING:


In India total electricity production per annum is
500000MU.
In this 325000MU is consumed by induction motors. This comes around 65% of
total production. The efficiency of SPMISM is higher than induction machine.
Hence replacement of induction machine by SPMISM will save enormous amount
of energy. So the trend will go towards SPMISM.
The world electricity consumption is estimated as
10000TWH per annum. The industrial sector, in developed countries, uses more
than 30% of the electrical energy. More than 65%of this electrical energy is
consumed by electric motor drives. The number installed electrical machines can
be estimated on the basis of their world production, which amounts to more than 5
billion per annum in sizes from micro motors to large synchronous machines.

The application of slotless stator and permanent magnet cage rotor to


electrical machines improves their efficiency by stator iron and rotor excitation
losses. The air gap magnetic flux density increases, which means greater output
power for the same main dimensions.
By increasing the motor efficiency we can save the energy. Most
energy consumed is by three phase induction motors rated at below 10KW.
Consider a small three phase, 4-pole 1.5 KW, 50Hz cage induction motor. The full
load efficiency of such a motor is usually 74%.
Replacing such a motor by a SPMISM the efficiency can be increased
up to 95-97%. This means that three phase SPMISM draws from the main supply
only 1550W instead of 2027W drawn by the three phase cage induction motor. The
power saving is 477W per motor .If in a country say one million such motors are
installed, the reduction in power consumption will be 477MW, or one quite big
turbo alternator can be disconnected from the power system.

NEED FOR SLOTLESS PMISM:


Pump, Fan and Compressor drive motors in industrial applications
that operate a large percentage of the time necessitate highly efficient and reliable
services. It has been recognized that efficiency improvements beyond those
currently achieved by high efficiency induction motors will be obtained only at an
ever increasing level of effort, and the rate of return will decrease markedly as
further loss reductions are attempted. SPMISM because of their potential for
superior efficiency, power factor, and low sensitivity to supply voltage and
frequency variations should be more desirable than induction motors for high duty
factor applications. The PM cage rotor has a mechanical reliability equal to that of
an induction motors eliminates excitation losses found in synchronous motors and
rotor copper losses in induction motors. The SPMISM offers highest life cycle cost
(initial cost and operating cost) equal to or lower than that of synchronous motors
in similar applications. The savings in operating cost can be more than offset the
projected increase in original purchase price.

3 PHASE SLOTLESS PMISM:


A SPMISM has slotless stator and cage rotor with PM (NdFeB-
neodymium-iron - boron rare earth magnet) Buried in the rotor core. The stator
core has no slots. So that the windings are fixed or wounded on stator core using
adhesive method or printed circuit board.
The cross sections of both a conventional and SPMSIM are shown.
Fifii
Fig.cross section of slotted and slotless PMISM

the figure demonstrates that the elimination of the stator teeth from the
conventional AC drives provides more spaces for copper windings in the
SPMISM. This higher fill ratio then
allows for more magnet surface area, which is required to drive flux across the
relatively large air gap.
Without the stator teeth restricting winding placement, a sinusoidal
winding distribution is possible and a near perfect sinusoidal back electromagnetic
force (BEMF) results.
Thus in order to generate smooth torque at various operating conditions,
the current waveform should be sinusoidal and in phase with the BEMF. In slotted
motors stator teeth begin to saturate at operating conditions near rated value. This
results in both a decreased efficiency due to core losses and a non linear torque per
current characteristics. By keeping iron out of the windings, no saturation is
present in slotless machine. This results in decreased iron losses, increased
efficiency.
The rotor has a robust rotor construction and low effective
air gap. Operations at high speed are also possible. The SPMISM produces
sufficient accelerating torque due to the cage winding. Use of PM in the rotor of
the SPMISM makes it unnecessary to supply magnetizing current through the
stator for constant air gap flux. The SPMISM will operate at a higher power factor
because of the absence of magnetizing current. The AC drives like synchronous
motors requires DC excitation, which is often supplied through brushes and slip
rings. This implies rotor losses and regular slip ring maintenance, which would
result in the down time. The SPMISM is free of this drawback because the field
coil, DC power supply and slip ring not necessary for the SPMISM.

Fig. schematic arrangement of rotor construction

PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION:

The SPMISM starts with dominant induction motor


characteristics. When the rotor speed reaches synchronous speed, the field set up
by the permanent magnets gets locked with stator magnetic field, making the rotor
to run at synchronous speed. As and when the rotor reaches synchronous speed, the
cage torque is reduced to zero and magnet torque becomes the only source of
motor torque .Thus we require smooth self starting and also runs at synchronous
speed. The purpose of the slotless stator is to reduce the core losses.
Fig. Schematic arrangement of slotless PMISM

FEATURES OF THE SPMISM:


The use of Slotless stator, Permanent rotor construction of
electrical machines brings following features:
 Reduced iron losses in stator side.
 Less torque ripples due to Permanent magnets buried in the rotor.
 Robust rotor construction.
 Smooth brushless, noiseless operation.
 Absence of rotor copper losses.
 High efficiency and power factor.
 Relatively higher stability.
 Relatively lesser maintenance.
 No electrical energy is absorbed by the field excitation system and thus
there are no excitation losses which mean substantial increase in the
efficiency.
 Better dynamic performance than motors with electromagnetic excitation
(higher magnetic flux density in the air gap).

DETAILS OF PROPOSED SYSTEM:


2.2 kw,4 pole,50Hz,3 phase SPMISM.
Stator specifications Rotor specifications
Type : RM30 silicon Type : RM30
silicon
Inner dia : 120 mm No. of slots : 20
Outer dia : 200 mm Slot dia : 7.5 mm
Core length : 110 mm Area of slot : 44.156 mm
square
Shaft dia : 33.36 mm
Outer dia of rotor : 129 mm

DETAILS OF SIMULATION:

The magnetic field density provides valuable information in evaluating


motor performance. Knowledge of the field density will not only allow rated
performance calculation but also calculation of such effects as cogging torque,
ripple torque etc. Here the
same has been done using the inbuilt options of motorpro, which carries out the
computations as desired .It also provides the field density at any part of the motor,
which can also be noted, and the performance of the designed motor is analyzed
from the flux analysis that the circular slot rotor configuration plots very much
from the others slot, like parallel slot and parallel teeth slot.
FABRICATION:

The rotor of the SPMISM has to hold the permanent magnets as well as the
squirrel cage winding. Therefore slots of required dimensions have to be cut inside
the rotor stampings. Extra slots for placing magnets are to be cut in the form of a
rectangle which is the shape of the magnet. Electrical grade sheet metal of 0.5mm
thickness was used for the stampings whereas the end rings and rotor bars were
made by DIE CASTING process using aluminum conductor material.
Permanent magnets are then inserted into the slots provided in the rotor core
after checking for their polarity using the gauss meter. Finally the rotor is checked
for unbalance such that proper operation is ensured without the risk of developing
uneven centrifugal forces due to different weight distribution along the surface of
rotor.

COMPARISION BETWEEN CONVENTIONAL AND PROPOSED


SYSTEM:
The performance comparison of three phase SPMISM with conventional induction
motor is given in the following table. all the three motors are specfication(2kw,4
pole ,50hz,SPMISM)
Induction Induction
Parameters SPMISM
Motor 1 Motor 2
Iron &Mech.
Loss (W) 353.03 461.95 less
Full Load
Power Factor 0.62 0.54 0.9
(lag)
Full Load
77.3 72.96 96.76
Efficiency (%)

TECHNO ECONOMIC BENEFITS:


The proposed system is very compact and which makes the
installation an easy one. The system will operate at optimum efficiency at different
loads, which is not at all possible in conventional system. The energy efficiency of
the system is high and 25% of energy can be saved. In agricultural sector the
system efficiency is ignored by due to ‘free power’ available to this sector at
present, and the selection is made mainly based on the initial
investment. Now state electricity board (SEB) is looking for electrical tariffs at par
with other utilities. With a scope for considerable energy a cost savings available
in the proposed technology, the consumer will opt for new and replacement
requirements. Further the capital expenditure incurred will be paid back in an
attractive periods.
CONCLUSION

Exercising the energy conservation measures plays an important role in the


electricity, particularly in industrial and agricultural sector.
In this ,SPMISM was developed and analyzed. Three phase winding is fixed in the
stator with out using printed circuit board (it is possible up to 5HP).The permanent
magnets were fitted in the rotor. The performance of the SPMISM was compared
with conventional motors.
On the other hand, it was observed that the motor loss mainly depends on the
stator loss this is overcome by using slotless winding design. The rotor excitation
loss can be eliminated by using PM’s also the power factor of motor was mainly
depends on the strength of magnets, by increasing the strength of magnets, the
power factor and efficiency of the motor will improve. The machine offers great
future because of its unique characteristics of self synchronization and high
efficiency, power factor and small size.

REFERENCE:
1.Todd D. Batzel & Kwang Y. Lee, “Slotless Permanent Magnet
Synchronous Motor”, IEEE Transaction on Energy Conversion, vol. 15, no.
December 2000.
2. R.J.Parker, “Advances in permanent magnetism”, J. Wiley & Sons, New
York, 1990.