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INTRODUCTION

Cerebrovascular disease is a group of brain dysfunctions related to


disease of blood vessels supplying the brain. Hypertension is the most
important cause that damages the blood vessel lining endothelium
exposing the underlying collagen where platelets aggregate to initiate
a repairing process which is not always complete and perfect.
Sustained hypertension permanently changes the architecture of the
blood vessels making them narrow, stiff, deformed and uneven which
are more vulnerable to fluctuations of blood pressure. A fall in blood
pressure during sleep can lead to marked reduction in blood flow in the
narrowed blood vessels causing ischemic stroke in the morning
whereas a sudden rise in blood pressure can cause tearing of the blood
vessels causing intracranial hemorrhage during excitation at daytime.
Primarily people who are elderly, diabetic, smoker, or have ischemic
heart disease, have cerebrovascular disease. All diseases related to
artery dysfunction can be classified under a disease as known as Macro
vascular disease. This is a simplistic study by which arteries are
blocked by fatty deposits or by a blood clot. The results of
cerebrovascular disease can include a stroke, or even sometimes a
hemorrhagic stroke. Ischemia or other blood vessel dysfunctions can
affect one during a cerebrovascular accident. CVD is the most disabling
of all neuralgic diseases. Approximately 50% of survivors have a
residual neuralgic deficit and greater than 25% require chronic care.
Cardiovascular disease mortality in the Philippines was studied from
the existing vital statistics for 2000-2008. Death rates from
cerebrovascular diseases increased enormously both in men and
women. This increase in mortality was seen in all age groups. The age-
standardized mortality rate in men rose from 33.3 in 2000 to 78.0
in2005, and that of women from 15.4 to 34.5. The male to female
ratios in the age standardized death rates increased during this 9-year
period. Age-standardized mortality creased clearly in the male
population but decreased in the female population of the Philippines.
This excess mortality in males is mostly due to the increased
cardiovascular disease death rate. This is a clear example of how
chronic non-communicable diseases are becoming major health
problems in countries where they previously have not been prevalent.
Immediate preventive measures are needed in order to control
cardiovascular diseases in countries, such as ours, where disease rates
are rapidly increasing. We chose this case as the main subject of this
presentation because we were greatly alarmed with the sudden
increase of the number of people having the said disease. We want to
find out what makes it such a horrifying disease. We also wanted to
come up with a thorough study so as to hasten and develop our critical
thinking by utilizing the different nursing theories and principles that
we learned from our discussion. It is then through this case
presentation that we will be able to apply the things we were taught to.