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XLI 37-102 1033942

GENEALOGICAL SOCIETY
'
J OF THS CHURCH OF JESUS CHRIST
" OF LATTER-DAY SAiNTS

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Martin Tidd, progenitor of the


Kinsman-Williamsfield-Columbiana-Roundhead Tidds.
dfc^-;

"

_M - -. «

• a -

James Tidd, progenitor of the


Niles-Vienna Tidds
— — mm

111

This book is dedicated to my Wife;


for, without her constant help and en-
couragement, it could not have been pos-
sible.

:
*

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ft

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ft
iv

Foreword
Seldom do family groups gather for reunions or visitation with-
out questions arising pertaining to family background or references
made to ancestral anecdotes. Sometimes friendly arguments develop
as to origins; while these may be entertaining they are not particularly
enlightening. For some time the writer has felt that a study ought
to be made that would gather all possible information relative to the
family background, and present it in an historical setting. The idea
of accumulating current information was a natural sequence. Every
reasonable effort has been made to obtain information relative to each
phase of the problem. It is obvious that when pertinent information
is not forthcoming, it cannot be presented; hence, the current history
is at times impaired.
*

However, an amazing amount of material is accessible which


furnishes opportunity for us to become well acquainted with our
history. The reader will find that considerable attention has been given
to the early settlement of New Jersey and eastern Pennsylvania. This m
is necessary in order that an understanding be had concerning the first
early migrations from the colonies and how they worked their way
westward. The history of the Tidds is directly involved in these early
migrations.

ft
Acknowledgments
Certainly the first expression of thanks must be made to the
many persons who have sent the many letters containing information
ft of the several branches of the family, without which Part Two could
not have been written*

Acknowledgment is made of the help given by the many libraries


• in which research has been carried on; especially is this true of the staff
of the History department of the Cleveland Public Library, as well as
the staff of the Western Reserve Historical Society Library in Cleve-
land.

* Individual thanks are expressed to Mrs. Simons of the Kinsman


Library, who made available so many sources of information of a
strictly local nature.

f- Acknowledgment is made of the information received from Arthur


W. Tidd of New York, who has spent years in his search for data per-
taining to the Tidd family.

Special acknowledgment of appreciation is made to Paul A. Tidd


of Roundhead, Ohio, for the many items of information that he found.

Thanks .are expressed to all other persons who have given advice,
and have constructively criticized the manuscript.
ft
Last, but not least, thanks are extended to the typist who has
transcribed the sheets of longhand into typewritten form.

On behalf of the entire Tidd family, an expression of appreciation


must be made to all, who, by their Patronship and contributions have
made this book possible from a financial standpoint.
. H. T.
VI

Pa&t&u
i
for the full amount of fifty dollars each:

Tracy Tidd Dorothy Tidd Tanner


Raymond I. Tidd Mildred Tidd Andis
Harold E. Tidd Alley A. Burr
Samuel H. Tidd Lenore Stanford Floyd
i
Harland O. Tidd Lee C. Underwood, Sr.
Hannon O. Tidd Bemice Tidd Morrow
Thressa L. Tidd Bartlett
a
Albert T. Morrow
James W. Tidd Ina Hoover Tholl
.

Vll

Benjamin J r .
b 1725
eight other
Benjamin children
b 1700 d 1755
(David Tidd d 1756
b o m about
1675
Martin Tidd I
(
b 1789
M d 1820'a
W. Savell
Samuel John John moved
b 1708 t o Ohio
H d 1756 b 1740
Elizabeth H Olive
Olive Martin h 1742
M
T h . Puller
Mary William C o i p l )
John Tidd

{
M (Rev. Army)
b. 1600
F . Kendall b 1740
or William Hia eon
<L 1650 John William. J r .
Hertford M moved t o Ohio
England R. Wood
M.lat Peter
Joeeph
Margaret Bobert
*L 1651 James
barn
m {
M.2nd
Alice U
Henry Charles
b 1740 {
Elizabeth

b 1765
b 1742 .

Jaeob Tidd < d 1818


b o m about
1688 James Tidd I

ft 2nd Wife John C o r p l


(Bev Away)
b 1746
{ b 1776
moved
t o Ohio
i d 1833

ft

ft
Vlll

f Ann Tidd John David


b 1765

m John W-

J o h n Tidd
b 1772
d 1804
Never married

Martin
James
Nancy
Sarah
Sarah Tidd Rosanna
b 1774 John
d 1851 Samue!
m J a m e s Hill Mary

Margaret

Mary
Elizabeth
Samuel Sally
Martin Tidd I b 1779
b 1739 d 1851 Martin
d 1820V m. Rebecca Nancy
Born in Hill Charles
Penna, Jane
Died in
Kinsman Ohio
Tn Betsy

i
Marvin i children
Charles Tidd
b 1782
Charles
Martin
4
m Rachel

James
David
Betsy Tidd Samuel
b 1785 Martin
m Robert Sally
Susan

Martin Tidd II
b 1789

d 1837
m Deborah
Blackburn
(See next
page)


ft
IX

J a m e s M*
John W.
Ebenezer
Charles L*
Martin Tidd H I H a r m o n C.
b 1818 E z r a L.
d 1897 Alvin A*
Olive M.
ft Albert A*

Lucy
Maude
John Harmon
b 1819 John
Lester

Peter
Abigail
)
ft Mary aAlvm
b 1821
i .Loan da
Jane
Sherman
Charles
b 1823
d 1852
C. Wayland
Carleton
Leonard Homer
b 1825 Llewellyn
d 1893 BUss
Martin Tidd I I Leonard
<
b 1789
d 1837

m Deborah
Blackburn
b 1800 John
d 1860 Zina
Orin
C Willard
Nancy Alvin
b 1827
1 d 1906 Alice
Ella
Ulysses
Avery

Albert Sarah E.
•!

Alvin

Annetta
EUet E
J, Lyman Huber
b 1832 Lucy
d 1918 Bede

Olive
b 1836
d 1851
I

ft
f Sarah Tidd
b 1822
m Carleton •

J a m e s Tidd I Jame* Tidd II < James Andrews


b 1775
< b 1797 Mary Ann Tidd Reed Andrews
Hunterdon d 1876 b 1825 Flora Andrews
County N . J* Married Sarah m Charles
Married 1796 d 1874 Andrews •

Sarah Allen
of Henry Tidd
Pennsylvania Marvin Tidd
J, Mervin Tidd Eugene Tidd
b 1827 W m , Tidd
m Lucy Twins
Swagger Cornelius Tidd

George Tidd Hi
{ Hillman Tidd
b i

Charles Tidd
Frank Tidd
J e s s e Tidd
J a m e s Hillman Josephine
Tidd
Tidd Nettie Tidd
b 1831
d 1914 Edith Tidd
Ella Tidd
m Elizabeth
Hammil
b 1835
d 1927 George Tidd
Addie Tidd
.Artemus A- Ransom Tidd
Tidd Ruby Tidd
b 1834 Florence Tidd *
d 1917
m Syrenna
L Wilmont
Polly Tidd
b 1799
Married •
J u n e 16. 1817
^ John Draper


ft Bibliography
General and State Historical Material
A History of Great Britain, By H. Robinson; Historical Collections
• of Pennsylvania, By Sherman Day; The Making of Pennsylvania, By
Sydney G* Fisher; Frontier Forts of Pennsylvania 2 Vols., By Thomaa
Montgomery; Smith's History of New Jersey, By Samuel Smith; Colonial
History of New Jersey, By Donald Kemmerer.
Regional Histories
• The Valley of The Delaware, By John Garber; History of the
Lackawanna Valley, By H. Hollister; History of Wyoming, By Will-
iam L. Stone; History of the Wyoming Valley, By Isaac Chapman;
A History of Wilkes-Barre and The Wyoming Valley, By Oscar Harvey;
"The Olden Time, Information Relative to the Early Settlements
around the Head of the Ohio. 2 Vols., By Neville B. Craig; Ohio And
Her Western Reserve, By Alfred Mathews; Historical Collections of
the Mahoning Valley, pub. by Mahoning Valley Historical Society;
Early History of Cleveland, including original papers relating to the
Adjacent Country, By Col. Charles Whittlesy; History of Youngstown
and the Mahoning Valley, By Joseph G. Butler Jr.
County and Local Histories
History of the County of Westmoreland, Pa., By Albert; History
of Trumbull and Mahoning Counties 2 Vols., By H. Z. Williams; Hist-
ory of Trumbull County, Ohio 2" Vols., By H. T, Upton; The History
• of Champaign and Logan Counties, By Joshua Antrim; The History
of Hardin County, By Beers; A farm House and Those Who Lived in
It. Vol 2, John Christy, By Bayard Henderson Christy; "Old Dans-
bury and The Moravian Mission", By R. R. Hillman.
Journals and Diaries
Journal of Dr. Peter Allen, Kinsman, Ohio; Narratives of The
Early Delaware Valley, By Albert Myers; Journal, Kept by Capt.
Van Etten in Command of Ft. Hamilton and Ft, Hyndshaw on the
Delaware; Fragments of the Haskin Diary, Episodes of Frontier Life
on the Delaware River.
Official Publications including Court Records, Census
reports. Rosters.
U. S. Census Records 1790-1830 for states, Mass., Conn., New
York, Pa., New Jersey, Maryland, and Ohio; Official Roster of Officers
and Men of New Jersey in the Rev. War; Roster of Revolutionary War
Veterans who lived in Ohio; Roster of Revolutionary War Veterans
Buried in Ohio; New Jersey Archives, Series 1-3; Pennsylvania
Archives, Series 1-5; Vital Records of New Jersey 3 Vols.; The Sus-
quehannah Company Papers 4 Vols., Ed. By Julian P. Boyd; Ashtabula
County Probate Court Records, Jefferson, Ohio; Trumbull County
Court Records, Warren, Ohio; Mahoning County Probate Court
Records, Youngstown, Ohio; Vital Statistics Records of Trumbull
County, Ohio.


Genealogies and Genealogical Histories
History of Lexington, Mass., with Genealogies 2 Vols.; The Bas-
sett-Prescott -Ancestry, By B. Preston; History of Cambridge, Mass.,
with Genealogical Register, By Lucius R. Paige; History of the Town
of Lexington, Mass., with Genealogies 2 Vols., By Charles Hudson;
ft
xu

History of Wobum, Mass., with Genealogical Notices 1640-1860, By


Samuel Sewell; Farmers' Registry of First Settlers of New England, ft
By J. Farmer; Dawes-Gates Ancestral Lines 2 Vols., By Ferris
Genealogies and Estates of Charlestown, Mass., By T. B. Wyman;
Colonial Families of the United States; By George Mackenzie; The
Story of the Tidd Family of Woburn, Mass. 1625-1915, By Edward F.
Johnson; The New England Ancestory of Dana Converse Backus #
comp. and pub. By Mary £. N. Backus 1949; Genealogical Notes,
By Henry R. Baldwin.

ft

ft

ft
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A"Wtotontf *itfa lidcU*iOfa&

Parti
Historically

Part H
Currently


ft
l

Parti
Undaunted by the stories of hardship and suffering en-
dured by the men and women who had chosen to go to the
colonies in the "New World", there continued to be an
ever-increasing number eager to make the change from
• what might be considered the safety of known ways of life
to the known perils which surely awaited them, once the
transition had been made. It was no secret that a large
^ portion of the settlers in Jamestown, Virginia had fallen
victims to the "starving time"; while the only attempt made
by the Plymouth Company to colonize had met with miser-
able failure in 1607 on the Kennebec River. A single winter
of disease and starvation was enough to reduce the colony
t by half and send the survivors back to England with "their
former hopes frozen to death." "What, then, could have
been the motivations responsible for the "ever-increasing
number" to risk their lives in this determined effort to
seek new homes across the sea ? Whatever the motives, we
• can recognize that they were fundamental, and positive,
and powerful. Among the problems faced by the people of
that day, that of making a living was becoming more dif-
ficult.
• The farmers were in distress because of higher rents
and taxes. Due to the Enclosure Acts large tracts of land
were being converted into sheep pastures. One result of the
rapid expansion of weaving in Flanders was the unusual
demand for English wool. A small number of men could

care for a large acreage of pasture and flocks of sheep;
thus, many families were evicted from the land which had
formerly furnished them employment. We read in Queen
Elizabeth's day of the great "increase in idle rogues and
« beggars", and of the attempt to relieve them by the so-
called "poor laws". The people resented being treated as
objects of charity. If the Lords of Wool were to be allowed
to monopolize the acres of England, there were broader
lands beckoning from beyond the Atlantic. The plight of
• the townspeople was no less miserable. Higher taxes and
higher prices, with fewer jobs because of the competition
of the people from the rural sections, made the outlook
dark indeed; they, too, turned to the opportunities promised
•• by colonization.
In addition to the economic reasons for unrest, many
people were beginning to feel the harsh effects of a Relig-
ious persecution entirely new in England. There was wide-
spread acceptance among the middle-class people of the
Protestant doctrine of the individual's responsibility to God <
alone for his religion. Determined resistance to any form of
coersion within this religious province was increasingly
demonstrated by many persons.
We find that the religious life of England at that time i
was dominated by the Anglican Church, which was the
State Church established by law. This was, and had been
for nearly a century, Protestant in philosophy and concept.
However, there had been developing for some time within
the English Church certain groups at variance with accept- ft
ed procedures; and disagreeing wih certain forms and
ceremonies as being to "popish". One group, quite moderate
in their protests, were known as Puritans. They had no
desire to leave the Established Church, but did object to the '
wearing of vestments, such as the surplice and the cope,
and to the idea that the clergy have distinctive dress when
outside of church. The Puritans merely wished to "purify**
the church of its "Romish leanings". Continued agitation
pertaining to these objections finally led to the passage of •
the "Act of Uniformity" which laid a fine on anyone refus-
ing to attend church; and ministers found in agreement
with these Puritan ideas were punished. Puritans willing
to obey the Act were called "Conformists"; those refusing g
to obey became '^Non-Conformists", and upon these the ire
of the King later descended.
A group of intellectual men, who actually did not want
to conform but wished to work out a peaceful solution, met
the new king, James I with what was called the Millenary
Petition, so-called because it was claimed to have been
signed by one thousand ministers of the Church. This oc-
cured in 1603. During the following year the King called
into session the Hampton Court Conference for the sole f
purpose of considering the Petition. Under the influence of
the Bishops, and fearful of admitting a wedge into the
Established Church that might smack of Presbyterianism,
he refused to grant the tenets of this Petition and openly
declared, "I will make them confonn, or else I will harry •

them out of the land, or else do worse". The plight of the


Non-Conformists soon became unbearable; for the King,
true to his word, began a program of persecution which
left the group little choice—either conform or suffer the t
consequences. James I had no intention of actually driving
anyone out of England, but he did intend that these people
would bow to his imperial will and obey his edicts even
though harsh measures might have to be employed. The ft
moderates, and those of a lesser caliber, chose to conform;
however, those considering it a moral issue with important
principles at stake took the extreme position and refused to
ft
comply. They became known as Separatists, and began to
look for a place of refuge. The only place on the Continent
where men were not persecuted for their religious beliefs
was Holland. In the year 1608 about a hundred Separatists
fled to Holland; still these exiles were not entirely happy
• in their new homes despite the fact that they were un-
molested from the standpoint of religious worship. They
referred to themselves as "pilgrims and strangers, long-
ing for a home under the English flag". The new land of
America beckoned; but they had neither money nor friends
• at court. In time, however, they secured permission to settle
within the Virginia Company's territory, and found some
financial backing by London merchants. Therefore, in
g 1620, the Mayflower, with thirty-five "pilgrims" and near-
ly twice that number who were not Separatists, s.ailed for
the New World. The story of their landing and settlement
at Plymouth is common knowledge to all. This colony,
which never became large, established a pattern however,
• that was followed by the important colony of Massachusetts
in which we are vitally interested.
A group of merchants, some ministers, and others,
mostly Puritans, formed the New England Company in
1628, and obtained from the old Council for New England
• a grant of land with certain boundaries, and immediately
sent about forty men who settled at Salem. The next spring
this Company secured a charter from King Charles I grant-
ing the right of settlement and self-government within cer-
• tain specified limits; the charter also designated the name
to become the Company of Massachusetts Bay. A dozen
influential members of the company prepared to move to
the new settlement with their families and all of their be-
longings, thus transferring the actual control of the com-
ft
pany to the colony rather than allowing the control to re-
main in London. This plan was accepted in the famous
Cambridge Agreement; consequently the following year,
1630, the controlling body, with over one thousand persons
under the leadership of Governor John Winthrop, crossed
the Atlantic and settled on the site of the present dty of
Boston. The Puritan character of the colony was manifested
in several ways: only freemen had voting privileges and
only members of a Puritan church were recognized as
"freemen"; these represented about one-fifth of the popu-
lation. The remaining four-fifths of the inhabitants, called
"mutes", might live in the colony as long as they did not
resist "Church Authority" although they were taxed for
the support of the churches along with the regular church
members.
Continued persecution of the Puritans in England
under Charles I, together with heavy taxes, sent greater
_a

numbers to the colonies every year. Particularly was this


true during the troubled years of the "Personal Rule with-
out Parliament" of Charles I. During the 1630's two hun-
dred ships carrying nearly twenty thousand colonists with
their belonging and supplies, came to the Massachusetts
Bay Colony making it the richest and the strongest of any
of the early English settlements. While it is true that the
desire for religious freedom figured prominently among
the causes which led to colonization; nevertheless, it must
be recognized that large numbers of people came to these
shores seeking opportunities to establish homes and make •

their living unfettered by the conflicts and restrictions of


Stuart Kings, The building of houses, and the clearing of
land for the growing of crops was fundamental. Soon ship-
building and fishing became important enterprises together
with fur-trading. Within seven years of their landing, the
Plymouth Colony was able to take up the debt which they
owed to the London merchants. This was made possible
through the profits in fur-trading and fishing. While con-
stant vigilance had to be exercised to prevent surprise at-
tacks from the Indians, no full-scale war was waged by
the natives until the ferocious uprising of the Narragansct
Indians, known as King Philip's War, wiped out many of
the unprotected settlements. Life in the sea-coast towns, 4
particularly in Boston, rather quickly took on the well-
ordered routine of daily living. There was work for all, and,
under the stem discipline of the Puritan controlled society,
all were working. Thus it was when in 1637 we find the
Tidds in Charleston going about their daily work with the
others.
Several geneologies, including historical geneologies,
contain information relative to the early Tidd families of
Massachusetts. (It might be well to state here that not the
slightest trace of any other immigration of Tidds has been
found anywhere in any of the early colonies.) No single
genealogy contains all of the names of the earliest Tidd
family; however a compilation of the genealogies gives us,
as nearly as possible, a complete and accurate account.
Thus, it is found that in the year 1637 a certain John Tidd
and family were living in Charlestown of the Massachusetts
Bay Colony. Whether or not this is the exact year of his
immigration is not important. Related incidents have led
historians to accept 1637 as the year of his settlement in the
colony; at least, it is known that he was living in Charles-
town at that time. In his will, probated several years later,
he identifies himself as "being a tailor". His former place
of residence is given as Hertford, England. Upon making
application he was admitted to ehurch membership on
March 10, 1639 in Charlestown; whieh fact lends credence
#
ft

ft
to the acceptance that John Tidd was established as a
worthwhile and dependable citizen, because church mem-
bership was not extended to persons until a reasonable
period of "testing" had proved the applicant's qualifica-
tions conformed to the rigid church requirements. An in-
teresting point shows up here in the record—Joshua Tidd,
a presumed brother of John Tidd was also admitted to
church membership on March 10, 1639.
On April 23, 1638, the Charlestown Proprietors had
land laid out to them "on Mystic side" toward what later
became Maiden, and at that time John Tidd received lot
No. 86 on the basis of a taxable estate of £10/20s, while
Joshua Tidd received lot No. 74 on the basis of a taxable
estate of £5/15s. Neither one removed to that locality.
A few words will suffice relative to Joshua Tidd, for,
according to all geneologies, he did not figure prominently
in establishing a direct perpetuating line. His wife, Sarah,
died in 1677, He soon married a woman named Rhoda;
ft however, this marriage did not last long for he died in 1678
at the age of 71, Thus his date of birth stands as 1607,
which fits nicely into the picture as being a brother of
John Tidd, Joshua became quite prosperous; the record
shows that he owned a small vessel for the purpose of fur
#
trading, several pieces of land, and a salt-house for the
curing of fish.
As time went on, John acquired eight pieces of land
in Charlestown, as well as one and % "cow commons",
• having purchased the % portion. The pieces of land varied
in size from one acre to several acres. He must have be-
come fairly prosperous for, when Thomas Moulton was re-
moving to "mystic side", John was able to purchase the
i Moulton home in Charlestown.
In May, 1640, Charlestown petitioned the General
Court for additional land which was granted, and in Decem-
ber, 1640, thirty two men who planned to settle on it,
signed the "Town Orders" as original proprietors of what
• in 1642 was named Wobum. John Tidd and Francis Kendall
were among the signers and they soon removed to the new
location where land must be cleared, houses built, and the
whole process of pioneering gone through with once more.
t John Tidd lived in this place the remainder of his life.
He was made sergeant of the training band in Wobura in
1643 and again in 1646, becoming the "first citizen of
Woburn named by a military title in the records". The
earliest extant tax list shows that he was taxed for the
* "country rate" (colony tax) in 1645. He was, in the same
year, chosen "surveyor of fences", an important position in
a pioneer locality. In 1646 he had the task of "ringing the
bell for church and town meetings", for which service the

A
town "owed" him £l/10s. In 1647 he helped collect the
local taxes, and later served as "Commissioner for the
Country Rate". All information points to the conclusion that
John Tidd was a prominent and respected citizen of Wo-
burn ; and that he was fairly prosperous is evidenced by the
fact that at his death in 1656 his net worth was appraised
at £163, no mean sum for that early period.
One item of considerable interest portraying his mettle
and courage appears in 1653, when, with others, he signed
a petition to the General Court which dared to express an
opinion entirely divergent from a ruling of that body. That
petition has throughout the years been called the "Wobura
Memorial for Christian Liberty", and they who signed it
were dubbed "the bold petitioners".
John Tidd was born in or before 1600, His children
were all bora before his coming to the colony of Massachus-
etts. His wife was named Margaret, and the following were
their children, although possibly not listed in the proper
chronological order: Hannah, Samuel, Elizabeth, Mary,
John, Joseph, and James.
John Tidd's wife, Margaret, died in Woburn in 1651;
later he married Alice, who out-lived him and was men-
tioned in his will. His daughter Hannah, married William
Savell in 1641; to this union were born four children: John,
Samuel, Benjamin, and Hannah. His daughter Mary,
married Francis Kendall in 1644; to them at least one child
was born, named John Kendall, His daughter Elizabeth,
married Thomas Fuller in 1643; to them at least one child f
was born, named Thomas Fuller. John Tidd's son, Samuel,
married and to them was born a daughter. John Tidd's
son, John, was bora in England in 1625, and in 1650 he
married Rebecca Wood in Woburn, where he resided for
several years. Later he removed to Lexington, known early
as "Cambridge Farms*'. To John and Rebecca were born
eight children: Hannah, John, Mary, Samuel, James,
Joseph, Rebecca, and Daniel. As to John Tidd's son Joseph,
and son James, there is no further genealogical record.
Neither son was mentioned in the father's will. It is
thought possible that each son might have been given a
portion directly by the father before his death; or that
distance or other causes had so separated them that their
whereabouts was unknown. There is no record that either
son ever lived in Wobura again.
On April 9, 1656 John Tidd made his will, and on
April 24 of the same year, he died. The will was proved on
November 10, 1656, by Thomas Danforth, Recorder. (Only
the pertinent items will be reconstructed).
"I, John Tidd, senior, of Wobura Town, in the County
of Middlesex, Tailor, being in good and perfect memory—
bequeath to my beloved wife Alice the house wherein I
now dwell together with the orchard and land thereunto
belonging—until the day of her death or six years after
her next marriage, providing it be kept in good repair, and
ft
then to come and remain to my three grandchildren Ben-
jamin Savell, Hannah Savell, and my son Samuel's daughter,
equal between them.
Item - I give to my (other) two grandchildren, John
Savell, and Samuel Savell, twenty shillings to either of
them.
Item - 1 , John, do give to my son John the value of £5
to be paid within two years of my decease—It is further
my will that my son (in-law) Savell shall keep the portions
bequeathed to my grandchildren till they become of age
as well as my son Samuel's daughter, as his own.
Item - I give to my two grandchildren, Thomas Fuller
and John Kendall, sixteen acres of land lately purchased
of Thomas Chamberlain equally to be divided between
them, and one parcel of meadow lying in Step Rock to be
divided between them also".
Attached was a copy of appraisment made in July,
1656. "An Investory of the lands, goods, chattels late
belonging to "Sargeant" John Tidd of Wobura. Total

value £163. duly signed - Edward John, John Monsall,
Samuel Walker, duly recorded - Thomas Danforth, Record-
er".
It is apparent from the foregoing will that Samuel
• Tidd had died prior to the death of John Tidd. A search of
records has revealed two very important pieces of informa-
tion. (1) That under date of August 26, 1650, a grant of
land was made to Samuel Tidd. (2) The following "testa-
• mentary paper" probably written by his wife, but was en-
dorsed by the Court as "Samuel Tidd's Will, 1651". "Samuel
Tidd upon his death bed did wish and desire me to give
unto his three brethern, to each of them, one of his suights
(suits) and the rest of his estate I to have to myself. Thiis
• my husband spoke the day of his death being in perfect
memory and understanding. The mark of Samuel Tidd
Accepted by the Court".
The great importance of this "testamentary paper"
» is as follows: (1) If John Tidd gave to son Samuel a grant
of land six years before his death, it is reasonable to sup-
pose that he, John, might have settled some portion of his
belongings on his other sons, Joseph and James; hence
it would not have been necessary to have named them in
his will. In other words, the fact that Joseph and James
were not mentioned in the will does not in any way prove
that they did not exist. (2) If further evidence is necessary
to prove the existence of Joseph and James as sons of John
ft

A
Tidd, let us again look to the "testamentary paper" which
was accepted by the Court as "Samuel Tidd's Will, 1651".
In it we read "Samuel Tidd upon his death bed did wish
and desire me to give unto his three brethern, to each of
them, one of his suights (suits)". Turning to the list of
children of John Tidd we find the following names: John,
Samuel, Joseph, and James. Taking into consideration the
fact that we are critically appraising the will of Samuel
Tidd, it becomes very obvious that his intenton was to give
to John, to Joseph, and to James, each, one of his suits.
A cursory reading of the geneologies dealing with the
early Tidds could easily lead to confusion and misunder-
standing as it has so obviously done in the past. Historians,
hunting for the beginnings of the early familes of New
England, and elsewhere, often jump to conelusons without
having made a thorough and critical examination of the
material and information available. Sometimes the infor-
mation is so confusing and meager that the most astute
searcher becomes guilty of precipitance. When others try
to build upon their faulty premise, the result is often a com-
plete distortion of the facts. This has been the case whereby
certain conclusions drawn and perpetuated by careless or
incompetent persons has caused considerable misunder- L

standing when read in the Tidd geneologies.


An item of information appeared at one time concern-
ing a John Tidd, 19 years of age, who was a servant (in-
dentured) of Samuel Greenfield of Norwich. Said John
Tidd sailed from Yarmouth, England May 12, 1637, land- #

ing in Charlestown, Massachusetts the same year. Informa-


tion was also accessable that a John Tidd joined the church
in 1639 in Charlestown, Mass. Also that a John Tidd signed
the "Town orders" in 1640 which brought into being the
town of Woburn. The avid, though precocious, historian
finding so many John Tidds in the same general area and
at about the same time, jumped to the conclusion that they
were one and the same person. But when he tried to
arrange them geneologically and chronologically, he ran -

into the following difficulties—how could he correlate the


fact that in one case John Tidd had three daughters, all
marrying between the years 1641 and 1644, with the fact
that in the other case, John Tidd, age 19, sailed from Yar-
mouth, England in 1637. Obviously there was no possible •

correlation. Therefore this unscientific researcher glibly


proposed the idea that the John Tidd, father of the three
daughters, actually was the same person who sailed from
England in 1637 but that he falsified his age in order to ft
procure ship-passage. Another would-be historian suggested
that the John Tidd who sailed from England at the age of
19 was the son of John Tidd, the father of the three daugh-
*
ft tera. This was only slightly less absurd than the first pro-
posal, because John Tidd, the son of John Tidd, was born in
1625. It can easily be seen that in 1637 he would have been
but twelve years of age, and could scarcely have passed as
a person of 19 years of age. No other proposals were forth-
coming, and there the matter rested. A reader of the
geneologies of the Tidds could accept either proposal or
substitute one of his own; consequently, work of this type
has done much to discourage and confuse the person who
must rely on the information available.
Time passed and no additional light was shed on the
subject until 1949, when Mary Backus, working on the
geneology of a New England family, traced Samuel Green-
field, his family and servant, John Tidd, from Charlestown
in 1637 to Salem, thence to Hampton and finally to Exeter,
New Hampshire, where, on May 12, 1643 the two men
signed a petition to the General Court. .As John Tidd, he
was still listed in Exeter on November 4, 1647, This carried
him well past the days of the early settlement of Woburn
during which time John Tidd of Wobum was playing a
prominent part in the daily life of the Massachusetts town.
Thus the mystery of the double identity and the absurd
accusation of age falsification has been cleared.

The founding of Wobura (1640 - 1642), in which John
Tidd played an important part, was representative of
similar activities by all of the sea-coast towns. The thousands
that poured into the Massachusetts towns during the decade
of the 1630's necessitated the movement into the interior.
While at first, the new areas to be settled were contiguous;
nevertheless, the adventurous pioneers were soon pushing
into regions well back from the coast line. Thomas Hooker
had led his group of "petitioners who desired to transport
themselves and their estates unto the River Connecticut,
there to reside and inhabit", in what became a major en-
terprise. The towns of Hartford, Windsor, and Wethers-
field were established on 'the long river"; and by 1650
several settlements were made in the vicinity of what is
now Springfield. Several reasons were responsible for this
"hinterland push". The attraction of the rich valley land
of the Connecticut River was tremendous when one com-
pares that land with the thin, stony soil of eastern Mass-
achusetts. In addition to the richness of the soil from a
farming standpoint, numerous sites had been found where
"bog ore" occurred in sufficient quantity and of a quality
that merited smelting operations. The rapidly increasing
demand for iron products (such as kettles, fire-place equip-
ment, common hardware necessities, and guns) had sorely
taxed the capabilities of England to provide; consequently,
every effort was made to find and use nearby supplies of
10
minerals. Only slightly less important, within the field of
mineral deposits, was the discovery of "clay pits" that gave
rise to the rapid development of the "glazed earthenware"
industry which provided all types of crockery-dishes-and
jugs, for which the pioneer housewife could find no sub-
stitute. The immense natural resources of the forests gave
rise to one of the most important of the Colonial industries—
that of ship-building. Large quantities of lumber of all types
and for all purposes were shipped directly to England to
augment its diminishing supplies. Not only were the colonies
self-supporting from the standpoint of major food pro-
ducts, but very soon they were shipping large amounts of
food to the mother country. English officials looked with
pleasure upon the prospects of large quantities of raw
materials being supplied by the colonies; in fact, the lead-
ing figures in England considered this to be the main bene-
fit of colonization. Thus, unhampered by restrictions, the
economic life within the colonies was one of expanding
activity. Some road-building was attempted; however, the
rivers were the main arteries of travel and transportation.
Although the area along the lower reaches of the Hudson
River was closed to the English colonists, they had pene-
trated to the middle areas of the Hudson River Valley and
had established several settlements within this region long •

before the end of the 1600's.


Henry Hudson, an experienced English navigator in
the service of the Dutch East India Company, in 1609 sail-
ed up the river that bears his name. Just prior to his dis-
covery of the Hudson River, he had sailed into and explored
the lower reaches of the Delaware River. The claim of
the Dutch on this area was further strengthened when Cap-
tain Jacob Mey of Holland, in 1613, landed and built a fort
on what is now Gloucester Point, New Jersey. Later, in 1631,
Fort Oplandt was built and a settlement was established.
This settlement was well supplied with cattle, seed, agri-
cultural implements, and household furnishings. Consider-
able progress was made by this group until the leadership
passed into the hands of Giles Osset, who soon aroused the
enmity of the Indians. Things went from bad to worse, with
the result that the Indians massacred most of the inhabit-
ants and burned all of the buildings. The place was entire-
ly rebuilt by the Dutch, only to be destroyed by the English
in 1664. Peter Minuit, in 1638, established a settlement at
what is now Wilmington; this too, was captured by the
English at the time when the Dutch power in the New World
was broken. A few minor settlements were made by the
Dutch only to be taken over by the Swedes, who were their
early colonial rivals in this area, although this enmity did
not involve the mother countries, who were allies, at least
on the surface.
Queen Christina, of Sweden, afflicted with a mild case
of "colonizing fever", desired to establish some Swedish
colonies; therefore, she was instrumental in equipping an
expedition under Captain Printz, who, in 1643, built a fort
and established a settlement farther up the Delaware
River on Tinieum Island. Despite the fact that this fort
changed hands several times, the building itself stood until
the year 1800. The Swedes were very successful with their
settlements, partly due to their industrious work habits, and
partly to realizing that farming must be the fundamental
enterprise within a new colony. Soon prosperous Swedish
settlements dotted both sides of the Delaware, Governor
Printz built the first grist mill on Cobbs Creek, a tributary
of the Schuylkill River. His daughter received land and built
a very fine house at Parintz Village, near what is now

Chester, Pennsylvania. Incidentally, this house was slept
in by William Penn on the first night of his arrival in
America. Successful tobacco culture, the growing of grain,
and the production of cattle-horses-and hogs, added to the
reputation of Printz as a colonizer. He soon built a fort at
the mouth of Salem Creek to challenge all intruders.
Fort Casimir, built by the Dutch, was surrendered to
the Swedes and renamed Fort Trinity. The Dutch planned
and executed a sweeping victory on the Delaware in 1655
which ended for all time any colonial claims of Sweden.
Their victory was short lived however, for the English
had for some time been resentful of the Dutch control of
the Hudson River and the splendid harbor at its mouth.
ft Therefore in 1664, Charles II of England granted to his
brother, the Duke of York, all lands between the Con-
necticut and Delaware rivers. The first knowledge of this
act came to the Dutch when the English fleet entered the
harbor and demanded the surrender of all of Holland's
possesions in the New World, With no chance of resistance,
New Netherland fell without a blow. In a short time, both
the former Swedish possessions, as well as the Dutch pos-
sessions on the Delaware, were in the control of the Eng-
lish.
The Duke of York leased all of the territory between the
Atlantic Ocean and the Delaware River below New York
to two of his friends, Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret,
ft

12

The latter had been governor of the Island of Jersey in »


the English Channel, and in his honor the territory was
named New Jersey. These two men divided the province
into two parts. East Jersey going to Carteret and West
Jersey to Lord Berkeley. %
Carteret, as early as 1669, sent agents into Connecti-
cut and particularly Massachusetts to "publish consessions"
(advertise terms) and induce people to come to his part of
New Jersey to settle. The proposition looked alluring and
many persons removed to this region. Soon arguments de- m
veloped over questions of rents and ownership, and these
people in considerable numbers moved into northern New
Jersey where they were unmolested by problems of titles
and ownership for many years. Both parts of New Jersey
were later combined and became a Crown colony under
a Royal governor.
Well before they lost control of their possessions in
the New World the Dutch had found mineral deposits in
the upper Delaware valley, particularly on the Jersey side.
These deposits were comprised of iron, copper, zinc, lead,
some coal, and limestone, and several grades of pottery
clay. Dutch miners had displayed at expositions in Holland
rich samples of these ores, and by 1700 were engaged in
actual production of several metals, chief among which was •

iron.
Eastern Pennsylvania and northern New Jersey from
the very beginning excelled in iron and steel products. This
region enjoyed the favor of iron ore, coal, and limestone. •
The opportunities presented by this unusual combination
of ingredients in close proximity were attracting an in-
creasing number of skilled workmen. Thomas Rutter, a
blacksmith (one of the first to establish iron works in the i
Delaware Valley) was by 1717 "making iron of a quality
that the best of the Swedes' iron doth not exceed." The
Durham Furnace of Hunterdon County, New Jersey, early
became famous for its high-grade iron products. The fol-
lowing note, although somewhat premature, shows the I
important trend and is given for that purpose: "Official
records pertaining to the Revolutionary War, show that the
Delaware Valley with the nearby Susquehanna Valley
furnished more rifles, cannon, cannon ball, and powder for m
Washington's army than any other region of the colonies."
Rather early in the history of New Jersey pottery
works were established and glass making soon exceeded
that of any other colony. "The clean sharp sands of the f
Delaware were found to be well adapted to glass making
and were being used in quantity as early as 1683,"
While early in the colonial period England had wel-
comed the production of pig iron, it was with the idea in
ft
13

mind that this pig iron would become a raw material product
and would be shipped to the home country for manufactur-
ing purposes. However, it did not work out as planned; the
colonial production of metal goods aroused the resentment
of English foundrymen, and immediate steps were taken to
• control iron and steel manufacturing by stringent laws.
After 1700 the English laws tightened drastically on metal
working of any kind in the colonies.
There was but one bright light in this otherwise gloomy
picture—the mines and foundries were, for the most part,
situated in remote and inaccessable places. Ocean going
ships, that might carry officers of inspection and enforce-
ment, could not ascend the Delaware River above the Falls

which are located at the present city of Trenton. Also these
same officers had no liking for a long and arduous trip
into the back-country. Therefore, in spite of the English
laws to the contrary, mining with its allied occupations
continued. These occupations were calling skilled workmen
long distances and from far away places. When the "bog
ores" of Massachusetts and Connecticut became exhausted
the blacksmiths turned to the mining areas of northern
New Jersey and eastern Pennsylvania.
Years earlier in England, when the Puritans were being

persecuted, many sought refuge with the Ulster Scotch;
now that the tables were turned, the Ulster Scotch thought
that the Puritans of Massachusetts would be friendly. Thus
many of the Ulster Scotch landed in Boston and went on to
Worcester and Springfield. Failing to find hospitality ex-
tended as they expected, they left these places, crossing
the Hudson River into the Kingston area of New York
State. "Their restless overflow met and joined the natural
overflow from Massachusetts into northern New Jersey
and from there many crossed into eastern Pennsylvania
by way of the forks of the Delaware at Easton." Settle-
ments were scattered thinly from New York State into
upper New Jersey and the Delaware Valley, Two groups
in particular established settlements in which Presbyterian
churches were founded as early as 1738. These were located
in what became Northampton County, Pennsylvania. One
at East Allen and the other at Mt. Bethel, a little more
ft than half way between Easton and present Stroudsburg.
These groups containing Ulster Scotch, pioneering people
from Massachusetts and New York State, and others, form-
ed the northern frontier of Pennsylvania and the western
ft
frontier of New Jersey and bore the brunt of the many
Indian raids that came later. These people were "noted
for their several abilities including agricultural and indus-
tral skills; some were well educated and many were skilled
artisans.»*
14

Thus, we can see how many people of varied interests


and capabilities came into this region. Also, light is shed
on how it was possible for certain people to be where they
were when we find them again. Particularly is this under-
standing necessary when we again find the Tidds, this time
in the Delaware Valley. t

ft

On a smoky, hazy November day of Indian summer


in the year 1738, a young man, following a trail that hard-
ly deserved the name of road, emerged into a clearing from
the heavily wooded higher ground. This clearing of some
twenty acres was on the bank of a river. On the farther
side of the open space, and near the river, stood a tavern
which was a welcome sight, for the hour was noon. Since
shortly after dawn the traveller had followed this road up
and down hills, some of which were quite steep. In some
areas level land would be found a mile or more in width.
These level places, crossed by the road, usually were
swampy; and the many deep ruts in the road attested to
difficult passage by wagons. However, not many wagons
used this route due to the lack of improvements. Whatever
goods were transported this way were carried by pack-
horses, and most travelers rode horses. Fewer than a half
dozen houses had been passed during the half day's walk,
confirming the fact that it was rightly called a wilderness
road. The day had warmed considerably which was typical
of the season. Early morning frost had lain upon the
leaves; and upon fallen logs in open places it had been
thick and white. The stillness of the woods was broken at
times by the whir of the partridge, and in ravines where
the wild grape vines furnished protective coverage as well
as abundant food, the gobble of a cautious male turkey
gave evidence of good hunting; however the young man
in question was not hunting. He did carry a long black
rifle, the absence of which would have aroused more sur-
prise than its presence; his powder horn hung at his side,
suspended by deerskin thongs looped over the opposite
shoulder. The belt, which ordinarily would have encircled
his waist, had been removed and placed in a pocket, due
to the increasing warmth of the day; allowing the deerskin •
hunting shirt to hang directly from the shoulders, giving
maximum freedom to the body. Deerskin breeches, over-
lapped by leggings which fitted closely below the knees.
15
and Indian moccasins, completed his attire. He wore^ a
smooth leather cap. His size would not have made him
conspicuous in a group for he was little taller than aver-
age. If he should have attracted any special attention it
would have been because of his general appearance, which
was clean-cut; his step quick and springy denoting many
years of life in the woods. He carried his shoulders erect,
yet with ease. His clothes were clean, suggesting a certain
degree of pride. His face was clean shaven.
He approached the tavern as one not entirely un-
familiar with the surroundings for he had passed through
this way less than a week before, and had left his canoe
in one of the out-buildings, although he had not gone in-
side the tavern itself. His plan for the return trip was that
he expected to arrive here by noon, eat dinner, and then
proceed down river in his canoe. Consequently, he prepared
for dinner. A basin and pail of water had been placed on
a large block of wood at the side of the building, and a
coarse towel hung on a peg nearby. The condition of the
towel plainly told of its previous use; however, one comer
was found sufficiently clean for use. While accomplishing
this chore, he noticed several pack horses and four or five
saddle horses, suggesting that others would be eating
dinner also.
This tavern was situated on the north side of the Pe-
quest River which flows in a westerly direction, emptying
into Hie Delaware. It rises in the hilly, lake-dotted region
of upper New Jersey. The river is not large, but does carry
a fairly constant amount of water. The channel is quite
narrow; therefore the current, in most places, is rather
swift and deep. At a time when bridges were uncommon,
crossing a stream necessitated either fording or ferrying.
Obviously, safety in fording required a very moderate
current and shallow water. This condition prevailed for
only two or three months in late summer, the remaining
months of the year required ferrying, with the possible
exception of times when unusual cold would provide a safe
crossing on ice, A logical site had been chosen some years
before, that would provide for easy ferrying and where the
depth of water would permit fording in summer. This site,
including the tavern, and a few acres of meadow land,
belonged to a man of Dutch ancestry by the name of Ansul
Van Paulluns. The place was known as "Van's Inn" or
"Paulluns' Ford". At this time Van Paulluns was some-
ft
thing over sixty years of age, his wife considerably young-
er. A brother helped Van in the growing of a few crops
and caring for livestock. During the summer some hired
help was kept, but this was held at a minimum for Van
was one to "watch his coins"; however, no one could say
16

they ever left his table hungry, or that he watered his rum
more than the next one.
The tavern itself was merely a double log cabin, double
in length but regular in width, with a lean-to on the back
side which accomodated the kitchen and storeroom. The
east half of the building was used for the inn proper, while •
the west end served as the private quarters for the Van
Paulluns. The entrance to the inn was a door on the south
side and at the right hand corner. The young traveler walk-
ed through this doorway into a room about twenty feet
wide and thirty feet long. Immediately in front of the en- *
trance and against the east end of the room was the bar.
At the opposite side of the room from the entrance was
a door leading into the kitchen. In front of the bar and 4
occupying a portion of the middle area was a long table
that could seat ten or twelve persons. Near the long table,
but on the farther side of the room, stood a table, that
would seat no more than four persons. On the west side of
the room was the huge fireplace with both front and back . f
sides open, showing that it was used for heating both the
bar-room and the private quarters for the family. Next
to the fireplace and in the same wall was a door leading
to the private room of the owners. One large window -
occupied part of the south or front side of the room, and '
between the window and the entrance stood a small table
large enough for not more than two.
Six or seven men were seated at the long table, and
two were eating at the smaller table on the farther side of *
the room; consequently, the young man took a chair at the
table by the entrance, with his back to the wall. This placed
the entire room with its occupants in front of him. Van
Paulluns, short and fat, was standing behind the bar; and, §
as the latest arrival took his seat, Van gave him a nod of
welcome and at the same time tapped a small bell, as much
as to say to the people in the kitchen, "Another plate." A
girl, obviously the waitress, walked from the kitchen to
his table and said, "It's stew today." "Good enough," he
answered, "one plate and a small mug of rum."
He had not long to wait as the other men had already
been served. The girl soon appeared bringing two plates,
one filled with stew and on the other a large slice of corn- *
bread had been placed, with a knife, fork, and spoon. As
she placed these on the table she said, "I'll get the rum."
Returning from the bar with the drink she asked, "Why
a small mug of rum when a large mug goes with the meal?"
"Well, gal, it's like this, I don't rightly favor the stuff,
but sometimes it's needed as a wash. When I'm at home,
and it's handy, I drink milk, but I don't figure to rob the
kids. They need it mor'n me." And with this speech he
1
17

raised his eyes and really looked at her for the first time.
• He looked into a pair of cool grey eyes that were neither
bold nor afraid; their coolness and sincerity was refreshing.
Her light brown hair was combed back and tied or pinned
in a knot at the back of her head. Her features were regu
• lar. Although she was somewhat reserved in manner, her
facial expression was one of friendliness on guard. Her
height was not above average; her general appearance was
one of neatness. Her dress was of the greyish-brown mater-
ial known as linsey-woolsey. She wore elbow length sleeves
• which exposed a pair of smooth round arms that denoted
strength. The hands, fairly small, showed evidence of hard
work. A short apron, and a pair of moccasins completed her
m attire. Her movements were graceful and unhurried. When
not actually serving she remained within the kitchen yet
seemed to know when service was needed.
The food was very acceptable and appeared to be well
prepared. The chunks of beef in the stew were well done
m but not tough; the vegetables, mostly potatoes and cabbage
with a few turnips, were good. The cornbread, covered with
a liberal amount of wild honey, was excellent. The rum,
neither better nor poorer than any other, was still rum
and served as a poor drink following the fine flavor of
• cornbread and honey.
The men at the long table seemed intent on satisfying
their hunger; hence little conversation was allowed to in-
terfere with the main occupation of eating. Not so, however,
ft at the table of the two men. One appeared to be about
forty years of age, while the other was hardly thirty. The
latter had had his rum mug filled three times, and the ef-
fects were plainly in evidence. His face was becoming
quite flushed and his talk rather loud. With the third fill-
• ing of his mug, he had made some remark to the waitress
which had caused her to say, "Better mind your manners
if you have any." This reprimand went unheeded. The older
man seemed to be trying to restrain his companion, but
with little success. The young man by the window had tak-
en notice of the situation, and heard Van Paulluns mutter
to himself, "Must be a total stranger," which meant little
at the time. Soon a call came from the thirsty one for an-
other mug of rum. He was sitting with his back to the fire-
place and his companion was sitting at the opposite side
of the table. The girl walked to the table and placed the
mug in front of the fellow. As she did so he laid his hand on
her arm. She quickly moved her arm to avoid his hand.
He became angry and grabbed her arm and said some-
thing to the effect, "He'd show her a thing or two," and
at the same time started to rise from his chair while still
holding the girl's arm. The young man by the window had
"W

18
noticed that she set the mug of rum on the table with her
left hand, and that the right hand was in the side pocket
of her dress. The next action was so rapid that the eye
could hardly follow. There was a sweeping flash of a white
arm, a straight over-hand blow and as it descended, the
girl seemed to rise to her tip-toes, and as her fist struck,
every ounce of her weight and energy were concentrated
in the blow. Her fist landed flush on his mouth. There was
a roar of rage and pain, blood spurted from his mouth, a
front tooth dropped to the floor; he turned to spit into the
fireplace and another tooth klinked on the iron grate. He
put his fingers to his mouth and out came a third tooth.
ii
Damn! what a blow," thought the man by the window.
u
A total stranger," muttered old Van Paulluns. The girl
moved back a step or two and waited, her left hand quiet-
ly at her side, the right hand in the side pocket of her dress.
Her eyes, no longer cool and grey, burned with an intensity
that boded ill to any further insult. The whiteness of her
face and her rapid breathing were the only other evidences
of emotion. Apparently no further demonstrations on the
part of the drunk were contemplated. His companion
hustled him out of the room and to the pail of water out-
side on the washing block where he rinsed the blood from
his mouth. The men at the long table, having finished eat- «

ing, paid for their meals at the bar and left. Old Van
went outside to collect for the other two meals, some argu-
ment ensued as to whether or not the bill would be paid.
The older man said that his "companion had been mis-
treated." This drew such a laugh from the other men that
he finally paid. After the coins were safe in Van's pocket
he remarked, 'T knowed he was a total stranger, but they
sometimes hafta leam the hard way."
The young man had not yet left the table when the
girl came to get the dishes, He said, "Gal, a while back you
asked me a question about why didn't I get more rum; now,
can I ask you one?" With the faintest of smiles at the com-
ers of her mouth, she replied, "I guess it's your turn."
"Can I see your right hand?" he asked.
It
That's not a question," came the answer.
Gal, that's the biggest question that ever got stuck
in my mind. Please, can I see your hand?" Slowly she laid
her right hand on the table, palm down. He looked, and
then he stared. The skin over the knuckles was somewhat
reddened, but that was all; no bones broken—the skin
not even bruised. Then he looked at her, amazement, un-
belief, incredulity written on his face.
She smiled, "What did you expect?"
He merely shook his head, then said, "You are the only
girl I ever told that I would favor getting acquainted with.
19

But that is what I am telling you now. Is there a chance?"


• She looked at him thoughtfully, and replied, "After
the mid-day work is finished, and before supper must be
started, I'll walk with you by the river a short while."
With that, she picked up the dishes and went to the kitchen.
• He arose from the table, paid for the meal, and picking
up his rifle, walked out of the tavern and toward the river.
Just below the buildings, possibly two hundred yards,
gleamed the river in the mid-day sun. Van Paulluns' ferry-
boat floated at the bank nearest the inn. As the tavern
• clearing had been made to provide land for Van's crops,
some trees along the river bank had been left standing,
among which he found a well used path and followed it.
About a mile above the inn a white birch tree stood, easily
• visible from the tavern. The path led to that tree, but no
farther. He sat down on a log and pondered. Here he was
losing a half day of travel time and for what—to meet
and walk with a girl whom he had never seen nor heard
of two hours earlier. Why had he told this girl that he
ft
wanted to gain her acquaintance? What had he actually
asked? Then his mind turned to the tavern incident. This
girl was the innocent victim of a drunkard's vile desire.
But what a defense she had put up. What a marvelous co-
• ordination of mind and muscle had been demonstrated.
What a mountain of nerve energy lay within her control.
The more he pondered the less he knew; he had never
been troubled by questions such as these before. Why? Ac-
• tually he knew the answer. He had never looked into a pair
of cool grey eyes before; in short, he had never seen such
a girl before. The passing of time prompted him to return
to the ferry, mid-afternoon was approaching. He followed
the path back and, finding a log, sat down to wait.
• The wait was not long, for soon the girl walked from
the front door of the tavern toward the river. Her attire
was the same as it had been, minus the apron. The young
man was standing by the path.
m "I see," said she, "you have found the path. Up the
river a mile stands a birch tree, it takes littie more than
half an hour for the trip and that's all the time I'll have.
The best way to get acquainted is for you to do the talk-
ing. What's your story?"
• "Well, that's not the way I'd planned it," he answered,
but knowing he had asked the favor he would take things
as they were. Her quiet statement left little choice; there-
fore, as he fell into step beside her, he began his story.
• "My name is John Tidd. Ever hear the name Tidd?"
"Yes, I have heard of a place below Easton's trading
house, called 'David Tidd's settlement'."
"Good! David Tidd is my father, and with my mother,
20

brothers and sisters, lives on a farm below Easton; but he


is a blacksmith and spends most of the time working iron.
I pound iron all summer. I can just remember when we
moved there from up in York State. My grand-daddy,
name of James, was a son of old John Tidd as what came
from England a long time back. Granddad and his father ft
had a fall-out. Old John, that's where I got my name,
wanted him to be a tailor, James didn't hanker for that,
so he cleared out. Took a job learning how to smelter and
pound iron. It's tough work but bettera sewing clothes.
Father's story is that Old John died fair rich, but grand-
dad didn' get much. Just enough to buy a pack of tools
and a hand forge. He raised his family in the back-country
of Massachusetts and that's where father got mother. Later
dad went over into York State to help open new ore
pits. When these emptied he heard of ore being mined by
the Dutch in Jersey so he packed and fell in with a lot
headed this way. Some dropped out in Jersey. Uncle Jacob
did; he burned clay, didn't like pounding iron all the time.
Dad found some land to his liking west of the big river
(Delaware) and stayed put. Mother used to say she'd
packed far enough. Father learned that he could buy
"rough iron" aplenty for his needs. We make harth irons,
hinges, and other things. I have just been to visit Uncle •

Jake; aim to once a year. Aunt Rinda is dead, uncle is


alone now but he may pick a wife. He never had no kids.
Mostly, to see Uncle Jake I took the Musconetcong River,
but I had to be at the Water Gap to deliver a bake oven;
so, to save miles I took this river and cut across. That's how
I'm here."
AB he paused, she asked, "What do you do when not
pounding iron?"
"Well, I hanker so much for the woods that I made a
bargain with my father; I help him half of the year and
I favor myself the other half, I am a trapper and hunter.
I made a private treaty with the Indian Chief, Tadame, for
a territory in the Pocono Mountains." While saying this he
took from an inside pocket a piece of tanned deerskin the
size of a dinner plate. On this smooth surface was drawn a
rough sketch showing the area between the Delaware and
the Susquehanna rivers. Within the Pocono Mountains the
crude map showed plainly a region, forty miles wide by
fifty miles in length, marked with definite boundary lines.
Around the outer edg^ and pierced through the deerskin
were four bear claws; equi-distant between these claws
were four panther claws. Pointing at the encircling row
of claws, John said, "The bear claws are Old Tadame's
signature, I used panther claws," He carefully folded the
map and replaced it in his pocket. While looking at the
*
21
sketch, they had both stopped walking. As they resumed
their way he remarked, "I have divided the region into
two parts; I trap one part, then give it a rest for a year
while working the other part, I have a good shack at each
end; so placed that I use them every year. I follow my trap
line one day and stay at the far shack that night, then back
on the line the next day." He proudly added, "I own thirty
steel traps; more than any other trapper hereabouts. I use
quite a lot of deadfalls besides my steel traps."
"Do you have much trouble with the Indians?"
"Not with the Delawares, or Munseys, but sometimes
a few thieving York State or Northern Injuns come through.
If they won't hold by the map and Tadame's treaty, I some-
times have to ask Betty for help."
"Who is Betty?"
He affectionately tapped the barrel of his rifle, "This
is Betty, but she hasn't had to help often."
"Do you expect to keep on pounding iron in the sum-
mer and trapping through the winters?"
"I had never give much thinking to that," he answered,
"Ma always says that will change when I hook up with some
girl." As he looked thoughtfully out over the river, he add-
ed, as though to himself, "I never had give much thought
to that question." They walked silently for a short time,
suddenly John realized that they had been to the white
birch tree, and were more than half way back to the ferry.
"Say, gal, this hasn't been exactly fair, I've done all
the talking. I don't even know your name. What's your
story?"
"I am sorry if it's not fair, but we have been getting
acquainted, and that's what you asked for."
"But I want to know something about you, what's
your name?"
"Again, I am sorry, for our time is spent."
A determined look now appeared on his face, "Listen,
young woman, I'll not be put off this way, what's your
answer?
By this time they had nearly reached the ferry. They
saw Van Paulluns working the boat across the river to
pick up a horse and rider. She turned and looked at John
and slowly said, "I never walked by the river after dark,
but if you are still here and wish to, I will again walk with
you .after supper work is done." And then in a lighter mood,
she added, "Which do you want, my real name or my nick-
name ? "
"I want both."
"There isn't time for both," and with what looked like
a mischievous smile she said, "They call me, 'Ollie, the
Wildcat'." With that she turned and followed the path to
22

"th© tsv©m.
"Well, I'll be damned," muttered John, "Ollie, the
Wildcat." The recent encounter with the drunk in the
tavern could in no sense be considered comparable to the
biting, scratching attack of a wildcat except for ferocity
and singleness of purpose. Well, time would tell. Did he
expect to stay for the evening? He had not even thought
to ask himself the question. He knew that he would be stay-
ing.
The rest of the afternoon was spent in taking a walk
through the nearby woods. Upon hearing a gobble in a
thicket of wild grape vine?, he cautiously approached until,
through an opening, there could be seen a big turkey
standing guard while a half dozen others were feeding.
The opportunity was too good to pass, so he quickly check-
ed the pan of his rifle for sufficient powder. Taking deliber-
ate aim he brought the bird down with one well placed
bullet. Carrying the heavy turkey, he went to the tavern,
and seeing Van Paulluns in the yard, he offered him the
bird. "For this, you shall receive a free supper, and bed,
if you stay for the night," exclaimed Van. "You think you
stay ? "
"Yes, I think I'll stay," replied John. •
With supper finished, John returned to the river to
wait. He had waited many times before and in many dif-
ferent situations; but this was the first time he had ever
waited for a girl, a girl with whom he was to again stroll
by the river side. The full moon of Indian Summer had
already arisen and begun its short journey across the
southern sky. It hung full and red in the hazy atmosphere
so characteristic of the season. The air was mild now but
there would be frost again by moming as there had been
this morning. Was it only this morning that he had left his
uncle's house twenty miles away? It seemed much longer,
perhaps a week. Things were happening to John Tidd con-
cerning which he was unaware. A door opened at the inn,
and against the light of the candles she stood for a moment
a silhouette, the door closed and she was lost to view;
however, her quick step on the path soon told of her ap-
proach. He stood to meet her. "Welcome to the peace and
quiet of the river," he said.
"Yes, I come here often to rest in the evening, especial-
ly in the summer time."
"Tell me," he questioned," how did you get your
nickname of Ollie the Wildcat?"
"You should not have been surprised by that name *

after seeing what you did today; however, as it is part


of my story, I will tell you. One time after a similar in*
cident, I overheard one man ask another, 'What is her
ft

23

name?* " She was silent for a few steps, "My name is Olive
Martin, my father was Timothy Martin. In the conversa-
tion already mentioned, the man gave my name as 'Ollie
Martin'; the other man said, 'Hell no, she's no marten, she's
a wildcat', and the name stuck. It's not my fault that I
have no father or brother to defend me against the vile
insults of low-down drunkards. As you saw today, I al-
ways aim for the mouth. I have a book in which I read,
'Out of the abundance of the heart, the mouth speaketh.'
Some of these men must have mighty black hearts." They
walked a little while in silence. What comment could be
made to this assertion, coming from a girl, who, by neces-
sity, had to fight her own battles. She continued, "Some
years ago my younger brother and I, with father and
mother were living on a creek which flows into the west
side of the Delaware River. This creek was known as
'Martin's Creek' because of our living there. One day my
mother became nervous, said she had heard a turkey
ft gobble where she had never heard one before. So, she
sent me and my brother to tell father to come home, and
cautioned us to be careful, as she always did. She had
been brought up in the settlements and always was afraid
9 of the wilderness. Not knowing exactly where father was,
my brother and I separated, he went downstream while
I went upstream. Not far from the path my brother and I
had, some time before, found a large soft-maple tree that
m was hollow. We had cut notches on the inside to a height
of about twenty feet. We had then cut a small hole on
each side of the tree trunk which enabled us to see the
house, and in the other direction we could see quite a dis-
tance upstream. I decided to slip up our 'inside ladder* as
# we called it to see if I could see father or get an idea of
his whereabouts. Almost as soon as I looked out, I saw
father approaching, and as he came through a thicket I
saw four Indians jump from hiding. Two of them raised
#
their guns and fired from close range. Father was hurt
bad, but attempted to fight back. It was hopeless, for with-
in a minute they had killed and scalped him. At almost the
same time three Indians attacked mother in front of our
cabin, killing her on the spot and scalping her. These
ft savages took what they pleased from the cabin and then
set fire to it. Nothing except the fact that I had climbed
up inside our tree had saved my life. I dared not come
down before dark. During the night I started to run to the
# nearest neighbor who lived five miles down the river; it
was nearly noon the next day before I reached there. The
following day a small party went back to our home; they
found and buried father and mother. No trace of my
m brother was ever found. It was generally thought that the
t
24

Indians had captured him, taking him back to their country.


Some men said that this group of Indians were from away
up north. I w.as sick for several days, and wished many
times that I could die; however, I lived. I stayed with those
people for some time. When I became fifteen years of age
it was thought necessary for me to go to work. They heard
about this place here at Van's, so arrangements were made
and I came here. I worked free the first year getting nothing
except food and a place to sleep. Later I got my clothes and
one shilling a week, although not many clothes. 1^ got by
without being bothered by men until I became eighteen,
since then I have had to defend myself the best way that
I could. I have been here five years. My mother was a smart
person, she taught me to read and write and to have pride
in myself. She said, 'If you have no pride in yourself there
is little for you,' this I have found to be true. It's been, at
times, a tough battle but I still am on top." During the
telling of this story she had at times wiped a tear from her
eyes. John had walked at her side with mixed emotions:
sorrow for her sorrow, humiliation that he had ever found
fault with trivial annoyances in his life, respect and ad-
miration for her as she had waged a fight against such
odds, and there was rapidly developing another feeling,
one which he had no way of understanding because it was •

so new. As she had neared the end of her story they had
stopped at the bank of the river where a tall pine tree cast
its shadow. He turned to her, and said, "I am sorry your
life has held so much sadness." He placed his hand upon
her shoulder, and added, "You poor girl." It could not have
been the words alone, it might have been the hand upon
the shoulder, it probably was that something that defies
explanation; for in the next instant he had taken her with-
in his arms. After one full embrace he said, "We will wed
tomorrow." It was not a question; however, he became
very happy as she slowly but surely nodded her head and
whispered "Yes/*
When they resumed their walk toward the inn she
inquired, "But how? There's not a churchman within days
of travel/'
"Yes, there is," he replied. "No more than a full day
will allow us to reach a new place called Mt. Bethel, not
far from the Delaware Water Gap. A church has been
established this past summer, and only last week I was
within a few miles of the place. A preacher was there
then." They entered the tavern, and finding it empty,
went on into Van Paulluns' private living room. The girl's
presence occasioned no surprise, but Mrs. Van Paulluns
was quite surprised to see this man, who to her, was a
complete stranger. Olive turned to Van and said, "This
25

man, whose name is John Tidd, has something to say to


you."
"Yes, yes," he answered and turned to John.
"Mister and Madame Van Paulluns," began John, "1
have come to tell you that tomorrow Olive and I are to be
• married."
"No! No!" expostulated both Van and his wife.
"Yes, it's true," said Olive, "and we must leave early
in the morning. Good night all." And with that she left the
room. Above the bar-room a bed was provided for John.
• Early dawn found John carrying the canoe to the river
and making ready for the departure. Immediately after
breakfast Olive appeared with a bundle containing her
ft
belongings. Mrs. Van Paulluns kissed Olive and wished
her, "God's blessings" while pressing into her hand a small
package, saying, "for you." Van shook hands with both
and wished them "Goot luck." As the early sun cleared
the eastern hills, John and Olive began the westward
m journey that would soon bring them to the Delaware.
Little was said on this phase of the trip. John dug his
paddle deeply to aid the current for he knew that upon
reaching the big river their journey would the be up stream.
They reached the confluence of the Pequest River and the
• Delaware before noon, and landing, ate the dinner given
to them by the Van Paulluns. While eating, Olive said, "We
haven't talked much about future plans."
"No, we haven't," replied John. "I have been think-
• ing that after our marriage, I would take you to my
father's place below Easton. You are sure to like him and
my mother. The winter will not be too long. I will come
to you then, and we can decide what to do at that time."
She had listened without moving even so much as her
• hand; however after John's statement had been finished,
she raised her eyes to his and said slowly and positively,
"If I have a husband today, or tomorrow, or any day
thereafter, I go where he goes, I stay where he stays."
• "But Olive, you don't realize how lonely and dangerous
it would be for you to be by yourself much of the time."
"It will be no more lonely for me than for you. After
all, I know how to handle a rifle." He looked at her as
though seeing a different person. His admiration was ob-
• vious.
"I hope you have not misunderstood me," he said. "I
suggested going to father's place because I could think
of nothing else."
• Her only answer was, "Then it's settled."
The trip up river, although arduous, was accomplished
by late afternoon. Mt. Bethel Church was reached by dark.
The preacher was found and told of the desire for marriage.
ft
26

He and his wife and three children lived in a new log cabin,
near the church. It was decided to have the ceremony per-
formed in the minister's own dwelling due to the fact that
no candles were available to give light in the church,
while in the home, the service could be performed by the
light of the fireplace. Two neighbor women had been in- ft
formed, and preparations were underway to have some-
thing extra for the supper to follow. Soon all was in readi-
ness, a solemn hush fell on the group as the service was
read and Olive Martin became the wife of John Tidd in
November, 1738. Hearty congratulations were expressed ft
by the simple people of Mt. Bethel, and a few presents
were given to the bride. After supper it was learned that
they had no place to go for the night and, the hour being
far too late to prepare a camp in the woods, the minister's •
wife strongly insisted that the couple remain for the night.
Her husband supported her in this invitation by saying,
"John and I will take to the loft and you and Olive and
the children can have the bed." The amusing part of it
was that there was no loft; nothing except a partial plat- *
form at the end of the cabin under the eaves. Olive saw the
situation in its humorous light and quickly accepted the
hospitality offered by her new friend, the minister's wife.
During the evening the minister told of their difficul- $
ties in traveling through Massachusetts and failing to find
the hospitality extended that they had expected; and how
they had gone into New York State along the Hudson
River, finally to go into northern New Jersey and to their #
present location on the Delaware.
The plans of John were that they would go on to the
trading post at Old Fort Penn. This was the northernmost
of the chain of forts stretching from the upper Delaware
to Chesapeake Bay. This particular location was built upon
by Col. Stroud, and although the fort itself had ceased to
be used, the place was known as Old Fort Penn until finally,
although much later became known as Stroudsburg.
With the blessings and best wishes of the few people
living at Mt. Bethel, the Tidds resumed their journey the
next morning, with the expectation of reaching the post
before mid-day. A second paddle had been secured, due to
the insistance of Olive, which aided materially to their
progress up the Delaware River. Not long after their de-
parture, Olive turned her head and said to John, "I am
now married. You are my protector. I have no further
need for this." As she spoke, she took from her pocket
something wrapped in a small piece of cloth, and holding
her hand out over the water, she dropped the object into
the river. The rapidity with which it sank proved that it
was metal of some kind.
27
if
fil
What was that?" asked John.
That," came the reply, "was my 'friend'. If you re-
member, the other evening you told of sometimes needing
the help of your friend 'Betty'. Well, I never gave my
'friend* a name; nevertheless, on occasion, it was my
'friend*. The rest of the secret is mine." She resumed her
paddling. Soon John veered the canoe into the mouth of a
stream called Analomink Creek, this stream received the
waters of Pocono Creek just above Fort Penn. After a few
miles they landed at the trading post. John had met the
man in charge of the store on several previous occasions.
Added to the list of staple food items there must be ample
suppUes of lead, powder, flints, and steels. At least two
extra blankets and additional clothing must be gotten. A

large supply of wool yam and knitting needles were added.
Then came the task of buying a new rifle. The supply offer-
ed included the regular size bore. Finally the proprietor
brought out a beautifully finished rifle of the size desired.
II
What is the price of this gun?" John asked.
£ 5," was the answer.
I am not an Indian," stated John. "The price should
be £ 3 ^ . "
"What it should be and what it is might be different,"
# replied the trader.
"Do you have any bullets molded?" asked John, For
answer the man untied a small bag, took out some flints,
a bullet mold, and several bullets. John took the rifle,
# bullets, a flint, and powder and walked out. Soon a shot
was heard and later another sounded. John returned, laid
the rifle on the table and said, £ 4, and not another pence."
it
£ 5," was the answer.
Do you remember two years ago the Shawanese
Indian that I warned you about, and later you said that
had it not been for the warning you probably would have
been burned out?"
The trader thought a moment; laid beside the rifle,
# the bullet mold, several flints and steels, a two pound bag
of powder, and a very nice powder hora. Turning to John,
he said "You win, £ 4."
Soon all was in readiness. "We travel about five miles
by water, then we take to the trail for over twenty miles,"
# remarked John.
"Good luck, see you next spring," said the trader, as
he carried part of the supplies to the canoe. The current
of the creek proved more difficult as they advanced. Be-
# fore the five miles were covered, it became plain that camp
must be made for the night. They landed in a small grove of
pines. Several small saplings were bent and tied together
at the top and covered with large pine boughs thus provid-
ing a good shelter. Arm loads of smaller boughs with the
blankets spread over them made a good bed. Soon a fire was •
burning and supper was in preparation which was to con-
sist of boiled beef, and commeal mush sweetened with
small pieces of maple sugar. After supper, while sitting
by the fire, John turned to his bride and asked, "Are you i
happy?"
She laid her hand on his arm and replied, "John, I am
happy, and I am going to be happy. I am now free—for
the first time in my life I ara free. You, who have always
been free, cannot understand the meaning of freedom. ft
This new feeling which has just come to me called love, I
do not understand yet, but I will."
John stood up and placed his hand on her head for
a moment, then he stepped into the shelter and came out •
with the new rifle which was a thing of beauty. He said,
"Olive, I, too, am happy and I am going to be happy with
you. This rifle I give to you as a wedding present. It is the
most accurate rifle that ever I saw put to a shoulder."
John Tidd and his wife Olive went on to their trapping •
grounds. John ran his trap lines and was away every other
night at the far end of the line. Each cautioned the other
to extreme vigilance. No unusual incident happened to mar
their daily living. The Indian resentment occasioned by the %
infamous "Walking Purchase of 1737" had not yet been
whipped up to its later fury. John often talked to Olive
of this outrage and how the Whites had tricked the friend-
ly Indians in making a treaty for certain lands. The extent #
of the lands to be determined by the distance that a person
could travel in one and one half days from a certain point,
the understanding was that the person was to walk, and
follow the course of the river; however, the white man
doing the measuring started at the given point, but went •
at right angles to the river, and instead of walking he ran
most of the time. Thus a very large tract of land was claim-
ed and held by the Whites. One prominent historian of the
period writes, "The alienation of the Delaware Indians #
was the cause that led directly to the fearful years of
bloodshed and strife. With the Delawares went also the
Shawanese and Senecas of the West. This alienation start-
ed with the nefarious Walking Purchase of 1737, by which
the peaceful Delawares lost their most prized lands." John •
said more than once that "for every acre of land obtained
in this fraud, an extra white scalp would hang from a
warrior's belt."
The trapping season had been good. As the pack of •
furs grew, their plans kept pace. His desire now was to
establish a home for his wife and promised family. April
found them ready to break camp and begin the trip out
ft
29
of the Pocono mountains. They stopped at the trading post
and stayed over night. While visiting during the evening
the trader remarked, "Looks like I am going to have com-
petition soon."
"How is that?" asked John.
* "A fellow by the name of Brodhead, who claims to
have a trading permit from old William Johnson himself,
is moving in a little ways down the creek. Also claims he
bought several thousand acres on both sides of the Anolo-
mink and reaching almost to Du Puys."
• "Well, that's news," said John. "Started work yet?"
"Yes, just begun a clearing opposite where Cessnick
Creek flows in. Has a few men helping him. You interest-
ed?"
"Could be."
The next morning, soon after leaving the trading post,
John and his wife saw several men working on the left
bank of the Anolomink. Two log cabins were being built
and land was being cleared. They landed and walked to-
ft
ward the group. A large man somewhat past forty years
of age, stepped out to meet them.
''Welcome, strangers," he said as he extended his
hand. "My name is Daniel Brodhead. I am preparing to
# establish a settlement here, and am on the lookout for
people that might want to move in. What do you do besides
trapping?"
"Glad to meet you. How did you know that I am a
* trapper?"
"The trader said last week that a young trapper
would soon be coming through," and he nodded his head
in the direction of the post. "What else can you do, young
man ? "
• "I am a blacksmith. I make harth-irons, hinges, bake
ovens, and most anything else needed."
"Good," said Brodhead, "I'd like mightly well to have
you join us in this settlement."
ft
"Do you own here?" asked John.
To this question Brodhead made careful reply,
"I am a trader holding license issued by Sir William
Johnson, the Commissioner of Indian Affairs. I have leased
a considerable area here, with right of purchase, from the
• Penn family. This lease includes the right to sub-lease or
sell portions of this area as soon as the surveys are com-
pleted. The area covered by this lease lies on both sides of
the Anolomink Greek back about five miles, and on the
• east, extends to Du Puys."
"Does any of this lease fall within the Walking Pur-
chase?"
"I don't really know, mister," answered Brodhead.
«

30

"It might pay to find out. There is a small tract of ft


land lying on the Osoconnick Brook which flows into the
Anolomink from the west that I have always liked the looks
of," said John.
"I am of the opinion that would be just beyond my
limits, sir, but I'd be mighty glad to have you for a neigh-
bor. What did you say your name was?"
"My name is John Tidd and this is my wife. Later I
may wish to see you again." Brodhead acknowledged the
introduction to Olive with a bow, and shook hands again •
with John.
Daniel Brodhead was born in Ulster County, New
York, in 1693. He engaged in the Indian trade, and some-
time later, held a trading license from Sir William Johnson. i
Between 1735 and 1738 he negotiated for, and secured the
lease already mentioned. He settled at the junction of
McMichaels Creek and Anolomink Creek in what later be-
came Northampton County. He called his settlement Dans-
bury, but it became known as Brodhead Manor, and upon
a portion of it now stands East Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania.
Part of Brodhead's Manor lay within what became Lower
Smithfield township.
John and wife Olive preceded down the Anolomink.
They had not gone far before John pointed to where the •

Du Puys had settled. Soon they were on the Delaware


which, at this season, was a mighty stream of water. They
stopped for a short visit with the minister and his wife at
Mt. Bethel. Early on the second day of their travel down
river they arrived at Easton. John disposed of his furs,
and with the bounties paid for wolves and panthers, he
received nearly £ 30. After making several purchases, par-
ticularly items that his wife would need later, they went
on down river; their destination, John's father's place.
Great was the surprise and pleasure within the David
Tidd family upon the arrival of John and Olive. The sin-
cerity of the welcome put Olive at ease at once. An older
brother of John's, named Benjamin, was already married
and had children. One sister was married and lived near-
by. Considerable interest was shown when John later told
of the new settlement at Brodheads.
In June, John and his brother William started for the ft
new settlement and possibly on to Osoconnick brook. They
stopped at Brodheads where continued activity was much
in evidence. Daniel Brodhead was away, so John and
William went on up the Anolomink Creek until they reach-
ed the brook upon which John had decided to build a cabin.
Not more than a mile up this brook, the small valley widen-
ed to a half mile in width. Within this area were several
acres of natural grassland that would not have to be labor-
31

ously cleared, affording plenty of grass for pasture and


hayland. Just before reaching the open area, John selected
a friendly open spot on the south bank of the Osoconnick
brook and began the building of his cabin. The brook was
well supplied with fish, and the marsh above was full of
• wild ducks. Other forms of game were plentiful.
Work progressed rapidly on the cabin. The door open-
ed at the east end, and the stone fireplace occupied the
west end. There was a window on each side. A loft, with
full standing room in the center was included. The glass
ft for the windows was purchased from Brodhead, who was
pleased to have these people so close; actually they were
considered as part of his settlement. In talking with Brod-
#
head, William had become more than a little interested in
this area and its opportunities. John had noticed an increas-
ing eagerness on the part of William to push the work.
Late in July, William had remarked, "If we hurry, we can
be finished in a week, and in two days from that we can
#
be home."
"I believe you're right, William. Anything special
waiting for you?"
"You would be surprised if you knew," was his only
reply.
%' True to William's predictions, they were home before
the middle of August. John's anxious inquiry was satisfied
as to the health of his wife. His mother said, "You're in
time, thank goodness." William disappeared soon after
* supper.
"Over at Sarah's likely," was the younger sister's re-
mark. At the breakfast table next morning, William asked,
"Are you ready to build another cabin, John?"
"Why, yes," he answered, "Just as soon—just as soon,"
• and looked at his mother, who had not appeared surprised
by William's question.
"You'll have time to cool your heels for at least a
couple of weeks, William,** said the mother.
• "Not me," said William. "Sarah and me are getting
married at the end of this week, and next Monday will
find us on the way up river. We are going to settle and
build at Brodheads."
"That's fine," said John. "I'll be with you as soon as
• Olive's condition will permit."
The days passed, and early in September, 1739, a baby
boy was born to John and Olive. The next day, while John
was sitting by the bed, his mother came in and asked, "Do
• you two have him named yet?"
John replied, "He has been named for a long time."
Olive opened her eyes questioningly on John who said,
"There is only one possible name that could be given this
boy, and that is Martin." Olive gave his a hand a little
squeeze, and smiled faintly as two tears rolled down her
cheeks.
Martin Tidd soon took command of the situation. If
feeding time was not promptly attended to, he bawled ft
lustily. He never missed a meal and from all appearances
every meal added to his strength and size. In three weeks
Olive said to John, "I know you are eager to be off to help
William build his cabin as you should be. Try and be back
to get us so we can get settled in our cabin before winter."
"I'll do just that," he answered, and kissed her good-
bye.
When John arrived at Brodheads he found that Will-
iam and his wife were well started with the cabin. Three ft
sets of hands made fast progress. By October the house
was ready for occupancy. In this settlement a celebration
was held every time a new cabin was finished and occupied.
A little liquor was drunk, a few presents, when possible,
were given, and most important, many sincere expressions •

of friendship were in evidence. John completed a few


necessary tasks at his place such as installing the hearth
crane, making the frame for the bed, and making a few
chairs. By the time John was ready to go for his wife and
baby, Squaw Winter was raging. The beautiful days of
October were past.
John was pleased that squaw winter was spending
itself now, for it would give him the beautiful hazy, smoky
days of Indian summer in which to move his wife and
baby boy to their new home. He found Olive well and
strong. Martin had doubled in size. Arrangements were
made to have his tools and forge, with a quantity of iron
delivered to the Anolomink next spring after the high i
water had subsided. An extra canoe—to be handled by
his brothers, Benjamin and Peter—was filled with things
to be used in the new cabin. With many blessings and well-
wishes the group began the journey up the river. At the
mouth of the Pequest River they stopped to eat dinner, •

almost exactly a year from that well remembered day of


their first trip. Olive wanted to stop at Mt. Bethel long
enough to show her baby to the minister's wife. This re-
quest, John could not refuse. Everyone on the frontier need-
ed these moments of happiness, these little visits; for the
time was not far off when this area would be scorched with
a searing iron of terrible intensity.
At last the cabin was reached and occupied* The good ft
people of the Brodhead settlement came, bringing a few
presents and lots of cheer. They all praised the baby and
mentioned his sturdiness. Some within the group would
remember this when years later they looked to Martin Tidd
ft
ft

33

for strength and protection. James, John, and Benjamin


Hillman were among the party at the house warming.
Benjamin Tidd, brother of John, met and had considerable
conversation with Daniel Brodhead at the party. On the
way home the following day he stopped and talked again
with Brodhead, the result of which was that Benjamin Tidd
moved to the settlement the following summer, at which
time John and William turned in and helped build a large
cabin. There were already five children in the family.
This cabin was built in a rather isolated part of the settle-
ment, a small valley leading from McMichaels Creek. By
this time the name Anolomink Creek had, by usage, been
changed to Brodhead Creek, and so appears on the maps
today.
John made plans to mn again his trap line but on a
modified scale which would allow him to be at home every
night. This he did, and although his catch of furs was much
smaller than the previous winter, it was still good and
furnished him an income that he otherwise would not have
had.
The following summer his forge and tools were de-
livered. A small log building was erected as a shop,, and
, John was ready to pound iron again. Orders for andirons,
hearth-cranes, hinges, nails, and many other items came
in faster than they could be filled.
In December 1740, another boy was bom and was
promptly named John, Young Martin was walking by this
time, a sturdy boy and a delight to his father and mother.
Time passed. Each day was a busy one. The sound of John's
hammer in the shop gave Olive a sense of security; and
their daily living filled her with a happiness that she h?d
not believed possible. Their love grew and deepened, and
became as solid and steadfast as the mountains. Two years
later a baby girl was born. It was now John's turn to select
a name and there was no doubt as to what it would be.
The name was Olive.
Brodhead's settlement on the Anolomink grew and
prospered. New people came in and built their homes.
Peace and contentment were theira during the early years
of the 1740's. McMichaels Creek had been dammed and

Culver had built his grist mill and saw mill. Clay pits had
been found and put to use. Coopers, carpenters, smiths, and
potters were numbered among the artisans in the area.
Weavers had added their skill to the growing enterprises
of the settlement. The produce from the farms within a
period of five years made the settlement more than self-
supporting. A tannery had been established which soon
supplied the region with leather. Brodhead had built a
large and substantial house on the bank of the creek that
34

bore his name. Up to this time little trouble had been


caused by the Indians: however, there were undercurrents
and rumblings which caused the thoughtful some worry*.

The last two of the Stuart kings, Charles II and James


II, were servile friends of the French monarch, Louis XIV.
But when, in 1688, William of Orange came to the English
throne this "bowing and scraping" to the French ceased.
There followed a series of wars between the English and ft
French which lasted, with intermissions, for a period of
seventy years. The earlier of these wars were felt in the
colonies only through increased Indian raids on the frontier
settlements, the Connecticut River forming the main high-
way for the raiding parties of the Northern French Indians. •
Continued agitation on the part of the French in Canada
brought about a defection within certain Indian tribes that
had been friendly. Some of these abandoned their loyalty
to the English and moved openly within the influence of fy
the French, while others, on the surface, appeared to re-
main friendly; however, this latter group seemed to be
waiting for events to prove which group of the "White
Fathers" would be successful in the clash for control of 4
the great area lying immediately West of the Allegheny
mountains.
While the English colonies had been busy filling the
rather narrow region between the Atlantic Ocean and
the Allegheny mountains, the French, interested mostly in •
the fur trade, had been expanding their activities until the
Great Lakes and the Mississippi Kiver were entirely within
their influence and control. The overt act which "broke
the lull that preceeds the storm," came when the French #
decided to solidify their position in the Ohio Valley by
building a chain of frontier forts from Lake Erie to the
Ohio river by way of the Allegheny river. Virginia disputed
the right of the French to do this. In 1753 the governor of
Virginia sent young George Washington to warn the French
against further intrusion into territory belonging to the
"Crown of England." This message the French politely
ignored. The following year Washington was sent with
a detachment of troops to forcibly prevent the French from
gaining control of the Forks of the Ohio (now Pittsburgh.)
This expedition under Washington was met and defeated
by a force of French soldiers and Indian allies.
ft
35
In 1755 an army under General Braddock began the
toilsome journey through the Pennsylvania woods to evict
the .French who had fortified the Forks of the Ohio. General
Braddock was met by a large detachment of French and
Indians. Handicapped by the tactics of the enemy who took
• advantage of the dense forest, Braddock was thoroughly
defeated. This disaster, coupled with the loss of Oswego
and Fort William Henry, exposed the entire frontier to
the attack of the French and their savage allies. To many
of the Indian tribes, playing the game of waiting to see
• which side looked stronger, the defeat of Braddock tipped
the scales in favor of the French,
Two events, prior to the defeat of Braddock, had oc-
g curred which acted as a background in which resentment
and disaffection could grow. The first was the mendacious
and fraudulent Walking Purchase of 1737, already men-
tioned. The second was no less disastrous in its effects. In
1742 an Indian council was held in Philadelphia between
m the officials of the Penn family and representatives of the
Six Nations. It often was the policy of colonial officials to
allow the Indians to control member tribes, and sometimes
when the tribe in question was not a member. The Dela-
^ wares were not members of the Six Nations; however, the
• Council accepted and approved the action taken which was
an order to the Delaware Indians to concentrate within the
general area of the Susquehanna River and have the Wyom-
ing Valley as their recognized center of location. This
• action had two serious results. First: this area known as the
Wyoming Valley was already occupied by the Shawanese
Indians, the most savage of the Pennsylvania tribes. It
precipitated a war between the Delawares and the Shaw-
i anese. The former, by weight of numbers, drove the Shaw-
anese out of the valley and toward the west and south. The
bad feature of this was that it aroused "tribal pride" and
a war-like spirit which had been dormant for many years.
The second result of the Council action (which was in-
ft tended by the Penn officials) was that the Delawares were
farther removed from the lands taken from them by the
trickery of the Walking Purchase. This forced move into
the region of the Susquehanna fanned the smouldering re-
ft
sentment into a white heat of fury that erupted later with
volcanic intensity. A young chief named Teedyuscong had
now come into leadership within the Delaware tribe. To
placate his feelings, the governor of Pennsylvania had a
house built for Chief Teedyuscong on the bank of the Sus-
quehanna River. This Chief is a difficult person to under-
stand. In name he was a convert of the Moravian mission-
aries and at times counseled moderation; however, there
is much evidence to show that he constantly and secretly
36

urged his followers to vengeance.


With these ominous and foreboding influences at •
work it is little wonder that the entire region was uneasy
by 1750. After many requests the Pennsylvania officials
tardily erected Fort Hamilton west of the present site of
Stroudsburg and Fort Hynshaw some seven miles east- ft
ward. Samuel and Aaron Du Puy had rebuilt and strength-
ened their house until it resembled a blockhouse. Similar
improvements were made by Daniel Brodhead. A system
of notifying remote settlers in case of danger was suggested
but not adopted. The Six Nations had become uncertain, ft
the Minisinks or Munseys were irreconcilable, and many
of the Delawares were disaffected.
Sorrow and sadness had already visited the home of
John Tidd. His wife Olive had been stricken by a fever. i
The course of this fateful malady was swift and sure. The
third day she lay in a stupor from which she revived only
long enough to press the hands of her loved ones, and
whisper, "In God's care." Just before the end she had drawn
John's head down and kissed him, and whispered," My •
rifle to Martin." With grief beyond the power of tears to
lessen, John wrapped her in a blanket and laid her to
rest in a grave by the side of the clearing that she loved
FO much. He found a stone and chisled the single name £
"Olive." This, he placed at the head of the mound of
earth, and looking into the distance of heaven, he repeated,
"In God's care."
Stories of Indian depredations became more numerous,
but still no blow had yet fallen upon this immediate region;
however, a petition was prepared and sent to the Provincial
Government of Pennsylvania asking for aid in defense
against the impending evil. Among the names on this peti-
tion are James and John Hillman, Aaron and Samuel Du-
Puy, Daniel Brodhead, John McMichael, and John Tidd.
This petition was sent early in 1755, and still little wa? done
by the officials of government. In the light of this procrasti-
nation of the Pennsylvania officials to furnish suitable de- ft
fense, it is easy to understand the following extract from
the papers of a New Jersey officer concerning a situation
that occured later in the same year. " that New Jersey
troops marched into Pennsylvania across the Delaware to
aid a distressed call for help- the Jersey men cursed
the cowardly dispositions of the Pennsylvanians, and think
it hard to assist any people that won't help themselves,
but that parts of Northampton county are settled by Pres-
byterian people-otherwise they would not go forth with
so much good will."
The fury of the storm broke on November 24, 1755.
The defenseless Moravian Mission about thirty miles south
a
37

and west of Brodhead Manor, was ruthlessly attacked.


• Every building was burned and sixteen persons were slaugh-
tered. Following a few days of ominous quiet, the Hoeth
family was massacred early in the morning of December
10,1755. A sudden call of warning was hurried to the Brod-
• head settlement. Men dashed about trying to warn all and
have them come to Brodhead's house for protection. A
runner went to the home of John Tidd with the warning.
"Has Benjamin Tidd been warned?" .asked John.
"Yes, he is being warned,*' came the answer. John
• and the boys gathered such things as food, clothing, and
the guns, and with Olive, now a girl of thirteen, raced to
Brodheads. All was confusion. John saw young Benjamin
Tidd, the oldest son of his brother, and asked, "Has your
father been warned?"
"They say here that a messenger was sent, but he is
not here yet.'*
John felt uneasy about this. He was fearful that in the
confusion only Benjamin, Jr., who lived in a cabin of his
own, had been warned. John was about to start out to
make sure that his brother had been notified when a num-
ber of shots were heard and bullets spat against the logs.
One man standing in front of a side window threw up his
• arms and dropped to the floor, blood spurting from a hole
in his chest. The battle was on. Every man with a rifle was
stationed at a loophole. John saw to it that his three
children were with him. He said, "Martin, I'll use your
ft rifle today, it carries farther with accuracy than the others.
save your powder until you get a good target." Even young
John was at a loophole with a gun.
A feeling of depression had settled upon John. His
brother Benjamin, living in that isolated valley with his
• wife and eight children, had not gotten to Brodheads. Every
moment their fate seemed more certain. Also his youngest
brother James was nowhere to be found. William and his
wife and children were here. The battle raged. It looked as
• though nearly a hundred Indians were in the attacking
force. They hid behind trees—damn those trees that had
been left too close—also the outbuildings were used as
shelter for the howling savages. Another bullet had crashed
through a weak spot; another man lay on the floor of a
• back room covered with a blanket. The beautiful rifle,
which brought back memories of better days, spoke at times
and when it did there was one less Indian to fear. It soon
became evident that at least during the daylight hours,
• the horde could be held at bay. But what of the night?
Gould enough guns be ready to resist a concentrated rush
in the dark? Some degree of order had been brought about
following the early confusion. It was decided that five men
___
ft
38

with ten rifles be held in readiness to move quickly to any


part of the house where the attack was hottest. Just before
dark an attempt was made to storm the front. This was
good, for the largest number of loopholes were on this
side. The Indians had to cross thirty yard of space without
cover. A telling fire was poured into their number as the
attempt was made. More than a dozen Indians met their
death in this rash move. The rest fell back to protected
positions. "I'm sure glad they tried that before dark," one
man remarked. Later in the evening the barn was fired. It
did not stand near enough to the house to endanger the lat- •
ter, but it did furnish enough light to enable the men to
shoot with deadly accuracy.
The concentrated attack on Brodhead's house lessened ft
somewhat as the Indians turned their attention elsewhere-
Soon glowing spots appeared all over the settlement. With
a shout of anguish the besieged saw their homes going up
in flames. Individual glows of light could be recognized
and identified. It did not need a later count to show that ft
Benjamin Tidd's house, Culver's saw and grist mill, Atkin's
house, McNabb's house, William Tidd's house, and many
others were destroyed. John Tidd watched in two direc-
tions, a faint glow appearing where his brother Benjamin
lived gave proof that his house was burning. But what of •
Benjamin? Sometime later another faint glow showed
against the north-western sky. His cabin was going up in
flames. Young Martin had also been watching in that
direction. He came to his father and said, "Father, it's ft
burning."
John laid his hand on his shoulder and answered, "Yes,
son, it's burning. Let's be thankful that we are here," and
then he continued "Martin, if anything should happen to
me, you must look out for John and little Olive—yes, for •
little Olive."
"Yes, father," he answered.
The Indians, apparently surfeited with their gory
occupation of the day and night, withdrew early the next «
day, taking their dead and wounded with them. By noon
it appeared safe to venture outside. Then the full story
of the horrible butchery became known. Every cabin in
the settlement was in smouldering ashes. The families liv-
ing in isolated places had not been warned. John Rush, wife *
and two children, dead, Benjamin Tidd, wife and eight
children, dead. And so the records piled up until finally
it was learned that seventy-eight persons had been killed
that afternoon and night, and over thirty houses had been
burned. Later reports showed that Brodhead's settlement
was not the only one that suffered. Almost every settlement
on the upper Delaware was wiped out. The following ex-
39

tract of a letter written at Easton and reprinted in the


"Pennsylvania Journal" is indicative of the situation. "The
country all above this town for fifty miles is chiefly ruined
excepting the neighborhood of the Du Puys and a few
families that stood their ground there. The people that are
left are mostly fleeing into the Jerseys, taking with them
what few things that remain. The enemy have taken but
few prisoners-murdering almost all that have fallen into
their hands of both sexes." A few additional words will
tell what happened to James Tidd, younger brother of
John. James Tidd, Henry Dysart, and Job Babkorn, were
at Culver's mill when sometime before noon many shots
were heard in the direction of Brodheads. This group with
the Culvers and a few others, went quickly to McMichael's
house which stood on higher ground. From there they
could see what looked like a hundred Indians, attack Brod-
head's house. Realizing what their fate would be, this
group immediately set out for the trail that led to Easton.
When they reached the top of the mountain and looked
back they saw Culver's mill and other houses in flames.
From this distance it looked as though Brodhead's place
was still being ably defended. They turned and fled to
Easton.

Samuel Du Puy sent word to the survivors at Brod-
head that all should come to his place for greater safety.
Several thought that because of their recent success against
the Indians they would be safe where they were. Improve-
ments were made that would enable them to better defend
themselves. The nearby trees which had provided such good
protection to the Indians were cut and drawn away. All
cattle that had eluded the marauders were slaughtered
and the meat stored for food. Scouts kept the survivors
informed as to the proximity of Indian war parties A period
of anxious waiting came. John Tidd had visited his
home. The cabin was completely burned. The shop had
been broken into, its contents in disorder, but he collected
some of his best tools to take with him. He stood for a
moment beside the little mound which had now become
completely covered with short grass, and said, "Olive, these
are trying times but I'll do my best to protect our children."
Some of the guns at Brodheads needed repair, flints
and steels needed adjustment, and many other tasks must
be completed. John kept himself busy. Soon word came of
Indians on the move. Near the beginning of January an-
other attack was made, but was easily stopped. Soon, how-
ever, it became plain that they were to be besieged and not
just attacked. A messenger was sent to Du Puys telling of
the situation. Du Puy sent word to the officers of some
Jersey troops across the river. Due to increased numbers
t
40

of Indians surrounding Brodheads, their condition was be-


coming serious. In late afternoon of the second day after
the messenger had been sent for help, the Jersey troops
appeared. After a sharp skirmish the Indians were beaten
back. Under protection of the troops all occupants of the
Brodhead house left for Du Puys. The glow of the flames
of the Brodhead house was plainly visible before the group
reached the safety of the fortified house of Samuel Du
Puy. The next morning the officer in charge tried to per-
suade Du Puy to immediately evacuate his place and cross
the river to greater safety, but he was unsuccessful. In his ft
report the officer wrote, "Samuel Du Puy seems to be very
near being in the same deplorable condition and will un-
avoidably share the same fate with his neighbor, for the
fatal blow is impending." These words were almost pro-
phetic, for January had not yet passed when fires at Du
Puys could be seen from the Jersey side of the river.
Captain Salnave with twenty five soldiers crossed over and
found the out-buildings all in flames and the house itself
"beset by upwards of fifty Indians, some busily setting fire
to it. Notwithstanding the inequality of numbers he engaged
them so warmly that they were obliged to withdraw, taking
their dead with them on horseback. Upon entering the
house he found two dead men and three badly wounded »

and some twenty others, men, women, and children; all


of whom would soon have been reduced to ashes." The
Pennsylvania Journal for Febmary, 1756, carries the item,
"Mr. Du Puy, finding it unsafe to remain, removed to the
Jerseys. Immediately his house was fired and burned by
the Indians." Only one more act was needed to complete
the devastation of the period within the Brodhead area.
The few survivors found homes and accommodations in
New Jersey. William Tidd settled there and remained
permanently. In the spring John started with his three
children for his uncle Jacob's home. He did not know if his
uncle lived yet or not, but he had known that he married
again and had some children. Martin was a sturdy lad of
sixteen, with the light brown hair and stocky build of his
mother, and the blue eyes of his father. He had already
given promise of the strength and nerve energy, so much
in evidence in the make-up of his mother. John, just turned
fifteen, was more like his father with the quick easy grace
of the woodsman. Little Olive, thirteen, was developing in
such a way that her mother could be seen in her looks and
every action. Martin had a very definite picture of his
mother in his memory but little Olive's memory was much
less vivid, she depended more upon the father's description
and stories relating to the past.
The little group arrived at the substanial cabin of
ft
41
Jacob Tidd late in April. Jacob, now well into his seventies,
was in good health. His wife, much younger, received John
and his family with hearty welcome. She took little Olive
into her arms with a motherly instinct that completely
captured the girl's heart. "I have no little girls of my own,"
she said. Their oldest son, Henry, and John were the same
age. Their second son, Jacob, and Olive were of the same
age, while the third son, named John was three years
younger. The father, with the help of the older boys, still
worked at his trade of potter and operated his own clay
kiln.
The stories of Indian raids on the west bank of the
Delaware grew much less frequent. As one person said,
"There was nobody left to kill." John, thinking that the
danger had largely passed and feeling homesick for his
little valley, decided to return and rebuild his cabin. He
had grown strangely silent of late. The catastrophe that
had befallen his brother rested on him. Added to this was
the fact, that although he loved his children and wished
to protect them in all ways, his heart was buried in the
little clearing on Osoconnick brook. With the coming of
June, John Tidd and his son Martin started on the journey
that took them back through the region of the recent
• massacre. No signs of human life were seen anywhere in
the Brodhead settlement. Port Hynshaw, with its small
garrison, stood to the north and east. Fort Hamilton, to
the west, was still occupied with its handful of soldiers.
John met Captain Van Ettan, commander of both forts,
who strongly advised against the plan of trying to rebuild
the cabin; however, John was obdurate. He had set his
heart on this task.
They immediately began the work of cutting and hew-
ing the logs for the new cabin. The original hearth-stones
were still in place and usable. With much toil the side and
end logs were notched and rolled into place. Now they were
ready for the rafters. Just over the hill and to the east, a
grove of small straight pine trees stood from which John
and William had gotten their rafters for the first cabin.
Martin was given the task of cutting and mmming these
trees. Good progress had been made in this work, and
Martin sat down to rest. The day, June 23, 1756, was hot,
ft
and no breeze penetrated this pine thicket. The boy was
drowsy-he went to sleep. Quiet prevailed. Suddenly he
was awakened by the terrible yell of Indians, He noiseless-
ly slipped to the brow of the sharp hill-a horrible scene
met his eyes. Some ten savages had encircled his father
and were closing in. John fought swinging his axe with
all his strength, but to no avail. In less than a minute a
tomahawk had crushed his skull. With a fiendish yell of

ft

42

triumph his scalp was ripped from his head. Martin realized
instantly that nothing except quick flight could possibly
save himself, he could give his father no help now. He
slipped back to where he had been working and picked up
the axe and his rifle-his mother's gift- and ran lightly and
quietly to the eastward. Apparently a stray war party,
passing near, had heard John as he worked, and had silent-
ly crept up to a close distance before their presence was
known. From that second on John had not a chance.
Martin's little nap had saved him. No sounds of his axe
had told of his whereabouts. Just before dark he arrived
at Fort Hamilton and told his story. Captain Van Ettan's
report reads' "Upon receiving news of an Indian raid, he,
the next morning, took six men and went out. They found i
John Tidd killed and scalped. They gave burial and re-
turned to the Fort." Martin returned the next day with the
troops. The Indians had disappeared. Nothing was left to
be done except the burial of the body. A grave was dug
beside the little mound at the edge of the clearing. John •
was laid to rest beside the woman whom he had loved so
deeply. This scene brought back to Martin memories of the
other time, when the smell of the freshly opened earth
mingled with the perfume of the few wild flowers gather- f
ed by his own hands. In that other day his father had stood
by the grave and said, "In God's care." In respect for his
mother's faith and his father's acceptance of that faith,
Martin silently repeated those words. A responsibility was ft
setting upon his young shoulders. He had a younger brother
and sister that now claimed the fulfillment of the promise
made to his father for their care. The few tools and John's
rifle were taken back to the fort, at which place Martin
spent the night. The following morning the journey was t
begun which would take Martin back to the difficult task
of telling his brother and sister of the sad experience
through which he had just passed. It was with sorrow that
the story was told and received.
Young John had taken a lot of interest in the pottery *
work along wih his uncle and cousins. Martin had been
taught much of the work of a blacksmith by his father,
and had a fair assortment of tools. He went to work in a
nearby shop and completed the learning of the trade as «
well as earning some money. Olive helped the aunt in the
many tasks of housework. Slowly the wounds of sorrow
healed, but often Martin would stand on a high hill and
look toward the west, a land and region that beckoned •
to him. When possible he and his brother spent many hours
in the woods hunting. The older brother sometimes said
that maybe he would become a trapper.
43

Early in the summer of 1760, with the French nearly


defeated and their hold over the Indians broken, Martin
Tidd and his brother John and sister Olive decided that
it was time to do for themselves. Their great-uncle Jacob
had died, and it was nearing the time when cousin Henry
would be bringing home a wife; therefore, now was a good
time to strike out on their own. Martin wanted to go back
to the Brodhead area but not to Osoconnick brook. Soon
they were on their way. They found several families al-
ready rebuilding in the vicinity. The Hillmans and the
McMichaels had rebuilt, along with some new people. A
site was chosen, arrangements were made with Daniel Brod-
head's heirs, and the building of a cabin begun. A young
man named James Hillman, nephew of John and Benjamin,
came over to visit them and offered to help in hauling in
the logs with his uncle's oxen. This was gladly accepted,

for the timbers were too far to roll. It soon became evident
that Hillman's interest was not confined to hauling logs.
Olive's fresh young beauty and wit would have won her
admirers anywhere. The building of the cabin proceeded
rapidly and by early autumn was ready for occupancy.
This cabin, designed on a different plan from the earlier
type provided for two rooms in the loft, one in each end
with the wall ladder and walk-way in the middle. Much
of the planning had been done by James Hillman who was
a carpenter by trade.
The house warming was a jolly affair. Nearly thirty
persons made their appearance, the women bringing gifts
and dishes of food. A tall slight boy of not more than
ft eighteen years brought a long box. He seemed to be known
by several persons present although Martin had never seen
him. This boy, although shy, was a likeable fellow with a
ready smile. After much talk and many remarks of admira-
9 tion for the cabin, supper was eaten. One of the men said,
"Now, Dave, it's your turn." "That's right," several added,
"Where's the box?"
David Randall, for that was his name, opened the box
# and took out a fiddle. After some tuning, he struck up a
lively air; soon he called in time with the music, "Choose
your partners and here we go, grab her quick and don't be
slow." The music might have been poor, and the dancing
might have been crude, but they had fun; good clean fun.
44

at a time when there had not been enough fun in the lives
of manly people. As they broke up to go home, someone
said, "We have had such a nice time tonight, let's hope
that soon there'll be another cabin built." Just by chance,
Martin happened to catch a look in the eye of James Hill-
man, and turning his head to follow the direction of the
look, he saw Olive's face color just a bit and he knew that
she had seen the look; probably understood its meaning
better than he did. That night as he lay on his tightly
stretched deerskin bed, he was disturbed and worried i
about little Olive, his little sister whom he had promised
to protect. But there was no need for worry. The forces
that were at work, and the wheels that were turning, would
work and they would turn, and nothing would stop them.
After all, James was not so bad, he was honest, a good
worker and, he supposed, good to look upon. But Olive was
his little sister. Yes, his little sister, but she was eighteen
years old and girls of eighteen are no longer little sisters.
Well, he would think it through tomorrow. f
"Who is this Dave Randall?" he asked a neighbor the
next day.
"Dave," answered the man, "is a boy whose father was
killed a few years ago in the Indian raids. His mother went •
to Philadelphia and married again. Dave and his step-daddy
didn't hitch, so he cleared out. All he had was that fiddle
and his father's rifle. He kin handle one about as well as
the other. Takes a good eye and maybe a little luck to beat
him. .Everybody likes Dave. He lives with a family up
creek."
At a "bam raising" a few days later Martin had a
chance to see Dave again. As was sometimes the custom
at a "raising" the owner, to make things more interesting
for the help, would put up a prize in some manner. Some-
times it would be in the fonn of a guessing match in which
the women could participate. Today the owner had made
ten targets, and ten men could have a shot apiece for the
prize. This was not a shooting match, just a little fun after #

dinner before going back to work. The targets were placed


and ten men took their positions. Each would fire before
any of the targets were looked at. Martin fired number
five and Dave fired number nine. A good eye could see #

where the bullet marks appeared on the targets along the


line. As Martin fired he heard Dave make an exclamation,
for the bullet mark showed very close to the center. Dave's
rifle seemed much too heavy for him, nevertheless, the
bullet hole looked good. The last shot was made and each
walked over and got his target to show to the man who
acted as judge. The prize was to be a choice between a
steel trap and a jug of whiskey. Considerable interest was
i .
45

shown in Martin's and Dave's targets, as no other bullet


hole was close enough to offer any competition. Both tar-
gets were handed to the judge, he looked at each and then
began to measure. Finally he asked for the help of the
owner in making a decision. Soon, in agreement, they an-
nounced it a tie, but gave Dave lirst choice, quickly he said,
"I'll take the trap providing my friend don't want it."
They turned to Martin who replied, "Give him the
trap, but I don't want the liquor."
ft "Let them shoot off the tie," someone said.
"No, there was to be only one shot apiece," said the
owner, "I have another trap, so everybody will be favored."
All were satisfied and went back to work on the barn.
At quitting time Martin saw Dave looking at his rifle, he
said, "That's a beauty. Can I see it?"
"Yes," Martin smiled, "but not to shoot it. I don't very
often let anyone touch it."
Dave's eyes glistened with admiration as he lifted the
rifle to his shoulder and lined the sights on an object. He
said, "If she shoots like she holds, I don't blame you. I'll
never shoot in a match against that gun. There would be
no use."
£ Martin felt pleased at the frank statement in praise
of his most prized possession. "Say," he said, "how about
coming over to my place soon. I'd like to get acquainted
with you."
"Thanks, I'll do t h a t "
* That was the beginning of a friendship that lasted for
over fifty years. Through thick and thm these two stood
side by side. Each saw in the other something which he,
himself, did not have. They were opposites in many re-
t spects. Dave could out-run Martin, but in a "rassle" or
rough-and-tumble he was as putty in Martin's hands. Their
ability to shoot was never questioned, but it was something
of a question which was the better shot. Dave could easily
hold his own against Martin when Martin used some rifle
• other than his own. Dave never would shoot against the
"Beauty" as he called it. Always said, "There would be no
use," John entered into the friendship, and many times
the three would go hunting together. Dave was learning
a the trade of "cooperage." "We ought to be able to help
one another," he said, "we all follow different trades,"
John and another man had started to open a clay pit
and build a clay kiln. A good market for pottery should
# exist here, for there was no other kiln for many miles. More
of his time was being spent at the clay kiln, he was eating
dinner every day now with the co-owner of the pottery.
Martin remembered that this family had been at the house
warming and that John had danced several times with
46
one girl in particular. Later he learned that her name was f
Susanna.
One day while hunting, they were sitting on a log
talking, Dave said, "I'd like to spend the winter trapping
if I had more traps."
Martin thought a while and answered, "Wouldn't •
mind, myself. Did I ever show you the Indian map that
father had from old Chief Tadame, with the territory in
which he could trap, all marked?"
"No, I never saw it, but I'd like to."
The next day Martin got the deerskin map. It looked
little different from what it had nearly twenty-five years
earlier. He showed the map to Dave, who became quite
excited. Dave said, "That region is just as wild now as it *
was when your father trapped there. If we only had more
traps."
"Father had about thirty steel traps, and he used a
lot of deadfalls. I have ten traps now. How many do you
have ?" t
"I own fourteen, and I think I know where eight or
ten more could be found," Dave replied.
"John has a dozen steel traps that he used over in
Jersey; maybe I could get them," Martin said, half to him- ^
self. That John might want to go trapping also, and use •
his own, was the thought that came to Martin. A few days
later while talking with James Hillman, Martin remarked
that he wished he knew where he could get some more
steel traps. •

"Thinking of spending the winter in the woods?"


asked James.
"Dave and me have been talking about it."
"What about John, would he be going also?" inquired
James,
"I doubt you could get him away from the kiln,"
answered Martin.
"I don't think," James said with a laugh, "It's the kiln
half as much as it's Sue."
"Do you really think that?" asked Martin with some
surprise.
"Looks that way to me," answered James. He paused
for a moment and added, "While we are on the subject I
might as well say a word or two for myself. Do you have •

any objection to me as a husband for your sister, Olive?"


Olive is too young," answered Martin.
H i
She is eighteen and past," said James, "Many a girl #
is married before that."
"Have you said anything to her about it?" questioned
her brother.
"Well, not exactly, but unless you object, I intend to
47

soon, and I probably will anyway."


The two looked at each other. The last remark was
not a challenge and there was no disrespect intended. It
was just a plain statement of determination. After all, the

two were of about the same age and it was quite absurd to
think under the circumstances that permission could be
granted or withheld by a young man of twenty-one. "James,
I have always liked you, and if Olive must have a husband,
it had better be you."
On this they shook hands, and James added, "My two
uncles have a string of traps which, I am sure, they will not
be needing."
The following Sunday James was a guest for dinner
and after having finished eating, he said, "Olive and I
wish to announce that next week we plan on getting
married."
No surprise was shown by anyone present. Martin
expressed his wish for their future happiness, as did John,
who added to his remarks, "If you two have no objections,
it might be possible to make it a double wedding." This
was a surprise, at least to some, and after some discussion
the plans were tentatively made. John immediately left
to see Susanna.

The double wedding was held in the new cabin in
early November 1760. The two couples expected to live
there during the winter. James and Olive planned on build-
ing their own house the next summer. Martin and David
ft Randall went to the Pocono mountains for the winter's
trapping. One of his father's shacks was found and repair-
ed. The area had not been covered by trappers for some
time and their catch of furs was good.
The next summer a new cabin was built and occupied
by James Hillman and his wife Olive, John and Susanna
remained at home. On October 12, 1761 John and Susanna
became the parents of a baby boy who was named John
William Tidd. This boy grew up and always went by the
name William, however, on October 3, 1770, he was bap-
tized as John Tidd. About a year after the birth of John
William Tidd, a baby boy was bora to James and Olive
Hillman, October 27,1762. This boy was named James.
Each winter Martin and David returned to the wild
and desolate region of the Pocono mountains to run their
trap lines. During the summer Martin worked in his black-
smith shop and Dave worked as a cooper. He spent many
nights playing his fiddle and calling for dances. The people
remonstrated against his being away all winter in the
mountains, for they said they needed his cheer and music.
One day in the winter of 1764 while sitting out a
blizzard, Martin said, "I suppose, Dave, that we should find
#

48

ourselves some girls and get married. This life in enjoyable


but it's not getting us anywhere. Do you know where there
are some likely girls?"
.After a minute's thought, Dave replied, "Not far
south of Stroudsburg there is a settlement in which lives
a family by the name of Marvin. There are two mighty •
likely girls there, about nineteen and twenty years old by
now. If they haven't already been ketched we could da
worse. Boy, you should see them. They sure know how to
handle a rifle and swing an axe."
"Dave, the way I feel right now I don't care whether •
or not they can swing an axe, what I'd like to know is can
they swing a leg?*'
"If you mean, can they dance, I'd say they can hold §
their own on any floor. Never could understand why they
haven't been picked up. Maybe they have by now. I saw
them last summer."
"What's their names?" asked Martin.
"The oldest is Betsy and the sister is Sally, They look g
enough alike to be twins but they ain't. Their father says
as how any feller fooling around his place with wrong in-
tentions will carry home a load of bird shot."
"How about drawing cuts for them," suggested Martin
as he picked up a splinter of wood and broke it into two •
unequal lengths. "The long one is for Betsy and the short
one is for Sally. You draw." Dave drew one of the pieces
from Martin's hand.
"It's the short piece alright, so I get Sally." .After a •
moment's reflection Dave added, "Suits me/'
One Sunday afternoon in early summer Martin and
David presented themselves at the Marvin home. Martin
always earned his rifle, but Dave carried his fiddle box.
A hearty welcome was given David which, after introduc- *
tion, included Martin.
"Young feller" asked the father, a tall rawboned man,
"what do you carry that gun fer?"
"Why, to shoot," answered Martin. «
"When any young feller claims to be able to shoot,
he's got to prove it before he visits my gals," stated Marvin,
and added, "Step out here and we'll see."
"Not on Sunday, Paw," remonstrated Mra. Marvin.
"Sunday or no Sunday, we air going to find out," per- •

sisted the husband. The remark about "visiting his gals"


had embarrassed all, and to ease this tension a move to
the outside was welcomed. The father pointed to a post
some distance away and said, "See that stone on the top •
of that post? Well that's your target."
On the post there appeared a tiny object, so small that
the sights of a rifle would entirely cover it. The shot was
ft


ft

49

almost impossible and Martin did not care to be placed in


a bad light, so he said, "Mister, a person can't hit some-
thing that he can't see. You put up a reasonable target and
I'll do my best." A pleased smile passed over the features of
the tall man. At least this young fellow could not be pushed
into making a fool of himself. He picked up a flat stone
about two inches in diameter and placed it on the post,
coming back to the group he said with finality, "Go ahead
and shoot."
ft
It still would take excellent marksmanship to hit this
object. Martin looked to the priming of his rifle which he
slowly raised to a level with the target. When a full level
had been reached, the rifle stopped for an instant, then
was fired. The stone was broken into bits. Exclamations of
surprise and pleasure were heard. While reloading the gun
Martin heard the father say as he walked away, "Mighty
good shooting."
Dave entertained for part of the afternoon playing,
ft among others, some church songs. Later, the two couples
prepared to go for a walk. Mrs. Marvin said, "Supper will
be ready by sun set." Dave had maneuvered it in such a
way that Betsy was paired off with Martin. The girls were
all that Dave had represented. They were fairly tall and
well proportioned, and were of pleasing appearance.
"Sometime, I'd like to shoot that rifle. It's such a
beauty," said Betsy.
"Sometime you may do so," Martin replied, and then
he told her about the Indian attack on Brodhead's and how
his father had used the rifle then, but that it never had been
shot since by any other person.
"Then why did you say that sometime I could shoot
it?" asked the girl,
"Well, it's like this, I feel that I have known you for
a long time."
She laughed as she said, "Yes, you have known me
about three hours."
"No, I got acquainted with you away last winter while
running my trap line up in the Pocono hills. I got so well
acquainted that I was willing to draw cuts to see whether
I'd have you or your sister."
"It looks to me," retorted the girl, "as though you were
taking a lot for granted. Listen, Mister," she added some-
what nettled, "I have watched other young men shoot at
the stone on the post. That's father's way of getting ac-
quainted, but the results of shooting at a stone has no par-
ticular influence with me."
"Well spoken, young lady, well spoken. When Dave
told me about all the young people he had known, I decided

50

to meet you. My intentions are strictly honorable."


"Although I still think you are somewhat forward,"
she replied, "Let's talk of other things." This they did and
soon it was time to return to the house for supper. As
Martin and Dave left during the evening, Martin said to
Betsy, "We'll come over next Sunday." She nodded her
head slowly.
True to his word Martin and Dave made their appear-
ance at the Marvin home the following Sunday afternoon.
Again Dave played his fiddle for their entertainment, and
again the two couples strolled in the early evening. Mter
several topics had been discussed, Martin stopped in the
path and turning said, "Betsy, I want to marry you next
week."
"Martin," she slowly answered, "I knew last Sunday
that you would ask me this today, and-and I knew that my
answer would be yes." Their first kiss and long embrace
sealed a love that never faltered, and was able to stand
the test of time. W

They were married in mid-summer. Martin took his


bride home to live in his, and John's, cabin on the banks
of Brodhead's creek in Northampton County, Pennsylvania.
A strong attachment between Betsy and John's wife, Sus- •

anna, developed. Some time later David Randall married


Sally but remained in the Marvin neighborhood. Trapping
as a way of life for Martin was ended, although David de-
pended on it quite largely for earning a living for many
years.
Late in 1765 a daughter was bora to Martin and Betsy,
and was named Ann. The work in the blacksmith shop con-
tinued. While not busy filling orders, Martin hammered
out another full set of hearth-cranes and end-irons. Once
Betsy asked why he was making these if he had no order.
His answer was. "We'll need these in our next house."

In 1662 the Connecticut Colony received its charter


from Charles H in which the boundaries were designated
as " according to its present width and from sea to sea."
The people of the colony took this literally and, as popula-
tion increased and the better lands were taken, they began
to look with desire toward areas that might absorb the
growing numbers. In a letter of reply to a question regard-
VVIS J . aJ 'WWW

GENEALOGICAL SOCIETY
OF THi CHURCH OF JESUS CHRIST
OF U i m p A ^ I N T S
ing its conditions we find the following, " the land that
was left was mountainous, full of rocks and swamps; that
most of it fit for planting had already been taken and that
what remained must be subdued as it were by hard blows
and for small recompense." In the light of this situation,
and with reports that had come in of large acreages of rich
land to the westward, well within their territorial bound-
aries, it is little wonder that expansion was planned.
In July 1753, in Windram, Connecticut, a group of men
formed the Susquehanna Company for the purpose of
"Westward Settlement on the Susquehanna River." Little
thought was given to the fact that this region was well
within the charter boundaries of the neighboring colony
of Pennsylvania. The following year found this Susque-
hanna Company sending agents to negotiate with the In-
dian chiefs of the Six Nations assembled in Council at
Albany. Treaty terms were made at this council which
included a purchase price of £ 2000. When news of this
treaty became known, the Delaware Indians remonstrated,
saying the lands in question did not belong to the Six
Nations but to themselves, the Delawares; therefore, they
claimed no legitimate sale had been made. The governor
of Pennsylvania wrote to Sir William Johnson, Commission-
er of Indian Affairs asking for his help in nullifying the
sale made by the Six Nations. In turn Sir Willam Johnson
wrote to the governor of Connecticut, remarking "of the
dangers of settlement until the title of said lands should
be adequately cleared."
In 1755 the Susquehanna Company secured from the
Colony of Connecticut permission to begin settlement. A
small group, including surveyors, went to the region in
question for further information as to the best locations.
Braddock's defeat and the ensuing French and Indian War
intercepted further efforts of settlement for the time being.
In the summer of 1762, a group of one hundred and
twenty men went to the Wyoming Valley and settled at the
mouth of Mill Creek. The term "Wyoming Valley" refers to
a stretch of the Susquehanna River valley in upper Penn-
sylvania about twenty-one miles in length and three to four
miles in width. It is a beautiful valley of fertile land and en-
closed by lowlying mountains. It extends from just below
present Wilkes-Barre up to and including Pittston. This in-
itial group of men built several cabins, planted a few acres
to wheat and did considerable fencing. They returned to
Connecticut late in the fall with the expectation of going
back the next spring. The Delaware Indians protested to
the governor of Pennsylvania asking that the intruders be
driven out; the request was ignored.
ft
QA

The spring of 1763 brought an even larger group of


settlers from Connecticut (the people from Connecticut
will sometimes be referred to as "Yankees"). Indian
enemies of Chief Teedyuscong from within the Six
Nations saw a chance to cause trouble, so they secretly f
supplied liquor to the Delaware chief. The same night,
while the chief was lying drunk, they burned his house
down over his head. Blame for the deed was craftily
layed to the Yankees of nearby Mill creek. Not knowing
that they were being blamed, the Yankees went about •

their business unaware of the approaching storm. The


resentment smouldered ail summer until, on the night of
October 15, 1763, the Indians fell on the settlement,
burning several cabins and massacring twenty of the Con- i
necticut settlers. Panic followed. Without even waiting
to bury their dead, the Yankees streaked it back to Con-
necticut. Colonel James Boyd was sent by the governor of
Pennsylvania to restore order. When he arrived no Indians
could be found so he buried the dead and returned home. ft
This massacre stopped settlement for some time.
In 1765, Captain Amos Ogden from New Jersey se-
cured from Sir William Johnson a permit to establish a
trading post in the Wyoming valley, which was done. In g
1768 at the Councl of Fort Stanwix, the officials of the
Penn family secured from the Delaware Indians a "Treaty
of Purchase" for the same area that was covered by the
Albany Treaty of 1754, Having advance information that
the Susquehanna Company was about to resume operation
in the Wyoming valley, the Pennsylvania officials late in
1768, leased the entire Wyoming valley for a seven year
period to Charles Stewart and Amos Ogden. The stipula-
tions of the lease included the statement that they were «t
to "establish themselves and a trading post in the area, and
to defend same against aU enemies and intruders." Stewart,
being Deputy Surveyor for the region, immediately began
the surveying of the valley from "mountain to mountain."
#
It was to be Amos Ogden's job to hunt up some help.
During his travels he had met and talked with several
persons living in the new settlement at Brodheads. Think-
ing that some of these men could be interested in the Wyom-
ing valley, he and his companion went to see Martin Tidd ft
on Brodhead creek. He told Martin and John of the fertil-
ity of the land of the valley and the opportunities that were
almost certain to open there. Martin had known of the
attempt of the people of Connecticut to settle there, and *
had even talked with some of the persons that had fled
from the massacre of 1763. He also had known of Ogden's
trading post on the river. Ogden was enthusiastic about the
lease and told that Stewart was already at work on the
53
surveys.
"Are you hiring men for this purpose, or are you giv-
ing them land?" asked Martin.
"We are doing both," answered Ogden. "We are pay-
ing monthly wages including living until such a time when
land can be cleared and crops raised. In the meantime the
men are to help us fulfill the part of the lease which says,
'establish themselves and a trading post in the area and
defend same against all enemies and intruders'."
After a little thought Martin said, "I might be tempted
to go under certain conditions: Allow me to choose a site
of 100 acres upon which I can build a house and set up a
blacksmith shop not later than two years from now; also
agree that not more than half my time be requiredto help
you fellows in your 'protection' needs. One more point, that
your group will, when I am ready, transport my belongings
including my shop equipment to the valley." Ogden realized
that here was a substantial person and that if he could be
persuaded to go to the valley, others would go also.
"I'll take you on those terms, Martin. We need thirty
or forty men by the middle of December."
Soon the Hillmans, John Tidd, and several others de-
# cided to go. Martin sent word to Dave Randall to come
along and also to bring his wife to live with Betsy and
Susanna during the coming winter. Several men from
Ogden's town in New Jersey, including his two brothers,
* arrived in Stroudsburg the first week in December 1768,
and by the middle of the month all were at Mill creek in
the Wyoming valley. They found several houses in livable
condition which had been deserted by the Yankees in
1763. Immediately, work was begun on Ogden's blockhouse.
• Charles Stewart and his helpers had surveyed the entire
valley, and as per agreement, Martin selected a site some
two miles below where Forty Fort was later built. This
site of Martin's was on a high steep bank directly on the
m Susquehanna, which at this place made a bend; thus mak-
ing it impossible to approach the house except from one
general direction.
Simultaneously, the Susquehanna Company had, late
in 1768, decided to resume settlement in the Wyoming
• valley. In February 1769 Zebulon Butler, of Indian fight-
ing fame, led forty men to the valley. Much to his surprise
and consternation, he found it occupied by a determined
group of Pennsylvanians. Ogden ordered Sheriff Jennings
• to arrest the leader and two of his aids and march them to
Easton jail, sixty miles away. They were immediately re-
leased on bail; whereupon, thirty more of the Yankees
were arrested and jailed at Easton. They, too, were soon

54

released and tramped back to the valley. Butler now pro-


ceeded to build what became Forty Fort. In May of the
same year a certain Captain Durkee, from Connecticut,
appeared on the scene and built Fort Durkee. In June the
Pennsylvania governor sent Colonel Francis to the valley
with orders to the Yankees to "evacuate their positions and
get out." Nothing happened; therefore, in September, the
governor ordered Sheriff Jennings to raise a posse "to evict
the intruders," but admonished "that there be no effusion
of blood, not to fire unless fired upon." There now followed m
SL series of events unmatched in American history: a series
of armed conflicts in which cannons were used in open
battle. These events covered a period of nearly fifty years.
Only those parts will be dealt with that are important be- *
cause of their relationship to the Tidd family.
Sheriff Jennings and Captain Ogden raised a body of
two hundred armed men and demanded the surrender of
Port Durkee. Ogden had secured a pair of "four pounders"
which had a definite effect on Butler and Durkee; they
surrendered the fort. Durkee was arrested and taken by
Jennings and Ogden to Philadelphia, the fort being left
in the hands of Ogden's men. The rest of the Yankees went
home.
During the summer Martin and James Hillman, with •

some help from John and David, had begun work on their
own house. Martin said he wanted it large enough for four
families.
"Expecting a siege?" asked James.
"You never can tell. It may pay to be prepared," was
the answer. Martin and James had answered the call of
Ogden to aid in the capture of Fort Durkee.
By now, Ogden had twenty-eight men on his payroll.
These divided themselves into two groups, taking turns
in garrisoning the fort. John and Martin, during their month
off duty, went back home to Stroudsburg.
When it was time to return to the Wyoming valley,
Betsy asked, "Is there much danger, Martin?"
Martin laughed as he shook his head. "Lots of fighting
but no blood spilled and nobody getting hurt."
It happened while Martin and John were serving
their turn in the fort. A Lazarus Stewart from Connecticut ft
raised a motley group of armed men and surprised the
handful in the fort.
"Now we'll see who goes to jail," shouted the Yankees.
Martin and John soon found themselves in the new
jail. "Well, we don't have to walk to Easton," said John.
Jail life irked the freedom—loving brothers. From time
to time Dave or James were allowed to visit through the
55

bars. They told how the Yankees had broken open Ogden's
house and removed the two cannon. Also, that quite a settle-
ment was developing nearby and had been named Wilkes-
Barre.
Early in the summer of 1770, while Martin was still in
jail, an Irish bully with quite a reputation for fighting
appeared in Wilkes-Barre. Stimulated by a few drinks of
rum he began his usual campaign of trying to find a per-
son who would fight with him. He swaggered up and down
the main part of the town having a good time.
"Isn't there anyone in this town with guts enough
to fight?" he would ask. Finally on the second day of this
tirade, Benjamin Hillman said that there was one man in
the area that could whip him,
"Well, where the hell has he been hiding?" asked the
bully, "Bring him on." A group appealed to Lazarus
Stewart to give freedom to Martin Tidd if he would fight
the bully, Stewart agreed to this. The group went to the
jail and told Martin the circumsances.
"No. He wouldn't fight. He didn't know the man, had
nothing against him, and would not fight." Crestfallen, the
group returned to town and reported. The insulting lan-
guage and ragings of the bully increased to the point where
they could be no longer endured. The group went back to
the jail and told of the additional insults. Still Martin
would not fight. Finally Hillman said, "Martin, this bully
says you are a damn cowardly Englishman, and that you
are the son of a coward, and that your whole damn family
were cowards."
"Open up this door, jailer," demanded Martin. The
door was unlocked and John was permitted to leave with
Martin. The group returned to the town.
"Haw, Haw-here's my meat," mocked the bully. The
odds were strikingly in favor of the braggart; he was at
least six feet tall and weighed all of two hundred pounds.
Martin Tidd measured less than five feet, nine inches, and
weighed about one hundred seventy pounds.
It was common practice for fights of this kind to be
fought across a tight rope. Soon a rope was stretched tight-
ly across an open space and the opponents took their
places. The only rale governing this kind of a fight was
that there could be no kicking under the rope. A consider-
able crowd had gathered to watch the fight. A shot was
fired and the fight was on. The bully charged like a roaring
bull. One of his sledge-hammer blows reached home. Tidd
was knocked down. A groan of disappointment came from
the crowd. Was their only hope to be so easily overcome?
Martin got up. He had been floored by the power of the
ft

56

blow, not because he had been hurt; however, he would


need to be careful. The fight was on again. Martin dodged
what blows he could, and those he couldn't dodge he took
where they would do the least harm; but he always traded
two for one. The rage into which the bully flew, after
receiving several punches, actually benefited Martin. His #

blows were swinging at random; dangerous, it is true, but


more easily avoided. As the in-fighting became hot the
bully was steppng back more often. This was decidedly
to the disadvantage of Martin. After several more times 9
of stepping back to avoid well aimed blows, Martin Tidd
yelled, "By the Holies, he'd show him how to stand up and
fight." He placed his hands on the rope and jumped over.
Now the fight was on with deadly intent. The tremendous 4
nerve energy which Martin had inherited from his mother
became recognized. His blows literaly rained upon the
upper body and head of his opponent, who was now busy
defending himself. Several hard punches to the jaw had
the bully staggering. Soon the opportunity came; a sharp *
left turned the bully's head sidewise, and, concentrating
all his energy into one blow, Martin drove a terrific right
to the point of the jaw. The bully was out, and he stayed
out for some time. By evening he was barely able to sit
up. The next day he walked a few steps, but they were his i
last. That night he lapsed into a coma from which he
never revived. He died within the week.
Martin and Jonh, with Dave and James Hillman who #
had seen the fight went to the new house. Martin was
pretty sore from the blows which he had received, when
something was said about the fight, he remarked, "The
less said about that affair the better."
"Although John had to serve one more time in a po?se ^
raised by Sheriff Hacklin, of Northampton county for
which he received £ 6Vlf Martin never again mixed in the
quarrels and battles between the Yankees and the Penn-
sylvanians. He said, "You can't do business with the people
you're fighting, and I am going to be in business." i
All concentrated on the work of the new house. It was
completed by October, and John and Hillman returned
home to get the family. Their goods were delivered in
the course of time, and Martin set up a shop near the house
and prepared to follow his trade. Zebulon Butler was in
control of the Yankee settlement and the Fort,
With the rapid growth ot Wilkes-Barre and the other
nearby towns, many opportunities for work existed on
every hand. Martin was kept busy in his shop. James Hill-
man continued his work as a carpenter, and because there
were no clay pits near, John worked with Hillman. David
57

• Randall worked in a small cooperage in Wilkes-Barre.


The two older Hillmans lived on their farm in the lower
valley. Martin. John and James with their families all
lived in the big house. Dave and his wife lived in a cabin
m nearby. Times were prosperous and all were happy. Young
James Hillman was now a boy of nine; John William, a
growing boy of ten, spent much of his time at his uncle's
shop. Betsy had another baby bora in 1772 named John.
Dave had a couple of boys named Henry and Samuel. By
m 1774 another baby girl was bora to Martin and Betsy. This
girl was named Sally in honor of her Aunt Sally.
The relationships between the Yankees and the other
people of the settlments were, for the most part, friendly,
> and little trouble was experienced. The orders of the Penn-
sylvania officials were executed in the name of a sheriff
posse and not by Provincial militia. The rise and fall of
"Plunkett" and his armed expedition against the Yankees
in 1775 caused little disturbance among the common set-
• tiers. A call came from Butler for all the able bodied
Yankees to gather in defense of his well chosen positions.
Martin, watching these proceedings, said, "Plunkett won't
have a chance against old Zeb Butler." This proved to be
true, for, after less than a half day's fight Plunkett with-
drew. No further attempt to dislodge the Yankees was
ever made by the Penn family.
However, two events of importance took place in the
spring of 1775. John's wife Susanna gave birth to a daugh-
ter, who was given the name of Nancy. The mother did
not regain her strength and health in a normal manner.
It soon became evident that her condition was serious. All
was done that was possible under the circumstances, yet
• she died in June. John was badly shaken by his sorrow.
Betsy and Olive assumed care of the baby.
News reached the valley of the outbreak of fighting
at Lexington and Concord. In an effort to bring about a
complete change that might help his brother John, Martin
remarked at the supper table one evening "I hear that
Lt. Steele and Captain Chambers are raising a force to
fight the English around Boston." The seed was planted,
and within two days John announced he was joining the
• army. After a tender look at his baby daughter and a fare-
well hand clasp with his son William, John picked up
his rifle and left. He walked to the shop and shook hands
with Martin. No words were needed.
ft John became a member of Col. Thompson's Battalion
of Riflemen under Capt. James Chambers and Lt. Steele.
They marched to the vicinity of Boston, but were transfer-
red to Gen. Arnold's command which was preparing to
ft
58

invade Canada. Soon after leaving Fort Weston on the


Kenneback river, Gen. Arnold found it necessary to select
a "special group of scouts of unusual activity and courage."
Lt. Steel was given his choice from the entire Battalion. He
chose eight men, among whom was John Tidd, Beset by
many difficulties among which was lack of food, the expe- ft
dition cut its way through the wild? of New England, and fi-
nally appeared before Quebec in December, The attack was
made, but after heroic fighting they were forced to sur-
render. The survivors were paroled and exchanged late
in 1776, among whom was John Tidd. He later re-enlisted
in the First Pennsylvania Regiment. The re-enlistment ex-
pired July 1, 1779.
Following the surrender of Burgoyne in 1777, the
activities of the Tories and the Indians were directed
against the colonial frontier with terrible effect. News of a
concentration of Indians and Tories at Tioga on the Sus-
quehanna river in New York State was heard in the Wyom-
ing valley in the early summer of 1778. Petitions for mili-
tary protection were sent to the Pennsylvania Assembly
and the Continental Congress. No aid was forthcoming. The
militia of the Wyoming valley was under the command of
Zebulon Butler. He strengthened Forty Fort and made what
preparations he could. Martin listened to the news of the •

concentration at Tioga and watched the perparations for


defense with considerable worry. One evening he called
in John and Benjamin Hillman, David Randall, the nearby
Williams family with their neighbor, a Henry Hatton, and
said in all seriousness, "I don't like the looks of things at
all. Old Zeb Butler can't defend this entire region even if
we pitch in to help him. Either we prepare to defend our-
selves or we must get out of the valley, for there are bloody
times ahead." A quiet fell on the group. All knew that
every word spoken was true. No one wanted to leave, but
how could this handful defend themselves if Butler with
his troops could not? This was the question.
"Well, we have certain advantages," went on Martin, #

"we are protected by the river on one full side, and by cut-
ting a few more loopholes in the other side, and with plenty
of guns we could give a pretty good account of ourselves."
Several seemed to agree.
"If that's your final opinion, men, then we better get
busy, there is no time to loose. If a couple more men can
be found worth their salt bring them in; but above all, get
rifles. We need forty rifles. Dave, that will be your job.
You buy, borrow, or beg if you must, as many good rifles
as you can find, but do it quietly, we want no excitement.
James, you cut several more loopholes where needed. The
59

rest of you men get a lot of barrels and casks to hold water,
and have as much food as possible ready to bring in here.
We might be shut in here quite a while."
Each man went about his task. When Martin saw Dave
again he said, "Be sure to get the bullet molds for any odd
size rifles you may pick up." Martin made purchases of
extra powder and lead, and suggested that others do like-
wise. He moved all the shop equipment into the big house
and stored it out of the way. News came that the forces
at Tioga were on the move and headed down river. Martin
sent word to his group to get ready for any emergency.
Scouts brought to Butler the word that the horde of Indians
and Tories and English troops were within twenty miles.
Now Martin gave the word to move in with all the food
that could be gotten. The water barrels were filled. Dave
had done his part well; he had gotten over twenty rifles.
"Didn't have to steal a one," he said. Supplies of bullets
had been made, and extra flints were on hand.
On the evening of July 2, 1778, Benjamin Hillman
visited the Fort for the latest news. After dark he return-
ed to the big house with haste, and said, "Butler and the
officers have just had a conference. They have decided
to leave the Fort and give battle up the river about two

miles."
a Of all the damn fools," someone cried.
a.Gentlemen," said Martin, "The valley is lost. There
won't be enough people left to bury the dead."
The next morning Martin's cattle were shut in the
small building used for the shop. Last minute preparations
were completed. By noon a group of terror stricken women
and children appealed to Martin for safety. He refused
ft none, told them that when the fighting began they would
have to stay in the loft out of the way. Scouts brought
the last word, the enemy forces were within five miles.
Butler, guilty of a tactical error, led his troops out of the
Fort and up the river to give battle. By mid-afternoon
Martin and his little group could hear the rapid firing of
guns. Butler was now in battle. For an hour the firing con-
tinued, then slackened and finally stopped except for
isolated shots. Martin and his group stood on a high point
which enabled him to see the Fort. Soon a few of the troops
were seen running wildly to the Fort. "The slaughter is
on up river," someone said. Women and children were
running to the woods from the settlement. Soon, small
parties of frenzied Indians were seen in the distance search-
ing for the fleeing women and children. Death and destruc-
tion were settling down over the valley. Martin stood for
a while on the bank of the river. Quite often bodies of men,
ft

60

women and children could be seen floating down with the


current. The entire group went inside, and took their posi-
tions at the loopholes. Fourteen men, counting young Will-
iam and young James Hillman with Dave's two boys, stood
ready, Betsy and Sally with a few other women were ready
to reload the rifles when the firing should start. Benjamin
Hillman said to Martin, "Reminds me of Brodhead's, years
ago." Martin nodded. At Brodhead's, he had stood beside
his father who had used the rifle that he now had in his
own hands,
A shout from young William told of Indians near.
Approaching down the river bank in full view were ten
savages bent on murder.
Martin said, "Take it easy boys, let them come fairly
close, pick your man and fire with me." Eight rifles were
leveled, Martin counted: one-two-three-fire. A deafening
thunder of noise filled the room, seven of the Indians lay on
the ground. Quickly other rifles were aimed and fired and
two more savages dropped.
"Nice work, boys. Too bad we didn't get the other one,
for he may be back with help," said Martin. They had not
long to wait; a band of nearly thirty were approaching
from the front while a dozen were coming down the river,
"James, you take care of these by the river. I'll go to
the front," said Martin. "Men, it's everyone for himself
now." The firing depended on no counting. The extra rifles
now came into good use. Betsy and the other women silent-
ly and grimly poured in powder and ball, and handed the •

gun to a man at a loophole, taking his empty gun to reload.


With half of this onslaught of savages shot down, the re-
mainder withdrew. Martin remarked, "If the soldiers don't
rush us, we may be able to hold our own." Before dark,
another attempt to take the house was made, but was
beaten back.
With the coming of night, the looting and burning of
Wilkes-Barre began. The slaughter continued as long as
victims could be found. By morning the nearby town had
not a house left standing nor a living inhabitant. Forty
Fort surrendered on the morning of July fourth, and soon
went up in flames. The English troops, with the Tories and
Indians, began the return march up the river by mid-day. •

The savages were loaded with scalps and loot of all kinds.
Such a scene of desolation and death had never before been
witnessed on this continent. Over three hundred persons
had been killed within twelve hours. Many expressions of
thanks and gratefulness were made to Martin Tidd and his
group by the many who had sought refuge in his block-
house. No person was more thankful than Martin himself

61

for their successful defense. Few people returned to the


Wyoming valley that year.
During the early summer of the following year prepar-
ations were under way to raise a force to deal with the
Indian menace on the frontier. Gen. Sullivan was put in
command of this force which finally numbered over two
thousand fighting men. They concentrated at Wyoming
and by mid-summer ascended the Susquehanna river. An
important battle was fought and won in New York State.
Then followed a systematic destruction of the hostile In-
dian villages and their food supplies. This broke, for all
time, the power of the Six Nations to wage war on the
frontier.
ft
As men were being recruited for the campaign which
became known as "Sullivan's Expedition," young James
Hillman enlisted and served under Capt. John Morrison
during the activities against the Indians. Later he enlisted
and served under Capt, Fulton as Artillery Teamster in
Col. Chandler's regiment. He was at the siege of Yorktown
at which time he was taken prisoner and sent to the rear
in the charge of an armed English officer. As they passed
through a lonely spot James attacked the officer with his
bare fists and administered such a beating to him that he
was able to make his escape and rejoin his regiment.
With the Indian menace past, people began to come
back to the Wyoming valley and started the work of re-
building the settlements. The part played by the English
regulars and the Tories in the Wyoming massacre caused
a growing hatred to develop in the heart of Martin Tidd;
therefore in 1779, when Capt. Robinson was recruiting for
his "Rangers" Martin signed up and marched off to do his
share in the war that freed the colonies from English rule.
While Martin was away at war in 1779, his second son was
bom and named Samuel. John had just completed his
second enlistment and had returned home.
While Martin was away, William got permission from
his father, John, to visit some of the cousins in New Jersey
whom he had never seen, but, had heard much about. He
found his great uncle William whose son William was serv-
ing in Washington's army, living in Hunterdon county.
This William Tidd became a corporal and is so designated
in the records of New Jersey. Not long after his arrival in
New Jersey, William was met by a recruiting officer and
urged to join the New Jersey troops, which he did. He never
obtained any rank and is listed as "William Tidd, Private,
who served with the New Jersey State Troops from Hunter-
don county." .After his term in the armed forces expired,
William found his other cousins, the descendants of the
w

ft
ft

62

Jacob Tidd with whom his father. Uncle Martin, and Aunt
Olive lived following the Indian massacres at Brodhead's.
He found his cousin John living in the northern part
of Hunterdon county. This cousin had served twice in the
armed forces; once in the Second Regiment from Essex
county, and also in Capt., Craig's company of State Troops.
He became a corporal and is listed in the New Jersey
records. This cousin had a boy of five years of age by the
name of James Tidd. He also met another cousin, Jacob,
who had a daughter by the name of Elizabeth, about fifteen
years old. All during his absence, William, who had in- •

herited his dark hair and dark eyes from his mother Sus-
anna, could not entirely forget the blue-eyed, fun loving
cousin back in the Wyoming valley. He often wondered
why the picture of this girl remained so constantly with
Mm.
The ending of the war brought happiness to the Tidd
family of Wyoming. William was home from New Jersey,
Martin had been home for a year; John was home. Young
James Hillman was safe and would be home soon. Another
son, named Charles, was born to Martin and Betsy in 1782.
The last act of the tragic warfare between the Yankees
and the Pennsylvanians to involve the Tidd and Hillman •
families was shaping up. Patterson, in trying to enforce the
offer made by the Pennsylvania Assembly, to the Yankees,
had driven many from their homes. Under the leadership
of John Franklin, the Yankees turned suddenly and des-
cended on the valley like a scourge. They recaptured the
Fort, and threw many peaceful settlers into jail. James
Hillman, husband of Olive, was walking home from Wilkes-
Barre when a group of these irate Yankees seized him and,
regardless of his claim that he had never taken up arms ft
against them, threw him into jail. To make matters worse
this was the week that his son James returned. It was with
anger and a readiness to fight, that the son visited his father
in jail. The father cautioned him against any rash act,
"James, you can't lick a dozen Yankees all at once, so just
sit tight. I'll be out soon." He was correct. Within the week
the father was home,
"I'll tell you what let's do," said the son, "I have signed
up to serve for a year under Gen. Harmar to fight the
Indians beyond Pittsburgh. That is going to become a great
country. Why not let these Yankees and their claims go to
hell. You and mother go out to the Ohio country and I'll
meet you there in a year." w

The prospect looked good, the father said he would


think it over. When James told Martin about it later, Martin
said, "It might be just the thing to do. In fact, I might do
ft
63

the same myself, later." The die was cast. Within the year
• James and his wife Olive left for the Ohio country. As
Martin and Betsy said goodbye, Martin added, "Let me
know how things are."
John had heard that some distance down the river
• some clay pits were being opened. When he asked his son
William if he thought he would like to go down, William
answered, "I think I'll be a farmer. I have my eye on a nice
piece of land which I may try to buy," Actually he had his
eye on more than a piece of land.He had not been able to
• get that picture of a blue-eyed girl out of his mind, and
now, with the girl to be seen every day the mental picture
had become an obsession. Little did he know that a recipro-
cal feeling throbbed in the young heart of his cousin Ann.
Leaving his daughter Nancy with her Aunt Betsy,
John went to the clay pits. He found that some years be-
fore, a man by the name of Bristol had found some clay
and was in the process of opening a pit and building a kiln
• when he was killed by some lurking Indians. His wife and
little boy had found safety in a nearby settlement. After
the war had ended a brother of Bristol, who was also a
potter, planned to re-open the pit. John offered to help
build the kiln. This offer was gladly accepted. As John ate
• his meals at the Bristol cabin he was daily in the company
of Mrs. Bristol, the widow. Mutual feelings of sympathy
for the sorrow that had visited each soon became mutual
feelings for companionship that opened the way to mar-
• riage. Therefore, John continued with the establishment of
a pottery partly his own.
Martin Tidd finally secured the deed to the one hun-
dred acres of land which he had selected years before. In
addition, he had made application to buy an adjoining
tract of three hundred acres. This application was accepted
and completed. The records of "Warranties and Convey-
ances*' of land in the County of Northumberland, Penn-
sylvania shows that on July 1, 1784 a deed for three hun-
dred acres of land to Mjirtin Tidd was recorded.
In 1785 a daughter was bom to Martin and Betsy, the
father insisted that this girl be named Betsy. The mother
said, "Must be getting near the end, if the name Betsy
must be used."
Martin replied, "Not the reason at all, dear, not at all."
Time passed. Their last baby was bom in 1789. Betsy
said it was her turn to name this one, "His name is Martin.'*
"Why, Betsy," said the father, "I had planned on
naming him Hillman if it was a boy."
"If Hillman must be in it, then it will be in second
place. His first name is Martin." Therefore the name stood
«

64

as Martin Hillman Tidd, although he always wrote his


name as Martin H. Tidd.
The actual circumstances under which William's secret
and Ann's secret became known to each other was never
told; However, one aiternoon William walked into the
blacksmith shop just as Martin was hanging up his leather
apron and said, "I have a very important question to ask
you."
ir
Well, I am here, ask ahead," was the reply
a May I marry your daughter, Ann?"
With surprise and consternation, Martin answered,
"Why, boy, she's your cousin."
"Yes, I know. But we are not much alike and we wish
to marry." t
"How do you know? Have you, asked her?" question-
ed Martin.
a We have talked it over, Sir.**
n Boy, this is a surprise, ifs a terrible surprise when
you're asked to give your first daughter in marriage. But
if it must be, it must be." He walked out of the shop.
Later William Tidd and Ann Tidd were married. He
bought a tract of land nearby, and a cabin was built. In
1792 a son was born to William and Ann, he was named
John David Tidd. Martin said, "I am glad to hear that •

name, David; it belonged to my grandfather, the man who


established 'David Tidd's settlement' on the Delaware
river."
Early in the 1790's a man walked into Martin's shop •

and said, "My name is Robert Tidd; my father was James


Tidd, the youngest son of old David Tidd who lived below
Easton."
"Mighty glad to meet you," said Martin as they shook
hands, "Betsy will be pleased to have you for dinner, and •

it's almost time." As they ate dinner and visited for awhile
afterward, it appeared that Robert was in the lumber
business and had been wanting to establish a branch of his
business in the Wilkes-Barre region. His father James was
dead. His Uncle Peter was living in York county. Of course
old David was dead, but he had lived until he finally got
a deed to his hundred acres in 1747. Yes, he had a young
son named William. No, he didn't know too much about
the Jersey Tidds, but had noticed in a New Jersey paper
that just a few years before (1784) Elizabeth Tidd, daugh-
ter of Jacob Tidd, had inherited £ 100 from her grand-
father, Henry Dilts, of Hunterdon county.
"If you finally decide to invest in this region," said
Martin, "I know where a mighty fine piece of property of
four hundred acres, well timbered might be bought.*'
Robert thanked him. They shook hands again and he left.
65

Not long after this visit a letter was received from Olive
Hillman, telling of the wonders of the Ohio river valley.
James had settled just below Pittsburgh. The region was
filling up rapidly. Plenty of work for all who wanted to
work. James was busy building houses in Pittsburgh and
liked it because nothing but sawed lumber was being used;
no more log houses in that town. She went on to say that
their son James was married and doing well. The letter
ended with a suggestion from her husband that Martin
"come to the Ohio river country."
John, Martin's oldest son, now past twenty years of
age, had learned his father's trade and stood at his own
anvil and forge. The next son, Samuel was also learning the
same trade. Sally was a young woman. The younger child-
ren were growing rapidly. Martin and Betsy were proud
of their family.
In the autumn of 1793, Robert Tidd again paid a visit
to Martin. .After the usual greetings, he said, "I am now
ready to establish a branch of my business in the Wilkes-
Barre region. I remember that you said you knew of a likely
site of timbered land."
"It all depends," replied Martin, "on what you call
a likely site. What do you have in mind?"
"Well, I need, to start with, a location on the river.
Also there must be a stream of water and a site suitable
for a dam to furnish power for a saw mill. The towns down
below," and Robert waved his hand toward the west and
south, "are demanding sawed lumber for building; no
more log cabins—and it's my business to supply their needs.
I raft the lumber down river. Harrisburg, right now, is a
good market. There should also be timbered land available

for later needs."
"It could be that I have just what you want," answer-
ed Martin. "I have a good front on the river. I have four
hundred acres of land, most of which is in woods, and if
you was to buy the adjoining tract you could have a fine
dam for waterpower."
"Let's look it over," said Robert.
They spent the next day in going over both tracts of
land which totaled nearly a thousand acres. The timber
• pleased Robert very much. The creek and site for the dam
looked good to him, although he said he would need to
have his mill-man look into that part. The river frontage
would provide adequate facilities for building the lumber
rafts. The question now was, "can the adjoining tract be
ased ? "
"Let me handle the finding of that answer," Martin
replied.
66

"I'll be through here again next week," stated Robert.


The next day Martin went to visit his neighbor, and •
after the usual conversation concerning commonplace sub-
jects, he asked, "Joe, did you ever think of selling here and
moving?"
"No, I never have," answered the neighbor, "but my «
wife has a sister and a brother living in a town near Harris-
burg, and she has said a lot of times as how she would like
to live down there. If I was to get a good offer for my
place here, I might take it."
"How much would you call a good offer?" •
"Wal, that's hard to say, I have over five hundred
acres, and it's sure worth three dollars an acre."
After some thought Martin answered, "I think you're 4
right, Joe. What would you say if I could get you an offer
ol two thousand dollars?"
"I would take it,'* stated Joe.
"Is that positive?** continued Martin, "I wouldn't
want no fooling at the last minute." €
"Martin, when I say I'll do a thing, then that's straight."
The following week Robert Tidd was back, and this
time he brought his mill-man, a Mr. Meeker. They care-
fully examined the proposed dam site and mill-race loca-
tion. Meeker gave his nod of approval. Martin and Robert #
walked slowly toward the house,
"What luck did you have with your neighbor?"
"Mighty good luck for you," answered Martin.
"What was his price?"' ft
"Joe has between five and six hundred acres and he
says he'll take two thousand dollars." After a moment's
thought, Robert said, "That's not too bad. Now what's your
price?"
H
it
My price, Robert, is three thousand dollars." •
Why, Martin, if your neighbor will take two thousand
for over five hundred acres, how come you must have three
thousand for four hundred acres ?" This was said with con-
siderable agitation.
"The answer to that is simple," quietly answered
Martin, "my property includes the river front. Joe's land
does not border on the river."
Although Robert knew all that, he argued, "But
Martin, this is a deal between cousins." •
"Friend," cooly ;stated Martin, "blood relationship has
no bearing on a bus ness transaction. I wouldn't sell this
to my own son under the price stated. But I can tell you
what I might do, I just might go into the lumber business •
with my sons. It looks pretty good to me."
"Martin, you're a shrewd man. Give me some time to
think it over."
L
w
*•

67

"Yes, I will. I'll give you until tomorrow."


As Martin fully expected, Robert Tidd was back the
next day with papers to sign for both properties, and one
hundred dollars to bind the bargain in each case. Possession
was to be given sometime after the first of the coming year.
The Pennsylvania records show that on Januery 30, 1794,
a deed was recorded for this property in the name of Robert
Tidd.
Martin, John and Samuel were busy throughout the
winter building bodies for two wagons, both of which would
have canvas covered tops. The blacksmith equipment must
be taken, then everything else would be taken for which
room could be found. An additional yoke of oxen were
ft purchased. A strong chain was made for double teaming
through mud holes and up steep hillsides. John and Samuel
were each to drive a pair of oxen. Upon Sally and her
mother fell the burden of preparing the food on the jour-
ney. Charles and young Bessie were responsible for keeping
ft the cows following in line. Little Martin, a boy of five, rode
in the front wagon with his mother. Martin walked ahead,
or gave help wherever it was needed, A letter had been
sent to sister Olive and her husband telling them of the
planned journey westward. Ann and William faced the de-

parture of the rest of the family with regret. Brother John
said to Martin, "Keep me informed as to possibilities in the
Ohio country."
All was in readiness, and early in May 1794, Martin
Tidd with his family began the long journey to Pittsburgh
over roads that hardly deserved that name. On the morning
of departure Martin and Betsy lingered for a moment as
the wagons moved away from the big house. Much had
happened here. Six babies had been bora to Betsy. A fight
for life had faced Martin at the time of the massacre.
Twenty-four years of their lives had been spent here. The
years had been good; they had been happy. They had pros-
pered in a material way. Martin Tidd had established a
reputation for honesty and fair dealing. His advice was
sought and respected. They turned, and faced the West
with the courage, and faith in the future that put the
American pioneer in a class by himself.

Young James Hillman completed his enlistment in


Gen. Harmar's forces and left the service at Fort Mcintosh

68

at Beavertown, Pennsylvania, in August of 1785. He had


received word from his mother than she and his father, «
James Hillman, had settled just below Pittsburgh, on the
north bank of the Ohio river. It was a happy reunion for
the little family when James arrived at the cabin. His
mother's hair was graying,but she still was the same vigor- <
ous person that his father had married some twenty-five
years earlier. James was not a tall person, about five feet,
eight inches, in height. He was stocky in build, similar to
his Uncle Martin. His good nature and pleasing ways made
friends for him wherever he went. His unusual strength •
and endurance were well known; his fearlessness and good
judgment made him a natural leader. He worked with his
father during the winter, but that type of life had no appeal
for James. In the spring of 1786 he made the acquaintance ft
of two business men of Pittsburgh, Mr. Duncan and Mr.
Wilson, who had contracted to supply and deliver a quant-
ity of flour and bacon to the mouth of the Cuyahoga river
on .Lake Erie. This contract was made with the firm of #
Caldwell and Elliot of Detroit. An Englishman by the name
of James Hawder, who had a small sailing vessel, was to
receive the flour and bacon at the mouth of the Cuyahoga
river and carry it to Detroit. James Hillman entered into
an agreement with Duncan and Wilson to become their 4
packhorse man to deliver the goods at the mouth of the
Cuyahoga river. He began this work in May 1786. He had,
at times, as many as ten men and ninety packhorses in the
train. The route was as follows: they took the Sandusky #
trail, an old Indian trail, to where it crossed the Cuyahoga
river, then followed the east side of the Cuyahoga to where
Tinker's creek enters the river. Nearby there was a small
village of Moravian Indians. The river was then forded, and
the west side followed to where it flowed into Lake Erie. Six *
trips were made during the summer and autumn of 1786.
On one trip during the bad weather in autumn the sailboat
was not there to receive the flour and bacon. James knew
that shelter must be provided, so he set the men to cutting •
small trees. Improvising collars for the horses out of their
blankets, and using raw elkskin and deerskin thongs for
tugs to pull the logs to a central place, James Hillman built
the first cabin at the mouth of the Cuyahoga river, where
Cleveland now stands, just ten years before Moses Cleave-
land ever saw the place that bears his name.
Later, for two years, James Hillman became the agent
for Duncan and Wilson at Beaver, Pennsylvania. On the
evening of November 22, 1789, James attended a husking •

bee nearby. He noticed a nice looking girl for whom a con-


siderable amount of interest developed. During the danc-
69

ing that followd, James danced with her several times. He


was pleased with her, and proposed marriage, which she
accepted. A squire being present, the dancing halted tem-
porarily, "The squire assumed the magisterial look and
office, the magic words were said, the nuptial knot was tied,
and Catheme Daugherty became Mrs. Hillman."
By 1790 James had become an Indian trader on his
own. His territory included the valleys of the Beaver, Shen-
ango, Mahoning, and Cuyahoga rivers. His contacts with
the Indians were such as to develop their confidence in him.
He learned enough of the Seneca language to enable him
to carry on a fair conversation with them.
While returning from one of his trading expeditions
he was paddling his canoe down the Mahoning river late
one afternoon and noticed smoke arising from a camp fire
on the east bank of the river. He stopped to investigate, and
met two white men by the names of John Young and Alfred
Wolcott. The former explained how he had received this
particular tract of land in the drawing by which the mem-
bers of the Connecticut Land Company had distributed the
various plots of land in proportion to the amount of money
the individual had invested in said company. He was here
with Mr. Wolcott, a surveyor, for the purpose of surveying
• his township, preparatory to opening it for settlement. As
it was late afternoon, John Young invited Hillman to stay
for the night. The only thing that James had to add to the
enjoyment of the evening was a quart of whiskey. When
this was offered, John Young said, "that as host he should
provide everything;" but, upon searching his pockets he
found no money. The only item he possesed that could be
used for a trade was a deerskin that he had been using for
a bed. This was offered in trade and accepted. (Years later
the grandchildren of John Young humorously told the
story of their grandfather trading his bed in Ohio for a
drink of whiskey.) The evening was spent in congenial con-
versation. Just before retiring for the night, Hillman invited
the two men to go to Beaver with him the next day which
was July 4,1797. While there, John Young met James' wife
Catherine. He immediately offered her a present of fifty
acres of land within the area which he had been allotting
for his future village which became the city of Youngstown,
• Ohio. Catherine accepted his offer and became the first
woman to own land at this place. She and James went back
with Young and Wolcott, They built and lived in the first
cabin in Youngstown. This made her one of the very first
women to settle in the Western Reserve,
ft

70

ft

Late August 1794, found Martin Tidd and his family


completing the long journey over the Pennsylvania
mountains. Their trip had been free from sickness, and only
minor accidents had been encountered. But, those terrible •

mountains! Each one had to be climbed by double-teaming


which was a slow and tedious task. Each one had to be des-
cended, at least the steeper parts, by dragging a tree behind
each wagon to serve as a brake. Otherwise the steep parts f
could have been made only by snubbing. Martin did not
have ropes long enough for that purpose and he would not
pay money for someone else to snub him down; therefore
he cut trees to haul behind the wagons. Sometimes grass for i
the cattle had to be cut and carried with them, for not al-
ways did night find them where feed was available.
Therefore, it was with great relief and satisfaction that
the group pulled into the yard of James and Olive Hillman.
"John and Samuel were men," said Olive, "hard as nails #
from the work of the trip. Sally was a young woman, and
still single? Well, she wouldn't be long. And here was
Charles, no longer a small boy," as she remembered him.
Now for the two new ones, "Betsy, a girl of nine; going to
look just like her mother. And this is little Martin, why 9
you little rascal, come here to your Aunt Olive." Thus be-
gan little Martin's adoration for his aunt. During the next
years he spent much of his time with her. How much he was
like her own boy! Aunt Olive loved all, and in turn was |
loved by all, but with little Martin, it was more—he wor-
shipped her.
On a small acreage close by, James had begun a house
for Martin and Betsy. "This house is different," said Betsy.
Yes, it was, for it was being built from sawed lumber, no
logs in this. Martin was pleased. Soon the house was finish-
ed. It was a never ending delight to Betsy and her daugh-
ters. Real separate bedrooms. Martin and the boys soon
had a shop built. There was lots of work here near Pitts- ft
burgh, many horses to be shod, and many wagon tires
to be set. Martin drew the line at horse shoeing and said,
"Boys, you can shoe all the horses you want to, you're wel-
come to the work. I have enough else to do." Much of the #
time they kept two forges going, and the ring of their ham-
mers made merry music. Martin now had access to more
kinds of metals and began to experiment with their blend-
ing in making small bells. Different metals and the blend-
ing of them made different tones. Also the tone and pitch •
could be changed by the tempering. He also found that by
more or less pounding the tone of the bell could be changed.
He developed a reputation for bell making which he main-
71

tained the rest of his life.


Among the neighbors with whom the Tidds became
acquainted was a family from Maryland. Actually there
were two families. A Robert Lawton, wife and small daugh-
m
ter had left Maryland about 1792. A young man named
James Hill and his young sister Rebecca were also desirous
of going to the new Ohio river settlements. Their father,
a soldier, had died either during the Revolutionary War or
immediately after; and their mother had died shortly after
the war. The brother and very young sister, thus orphaned,
* had lived with an uncle for several years. The uncle had
died and family difficulties had arisen. James, having
heard much about the new country to the westward, felt
§ that he could provide for himself and his siser as well
there as elsewhere; hence the two joined a wagon train
headed for Pittsburgh. He hired space in a transport wagon
for their few belongings. Rebecca soon became acquainted
with the small Lawton girl, and the Hills and the Lawtons
# came to know each other. A strong friendship developed
between these two small groups. They had decided to settle,
at least for the time being, near the growing town of Pitts-
burgh; therefore, they built a double log house on the
north bank of the Ohio river about two miles below the
• town. Robert Lawton died in about two yeara, thus upon
James Hill fell the responsibility for support of both
families. James was a shoemaker and set up his shop in
a back room of the double cabin. James Hill was a tall,
• dark-eyed man thirty years of age. His sister, Rebecca,
was much younger but gave promise of the type of brown
haired, dark eyed beauty that needed only time to fulfill. A
strong attachment developed between James Hill and Sally
Tidd which resulted in their marriage.
James Hillman and his wife Catherine, came to visit
his parents in the autumn of 1797. He told of the new
settlement on the Mahoning river in Ohio. These glowing
accounts of opportunities in a new settlement gave Martin
the itch to travel again.
"But why," asked Betsy, "do we need to tear up and
leave here? We are already about as far west as there is
any civilization, and we are living in the best house we ever
had."
"Betsy, you don't understand. This region is getting
too thickly populated," answered Martin.
"Yes, it must be too thickly populated," she said,
"there are seven houses in two miles." Nevertheless, Martin
told young Hillman to pick him out a choice plot of some-
thing less than a hundred acres. This was done, and in the
spring of 1798 Martin and family again prepared to head
for the West. Young Martin was to stay for the summer
#

72

with his Aunt Olive. At the last minute James Hill and ft
Sally decided to go to Ohio with them. There were two
reasons for this decision. The first was to fulfill an old
desire to settle in the "Ohio country." Secondly, Mrs. Law-
ton had said that she was getting married that summer;
thus James felt that no further obligation of support was
required from him. Mrs. Lawton had suggested that Re-
becca remain with her, at least, until James had establish-
ed a home in the new country. This suggestion was gladly
accepted by James,
Martin had sold his house and shop to a young man
who had a wife and three small children. When the young
man saw that the amount of business would be beyond his
ability to meet, he offered to hire either John or Samuel
to remain and help him. Martin felt that he needed John
in moving and building in the new settlement, but would
permit Samuel to stay if he cared to, Samuel said that he
would stay. Betsy slowly nodded her head when she heard
of it, for she had noticed that he had been spending more
time than usual at the Hill-Lawton home. Martin said they
would take only one wagon, and that after a house was
built John could come back and get the other load and
young Martin. Only two things pleased Betsy, the distance
to Youngstown was not as formidable as the trip from the
Wyoming Valley; and there were no mountains that must
be crossed.
In June of 1798, Martin Tidd and his group became
the fourth family to settle in Youngstown. He was the first
man to drive an ox wagon into this new town, and the first
to set up a blacksmith shop. Hillman had chosen a site for
him near the river. Some of his land was thickly covered
with high grass, and Martin put up two stacks of hay for
winter feeding for the cattle. With many hands to work,
the building of a double cabin progressed rapidly. By Octo-
ber John and Charles were free to return for the rest of
their goods and equipment. They brought back, among
other things, plenty of iron to pound and enough leather
to keep Hill busy.

t
73

John Tidd, youngest son of Jacob Tidd of New Jersey,


followed the trade of potter as did the father. As will be
remembered this was the Jacob Tidd with whom Martin,
John and Olive lived for several years after the Brodhead
massacre and the death of Martin's father. This youngest
son John was therefore well acquainted with the two
brothers and the sister Olive. He served in the Revolution-
ary War forces and became a corporal. He married and had
at least one son born in 1775, who was named James. aAs
this boy grew up and heard the stories told by the father,
he developed an intense desire to visit these Pennsylvania
cousins. His father always concurred in this desire but sug-
gested that he wait until he had thoroughly learned the
trade of potter. He began the daily work of clay mixing,
turning, molding, and firing. At the age of twenty, James
felt that he had gained sufficient experience in this field,
and that now was the time to visit Pennsylvania. There-
fore, in 1795 a young man appeared at the home of Will-
g iam Tidd of Wyoming Valley and introduced himself. Will-
iam remembered that he had seen a boy of six when he visit-
ed in New Jersey, but of course could not recognize in that
boy this tall handsome young man.
"Well, well, we are very glad to have you with us.
• This is my wife Ann, and our little boy John David."
Later, William took him down river to the Tidd-Bristol
clay pit. This John to whom he was being introduced was
the person with whom his father had played as a boy.
• Young James fitted well into the family life of Will-
iam. He had a very high respect for Ann, and enjoyed
playing with the little boy. They talked often of Martin's
trip to Pittsburgh and of his family. He seemed to be very
1
interested in the few letters that told of young James Hill-
man in Ohio. During the following winter James Tidd met
a girl in the neighborhood by the name of Sarah Allen. She
was a girl that any young man would be pleased to know.
Their acquaintance ripened, and during the summer they
• were married. Now James had a responsibility, and so went
to work in the Tidd-Bristol pottery. The following year,
1797, a baby boy was bom and named James. Time passed,
and in about two years a baby daughter was bom and was
named Polly.
• In the year 1800 John Tidd received a letter from
his brother Martin telling that he had moved to a new set-
lement in Ohio by the name of Youngstown and that he
liked it very much, and that about eight miles northwest
• there was a place called "Salt Springs." In addition to salt
there was iron and some coal, also there had been found
considerable quantities of clay. No pottery work was being
done—That it looked as though this would some day be-
74

come quite a populated region. There followed the sug- ft


gestion that it might be well for him to move to Ohio. This
letter caused John to dispose of his interest in the Tidd-
Bristol pottery and go to Ohio in 1801 with his daughter
Nancy, his wife, and stepson, Thomas Bristol. James Tidd
was much enthused by the letter, but with two babies he
could hardly attempt the long journey. However, he told
John that in time he might reach Ohio.
The "Salt Springs" toward which John Tidd was head-
ed were known to white men as early as 1765. The area
was visited by Indians from the entire region, and it was
generally accepted that any group would not be molested
by war parties while at the Springs. In some way it had
come to the attention of Samuel Parsons of Middletown,
Connecticut. He applied for, and received a grant of 36.-
000 acres in this area under order of the General Assembly
of the State of Connecticut, for which he received a deed
on December 10, 1788, signed by Samuel Huntingdon, Gov-
ernor of Connecticut. This was the first grant of land made
by Connecticut, and was made prior to any survey; how-
ever, the boundaries were definite enough to cause the
Connecticut Land Company to respect the r'aims oi ehe
heirs of Samuel Parsons, In 1789, General Parsons went
to his purchase to establish the manufacturing of salt, which •

was a very scarce article on the frontier. Later the same


year, while on his way to Connecticut, he was drown-
ed at Beaver Falls. Several minerals were found in this
area and a particular strip of higher ground was named
"Mineral Ridge" and bears this name at the present time.
The Salt Springs lay within what became Weathersfield
township. The early settlers of this township were almost
entirely from Pennsylvania. Among the very earliest were
John Tidd and Peter Reel who came in 1801. The Tidd
family included John and his wife, his daughter Nancy,
and wife's son Thomas Bristol.
The following year, 1802, James Tidd, wife, and two
children, James and Polly, arrived. These groups, all pot-
ters, immediately began the industry of pottery making.
Their efforts, at first, were confined to hand methods;
nevertheless by 1816, two commerical potteries turning out
substantial production were in operation. One was run by ft
Orrin Dunscom, and the other was operated under the
name of Thomas Bristol. The quantity of clay in Weathers-
field was not inexhaustable; for by 1830 not a single mem-
ber of the Tidd families interested in the pottery business
remained in Weathersfield. The historian of the period
mentions that, "When the discovery of clay elsewhere be-
came known the potteries moved to other locations."
The settlement at Youngstown grew rapidly. Ten
75

families were there by the end of 1798, and by 1800, over


fifty families were counted. John Young brought his wife
to the new town. Young Betsy Tidd assisted her with the
care of the house and children during part of the year
1801. Mrs. Young never enjoyed the life on the frontier;
hence ,the entire Young family moved back to Whitestown.
John Young returned upon occasion to the town which bore
his name, but the business was left largely in the hands of
his agents.
An interesting incident was later told by Thomas Gid-
dings, one of the first settlers of Vernon township; that
in the spring of 1798, he was hired to go from Hartland,
Connecticut, to Pittsburgh and from there he was to drive
three cows to Vernon. He went by way of Youngsown. He
had been having so much trouble driving the cows through
the woods, that, upon arriving at Young's little settlement
and seeing the stacks of hay, he left the cows with Martin
Tidd.
From time to time Martin had heard from his old
friend, David Randall. It seems that Randall had left the
Wyoming valley and had lived ior a time near the Mononga-
hela river, and had later moved to Marietta in southern
Ohio. He had written Martin, asking about the opportun-
ities in Young's new settlement on the Mahoning. In 1799
Martin answered by saying that Dave should move into
this new country while it was still open. Therefore, it was
a pleasure to Martin and Betsy to think that the Tidd and
Randall families were to be together again. Dave with his
ox wagon and belongings and several children moved into
Youngstown early in 1800. Some of Dave's boys, like
Martin's, were grown men. It was the same easy, friendly
Dave of long ago. He still loved to fiddle and call for
dances. He had a host of friends, even if he didn't have
much money; Betsy remarked alone to Martin, "but you
can't eat your friends."
Two events of importance occured that same year.
Governor St, Clair issued a proclamation that formed the
entire portion of the Reserve into one county, which was
named "Trumbull" in honor of the governor of Connecti-
cut; Warren was chosen to be the county seat. The other
event was fraught with great danger and caused the
settlers much worry and anxiety, A group of Indians, who
were encamped not far from the Salt Springs, became in-
volved with some white men in an argument over whiskey.
As a result two of the Indians, named Captain George and
Spotted John, were shot and killed; also a squaw and her
baby were wounded. Consternation spread throughout the
settlement and fear of revenge by the Indians was felt in
every cabin. There were indications that this group was
76

trying to influence other Indians to acts of violence. The


squaw of Captain George had, before the tragedy, visited
the Randall cabin and was friendly. James Hillman and
David Randall followed the Indians and persuaded them to
allow the "action of the law to follow its course." The
Indians accepted the proposal, and as a result Joseph Mc-
Mahon and Richard Storer were arrested and marched to
the jail in Pittsburgh. Upon notice, Governor St. Clair set
a time for the trial, which took place late in the summer.
This trial was the first event of its kind and received con-
siderable publicity. B. J. Meigs, Benjamin Ives, and Gov-
ernor St. Clair acted as judges. George Tod was the prose-
cuting attorney, while Benjamin Tappan served as defense
counsel. Richard Storer had escaped, but McMahon was w

returned and stood trial. He was finally acquitted on the


grounds of self defense. The Indians felt that they had been
unfairly treated, but caused no further trouble. James
Hillman was acclaimed as "Preserver of the infant Re-
serve.** Few people know that David Randall played an im-
portant part in this "preservation.**
By 1880 it was not uncommon to see men r i d i n g
through or stopping at Young's settlement as they went
on to their lands farther into the Reserve. Martin had •
noticed one man in particular by the name of John Kins-
man who had visited his land in 1799. Again in the spring
of 1880 he had stopped at the settlement on the banks of
the Mahoning river. In the fall of the same year Martin
overheard this man telling John Young that he had begun
the survey of his property and had built one log cabin, and
expected to continue the following year. Early in the spring
of 1801 a group of men stayed overnight at Youngstown.
The names were those of a remarkable group of men:
Perkins, Tod, Pelton, Edwards, Peese, Kirtland, Kinsman,
and Reeve. Most of these men were landowners and at
Youngstown they separated, each going to his own area.
John Kinsman, with Tracy and Coit, had drawn the
township which bears his name. He bought the interests of
Coit and Tracy, thus becoming the sole owner. With Ebenez-
er Reeve, Kinsman went on to his holdings in 1801. Two
men, named Cummings and Matthews, soon followed him
and assisted in building two more cabins and clearing land
for Kinsman who returned to Connecticut that same
autumn. While passing through Youngstown, Kinsman
made a point of calling on Martin Tidd. Dave Randall hap-
pened to be there at the time.
"Mr. Tidd," began Kinsman, "I have a very good piece
of country twenty-five miles north of here that I intend to
open for settlement. I should be most happy to have you
consider moving up to my area. Most of the surveying is
77

finished and you can have your pick of the plots." He


went on describing the region and his plans.
u Have you got a sawmill yet?" asked Martin.
ii
Yes and no. I have two men clearing land for a dam
now. On my way home I expect to hire a man to build the
dam and install a mill by next summer."
ii
How about a grist mill?" inquired Martin.
a
I expect that will follow as soon as the sawmill is
in operation," replied Kinsman.
His map of the surveyed area was shown. Martin
selected a plot marked 206 acres.
"What will that cost me?" asked Tidd.
"How much land do you have here?" countered Kins-
man.
"I have sixty acres," answered Martin.
Kinsman thought a moment and said, "I'll trade you
one hundred acres up there for your sixty here and sell
you the other one hundred six acres for $212."
ft "I'll think it over," remarked Martin.
"If he decided to take," volunteered Randall, "I'll take
the piece next to it. And if you need someone to run your
sawmill, I might be available."
"Glad to hear it," answered Kinsman, "I'll see you in
the morning."
Thoughts of a new settlement were exhilarating to
Martin and Dave, but to Betsy, and Sally, Dave's wife, it
was something else.
"Maybe once more," was Betsy's answer.
The next morning Kinsman stopped at the shop to hear
the answer.
"I think I'll take it," said Martin.
"And does that answer for your friend Randall?"
asked Kinsman.
"I'll answer for Randall," said he as he walked in the
door, "I'll be moving with Martin next spring,"
Again preparations for a new home were under way.
Hearth crane and end-irons were made along with hinges
and a considerable quantity of nails. Glass was gotten and
the sashes for four windows were made. Again, as with
the last move, Martin would take only one load, for he had
but one yoke of oxen. The distance was not too great. It
was thought that the trip could be made in two days. Food
was prepared and all was ready. A young man by the name
of Robert Henry who worked nearby as a carpenter help-
ed load the wagon. Martin paid no particular attention,
but it did not escape the eye of his wife. Well, after all,
young Betsy was seventeen. The eagerness of Martin the
father was matched by Martin the son, who now was
thirteen and thought he was ready for anything. His job
A
78

it would be to keep the two cows in line. The evening be-


fore leaving, Martin in good humor said to Dave, "I'll
wager my anvil against your fiddle that I'll pull into this
new place ahead of you."
ii-
By how much?" asked Dave. ft
a-
By at least three hours."
But suppose there is a breakdown?"
"That will be the tough luck of the one in trouble,"
answered Martin.
"The bet is on," said Dave as they shook hands on it.
The stars had not yet begun to fade on the morning in
late April 1802, when the two wagons slowly rolled out
of the village of Youngstown. No wagon had ever been
driven to the new site to be known as Kinsman. A slight #
trail, made only by horses ridden to and from Kinsman, lay
before them. It was pretty much a task of "Pick your own
way"; however, an early spring had allowed the ground
to became settled. The forest was quite open, and not too
many streams had to be crossed. The Randall boys, with
Charles Tidd and James Hill made short work of obstruc- -

tions in their pathway, and what couldn't be moved were


by-passed. The road cleared on this initial trip was the one
used between Kinsman and Youngstown for several years.
Good progress was made. About noon on the second day *
Randall's wagon broke down. Martin looked at it and said,
"Dave I wouldn't be of much help in fixing it so I'll just
push along and clear the way." Late that afternoon Martin
Tidd drove his ox wagon into Kinsman to become the first
settler of that township. Prom the location of the cabins,
near what is now the square, Martin found the line of
blazed trees that directed him to his land which was a
little more than a mile to the east. He crossed a small creek
which later became known as Straton Creek, and followed
the line part way up a low hill. Here he found a fine spring
of water and a likely site for a house, and said, "Well,
Betsy, I guess this is it." The tops of some young saplings
were tied together, and the outside covered with branches;
and when the interior was cleared, a fairly good shelter
was available. A fire was kindled, cora meal mush was soon
ready, and the Martin Tidd family ate their first supper
in this new location. All were tired, and without further
ado, blankets were spread within the shelter and they slept.
Early the next morning, with breakfast over, Martin
gave some directions. "John, you help your mother and the
girls improve upon the shelter for we'll need to sleep in
it till a cabin can be built. Hill and Charles and I will begin •
girdling trees, for we must have an acre ready for com
planting within two weeks. Martin, your job is to herd the
oxen and the cows where there is grass; we crossed plenty
ft
79

m last night down by the creek, and while you're doing it


catch a pail of fish, for we've all got to eat."
Just to the east lay a fairly level area of about an acre
upon which several large trees grew and which was quite
§ free from underbrush. "This is just what we want," said
Martin as he tested the depth of the soil with a shovel.
"Look at that dark rich soil, it surely will grow corn." They
immediately began the task of cutting a notch of five or six
inches deep all the way around every tree trunk. This is
m called "girdling." The tree cannot fill with leaves for the
sap-wood has been entirely cut out, thus the sun shines
through the bare limbs, and corn can grow. It is the quickest
and easiest way to get a small area ready for planting. All
i small saplings and brush are cut and burned with as much
of the accumulated leaves as possible. Within the week the
girdling was finished, then followed the arduous task of
working the ground with grub hoes. Every available hand
was needed at this job. Young Martin and his sister Betsy
ft took turns grubbing and herding the cattle. The tending
of the cattle was not too hard, for each animal had a bell
with a different tone. As they grazed one could easily pick
out the different tones and thus account for each one. Soon

the animals became accustomed to the trip from their little
fenced enclosure to the grazing area down on the flats by
the creek. Betsy was not as adept at catching fish as was
Martin. This task of herding the cattle sometimes gave
them an opportunity of visiting the Randalls for they were

located down the hill and nearer the creek. Betsy thought
it was odd that Dave Randall was doing things just the way
her father did and she said so to her mother one day. To
which her mother replied, "Your father knows how to put
first things first, and if Dave is following Martin's example
it's a sign that he's learning."
By almost super-human efforts they had the acre ready
and planted to corn by the middle of May. This became the
pride and joy of Martin throughout the summer. He would
say with enthusiasm, "Betsy, look at that com grow, you
never have seen anything like it."
Then began the job of building a cabin. Betsy said,
"Build it with the idea in mind that it's to be lived in only
ft three or four years, for if John Kinsman gets his sawmill
working we are going to have a house built of sawed lumber
with separate rooms, and that is that." Her determination
left no room for argument. Therefore a large single cabin
ft
was planned with two rooms in the loft. As this cabin pro-
gressed, Martin could not help thinking of that other cabin
which James Hillman had helped build on the bank of
Anolomink creek over forty years ago in which his brother
John and sister Olive were married. Well, cabins were built
80

to be married in and lived in.


Late one afternoon as young Betsy drove the cattle *
back up the hill from their grazing, Martin straightened
up from his task of hewing logs long enough to see a young
man carrying a good sized pack walking beside the girl.
As they approached, Betsy said, "Father, you remember
Robert Henry, don't you? He helped build those two houses
near us last summer."
"Why, yes, I believe I do,*' answered Martin as he
shook hands with the young man, "You a carpenter?** he
added.
"Yes sir, I am a carpenter, heard as how you was
building a house, so thought I'd offer to lend a hand."
"Hands as what know how to work are always wel-
come. Betsy, tell your mother to set an extra plate for
supper," said Martin. More help made for faster headway
on the cabin. It was completed and ready to be occupied
by August. Some mention was made of having a house
warming. The next day Robert Henry finding Martin and
ft
his wife by themselves said to them, "I have a suggestion
to make as what would be a good celebration for the new
cabin."
"Let's have it, young man," answered Martin.
ii
We could, with your permit, have a wedding." #
if
Why boy, you haven't known young Betsy two
months,"
A said Martin with some heat.
u I have known her much longer, sir," replied Robert,
ii
I got acquainted with her last summer. And, sir, why do 9
you suppose I walked all the way up here from Youngs-
town ? "
"Martin, there is no need for further argument," in-
terrupted his wife, "I've seen it coming all along. But I
don't see how it can be done, there's no preacher around *
here."
"John Kinsman is a magistrate," said Martin, "Could
be that a marriage might be held after all," With Martin
making this suggestion, his consent was taken for granted.
Kinsman was asked for his help which was gladly promised.
The wedding was held the following week, and Martin's
last daughter was married. This was the first marriage con-
summated in the new township of Kinsman. It was surpris-
ing, the number that were present. Included were the
Randall family, Mr. Reeve with his two daughters, Hannah
and Deborah, Paul Rice and his mother, Alexander Clark
and Oriel Driggs, as well as a few of the men working on
the dam site and saw-mill construction. The first dance
of the settlement followed the supper, with the calling and
fiddling done by Dave Randall.
True to his word, John Kinsman hired a mill-wright
ft

81

named James King from Pennsylvania. Early in the summer


of 1802, Kinsman hired several workers to push the building
of the dam and the flume. Among this number were a Mr.
Barnes, and his two daughters, who were to do the cooking
for the men. They soon became homesick and left. Their

places were taken by James and Sally Hill. The dam and
sawmill were ready for use late in the autumn of 1802.
Kinsman engaged David Randall to run the sawmill and
provided him with a house near the mill, thus Randall did
not have to build at that time. This pleased no one as much
as it did Mrs. Randall. She gave birth to twin daughters
late in 1802 and named them Sally and Phoebe. These were
the first babies bora in Kinsman. (Years later they were
married to men from the nearby township of Williamsfield,
R. Brown and Charles Woodworth; and lived the remainder
of their lives in Williamsfield).
Late in 1802 Charles Case and his son Zopher arrived
in Kinsman. The son immediately went to work with Dave
ft Randall in cutting and hauling logs, also in running the
sawmill. During the days when her husband was busy else-
where, Mrs. Randall set the saw in the mill. She was a
woman of great strength and courage. She said, "It was
nothing to set the saw, but it was rather hard to tread back
• the carriage with her feet." Zopher Case made rapid pro-
gress in a social way, for early in 1803 he married Anna
Randall and before the year ended they were the parents
of a baby girl. During the same year Sally Tidd Hill and
her sister Betsy Tidd Henry gave birth to baby boys, the
first boy cousins bom in the township. One was named
Martin Hill and the other James Henry.
The year 1803 brought several new families to Kins-
man among which were those of John Wade, John Little
.and Walter Davis. Also Isaac and John Matthews with their
sister arrived and settled on the farm that later became
known as the "Kinsman Farm." In addition to these set-
tlers, William Tidd from Wyoming, Pennsylvania, with his
wife and boy, moved into Kinsman and settled on what later
became known as the Alexander Wade place.
To show her interest in the women of the new settle-
ment, Mrs. John Kinsman sent calico cloth to the new
mothers of sufficient amount to make themselves dresses.
This offer apparently was made only in the one year of
1803. Mrs. Randall, Mrs. Case, Mrs. Hill, Mrs. Henry, Mis.
Robert Laughlin and one other received their gifts of cloth
from Mrs. Kinsman.
ft 1804 found more families moving to Kinsman. The
same year also brought the first death and burial in the
new settlement. In April John Tidd, son of Martin and
Betsy, was stricken with fever and died at the age of
ft
82

thirty-two. He had never married.


The first July 4th celebration was held in 1804. In
the morning, the men gathered with their guns. They went
up the Pymatuning creek, soon the sound of gun shots were
heard. Boys and young women followed them and found
many ducks tied to the branches of trees; these, with other
game, provided a bountiful dinner although it was quite late
in the day. .Afterwards, dancing to the tunes of Randall's
fiddle, and the drinking of "hot whiskey" filled the evening.
July of the same year found John Kinsman bringing
his entire family to the settlement. One two-horse wagon
for the family use, two wagons drawn by four horses each,
filled with goods and supplies, an ox wagon and several
riding horses made up the train. They had been seven
weeks on the road. Later in the summer Mrs. Kinsman gave
birth to her fifth child. Although Kinsman had set up a
small store in the fall of 1802, he now established a well
supplied store in his town. Seth Perkins arrived in 1804
and married Lucy Thompson of Hartford, a nearby settle-
ment; also Leonard Blackburn, with wife and daughter,
came the same year. By 1805 Samuel Tidd and wife Rebecca
with their small son (possibly named Hugh) were number-
ed among the thirty families in Kinsman. James Hill and
wife Sally added another boy to their family and named •

him James.
Considerable sickness was suffered during 1805. The
people from Vernon and Hartford made complaints to John
Kinsman that the dam and backwater on the Pymatuning
creek caused the sickness. Two attempts to cut the dam
were thwarted. After one of these deeds had been commit-
ted, John Kinsman saw a man standing on the south side
of the creek, so he rode over and invited the man to come
to his store. After satisfying himself that this was the per-
son who had cut the dam, Mr. Kinsman gave him a sound
flogging. Realizing that he had done wrong, he offered to
make amends by giving the man some goods from the store.
An amount of three dollars worth of goods was given and •

accepted. Mrs. Davis and small child of Oriel Driggs died


of fever in 1805. The former was the fiirst adult women to
die in Kinsman. Also in 1805 the five year old son of
Samuel Tidd died from burns.
Leonard Blackburn taught the first school in Kins-
man. This was a night school for boys and was held in
the Neal cabin during the winter of 1805 and 1806. Young
Martin Tidd attended this school. The building of a log
schoolhouse was begun late in 1805 on the banks of the
Stratton creek on land donated by David Randall, but was
not completed until the following year. Jedediah Burn-
ham, a young man from Connecticut, became the first teach-
83

er of the regular school in the new building. Benjamin


Allen taught in 1807 and Dr. Peter Allen taught in 1808.
The first doctor of the entire area was Dr. Peter
Allen of Connecticut who arrived in 1808. He had married
Charity Dudley, to her was bora a baby in 1814 named
Dudley Allen. The son became a doctor and his son Dudley
P. Allen became a prominent doctor and surgeon in Cleve-
land. Later Mrs. Allen was killed in an accident, and the
doctor married a Miss Starr who was a niece of Mrs. Kins-
man. In 1821 Dr. Allen built a very fine house at a cost
of $3,000 just north of the village.
Plumb Sutliff had settled on a farm on what became
the center road and had married Deborah Reeve. In 1806

John Allen arrived in Kinsman and secured the David
Randall farm by trading to David a tract of somewhat over
two hundred acres in the next township to the north named
Williamsfield. Randall had set out the first apple orchard
in Kinsman. John and William Gillis had arrived in Kins-
man along with John Andrews who married Hannah Reeve.
In 1812 he set up the second store in the town. Although
the benevolence of John Andrews was well known, his
shrewdness sometimes aroused the ire of his customers.
The following humorous incident illustrates the point. An
• account was being settled and Andrews, after totaling the
figures, said to the woman, "I owe you one cent"
"I'll take a needle," she answered.
Upon handing her the needle, he said, "Now you owe
me one cent. The price of the needle is two cents."
She gave him a hard look, then breaking the needle
into two pieces she handed back to him the worthless point
end, and muttered .as she walked from the store, "You
could rattle the souls of a hundred men the size of John
Andrews' in a flea's bladder."
In 1803 and 1804 the people of Kinsman, Vernon, and
Hartford united in the formation of the Presbyterian church.
In time, as the settlement grew, each township had its own
church.
Agitation for the draining of the dam continued; how-
ever, the final act which brought about the cutting of the
flume occurred in the spring of 1806. A Miss Chloe Gilder

from Gustavus while riding on her horse across the head
of the dam fell off into the water and was disowned. Im-
mediately the dam was drained, thus Kinsman was without
a sawmill. The Gillis brothers began work on damming the
Stratton creek about one mile above the village. Soon they
had a sawmill to which was added a grist mill. In a short
time a shop for the "fulling and dressing of cloth" was
built and to it was added a carding machine. To join
these business enterprises, William Henry established a tan-
84

nery, and George Dement built a whiskey distillery. The •


one expensive article in the settlement was salt. Their
supply was made in Onondaga, New York, shipped by
Lake Erie to Conneaut, then south by wagon. Soon it was
transferred to pack horses and arrived in Kinsman by way g
of what was called the "Salt Road" which later became
known as the Ridge road through northern Kinsman and
Williamsfield. The salt sold for twenty dollars per bushel.
The need for better roads was making itself felt. A
road from Mercer, Pennsylvania, up through Greenville, *
Pennsylvania, had been extended to the Ohio-Pennsylvania
line, and steps were being taken to join that road with one
from Kinsman. Therefore, in 1806, a surveyor with axeman
and chainman began the job of surveying the proposed *
route, A road of passable quality extended directly east
from Kinsman's village for about one mile, then it turned
southward. The proposed route for the new Mercer road
was to start at this bend and go in a straight line to meet
the extention of the Mercer road. This would have cut *
Martin Tidd's land into two parts, to which he was opposed.
On the day the surveying work was to begin he had in-
structed young Martin to watch, and if the line was being
started through his property the boy was to inform him
immediately. The boy did as he had been told, and the mess-
age was that the "surveyors were coming." Martin and
his son Martin and his son-in-law William walked down
through the woods to meet the workmen.
"Where you heading for?" asked Martin of the Sur-
veyor.
"I am running a line from the bend in the road back
there to meet the end of the Mercer road," replied the man.
"Why don't you survey the road straight east from «
the bend, then up on top of the hill you could turn and meet
the Pennsylvania road?" asked Martin.
"Well," answered the surveyor, "It was thought this
would be best, and this is the way it's going to be." #
"It is like hell, mister." By this time Martin was
thoroughly aroused. He had controlled his feelings up to
this time, but now, in no uncertain manner he was going
to do the telling, so he continued, "You can use my north
line, which is plainly marked, as the middle of your pro- ft
posed road if you wish. But your damn road does not cut
through my land and that's that." The chainman had come
up to listen to the difference of opinion and had looped his
chain across a fallen log. Martin had carried an axe with t
him, whereupon, he quickly raised the axe and with two
sharp blows cut the chain into three parts. Turning to the
surveyor he said, "That's just a sample, mister, as to what
will happen if you try to go any farther on my land. Now
t j
85

get out." The surveyor returned to the village. The next


day he began his line at the bend in the old road and by
making a slight swerve, surveyed straight east up over the
hill, and after he had passed Martin Tidd's land, he made
a full right-hand turn which enabled him to join the
Mercer road. The slight deviation in the road is still ap-
parent today.
Time passed. Martin, with the help of Robert Henry
and his two sons Charles and Martin, built a frame house
near the spring and not far from the new road which
now formed their north line. This house pleased Betsy in
every respect. She was happy in her Ohio home. David
Randall had moved to Williamsfield in 1806, on to Rich-
mond later and then back to Kinsman where he bought land
on Stratton creek, built a dam and sawmill.
In 1806 the first military company was organized
with Randall as captain, Zopher Case as lieutenant, and
George Dement as ensign. This company had ceased to exist
by the time a military group was really needed. The second
war with England was approaching and again the frontier
settlements bore the brunt of Indian raids. The "Hair-buy-
ing" of Gen. Hamilton had been of great concern to settle-
ments farther west and nearer the Lake. With the need
for troops growing daily, this area took steps to provide
its quota. Col. Richard Hayes and Jedediah Burnham re-
cruited the company in Kinsman. Burnham was made
captain, flight companies from this region concentrated at
Kinsman under the command of Col. Hayes, and on the
morning of August 24, 1812, the regiment marched north
from Kinsman up the new center road. Among the local
company were Samuel Randall, Charles Tidd, Martin Tidd
Jr., (this is one of the very few times this name ever ap-
pears as Jr.) Benjamin Allen Jr., J. R. Giddings, Robert
King and Jedediah Burnham, After marching some three
miles, Samuel Randall who was walking beside Martin Tidd,
nodded to a small clearing in which a poorly built log house
could be seen, said, "That's my father's Williamsfield land."
At the moment, Martin paid it no particular attenion. The
regiment camped for the night at Andover, having covered
ten miles.
The second day found them encamped at Jefferson,
the third day at Austinburg, and the end of the fourth day
brought them to Harpersfield. Here they were joined by
Gen, Perkins, who spent the following day in dividing the
troops into two groups. One group, composed of married
men and men of poor physical condition, was sent home.
The second group, representing a better class of soldiers,
were retained. Marching to Cleveland, they were joined by
Major Gen. Wadsworth. They went to Huron where they
86

stayed until November. From this place, on occasion, com-


panies would be sent out on scouting expeditions. Capt.
Burnham was ordered out one day to investigate an Indian
raid. Young Allen and Charles Tidd and Martin were to-
gether. They found a dead man who had been shot by the
Indians while he was digging potatoes.
Capt. Burnham was made postmaster at Ft. Stevenson.
lieut. Allen was made temporary captain in Burnham's
absence. Their duties involved expeditions and spasmodic
skirmishes with roving bands of Indians. Several soldiers
were killed. There was much sickness in camp. The Kins-
man troops with others of the region reached home on
October, 1, 1813 and were discharged.
Not long after his discharge from the army Charles
Tidd married a girl named Rachel, and established his own
home in Kinsman. Young Martin Tidd lived at home and
worked for David Randall in his newly built saw mill.
Weathersfield township, during the period from the
very early 1800's to the late 1820's, was the home of sever-
al Tidds. In addition to John Tidd who arrived there in
1801, and James Tidd, father of two young children, who
arrived in 1802, we find that by 1820, William Tidd, son
of the above-named John, with his wife Ann and their son
John David were making their home in Weathersfield. His •

choice of land in Kinsman had not been good. Instead of


getting the rich bottom land along Stratton creek or Pyma-
tuning creek, he had taken land on the hill in the southeast
corner of the township. Whether or not this was the cause •
of his leaving Kinsman is not known; however, we do
know that the first Federal Census taken in Ohio, 1820,
lists said William, wife and son in Weathersfield.
Turning our attention to New Jersey we remember -
that William Tidd, brother of John Tidd father of Martin
Tidd, was one of the survivors of the Brodhead massacre
of 1755. After seeking refuge and safety in the Jerseys
William made that his permanent home. He married and
named his son William Tidd. It was this William who served •
in Washington's army and received the rank of corporal
and is so designated in the New Jersey records. His son,
William Jr. apparently had heard of the opportunities
in the pottery business in Ohio, therefore he moved to #
Ohio. In the census of 1820 we find William Tidd Jr., wife
and two boys and two girls living in Weathersfield town-
ship.
In the early marriage records for Trumbull county
Ohio, we find that on June 16, 1817, a John Draper *
married Polly Tidd, daughter of James Tidd. The ceremony
was performed by Mr. Truesdale, J. P. Also the record in-
cludes the marriage of David Tidd to Eleanor Lenox on
\

87
December 6, 1824, both being from Weathersfield town-
ship. One more interesting record is disclosed. On April 15,
1830, the marriage of Nancy Tidd and Thomas Bistol was
solemnized by Rev. Adam Bently, Church of Christ of
Warren, Ohio.
As has been pointed out, the Tidds of Weathersfield
had all moved from that region by 1830. The assumption,
that being potters by trade and inclination they followed
the pottery business into southeastern Ohio, is logical. How-
ever, this does not apply to James Tidd, the son of James
who married Sarah Allen in 1796, and moved to Weathers-
field in 1802. This James grew up and about 1820 married
a girl named Sarah. This young couple moved to and estab-
lished their home in Deerfield township, some twenty miles
west of Youngstown. He engaged in the charcoal business,
supplying this necessary product to the growing iron and
steel mills of Youngstown and Poland. To James and Sarah
a daughter was born in 1822 and was named Sarah. Another
daughter, bora in 1825, was named Mary Ann. In 1827
a son named Jeremiah Mervin was born, and two years
later son George was added to the family. An interesting
incident is connected with the naming of the next baby.
James Tidd had formed an acquaintance with James Hill-
man of Youngstown, and living near this city, visits were
exchanged and contracts made more often than with any
other relative. Not too long before the next baby was born
to Sarah, James Hillman and wife visited the Tidds of
Deerfield. As they were leaving, Hillman remarked, "If
the next baby is a boy and you name him after me, I'll re-
member him in my will." A laugh was enjoyed by all*
Nevertheless, the baby that soon arrived was a boy and
he was named James Hillman Tidd; he was born in 1831.
The boy grew up, and with few exceptions his name was
known as Hillman Tidd, and to his many nephews and
nieces, he was always known as Uncle Hillman. (The
writer has contacted many persons that never knew his first
name was James.) The conclusion of this story is that in
the will of James Hillman of Youngstown, probated in the
year 1849, appears the following item: "—Also, under
the same conditions I give to James Hillman Tidd, son of
James Tidd, one acre of land on the south side of the road

opposite my present house." The last child bom to James
and Sarah in 1834, was named Artemus Tidd. Shortly after
this James moved to Howland township, just east of War-
ren, Ohio, and built a log house on what is now the south-
west corner of the intersection of routes 46 and 82. The
log house was later replaced by a frame house built by his
son Mervin.

88

Col. James Hillman remained in Youngstown the re-


mainder of his life becoming one of the prominent citizens
of that city. Some historians have said that the success of
the settlement was more dependent upon him than upon
John Young. In 1804 Hillman sold one acre of land on the ft
Mahoning river to Caleb Plum, upon which was built the
first sawmill. After living for some time in his log house,
the first built in the settlement, James Hillman moved to a
sixty acre farm on the west side of the river and built a •
frame house. In 1808 he moved back to the village and
built and operated a tavern. He served as wagon-master
under Col. Rayne in the War of 1812. After his return from
this service he operated another tavern in the village until
1824 when he bought a farm on the west side of the river •
and built a house. This was his home the remainder of his
life. At the establishment of Trumbull County in 1800 by
Governor St. Clair, Hillman was named constable. On
February 16,1808 he was commissioned by the governor of §
Ohio as lieutenant-Colonel, commandant of the Second
Regiment, First Brigade, Fourth Division, Ohio militia,
and took the official oath on March 19, 1808. He served
several terms as township trustee. In 1814 he was elected
State Representative. Later he was elected Sheriff. In 1825
he was elected Justice of the Peace and held this office for
many years. He died in October of 1848 at the age of
eighty-six. His wife, Catherine, died seven years later at the
age of eighty-three. Both are buried in the Oak Hill cem- m
etery in Youngstown,

The death of their little boy in 1805 was a terrible


blow to Samuel and Rebecca Tidd. She soon begged Samuel
to move away from Kinsman. This, and the fact that there
were already two blacksmith shops in the small community, ft
caused Samuel to move soon after the year 1805. There is
some evidence that he went to Hartford for a time; how-
ever, we do know that by 1810 Samuel Tidd and family,
accompanied by James Hill and his family, made the trip
to the western part of Ohio and settled in the Mad River
area that later was included in the new county named
Logan. From this area both Samuel Tidd and James Hill
served in the Third Ohio Militia under Col. Benjamin
ft
89

ft Schooler in the War of 1812. Logan county had not yet been
formed, therefore the names appear in the lists of Cham-
paign county troops. Their first stop seems to have been
at Zanestown which was inhabited as early as 1803. By
1811, Samuel had established a blacksmith shop near "Mc-
pherson's Blockhouse" which appears to have been just a
few miles from the present site of Bellefontaine. By 1817
he moved into what became Richland township.
In 1821, Samuel Tidd's last son, named Charles S.
Tidd was bora. In 1822 Samuel Tidd and family moved
from the Mad River region northward and became the
first settler in what became Roundhead township. Indians
in considerable numbers still lived in this area. In fact, the
name of the township came from them. An Indian chief had
a name which translated into English meant "roundhead,"
and by this name he was known. Samuel was a blacksmith,
and while the Indians were still in the area he enjoyed
their friendliness and trade. They were fond of having bells
on their horses, and Samuel was highly skilled in making
bells, as was his father Martin. Charles, the boy, told many
years later of practically growing up with Indian boys with
whom he played, hunted, and wrestled. During the year
following Samuel's arrival in Roundhead his last child was
born and was named Jane. She was the first white girl baby
bora in Hardin county. The name of Samuel's child, who
died of bums in Kinsman is not included in the list of names
appearing in Roundhead.
James Hill and wife Sally and at least some of their
children moved from the Mad River region into Roundhead
in 1825, He settled on a farm and remained there until
his death. He and Sally were the parents of eight children.
We have already seen that Martin Hill and James Hill were
born in Kinsman in the years 1803 and 1805. He was one
of the organizers of the Bowdle Methodist Church. The
fourth and youngest son, named Samuel, was bora in Logan
county. He bought land adjoining his father's farm. The
two worked together until the father's death in 1862 at
the age of ninety-nine. It is said that his health throughout
his life had been excellent, that he had never needed the
care of a doctor. Sally his wife died in 1851 at the age of
seventy-seven.

life in Kinsman was a busy one. The families that had


selected the so-called "Prairie land" with some misgivings
now forged ahead in the growing of grain. The flats along
Stratton creek and the low ridge between that and the
90

Pymatuning creek were thinly forested. Considerable areas


had no trees at all, thus the name prairie land was given
to it. Some people thought that, because it was not grow-
ing trees, the land must be very poor; however, upon plow-
ing and planting, this land brought forth bounteous crops of
corn and wheat. Kinsman soon took the lead in Trumbull
county in the production of grain. Robert Henry and wife
Betsy remained with Martin on the home farm. Martin Jr.
lived at home and helped with the work whenever possible.
He was now working for David Randall in his sawmill.
In 1815 Randall heard of the opportunities in Michigan and
soon was filled with a desire to go; however, he had some-
thing like two hundred acres of land in Williamsfield town-
ship to the north. One day he remarked to young Martin,
"Why don't you buy my land up there and establish your-
self a home? I have a log house on it, not too good, but
still it's a house."
1*1
How much do you want for i t ? " queried Martin.
u Tell you what I'll do," eagerly replied Dave. "I still
owe two hundred dollars on it. I have paid the same amount,
and built the house and made a small clearing. I was look-
ing over my figures last night, and I find I owe you about
one hundred dollars. You give me a hundred dollars, and
take over what I owe on it and we'll call it a deal," •

"I'll think it over," answered Martin. He had saved his


army money and some besides. He could pay Dave and still
have a little to start on. The deal was closed and Martin
assumed the debt on the land. David Randall, his wife,
and two sons moved to Michigan and lived there until his
death. Mrs. Randall returned to Williamsfield and lived
with her two daughters until her death.
Martin prepared to start work on his land. His father
gave him a yoke of oxen, and his mother made up two large
bundles of things he would need in his new home.
"What you need most is a wife," said his father.
The zeal with which he entered upon his new life
kept him from thinking too much about his father's advice •

for a time. He was able to plow a part of the clearing for


a small patch of cora in the spring of 1816. He also burned
over and "scratched in" an acre of wheat in September.
All fall he cut trees for a "slashing fire" for corn another
year. He hunted up a few traps, and by using many dead-
falls, he ran a trap line during the winter. By late winter
he had begun to think seriously of his father's words about
a wife. Among the girls that he knew, the daughter of his
old school teacher, Leonard Blackburn, was the only one
in whom he had any interest. But she was pretty young.
He remembered that back in the days of the night school
held in the Neal cabin in 1805, the father had sometimes

91
brought the little girl to school when possibly the mother
was ill or busy, and then she was only five years old.
Nevertheless, when he sold his furs in Kinsman in the spring
he called at the Blackburn home. All seemed pleased to
see him and invited him to come again. They had shown
considerable interest in the fact that he had bought a farm
and was trying to get established. He did visit again and the
third time he was invited to Sunday dinner. Deborah
Blackburn was good to look upon. She was strong and cap-
able, and although good natured, she was of the serious
type. The spring sunshine and other influences were doing
things to young Martin, He was not sure just how she felt
about him, but with the next invitation to Sunday dinner
f mJ

ft
he was determined to find out. This he did and was
somewhat surprised as well as greatly pleased to find that
she held him in high regard. She was seventeen years of
age on April 10, 1817. Leonard Blackburn gave his con-
sent to the marriage, but because of her youth, he had to
go to Warren to sign the license. Kinsman, Gustavus, and
Greene townships were considered at that time, as one,
from a civil administrative standpoint. Therefore, the li-
cense was signed and the address was given as of Greene.
In September of 1817 Martin H. Tidd married Deborah
Blackburn. The ceremony was solemnized by Rev. Coe.
Several items of household equipment were given to the
young couple. They began their happy married life on
his land in Williamsfield township at which place they
lived throughout their lives. The log house stood on the
west side of the center road, less than a half mile north of
the Kinsman-Williamsfield line. Their land lay on both
sides of the road and was sometimes referred to as the
"first farm in Williamsfield", which simply meant that a
person travelling north on the center road came to their
place first. Nevertheless, it is true that when the log cabin
was built it was one of the very first in the township,
Martin realized that the house was inadequate, and plans
were soon laid for the building of a new house the fol-
lowing year.
It was with great happiness that these young people
welcomed the birth of a baby boy on June 9, 1818. The
parents named the boy Martin. His grandfather, Martin
Tidd, was so pleased with the baby boy and his name that
he promptly gave the father a good cow with the sugges-
tion that in case of necessity "that's to help keep the boy
well fed." Martin and Deborah, by dint of hard work
and sacrifice slowly got ahead. The debt was paid off
and they were happy.
Sorrow came to Deborah in 1819 for that was the year
that her father, Leonard Blackburn died. The mother
92

had been dead for several years. The younger sister,


Mary, now eleven years old, came to live with Martin. •
Late in 1819 another baby boy was born and named John.
In 1818 a young lad of sixteen years came to Kinsman
with his parents. His name was Harmon Cole. While
Deborah Tidd's younger sister Mary was attending school •
in Kinsman she became acquainted with Harmon Cole
and later married him. He became quite prominent in
Kinsman, held several local offices including Justice of
the Peace, as will be noted later. Thus the name Harmon
Cole was used years later when the fifth grandson of •
Deborah was born in 1849.
Dr. Allen, in addition to his medical interests, also felt
the importance of keeping and perpetuating items of his-
torical significance. Historians of the area and the period
are indebted to him for preserving such material relative
to the early development of Kinsman, The Dr. Allen
family and the Tidd family enjoyed a friendship more in-
timate than many of the day. On one occasion Dr. Allen
said to Martin, "I think there should be preserved for com-
ing generations a picture of the first settler of our com-
munity."
"Who would want to see a picture of me?" replied
Martin. •

"Why, there will be many persons that will be interested


in looking at the likeness of our first pioneer," and the
Doctor continued, "I'll tell you what I will do if you are
willing. At the earliest opportunity I will hire a portrait ft
painter to come and do the work for us." Martin gave
his consent, and Dr. Allen did as he had said. Soon the
painting was made and became a prized possession of the
Allen family. Years later, among other things, this paint-
ing was donated to the Museum of the Western Reserve •
Historical Society in Cleveland, and at times, is on display
in that museum. A reproduction of this likeness appears
in this book.
Another example of this friendship is shown in the *
daily "account book" of the old doctor. We find that
Charles Tidd, son of Martin, did considerable work for the
doctor and, above the cost of his familys' medical needs,
maintained a credit.
The exact time of the death of Martin and of Betsy are •
not known. The dates can be arrived at only by deduc-
tion. We do know that several persons of the period
lived well into their "eighties**. Also we know that Mar-
tin and Betsy were living at the time when the 1820 een- •
sus was taken, for both appear in that enumeration. An
entry (and the last one) in Dr. Allen's "account book"
shows that Martin Tidd's account was balanced in Decern-
93

ber 1825 by the payment of $1.50. The entry does not


show, as in some other cases, that the payment was made
by any other person. We also know that Robert Henry
and his wife and children moved away from Kinsman
early in the year 1828. Therefore, the logical conclusion,
in the absence of cemetery records, is that Betsy Tidd
died sometime between 1820 and 1828; and that Martin
Tidd died between 1825 and 1828. The double burial lot
of the early Tidd family lies in the old burial grounds in
Kinsman bordering on what k called the "State" road.
Their long lives were ended. They had lived and work-
ed. They had served their country with loyalty, their
community with distinction, their family with devotion,
and their God with reverence. It would be difficult to find
an instance in which the following scripture could be more
applicable. "Blessed are the dead which die in the Lord
from henceforth: Yea, said the Spirit, that they may rest
from their labors; and their works do follow them.'*

Robert Henry, wife and children, moved in 1828 into the


northwest corner of the adjoining township of Vernon and
bought a farm. The census of 1830 shows that they were
the parents of four boys and two girls. With Betsy Henry
living in Vernon and Martin H. Tidd living in Williams-
field, and Samuel Tidd with Sally Tidd Hill in Roundhead,
and Ann, wife of William, in Weathersfield or elsewhere,
Charles was the only member of the family left in Kinsman
And that is what the census in 1830: reveals; that Charles
Tidd, wife, four boys and two girls were residents of Kins-
man, although not for long. Dr. Allen's "account book"
ft shows that on February 25, 1832, Charles settled hii ac-
count and received $4.75 in cash. Charles Tidd and family
left Kinsman. Apparently he had been in correspondence
with the Tidds and Hills of Roundhead, for in April of 1833
he voted in the first election held in Roundhead township.
Not only did he vote, b u t h e acted as one of the election
judges. In the same election are also found the names of
Samuel Tidd, and John Tidd; and in the election held the
following October appears the name of William Tidd.
ft
Knowing that William Tidd, wife, and son John David, had
left Weathersfield before 1830, and finding the same set
of names on the election records in Roundhead, the home

A
94

of William's Uncle Samuel and Aunt Sally, it is logical


to assume that William and family had moved to Hardin
county and that Charles and family had followed in the
year 1832. In the "day book" of the first storekeeper
of Roundhead in which daily purchases were recorded,
appears the accounts of several Tidds; Samuel, Hugh, ft
Charles, John, John W. and Martin. Wives, sons and
daughters, and mothers used the corresponding accounts,
but their identity is clearly recorded by the number of the
account. There accounts were for the years 1833 and
1834. John Tidd's account was used by his mother and ft
Susannah. Mary Tidd and William Tidd used the same
account. A son and daughter used Charles' account. The
type of items purchased indicated that Samuel, Hugh. John,
John W., Charles and Martin were householders. Martin
and John received many entries for credit from farm pro-
duce and deerskins and furs.
It is not known how long Charles and his family lived in
Roundhead, but records in Kenton reveal that Charles Tidd
and wife Rachel sold to Alex Templeton lot no, 32 in
Roundhead township. The deed was witnessed in 1837
by Samuel Tidd and John Tidd. There is evidence that
some of the Tidds left Roundhead and moved to Fayette
county. 111. The fact is that Charles Tidd did not stay
there long enough for his children to marry and remain
in that locality for none of his descendents are in that
region now. His youngest son, named Martin, was married
and had established himself in business as a tailor in In- «

dependence, Missouri and moved to Alliance, Ohio, and


established himself as a tailor. He remained in Alliance,
followed his trade and reared his family. He died in 1915.
His first wife Lydia bore him four children, Samuel,
Charles, Alice and Florence. His second wife, Maria bore
no children.
It is believed that a brother to Martin, named Charles,
moved into the Alliance area whose wife was named Marv
E. Tidd b. 1838, d. 1885. Her headstone stands on the Tidd i
lot in the Alliance city cemetery.
The Hill family of Roundhead purchased land directly
from the U. S. land office at Bucyrus, Ohio in 1834. The
deed for this land was drawn in the name of James Hill and •
was signed by President Andrew Jackson. This deed, as
well as the land, is still in the possession of the Hill family.


95

Martin H. Tidd of Williamsfield continued to clear his


farm. After his brother Charles left Kinsman in 1882, he
was the only Tidd in the entire area except his sister Betsy
in Vernon. His family had grown. Added to the family
were, Mary, Leonard, Charles, Nancy, Albert, Alvin, James
Lyman, and then a little girl baby. Martin many times
thought of his Aunt Olive, of her sweet disposition and win-
ning ways. She was his tenth child so the name of Olive
was given to this little girl who was bora in the middle
1830's.
A sorrowful event was soon to befall this family. The
first serious bereavement to invade this happy family was
the death of the father in March 1837. He was laid to
rest in the lot adjoining his father's in what is called the
"old cemetery" in Kinsman. Deborah was now faced with
the tremendous task of providing for the large family.
Young Martin came to her aid. Although not yet nineteen
years of age, he shouldered the responsibility with the
help of his brother John.
Deborah later married a Mr. Brown and to them two
children were born, a boy named Anderson and a girl
named Amelia. She grew up and married a John Stark.
They moved to Benton Harbor, Michigan.
The settlement of the estate of Martin H, Tidd was begun
early in 1848. The probate court records in Jefferson, Ohio
show that on June 8, 1848, Deborah Tidd Brown was ap-
pointed guardian over the three minor children, Albert A.,
Alvin A., and James Lyman, This appointment was made
upon presentment of an affidavit drawn and dgned on
June 7, 1848, by Harmon Cole, Justice of the Peace, Kins-
man, Ohio. That same year John and Charles entered
Meadville College, in Meadville, Pemrylvania, about
twenty-five miles from Williamsfield. A copy of what is
probably the only letter extant in the handwriting of
Charles is herewith given.
Meadville September 6th 1849

Dear brother Leonard, sir:

As .John's leg has not got sufficiently strong for him to walk about
on it, and from the present appearance he thinks it will not be very
soon so he concludes that if the folks will send for him, he will leave
college and come home, and leave me to my own distraction. The proba-
bility is that old Prex will be sticking somebody in the room with me,
and as all kinds of company does not suit me, I may have some
ft choice in whom my room mate shall be* If you will be pleased to
comply, with the wish, I will make a choice of your honor sir. If
John leaves and you do not comply with my wish, I shall be under
the necessity of putting up with old Prex's selection.
96
Please be informed that you can school yourself nearly as cheap
here as at a district school. The studies which you will want to pursue
are taught here this term. There is Arithmetic, Geography, E.
Grammar. The arithmetic class has just commenced. The professor
who teaches arithmetic was off on a journey and did not get back
till the first of the month, so you have nothing to fear from that class,
and I think you will be fully able to cope with the other classes. Now
do not make an excuse because you have not aplenty of funds, for
we shall not want to buy very much, for we fetched out the flour of
4% bushels of wheat with us, and if you should want some more
money probably Albert or Lyman can let you have some, so I see no
excuse whatsoever. (Come along , why delay. )
If Mr. Morses send for John you can fetch out the horse and buggy
for them and fetch your trunk and what other things you may wish
to bring, but if you should not be quite ready to come yourself send
your trunk by whoever may come for John and come yourself as soon
as you can. (I have a Geography and Atlas and English Grammer ft
which you shall be welcome to use.)
(TeU Mother that butter is worth 10 cents per pound and if she or
somebody else that makes good butter wiU send me 5 or 6 pounds,
I will send tbem the pay by John.)
I am well at present. There has been no Collery out here except
old General Zack Taylor. He was marched through here a short time
since and took the auspicious gaze of all mead. But another wonder !
Mr. Tom Thumb, his coach, horses and coachmen made their appearance
a few days since. Nothing of very great importance escapes this place,
all sizes and colors make their appearance In this great place! But •
enough, give my well wishes to all the folks and especially the girls
and tell them that they are not forgotten.
Now sir if you cannot come out and attend College write occassion-
ally and let me know how all the folks are and what is going on. But
if possible come along without delay.
—C. H. Tidd

The children of Martin and Deborah were marrying.


Martin, in the summer of 1838 met and became interested
in a girl named Lucy Still, who, with her parents, Ebenezer
and Melinda, and younger rister, had just moved into the
region from New York State. Martin and Lucy were mar-
ried November 23, 1838, by Rev. Isaac Winnans of Kins-
man. He purchased land which was part of the original
tract and built a log house on the east side of the road.
Later he added more acreage until finally his farm in-
cluded about one hundred fifty acres. Sometime later
John married a younger sister of Lucy by the name of Anna
Still and moved to Michigan. Mary married Oliver Bas-
quin and lived in Ashtabula county.
An interesting incident is told of the circumstances re-
lating to Leonard's meeting with the girl whom he married.
A pioneer family by the name of Fobes had settled in
Wayne township. A girl in the Fobes family had been left
ft
97

at home one day to mind the younger children while her


folks were away. The children were teasing her by knock-
ing on the front door and keeping her running to answer it.
Finally there was a loud knock at the door and thinking
they were still at it, she called, "Oh, go around and come
in the cathole." There was a pause and then a man's voice
said "I would, but I am afraid I couldn't get through.*' She
opened the door and found it was a man from the neigh-
boring town who had come to see her father. It proved
to be the man she later married. Her name was Catherine
Fobes, and she married Leonard Tidd in September of 1854.
Leonard remained on the home place, although it was re-
duced in size considerably, due to acreages that had been
cut off for Martin, and later Lyman.
The next son, Charles, never married. On January 31,
1852, he died and was laid to rest by the side of his little
sister Olive. On November 2, 1845, Nancy Tidd and
Charles Day were united in marriage. They lived in
in Geauga county for a short time, then moved into Lake
county and made that their permanent home. Albert later
married Mrs. Almira Klingensmith, and adopted her little
daughter named Sarah. Alvin, the next brother never mar-
ried. The youngest son, named James Lyman was born
April 26, 1832. He married Lucy Jewett on August 17,
1858. He built a house nearly across the road from the
original Martin Tidd home.
The health of the mother, Deborah, had not been good
for some time prior to 1860. She had been living with
Leonard and his wife Catherine. A letter written by Deb-
orah to them has very fortunately, been preserved and
quite possibly is the only letter in her handwriting in ex-
istence. This letter is here reproduced.
Sandstone, April the 30, 1860.

Deare and respected Children I wUl try to write a few lines to


inform you of my health is very poore at present. I have had the
ague very hard and it left me pretty weak. The rest is weU. I re-
ceived your letter weeks ago, but was not able to write and can-
not hardly steady my hand now to write. I do expect Amelia will
be with you by the middle of May and I have a mind to go out to
Union City to doctor WeUman. He says he thinks he can cure my
breast but he cannot tell till he sees it and when he sees it if he
thinks he can't cure it he will teU me so, for he says it won't be any
use to cotor it if it can't be cured for the more it is fussed with
after it has commenced eating if it can't be cured the sooner it will kill
me.
Dear children, I am now far away from you and do soon expect to
be farther and do not know whether my life will be spared to soon
see you again or not, but should I not be spared to never see you
here on earth no more I hope that we will all be permitted to meet
98
in yon bright world oi glory where we shall cease from trouble and
forever be at rest.
You wanted to know if I wanted any money. I do not know wheth-
er I shall or not for I do not know till I see the doctor and when
I get there I will write and let you know all about it if I am able,
and Leonard, if I should never return I want you to see Amelia and *
Anderson that they have their share in what little I have got and
if Albert don't get out to come to see them I want you to have them
come home to you where you can see to them and try and have
them do right for you know that Anderson is young and may go
far astray if he should be left to himself, although he is a good
boy and minds as well as a boy could and works well and steady and 4
don't run about and spend his time. Catherine, write as often as you
can while I live for I do not expect that will be long and you do
not know how much good it does me to read letters from you. Oh
how I wish I could see you and Leonard and Wayland. Oh, if I
could see that little one, I could almost eat him up, but if I live •
I intend^ seeing you all again. Write as soon as you get this so I
may get it before I leave here to go west. This from your mother
and friend.
De Brown to Leonard

We have just received a letter from Nancy .Ann stating that "Mar-
tin was very sick and they did not know whether he would live or
not. Write and let me know how he is, whether he is any better
or not and whether they think he will live or not."

The proposed visit to the doctor brought no permanent


respite from her condition. She died on October 15, 1860.

Martin and Lucy became the parents of a baby boy


bom in March 1840, and was named James Martin Tidd.
Soon a second boy was bora and was named John Watson,
although he usually was known as Watson. The follow-
ing children also were born to Martin and Lucy. Ebe-
nezer, Charles Lewis, Harmon Cole, Ezra Leonard, Alvin
Adam, Olive Melinda, and Albert Albion. The story is
sometimes told that, the answer to a question of how
many children there were in the family was, "There are
eight brothers and everyone has a sister." The obvious
conclusion drawn was that there were sixteen children.
In 1860 a frame house was built by Martin. Many
years later, in 1888, a fine new house was built on the
west side of the road, and is now owned by Mr. and Mrs,
Stanford, she being a daughter of Alvin Tidd. About
the same time Leonard built a fine large house very near
the site where Martin H. Tidd built his log house in 1819.
Another illustration indicates the friendly relations be-
tween the Dr. Allen family and the Tidd family. In 1861, •
James Martin Tidd began his study of medicine with Dr.
Allen of Kinsman. He enlisted in the army in September,
1862, and while serving in the campaigns in Tennessee,
99

he became sick and died at Nashville, Tennessee, in Oc-


ft
tober, 1863. His body was returned and buried in the
new cemetery in Kinsman. Soon after his discharge from
the army, Ebenezer Tidd began the study of medicine
with Dr. Allen, which he completed later at the Ann Ar-
bor School of Medicine in Michigan.

A concluding note on William Tidd, nephew of Martin


Tidd, and husband of Ann, the father of John David. As
will be remembered this family moved from Pennsylvania
to Kinsman in 1803, and by 1820 was living in Weathers-
field township. The evidence makes it logical to believe
that he later lived in Roundhead, Ohio. After leaving
that place little is known as to his whereabouts, except
that in all probability he and his wife Ann returned to
Niles or the nearby vicinity and he was probably buried
in the Union cemetery at Niles, Ohio. This much is
known, that in the old section of the Union cemetery at
Niles, a headstone stands upon which the following in-
scription is found. "Ann, Wife of William Tidd d.Feb.
7, 1849, age 84 years," A corroborating item is found
in "The Roster of Revolutionary War Soldiers who Lived
in Ohio.*' "William Tidd, served with the New Jersey
troops as a private from Hunterdon county. Wife Ann,
buried in the Union cemetery, Niles, Ohio. A son John
lived in Niles.*'

Several contacts with Tidds from the southeastern part


of Ohio around Marietta have been made and consider-
able information has been gathered. One of the few
remaining grandsons of the original family, now living in
Cleveland, Ohio, says that his family is related to Col-
James Hillman of Youngstown. If this statement is cor-
rect, it means that this entire family is related quite close-
ly to the so-called Martin branch of the Tidds of Ohio,
because no one by the name of Tidd could be related to
ft
100 I

James Hillman and not be related to Martin and John


Tidd, for James Hillman was a nephew of Martin and •
James Hillman had no children, thus the relationship
would have had to come through either Martin or John.
The connecting link has not yet been found. The infor-
mation relating to this family is as follows. •
In 1810 Abraham Tidd was born in Maryland. Violet
Green was also born in Maryland in 1815. They were
married in 1836 and moved to a farm in Belmont county,
Ohio. Later they moved into Newport township in Wash-
ington county, Ohio. Both were buried in the Newport ft
cemetery. The following names are their children. Dav-
id and Mary, twins, were bora in 1837. David died as
a baby, Mary later married Samuel Smith in 1862 and
reared seven children; she died in 1907. Samantha was •
born in 1839, married John W. Gitchell in 1861 and rear-
ed eight children; she died in 1915. Martha Ann was
bora in 1841 and died as a baby. Barbara, born in 1842
married James Crumley in 1870, and reared six children;
she died in 1912. George W. born in 1844, and married
Jane Crumley, to them were bora two sons; he died in
1914. Charles W. bora in 1846, died in 1863. He had
served two years in the Union army. Mariah bora in
1847, married William H, Barnes in 1861 and reared ten #
children, and died in 1908. Martin L. born 1849 and mar-
ried Elizabeth Crumley, and reared four children, died
in 1911. Susanah, born 1851, never married, died 1880.
Rebecca Ann, bora 1853, and died 1859. William Virgil, v
bora 1856, married Martha Boner, reared three children,
died 1909. Robert B. bora in 1859, married Jennie Kine,
no children, died in 1888.
William V. Tidd's children—Olive married a man by
the name of Close. Present address, Marietta, Ohio, Route •
3. Harrison Tidd, address. Dexter City, Ohio, Route 1.
William C. Tidd married Belva Olive McConnell on .Sep-
tember 20, 1905. He has just retired as an employee of
the Pennsylvania railroad after 48 years of service; ad- #
dress, 9405 Dickens Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio. His chil-
dren—Katheryn Doris Tidd married Robert E. Selby, and
had one son, named William E. who married Mary Cath-
erine Craig, they have one son named Craig David; ad-
dress Mrs. Robert E. Selby, Clairton, Pennsylvania. Har- •
old Clyde Tidd married Jean Orme, and have two sons
named Jeffrey and Phillip, address Cambridge, Ohio, he
owns and manages an insurance agency in Cambridge.
Mary Helen Tidd married Eugene Brown, they have three •
children, Robert, Barbara Jean, and Richard William, ad-
dress Massillon, Ohio. William Clyde, Jr. married Joan
Mary Vanek, they have two daughters, Patricia Ann, and
i
101

Judith Ann; address 4405 Dickens Avenue, Cleveland,


Ohio.

Mention must be made of the fact that the 1850 census


for Southington township, Trumbull county, Ohio, includes
the following record: Joseph Tidd and eight children,
moved from Massachusetts to Ohio, occupation carpenter-
Three marriage records in nearby Geauga county shows
that in 1844 William E. Tidd married Lydia Parkman;
Joseph Tidd married Mary Marshall of Parkman town-
ship, date not given; and Joseph Tidd married Mrs. Julia
Finn 1859. No further record reveals information per-
taining to his group, and no connection can be found link-
ing this family in any way to the James or Martin Tidd
families. They eventually moved away.

From time to time while the research for this work was
being carried on, inquiries and references were made re-
lating to a large electric generating installation on the
Ohio river in southeastern Ohio, known as the "Tidd
Plant**. Therefore information w.as sought. Situated in
Brilliant, Ohio, ten miles below Steubenville, on Ohio route
7, stands a large new generating plant, the name "Tidd
Plant" plainly visible from the highway. After several
letters of inquiry the following story evolved, and, due to
the fact that the evidence points to a direct relationship
to the Tidd family of this book, it was felt that this
story should be included in this history.
Cornelius Ostrander and wife Maria, living in or near
Kingston, New York, had a baby daughter bora in the
early 1780's to whom the name Maria was given. About
1805 Maria married a Silas Tidd. About 1807 a boy was
born and named Nathan. We are very interested in this

A
102

name Nathan for it probably is the key to the ancestors


on the Tidd side. We find that directly across the Hudson
river from Kingston lies the county of Dutchess. The 1790
census of Dutchess county shows that a Nathan Tidd lived
there and had two sons, both of whom were born between
1780 and 1790. It is very possible and quite likely that
one of these boys was named Silas and that he was the
young man who married Maria Ostrander. The fact that
Silas Tidd named his firstborn "Nathan" lends corrobora-
tion to this belief. Thus we meet three important points
upon which the deduction is made. The element of time
fits perfectly; the element of place also meets the need,
the two places are separated only by the Hudson river;
the custom of continuing a family name supports the be-
lief.
Nathan Tidd, in September 1834, married Mary Adeline
Colton. He died in Towanda, Pennsylvania, in 1892.
Their fifth child, bora in 1846 in Corning, New York, was
named Charles Willard. He married Emma R. Cole in
Sunbury, Pennsylvania, in January, 1873. On January 16,
1874, in Barclay, Pennsylvania, near Sayre, Pennsylvania,
was born George Nathan Tidd. He, early in life, became
interested in telegraphy, but soon turned his attention to
electric power and became manager of the Waverly and •

Sayre Electric Company, He became manager of the Bea-


con Light Company of Chester, Pennsylvania. In 1904 he
was named manager of the Marion (Ind.) Light and Pow-
er Company and also managed the Muncie Electric Light
Company. These two companies were among the seven
which originally made up the American Gas and Electric
Company, organized in 1906.
George N. Tidd went to Scranton Electric Company, a
subsidiary of the American Gas and Electric Company in
1907, and two years later went to New York as vice-presi-
dent and general manager of the parent concern. In 1923
he was elected president of the company. He became
chairman of the board and chairman of the executive com-
mittee in 1947. In 1950 he resigned as chairman of the
board, but remained a director and consultant to the com-
pany. He had been a member of the advisory committee
and board of directors and chairman of the membership
committee of the Edison Electric Institute, and a member
of the public policy committee of the National Electric
Light Association, and the executive committee of the As-
sociation of Edison Illuminating Companies.
A son was born to him and named George Willard,
who has two children. His wife died at her summer home
in Biddeford Pool, Maine, in October 1933. George Na-
103
than later married Mildred Hughes, He died June 17,
1952; interment at Sayre, Pennsylvania. The big gener-
ating plant at Brilliant, Ohio, was named in his honor as
President of the American Gas and Electric Company.
ft

There has been much discussion and speculation as to


the origin of the Tidd family and the Tidd name. Theo-
ries expressed have been very divergent, Some favor
Welch origination and others are no less positive that the
name has its origins within the Scotch. Between these
extreme views some have accepted English origin or vary-
ing degrees of mixtures. From all information that the
writer has been able to secure, there exists no support for
either the Welch or Scotch claim. The name is purely
English in so far as it has been able to be determined. The
following note may be of interest in shedding light on the

question of origin, as well as allow us to know of some
of the accomplishments of members of the Tidd family in
England. "William Tidd, born in 1760 in Parish of St.
Andrew, Holborn, son of a merchant, became a prominent
barrister, and is chiefly known as author of 'Practice of
the Court of King's Bench', eight volumes which is almost
the sole authority of English Common Law Practice. These
volumes went through nine editions, and are extensively
used in America, with additional notes by Asa I. Fish.
ft Uriah Heep said, *I am improving my legal knowledge; I
am going through Tidd's Practices.' William Tidd be-
queathed the copyright of 'Practices' to Edward Hobson
James, Sergeant-At-Law. Tidd was also author of four
other volumes on Law. Three of his pupils became Lord
ft
Chancellor's—Lyndhurst, Cottenham, and Campbell.**

ft

• ' *

ft


ft

105

Part
NOTE
In the following genealogical material Martin Tidd,
bom in 1739, will be considered the first generation; for
he was the first Tidd to come to Ohio. All other Tidds
of this particular family were his descendants with the
exception of his brother John, and John's two children:
ft John William and Nancy.
I Likewise, James Tidd, born in 1775, will be considered
as the first generation of his family. The number at the
upper right hand corner of each name will identify the
generation within
1
its own genealogical
2
family.
3
Example:
Martin Tidd - Samuel Tidd - Hugh Tidd - Alexander
Tidd4 - Hollister Tidd5 - Paul Tidd6.

1
* Martin Tidd , son of John and Olive, was bora in 1739
in Pennsylvania, some distance below the present site of
Easton. He went through the Brodhead massacre and wit-
nessed the killing of his father in 1756. He served in
* the armed forces in the Revolutionary War as a private
in "Robinson's Rangers". He moved to a place directly
below Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and from there he moved
to the new settlement of Young's, on the banks of the Ma-
honing river in 1798. In 1802 he became the first settler
* in Kinsman, Ohio, where he remained until his death
sometime in the 1820's. In 1764 he married Betsy Marvin
of near Stroudsburg,
2
Pennsylvania.
2
To
2
this union 2
were
bora: (1)2
Ann , (2)
2
John , (3) Sarah
2
, (4) Samuel , (5)
* Charles , (6)2
Betsy , (7) Martin H.
(1) Ann , bom 1765, married John 1
William Tidd, son
of John who was brother of Martin 3
. To this union w-as
bom a son named John David who later 2
married Eleanor
Lennox of Weathersfield, Ohio. Ann and her husband
and child moved from the Wilkes-Barre region of Penn-
sylvania to Kinsman, Ohio in 1803; later they moved to
Weathersfield, Ohio, and there is evidence that they lived
*
for a2 time in Roundhead township in Hardin county, Ohio.
Ann was buried in the Union cemetery at Niles, Ohio, in
1849. It is presumed that her husband John William
Tidd was also buried there.
2
(2) John Tidd , bora in 1772 never married. He lived
106
with his father and mother, and settled with them in Kins-
man in 1802, He died in April 1804, the first death in
the new settlement2 of Kinsman, Ohio.
(3) Sarah Tidd , born in 1774, in Pennsylvania, married
James Hill of Maryland in 1797, just before moving to ft
the new settlement of Youngstown in 1798 with her family
group. James Hill was a shoemaker by trade. Sarah,
better known as Sally, with her husband moved to Kins-
man, Ohio, in 1802. In 1810 the Hills with their children
moved to western Ohio into the Mad River region of what
became Logan county. James Hill served with the armed
forces of the U. S. during the War of 1812. While her
husband was in the war, Sally was forced to seek refuge
in a nearby blockhouse in fear of the savage Indians of
that area. In 1825 the Hill family moved into Roundhead
township, Hardin county, and became farmers; they re-
mained there the rest of their lives. James Hill's father
had died as a soldier in the Revolutionary War. James
Hill helped organize the Methodist "Bowdle Church", and, ft
until a building could be erected, services were held in
his home. Sally Hill died in 1851 at the age of seventy-
seven. James died in 1862, at the age of ninety-nine 3
years. To3 them were born 3
eight children:
3
(1) Martin
3
, •

(2) James
3
, (3) Nancy
3
, (4) John
3
, (5) Samuel , (6)
Sarah , (7) Rosanna , (8) Mary .
(4) Samuel Tidd2 bora in 1779, became a blacksmith,
which trade he followed throughout his life. He married
Rebecca Hill of Maryland, and moved from the Pitts-
burgh area to Kinsman, Ohio, by 1805. In that year their
small boy of five years of age died from burns. In 1810"
they moved to the Mad River region of Western Ohio, He
established a blacksmith shop near "McPherson's Block-
house". Indications are that it was near the present site
of Bellefontaine, Ohio. Samuel and his family moved
from Logan county northward and became the first settler
of Roundhead, Hardin county. This move was made in #

1822. The following year his last child was bora and
named Jane. She was the first white girl baby born in
Hardin county. Samuel served in the War of 1812 from
Champaign county. He died in 1851 at the age of seventy-
two. Rebecca died in 1846 at the age of sixty-one. To
them were bora the following: (1) 3
The son 3 that died in 3
Kinsman of3 bums, (2) Elizabeth
3
, (3) Mary3
, (4) Sally 3
,
(5) Hugh , (6) Margaret
3
, 3
(7) Martin and Nancy ,
(twins, (8) Charles 2, (9) Jane ,
(5) Charles Tidd born in 1782, made the moves with
his father to Pittsburgh, Youngstown, and Kinsman, He
served in the War of 1812 with the troops from Trumbull
107

county. Married a girl by the name of Rachel in Kinsman.


By 1830 he was the father of six children, only two of
whom are known by name. He settled his accounts in
Kinsman in 1832 and moved away. He appears in Round-
head as a voter and judge of elections in 1833. At some
later date he moved from Roundhead and his destination
is not known. All that is known is that his youngest son,
Martin, was established as a tailor in Independence, Miss-
ouri before 1860. To Charles 3
were born 3
six children: two
are known: (5) Charles , (6) Martin .
2
(6) Betsy Tidd born in 1785 moved to Youngstown with
her parents. Some of the time during 1801 she helped
Mrs. John Young in the care of the house and children.
She moved to Kinsman in 1802 with the family and was
married the same year to Robert Henry. In 1828 the
Robert Henry family moved to Vernon, Ohio, and bought
a farm. By 1830 they were the parents of six children;
only one is known by name. He was the first child 3 and
ft was named James; he 2was born in 1803. (1) James .
(7) Martin H. Tidd was bora in 1789, and remained
with his parents until after the War of 1812. He attended
the night school for boys taught by Leonard Blackburn in
# the Neal cabin during the winter of 1805-06. He served
in the War of 1812 with the troops of Trumbull county.
He settled on a farm in Williamsfield township where he
remained for the rest of his life. In 1817 he married
m Deborah Blackburn. He died in 1837,3 and she died 3
in
1860.3 To them were 3
bom: (1) Martin
3
, (2) John
3
, (3)
Mary , (4) Charles , (5) Leonard , (6) Nancy , (7) Al-
bert3, (8) Alvin3, 3 (9) James Lyman3, (10) Olive3.
1
(2) James Hill , son of Sarah Tidd Hill, born in Kins-
man, Ohio, in 1805 moved with his father to Logan county,
and later to Roundhead, Hardin county. He married first,
Eveline Spencer, and to them were born two children,
names unknown. Later4 married Elizabeth 4
Richards.
4
Their
» children (1) James R. , (2) Arnold , (3) Jake , (4) Ros-
anne4, (5) Louise4. The four last named moved to Indiana,
Illinois, and North Dakota. Nothing more is known of
•hem. 3
#
(5) Samuel Hill was bora in Logan county in 1812,
and moved to Roundhead with his father. He married
Priscilla Scott, and to them two children were born:
(1) Hamilon4; (2) James4, who died at the age of two
years,
# (1) James R, Hill4, son of James Hill, bom in Round-
head, Ohio, became a school teacher, and5 married first,
Marietta White, Their issue: (1) Luella , (2) Francis5.
Mrs. Hill died in 1868, He married second, Elizabeth

108

Goslee5 in 1870. He died in 5 1913. Their 5 issue: (1) Effie5 »


Louise , (2) James Vernon , (3) Bessie , (4) John G. ,
(5) Marietta E.5, died at age of six years, (6) Baby that
died in infancy.
(4) Hamilton Hill4 born in Roundhead in 1840, was #
very fond of reading and study. Became a teacher at the
age of seventeen. Continued his education as opportuni-
ties came. He married Ann M. Poe, who was a descendant
of 5 pioneers 5of that region.5
To them were bora: (1) John
L. , (2) Ida , (3) Stella . «
(1) Luella Hill5, bora about 1866, in Roundhead. 6
Mar-
ried Robert Ford. Their issue: (1) James 5
Ford , and two
girls, names unknown. (2) Francis Hill , bora about 1868,
died young. •
(1) Effie Louise Hill5, born about 1872 near Roundhead.
Never married. Attended Ohio Northern University at
Ada, and Columbus, Ohio.5 Taught school many years.
(2) James Vernon Hill , born in 1875 near Roundhead.
Attended Ohio Northern U. and Ohio State U„ and taught •
school. He became very prominent in Hardin county poli-
tics, and was elected County Commissioner. He married
Bertie 5Smith, a school teacher. Their issue (1) James
Wilbur . •
5
(3) Bessie Hill , born, 1884, near Roundhead, was mem-
ber of the first class ever graduated by the Roundhead
High School, which was in 1903. She attended Ohio
Northern U. at Ada, Ohio; also attended Miami U, at Ox- ft
ford, Ohio. She taught school for several years, then
married D. P. Riley of Lima, Ohio. To them were bora
three6 sons: (1) Eugene, 6
who died in infancy, (2) Bruce
Reed , (3) Roger Don .
(4) John G. Hill5, born in 1889 near Roundhead. Lives *
on the farm, and holds the deed for the land signed by
President Andrew Jackson. John graduated from Ohio
Northern U. and taught school. His address is Harrod,
Ohio. .He married 6Golda Harley,6 and to them were 6born, ft
(1) Marion Maxine , (2) John Jr. , (3) Garnet Beryl , (4)
Stanley Wyman6. 6
(1) James Wilbur Hill was born in 1909 in Kenton,
Ohio, and is a prosperous businessman of that city. He
owns the Hill Lumber and Supply Company, and does con-
siderable work as a building contractor. He and his fam-
ily live in one of the finest homes in Kenton. He married
Iris Ruth Woods, who was associated with the newspapers
of Kenton. To them was born in 1939, (1) Berkley Elden7, #

who is now in his last year in the Kenton High School. The
James Wilbur Hill address is E. Franklin Street, Kenton,
Ohio.
109
6
ft (2) Bruce Reed Riley , bom in Harrod, Ohio, 1919, en-
tered the Air Force in 1942 and became a pilot, flying in
many engagements. He is now a Major in the Air Corps,
and is studying Electrical Engineering in the University of
• Michigan, at Ann Arbor, Michigan. He married in 1944.
6
(3) Roger Don Riley bora in 1922, in Harrod, Ohio. Was
in service overseas in World War H. He was graduated
from Ohio Northern U., Ada, Ohio, in 1954, and is presently
a Methodist minister at Jefferson, New York. In addition
• to his work there, he is attending the Drew Theological
Seminary at Madison, New Jersey. He married Adelia
Lotz of Jackson Center, Ohio in 1944, and to them were
7 7 7
bora:7 (1) Lois , (2) Evelyn , (3) Linda Jean , (4) James
• Alan .
(1) Marian Maxine Hill6 born 1920, near Roundhead,
married Leroy Butler of Lima, Ohio, whose occupation is
automobile mechanic in Lima, To them were born: (1)
John 7 b. 1946, (2) Bruce7 b. 1950, (3) Shirley Beth7 b.
• 1952, (4) Dean7 b. 1954. Mr. and Mrs. Butler's address
is Lima, Ohio.
6
(2) John Hill Jr. bora in 1921, near Roundhead, whose
occupation is farmer, married Mildred James of Belle Cen-
• ter, Ohio. To them were born: (1) Donald John 7 b. 1943,
7 7
(2) James Alan b. 1945, (3) Nancy Kay b. 1947. Ad-
dress is Belle Center, Ohio.
(3) Garnet Beryl Hill6 born in 1923, near Roundhead,
ft married Kenneth Rodeheffer of New Knoxville, Ohio. He
graduated from the Northwest School of Commerce of Lima,
Ohio, and worked for some time in the advertising depart-
ment of the "Lima News". Presently is engaged in farm-
ing. Address, New Knoxville, Ohio. Their issue: (1)
1
Kathlyn Ruth 7 b, 1944, (2) Patricia Ann7 b. 1946 (3)
7
Kendra Kay b. 1948.
(4) Stanley Wyman Hill6 bora in 1931, near Roundhead,
is engaged in telephone maintenance work. Address, Marys-
ft ville, Washington, R. D| 2. He married Doris Stalter from
lima, Ohio. Their issue (1) Gary Lee7 b. 1955.
Concerning the descendants of Samuel Tidd2, the infor-
3
mation is very meager except for (5) Hugh , and (8)
t Charles 3 , and (9) Jane 3 .
(5) Hugh Tidd 3 was born in Logan county in 1816, and
moved to Roundhead with hh father Samuel in 1822. He
inherited 100 acres of land from his father and bought an
additional 153 acres. He built a fine brick house. He
helped organize the Pleasant Hill church. He married
first, Mary Given of McDonald township. She died in
4
1862. To them were born: (1) Alexander G. , (2) Samuel
4 4 4
Perry , (3) Nathaniel Newton , (4) Albert M. , (5) Zach-

110
4
ariah L. . He married second, Sarah Caseman of Allen 4
^
county. She died 1878. To them were born: (1) Calvin ,
(2) Henry4, (3) Wesley 3
4
, (4) Cynthia 4
, (5) Amy 4
.
(8) Charles S. Tidd born in Logan county in 1821. He
married Margaret McKinnon and lived on the original Tidd
acreage iu Roundhead township. Their children were: (1)
Uriah4, (2)4 Martin G.4, (3) George4, (4) Emma4, (5)
Charles Jr.
(9) Jane Tidd3 was the first white girl baby born in
Hardin county, which was in 1823. She married Lewis #
Rutledge of Roundhead and spent her entire life in Hardin
county. Jane died in 1873 and her husband died in 1875.
To them were born six 4
children, four dying in infancy.
4
(1)
George W. Rutledge , (2) Charles H. Rutledge . *
(1) Alexander G. Tidd4 was born in 1838 in Roundhead-
After living on other farms, he bought and lived upon the
253 acre farm formerly owned by his father Hugh. He
served in the Union Army in Company A, 183 Reg, 0,V.L,
during 1864-65. He married Margaret McElhaney of Mar- «
5
ion and to them were born: (1) Arilla who died at the age
of 13 years, (2) Frank 5 , 4(3) Albert5, (4) Hollister5.
(2) Samuel Perry Tidd born in Roundhead in 1840' on
the anniversary of Perry's victory on Lake Erie, hence the f
middle name Perry. He served with his brother Alexander
in Company A, 183 Reg. O.V.I. He married first, Saman-
tha Carter and moved to St. 5
Louis, Missouri.
5
To them were5
bom (IA) 5 twins, Calvin , (IB) Alvin , (2) William C. ,
(3) Fannie , (4) Lydia5. He married 5
second, Amanda
5
Jane
Richards, their issue (1) Frank , (2) Marion . Several
other children were born to Samuel P. Tidd for whom
there is no information. Samuel died 1921.
(3) Nathaniel Newton Tidd4 was born in Roundhead in
1843. He served in the Union Army in Company G. U.S.A.
troops from 1861 to 1864. He became a minister of the
Gospel and moved to Battle Creek, Michigan. He married
5 5
and had issue: (1) George4 , (2) Merritt . ^
(4) Zachariah L. Tidd was born in Roundhead. He
later moved to Missouri.
(5) Albert M. Tidd4 was bora in Roundhead. He attend-
ed school at Ada, Ohio, and graduated from the National
Normal School of Lebanon, Ohio, and became a teacher. I
While teaching he took up the study of law. Was admitted
to the Ohio Bar in 1876. He established a law practice in
Marion, Ohio. He married 5
Virginia Nagle,
5
To them were
born: (1) Clifton H. , (2) Kenneth N. •
(1) Calvin4, (2) Henry4, (3) Wesley4, (4) Cynthia4, (5)
4
Amy . For these, there is no information.
4
(1) Uriah Tidd was born in Roundhead. He served in
ft
ft1

111

the Union Army in Company B, 118 Reg. of O.V.I., from


1862 to 1865. He died in 1867.
(2) Martin G. Tidd4 was bora in Roundhead, He5 married
Elizabeth Mahon.
5
Their issue:
5
(1) Benjamin S. , (2) El-
ft
bert Elmer , (3) James
4
F.
(3) George Tidd was born in Roundhead. He married
Jennie Zimmerman and to this union were born (1) Charles
U.5, (2) Blanche6, 4(3) Cora5, (4) Claude 5.
(4) Emma Tidd was bom in Roundhead. 5
She married
Levi Stinson, their issue: (1) Cleo . Emma died in 1957
at the age of 96 years.
(5) Charles Jr. 4 - Never married.
4
(1) George W. Rutledge was born in Roundhead in
1861. He taught school in the Taylor Creek district at an
early age. Entered Ohio Northwestern Normal School in
1870. He had to work his way through school. He was
graduated in 1875. In 1880 he took charge of the "Kenton
Republican" with which he was associated for many years.
He married Sudie Schuler of Allen county. To them were
bora three sons and two daughters,
(2) Frank Tidd5, son of Alexander Tidd, born in Round-
head, married Leota Poe, Their issue: (1) Wilbur6, who
is presently a Prof, of Biology, Ohio State University, Co-

lumbus, Ohio, He5 resides in Dublin, Ohio,
(3) Albert Tidd bora August 16, 18766 married Mary Ir-
win. To them were born: (1) Mary Ellen who 7married Ot-
is Tullock. Their issue: Clarence Albert Tullock b. Novem-
ber 22, 1937, he married8
Phyllis Her, they have one child
named 7Lucinda Ellen b. August 8, 1955; Donald6 Carson
Tullock b. April 20, 1940. (2) Blanche Elizabeth b. Aug-
ust 25, 1909. She married Charles Yokum. (3) Alice Es-
ther 6 b. December 16, 1911. She 7
married Jay J. Ziegler.
7
To them were born Albert S. died; 7
Alice La Verne b.
February 25, 1936; Delmar Jason b. October 20, 1943.
(4) Dorothy Mae6 b, Jan. 24, 1916. She married Allen
Long who was killed in World War II. She later married
Robert E.7 Shea. To them were born: Gordon Lester7, Or-
land Jay .
(4) Hollister Tidd5 bora in Roundhead and resides on
part of the farm originally owned by his grandfather Hugh.
ft He married Myrtle Davis and to them were born: (1)
Helen6, 6(2) Margaret6, (3) Wanda 6 , (4) Paul A.6. (5)
Dean D. The address of Mr. and Mrs. Hollister Tidd,
Belle Center, Ohio.
Twins of Samuel P. Tidd.
(IA) Calvin Tidd5 married Hilda Sidenstick. To them
were born: (1) Isabelle6 who married Arnold Liles,
they had one girl. (2) Bernice6 married Edward Wohlert,
they had one boy and one girl. Calvin is now deceased.
112
5
(IB) Alvin Tidd 6
married Dorothy . To them was
born Marion Tidd who married Ray Flori. They had one •

girl, two boys. They reside in California.


(2) William C. Tidd5 resides in St. Louis, Missouri, mar-
ried fairst, Lulu M. Case; second Ida Mellonberger. There
6
were born: (1) Lewis Samuel Tidd who resides in Festus,. 7

Missouri, married Mamie Hillney. Their children: Lewis ,
David7, Janet 7 , Frank 7 . (2) Dorothy Tidd6 who resides in
St. Ann, Missouri,
7
married
7
Edward
7
Hulsey.
7
Their chil-
6
dren: William , linda , Richard , John . (3) Oscar Tidd
who resides in El Cajon, California, mamed Bertha Altoff. •
Their children: Leo7, Linda7. (4) Mabel Tidd6 who resides
in Overland,
7
Missouri,
7
marred
7
Elza Craig. Their children:
6
Louis , Williard , William . (5) William C. Tidd Jr. mar- f
ried Edith Jones. 5Their children: Gloria7, William7.
(3) Fannie
6
Tidd married Henry Lahr. Their children:
(1) Lillie married Frank Huck—three children. (2)6 Hen-
rietta married C. Schneider—two children. 6
(3) Irene mar-
ried Louis Hahn—one child. (4) 6
Eva married Edward »
Mueller—one child. (5)6 Myrtle married Fred Tass—three
children. (6) Sylvester married Katherine three
children.
(4) Lydia Tidd55no information available.
(5) Frank Tidd 5not married. •

(6) Marion Tidd married Clara Biscupe. Their chil-


dren : Edna6, Elmer65, Helen6, Harold6, Adele6.
(1) George Tidd , son of Nathaniel Newton Tidd, was
bora in or ne«ar Battle Creek, Michigan, was married and •
had one daughter named Dorothy. He died November 24,
1956. She teaches school in or near Battle Creek. She
married Fay E. Haffenden. She resides in Battle Creek,
Michigan. 5 ft
(2) Merritt Tidd , no 5information.
(1) Benjamin S. Tidd b. in Hardin county. He was a
painting contractor. He 5never married.
(2) Elbert Elmer Tidd b. in 1879-died 1938. He mar-
ried Blanche6 Greenawalt, b. 1885. 6
To them were 6
bora: I
(1) 6Evadna , (2) 6Geneva T, , (3) Mildred , Elmer
Dean , (5) Elbert Jr. .
5
(3) James F. Tidd b. in Hardin county. He became a
carpenter and interior decorator. Presently he owns and
operates an insurance agency in Ada, Ohio. He married
Elizabeth Powell of Alger, Ohio. Their address 6
is Ada,
Ohio. 6To them were bora: (1)6 Margaret Irene , (2) Hazel
Arlene , (3) Raymond Eugene . ft
5
(1) Charles U. Tidd b. in Hardin county. He married
Delia Peoples of Alger, Ohio. To them were bora children
including (1) Delno Tidd who resides in Ada, Ohio.
113
5
(2) Blanche Tidd died in a burning house. She never
married. ^
(3) Cora Tidd5 married James Peoples of Alger, Ohio,
and later lived in Marion, Ohio.
5
(4) Claude Tidd married a girl by the name of Brown.

They lived in Marion, Ohio.
(1) Cleo Stinson5 married 0, P. Marmon of Toledo who
is owner of Bulk Drugs Company. Mrs. Marmon's address
is Toledo, Ohio. 6
(1) Helen Tidd , daughter of Hollister Tidd, was born
near Roundhead, in 1906. She was graduated from Ohio
Northern University at Ada, Ohio receiving the B. S. degree
in Education in 1932. She taught school for several years-
She married J. Wayne Schwab of Pennsylvania. He re-
ceived his degree in Pharmacy in 1926 from Ohio Northern
U. Mr. and Mrs. Schwab own and operate a Rexall drug
store in Kingwood, West Virginia. They have three sons:
(1) Lowell Wayne7 b. in 1934, In 1956 he was graduated

by the University of West Virginia, receiving the A. B. De-
gree wth a major in Pre-Med. He is currently enrolled as
SL student in the School of Medicine
7
of the University of
West Virginia. (2) Larry Tidd was bora in Arthurdale,
West Virginia in 1940. He has developed such a hobby in

the study of birds that he has been invited to attend (and
did) the annual meeting of the American Ornitholigists
Union held at Cape May, New Jersey, and last summer at-7
tended a similar meeting held in California. (3) Ivan Roy
b. in Morgantown, West Virginia in 1948. Helen Tidd
Schwab is active in church and civic affairs. Their address
is Kingwood, West Virginia.
6
(2) Margaret Tidd b. near Roundhead in 1908. Re-
ceived the degree of B. S. in Education from Ohio Northern
U. in Ada, Ohio. Taught several years in the Roundhead
schools. In 1936 married E. R. Malone from Harrisburg,
Virginia. He received the degree of B. S. in Education
from Ohio Northern U., and the M. A. degree from the Uni-
ft versity of Akron, He has had further study at Western
Reserve U., Cleveland, Ohio, and Duke U., Durham, North
Carolina. .After several years of teaching Mr, Malone be-
came Principal and later Supt, of the Copley High School
for 15 years. He is currently Supt. of the North Canton
schools. To them were born: (1) Judith Ellen7 b. in 1941.
(2) James Edward7 b. in 1946.
6
(3) Wanda Tidd bora near Roundhead, currently lives
with her father and mother in Hardin county,
6
(4) Paul A. Tidd b. in 1915, attended Ohio Northern U.
at Ada, Ohio, and is currently living with his parents on
the old home place near Roundhead.

114
6
(5) Dean D. Tidd b. in 1917, near Roundhead. He at-
tended McKay College, John Hopkins U., Baltimore, Md.,
majoring in Mechanical Engineering. Present occupation,
Maintenance Foreman, U. S, Steel C , Fairless Hills, Pa.
Military record: Entered U. S. army 1941, discharged 1942
as a Technician 3rd grade to accept a commission as 2nd •

Lt. in U. S. Army. Served nine months in the Remount


Service; 29 months in the Corps of Engineers, 20 months
of which were spent in New Guinea and the Phillipine Is-
lands with Headquarters, South West Pacific Theater of
Operations. Released from active duty 1946 as a Captain.
He married Florence Hines. To them was born Randall
Dean7, August 9, 1951. They reside in Levittown, Penn-
sylvania.
6
(1) Evadna Tidd , daughter of Elbert E. Tidd, b. in Har-
din county in 1907, married Jesse Mowery of Lafayette,
Ohio. They presently live on a farm in that township- To
them 7were born: (1)7 Betty Louise7, (2) Donald7, (3) Ray-
mond , (4) Patricia .
(2) Geneva Tidd6 b. in Hardin county in 1909, died in
1950. Married7 William Adrian 7Craun, their issue: (1)
Adrian Eugene , (2) Eva JoAnne . Geneva later married
Walter L. Maxwell.6
(3) Mildred Tidd b. in Hardin county. She married Mr.
Klima. They have children. They own and operate a food
market in Lima. They live 6
in Lima, Ohio.
(4) Elmer Dean Tidd b. in Hardin county. Married.
They have children. 6They presently reside in Cairo, Ohio.
(5) Elbert Tidd Jr. b. in Hardin county. Married. They
have children. They presently 6
reside in Lima, Ohio.
(1) Margaret Irene Tidd , daughter of James F. Tidd,
b. in Hardin county in 1909. Sometime after completing
her high school education she entered San Antonio Hospital
in Kenton, Ohio, where she received her training in nurs-
ing. She married Harry Leigh in June 1927. Harry Leigh
was graduated from the Chicago Technical School of En-
gineering. He is employed as an installation engineer for
the Union Steel Company of Albion, Michigan. Margaret
and her family are very fond of music and have done much
along the line of making music a part of their daily living.
Voice, piano, and violin lessons have been part of the train- •
ing for all of her children. Margaret and her daughters
sing in the choir in their church in Kenton, Their children:
(1) Carl F. 7 , (2) Owen7, (3) Nonja7, (4) Yeteva7, one baby
died in infancy. Address, Kenton, Ohio. •
(2) Hazel Arlene Tidd6 b. in Alger, Ohio in 1912. After
one year of post graduate high school she entered nurse's
training at the St. Rita's School of Nursing, Lima, Ohio,
115

from which she was graduated in 1933, and passed the


State Board examinations to become a R.N. She worked
at San Antonio Hospital in Kenton, and Memorial Hospital
in Lima, Ohio. In 1946 she became a saleslady for Ira G-
Clark, Realtor of Lima. After taking the Broker's exam-
ination she became an Associate Broker with Saylor and
Son of Lima, Ohio. She married Paul W. Ellis of Columbus.
Ohio. He attended Northwestern School of Commerce in
Lima, Ohio and studied Civil Engineering at Ohio Northern
U. at Ada, Ohio. He is currently with the Lima Linen, Co.,
out of Springfield,
7
Ohio, 7 To them were bora: (1) Sherran
Madree , (2) Von Aloize , address, Lima, Ohio.
6
(3) Raymond Eugene Tidd b. in Alger, Ohio, married
Roberta Huston. Their address, Homer, Michigan.
(1) Betty Louise Mowery7 b. in Lafayette, Ohio, in 1925
married 8first, Christy Wallace to whom were bora three
children ; second, married Everett
8
Rice of Chicago. To
them were born four children .
(2) Donald Mowery7 b. in Lafayette,8 married Hazel
Ramsey to whom were born 7
two children .
(3) Raymond Mowery b. in Lafayette, married 8
Rose-
mary Elsass, to them were born two children .
(4) Patricia Mowery7 b. in Lafayette, married Charles
R. Moyer, to whom were born three children8. Address,
Waynesfield, Ohio. 7
(1) Carl F. Leigh , son of Margaret Tidd Leigh, b. in
Alger, Ohio. He married Christine Williams of Wauseon,
Ohio. They live in Ada, Ohio, where he is a projectionist
at the8 Ada Theater. To them8 were born: (1) Suzeet
Marie , age 7. (2) Carla Irene , age 3.
(2) Owen Leigh7 served in the U. S. Navy. He attended
Finley College, and is now living at home in Kenton, Ohio,
and is employed in 7that city.
(3) Nonja Leigh b. in Alger, Ohio, 1938. She is cur-
rently attending Dayton Art Institute where she is major-
ing in Commercial Art.
7
(4) Yeteva Leigh b. in Alger in 1940 plans on entering
the teaching field.
(1) Sherran Madree Ellis7, daughter of Hazel Tidd
Ellis, b. in Alger, Ohio in 1935. After finishing school en-
tered the City Savings and Loan Company, as a cashier,
and in time became head cashier. She married Gary L.
Vandemark of Gomer, Ohio. He had attended Blufton
College. He was for some time associated with the Hough-
ton Elevation of Toledo, Ohio, but is currently associated
with the Colonial Finance Company of Lima, Ohio. To
8
them was born: (1) Lori Jo .
(2) Von Aloize Ellis7 b. in 1937 in Alger, Ohio. He