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ECOLOGY
1. In 1979 Pope John Paul II created a patron saint of those who promote ecology. Who is this
heavenly Patron?
The correct answer was Saint Francis of Assisi
cf. Apostolic Letter Inter Sanctos; AAS 71 (1979), 1509f. The Pope in his message of 1990 says said
that St. Francis gave striking witness that "when we are at peace with God we are better able to
devote ourselves to building up that peace with all creation which is inseparable from peace among
all peoples".
Ñ. In his message of 1990 the Pope referred to the ecological crisis in the world as a "moral
problem."
The correct answer was
He firstly refers to the "indiscriminate application of advances in science and technology". Here he is
speaking of the harmful long-term effects of this indiscriminate use and its effect on other parts of
our planet and future generations. He goes on to speak of the depletion of the ozone layer and the
"greenhouse" effect" having reached crisis proportions. His most profound worry is the lack of respect
for life, including production taking precedence over workers and the environment. Biological
research is raised as an area of deep concern.
3. The Pope says that God saw all His creation as "very good". Where does this concept originate
from?
The correct answer was the Biblical Book of Genesis
Having made all of creation and human life "God saw all the things that He had made, and they were
very good" (Genesis 1:31). Thus the Pope calls on people to respect and support this goodness.
4. Is it true to say that according to Pope John Paul II the Bible teaches that God entrusted the whole
of creation to mankind?
The correct answer was
Please see Genesis 1:28-30 for an account of this stewardship of the earth as it is now seen.
5. What is the origin of the word "ecology" as used in common parlance and by the Pope in his
message in 1990?
The correct answer was from the Greek word "oikos" meaning "house"
Ecology is a science that developed from the study of the interrelation between various parts of a
wider unit or whole.
6. The Pope reminds us that the Second Vatican Council said "God destined the earth and all it
contains for the use of _______".
Please fill in the missing word(s) in this sentence.
The correct answer was every individual and all peoples
The reference here is Gaudiam et Spes, 69. This enhances his message of looking after all parts of
our planet and not just our own short-term needs - and also looking after future generations.
7. Again, in his message the Pope says that "Modern society will find no solution to the ecological
problem unless it takes a serious look at its _____". Please fill in the missing word(s).
The correct answer was lifestyle
Here the Pope is referring to consumerism. He calls for "simplicity, moderation and discipline" and
also refers to a "spirit of sacrifice".
He says that "an education in ecological responsibility is urgent".
8. The Pope also says that "the aesthetic value of creation cannot be overlooked". What does the
word "aesthetic" mean?
The correct answer was belonging to the appreciation of the beautiful
The Pope says in conclusion of this matter that "The relationship between a good aesthetic education
and the maintenance of a healthy environment cannot be overlooked".
9. The Pope continues that "Today the ecological crisis has assumed such proportions as to be the
responsibility of ______". Please fill in the missing word(s).
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The correct answer was everyone
The Pope had also called for a new solidarity particularly between developing nations and highly
industrialized nations.
10. Is it correct to say that Pope John Paul II has travelled about the world far more in his time as
Pontiff than any previous Pope? The correct answer was The Pope has travelled an enormous amount
to countries throughout the world and thus is in a special position to speak on world ecology. If you
remember the evil attack on him when he was shot and badly injured, his response in recovery has
been a saintly answer to such evil.

Results for "God Is Love"


1. In the New American Bible, we read the word "love" in the second chapter of 1 John. There we are
told that a person "truly has the love of God been made perfect in them" if they what?
The correct answer was keep God's word
"But whoever keeps his word, truly has the love of God been made perfect in him." (1 John 2:5)
Scripture tells of the need for grace to keep God's word. Once a person receives this gift of grace,
then God's love dwells within them.
Ñ. What does 1 John 2 say about the person who loves the world?
The correct answer was The love of the Father is not in him
"Do not love the world or anything in the world. If anyone loves the world, the love of the Father is
not in him. For everything in the world--the cravings of sinful man, the lust of his eyes and the
boasting of what he has and does--comes not from the Father but from the world. The world and its
desires pass away, but the man who does the will of God lives forever."-1 John 2:15-17.
It is important to remember the difference between loving creation, which was made holy by God,
and loving the world, which was corrupted by man's sinfulness.
In Mark 16, Jesus tells his followers to go into the entire world and preach the good news to all
creation. However, the passage above says that if one loves the world then God's love isn't with him.
In Romans 10, we read that one can't preach what he hasn't learned. Many Christians believe that
one can't truly know God's love until one has experienced it. Therefore the one who loves the world
can't preach God's love because he hasn't really experienced it to truly understand it.
3. Finish the last three words of this NIV passage from 1 John 3: 1: "How great the love is the Father
has lavished on us, that we should be called __________."
The correct answer was children of God.
The correct answer is "children of God." The remaining sentence in the verse goes on to state: "And
that is what we are! The reason the world does not know us is that it did not know him." The theme
"children of God" is part of different modern hymns performed in various churches.
4. In the second chapter of 1 John (NAB), we read that "the person who loves his brother"
also...what?
The correct answer was "continues in the light."
"The man who continues in the light is the one who loves his brother; there is nothing in him to
cause a fall. But the man who hates his brother is in darkness. He walks in shadows, not knowing
where he is going, since the dark has blinded his eyes." (1 John 2:10-11)
Here is a great use of the analogy of light.
Also, in John's gospel, Jesus tells us that he is the light of the world (John 8:12); and, Christ
exclaims "I am the way, the truth, and the light." (John 14:6)
5. 1 Corinthians 13:1 says, "If I speak in the tongues of men and of angels, but have not love, I am
only" what?
The correct answer was A resounding gong
"If I speak in the tongues of men and of angels, but have not love, I am only a resounding gong or a
clanging cymbal."-1 Corinthians 13:1
It goes on to say that even if someone has the gift of prophecy or has faith enough to move
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mountains, but doesn't have love, they are nothing.
6. According to 1 John 4:10 (New International Version), how can believers know God loves them?
The correct answer was By realizing that he sent his Son as an atoning sacrifice for their sin
"This is love: not that we loved God, but that he loved us and sent his Son as an atoning sacrifice for
our sins." - 1 John 4:10
Christianity teaches that, because God loved humanity, he allowed his Son (Jesus Christ) to take the
punishment deserved for human sin and thus removed any obstacle that would keep his love away
from his people.
7. According to the text in 1 John 4:19 (King James Version), why do people love God?
The correct answer was God first loved people
"We love him (God) because he first loved us." - 1 John 4:19
John seems to be stressing that people came to know God's love because he first loved them. This
follows with the Biblical message that people are always dependent on God's great mercy.
8. In 1 John 4:18 (New King James Version), what does John tell us perfect love will do?
The correct answer was Casts out all fear
"There is no fear in love; but perfect love casts out fear, because fear involves torment. But he who
fears has not been made perfect in love." - 1 John 4:18
While being perfect in our love may accomplish all of the above answers, in this passage, John seems
to be teaching that, as we mature in love, all fear of God's judgment is removed.
9. In 1 John (King James Version), we read "He that loveth not knoweth not God...´ why?
The correct answer was God is love
"Beloved, if God so loved us, we ought also to love one another. No man hath seen God at any time.
If we love one another, God dwelleth in us, and his love is perfected in us." (1 John 4:11-12)
This corresponds directly to Luke 10:27 (KJV): "And he answering said, Thou shalt love the Lord thy
God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy strength, and with all thy mind; and thy
neighbor as thyself"
Essentially, love is presented as a Christian calling.
10. According to the King James Version of 1 John 3:14, there is an indication of the people who
have passed from "death unto life". What is the criterion that is mentioned in this verse that marks
this passage from spiritual death to spiritual life?
The correct answer was "because we love the brethren"
The end of this verse puts it quite plainly. I will quote the verse here, and for emphasis, I will
capitalize the last sentence of the verse...
"We know that we have passed from death unto life, because we love the brethren. HE THAT LOVETH
NOT HIS BROTHER ABIDETH IN DEATH."
Yep...sounds pretty plain-spoken to me.

Results for Ecology 10Ñ


1. Also known as 'K' what is the term for the maximum maintainable population of an area?
The correct answer was Carrying capacity
(K-N) divided by K. N is the population size. As N gets close to K, the growth rate slows to zero.
Ñ. This type of biome (habitat) has very long cold winters, short warm summers and typically has
acidic soils as a result of the cold temperatures and litter fall.
The correct answer was Taiga (Coniferous forests)
There are two types of taiga. High latitudes receive little precipitation, where as in the Pacific
Northwest they can receive up to 40 cm.
3. What is 'an interacting group of individuals of the same species'?
The correct answer was Population
They use common resources and are regulated by the same natural occurrences.
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4. Stability is the response of a community to disturbance. One type of response is resilience, which
is the ability to recover. The other type of response is resistance which is the ability to avoid what?
The correct answer was change
Those that are better able to avoid change have a better chance of surviving.
5. A population's role in the community or the resources it uses is called its _____?
The correct answer was Niche
Niche includes where the population lives and functions.
6. Two species or populations are competing for the exact same resources, and one will eventually
exclude the other. What is the technical term for this?
The correct answer was Competitive exclusion
One species will have a competitive advantage.
7. Predators can influence the structure of a community because their removal from the community
causes a catastrophic change in the composition and structure of the rest of the community. What
are the predators called because of this?
The correct answer was Keystone species
They prevent competitive exclusion and maintain diversity in this way.
8. In mutualism, (2 organisms of different species interacting with each other) who benefits?
The correct answer was Both species benefit
Wouldn't it be pretty silly to have a species interaction where both species were harmed? One
example of mutualism is trees and their association with mycorrhizal fungi. The tree gets water and
nutrients and the fungi get sugar. Flowering plants and pollination is another example.
9. Succession is triggered by a community altering disturbance. What type of succession (primary or
secondary) is caused by glacial retreat?
The correct answer was Primary
Other accepted answers: Primary succession
Primary succession is defined as an extreme disturbance where all of the soil (nutrients) has been
removed. This type of succession takes a longer time to return to its original state.
10. What is the single most important factor contributing to losing or creating endangered species?
The correct answer was habitat loss
Animals need enough room to survive, reproduce and room for their offspring to migrate to. With
habitat loss, this is often not possible.
Results for Principles of Ecology
1. Ecology is, if you excuse the pun, littered with very precise definitions which have more generic
meanings in everyday language. Such an example is the use of the word 'population'. Which of the
following best describes the ecological use of the word 'population'?
The correct answer was All the individuals of one species in an area at a given time
In more general usage the word population refers to the number of species, usually humans, present
in anything from a village to the global community. In ecology, the term is far more precise. Whereas
in everyday usage the population of a village would stay the same even if someone has gone on
vacation, for example, in ecology this just isn't the case. For an individual to be included in ecological
population statistics, the individual must be in the area at the time.
The sum of all living organisms in an area is the definition of a 'community'. All biotic and abiotic
factors in an area define an 'ecosystem' and the sum of all conditions in an ecosystem is the
'environment'. All of these are standard definitions and can be found in a variety of biology and
ecology text books or scientific journals.
Ñ. The specificity of terminology tends to be the hardest concept to grasp in ecology. However, there
is an ecological term that has a very similar meaning to its everyday counterpart. Which of these
terms is defined as 'the role of a particular species in its environment'?
The correct answer was Niche
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This standard textbook definition gives a general description of how an organism lives and feeds in a
particular habitat. It is essentially the basis of ecology in that the niche of a particular organism
shows how a population interacts with the surroundings. This is very similar, if not identical, to its
everyday counterpart which describes the purpose of an individual or a business in society.
3. Ecology is primarily concerned with the interactions of organisms and the environment. What
name is given to the phenomenon whereby a species will inhabit a hostile environment, die and
provide nutrients; this in turn allows a greater variety of species to inhabit and survive in the area?
The correct answer was Succession
Succession is at the very heart of ecology and it often begins with a colonizing species settling in a
harsh area. Such species are usually autotrophic (self-feeding) by means of photosynthesis, for
example. These colonies die and provide essential nutrients for new species to survive in the area.
This cycle eventually encourages more and more species to establish a population in the area and
diverse communities are then formed. An example of succession would be microscopic organisms in
mud deposits at a river's mouth. Upon death, these provide nutrients and organic matter to the mud
such that small plants can grow. The cycle continues until you have a diverse range of flora and
fauna.
4. What ecological name is given to species that are the first to establish a population in a particular
habitat? Initially, the habitat is generally harsh with extreme abiotic factors such as water and pH.
The correct answer was Pioneering Species
Pioneering species are usually microorganisms that colonize in extreme conditions in which most
species would not be able to survive. Due to the lack of nutrients in the area the microorganisms
(pioneering species), such as phytoplankton, often have to create their own food by
photosynthesizing. The succeeding species are all created using the foundations of the pioneers and
environmental stability is generally the end result.
5. After a series of ecological changes, an initially hostile, barren area can become a thriving habitat
with a great diversity of species. Eventually a stable community is formed, but, what is the name
given to this final stage of ecological development?
The correct answer was Climax Community
Climax communities tend to be very stable due to the number and diversity of species present. All
organisms must get their energy from food and those organisms who cannot photosynthesize must
do so by feeding on other organisms. So, in stable climax habitats, there are more complex food
webs such that if one species of plant dies out there will be less of an effect on organisms who fed on
that plant. This is because they can feed on many other plants. Conversely, in a system where there
isn't a great diversity of plants and animals, if one species dies out it has a huge ripple effect on
organisms that feed on that species.
6. To monitor the diversity of plant populations in particular areas, a simple piece of equipment is
used. What is the name given to a, usually four sided, frame which encloses a representative
sample?
The correct answer was Quadrat
Quadrats are useful in sampling techniques when trying to establish the frequency and population of
a particular species of plant in a specific area. It is also useful in ecological sampling to determine
how diverse an area is. Quadrats can further be used in a specific type of transect which monitors the
succession across a large area such as a sand dune or coastline.
7. It has long been known that earthworms are a gardener's delight. They are often perfect for the
soil and somewhat clean up the garden by feeding on dead materials such as leaf litter. Due to this
they, and other organisms like them, are known as saprophages. As a result, ecologists discovered
that there is more than one type of food chain. The first of which is a grazing food chain, the other is
known as what?
The correct answer was Detritus food chain
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Detritus food chains are dependent upon two fundamental aspects - dead material and a saprophage.
Saprophages, like woodlice and millipedes, are generally classed as primary consumers (a specific
trophic level). The general orders of trophic levels are as follows: producer, primary consumer,
secondary consumer, tertiary consumer and so on. It will carry on until the energy provided by
feeding on the trophic level below is very limited (energy gained decreases further along the chain).
Grazing food chains usually start with a photosynthesizing plant as the producer and the chain from
there on is rather similar to that of a detritus food chain. The main difference between the two chains
however is at the starting points; one begins with self-feeding plants and the other with dead
material.
8. Ecology goes hand in hand with botany, the study of plants. Green plants are generally found at
the bottom of a food chain or at the bottom trophic level (feeding level).
Organisms, such as plants, that produce their own food (self-feed) are called heterotrophic.
The correct answer was
Heterotrophs are organisms that feed on other organisms. Organisms that self-feed are actually
known as autotrophs. Autotrophs are more often than not photosynthesizing plants. The general idea
of photosynthesis is that the plant uses carbon dioxide (CO2), water (H2O) and light to produce
glucose and a by-product of oxygen (O2). As this process uses light, plants are described as
photoautotroph.
In more recent times, scientists have discovered other autotrophs that do not require sunlight to
photosynthesize. This exciting biological discovery showed that many microorganisms such as the
single-celled archaea (also found in less harsh environments) could self-feed but by chemosynthesis.
They gained the necessary inorganic raw products from deep sea thermal vents called black smokers.
9. Ecologists are very much interested in ascertaining the populations of particular habitats. They do
this by what is known as the 'mark - release - recapture' technique which is exactly what it says on
the tin. They capture and discreetly mark the organisms, release them and recapture them. All this
allows them to carry out a calculation to estimate the size of the population. What is the name of the
index used in this calculation?
The correct answer was Lincoln Index
The Lincoln Index is as follows: [(number of individuals caught at first attempt) x (number of
individuals caught at second attempt)] / (number of individuals caught on both occasions). As you
can see from this, the marking of the organisms is important as it allows us to see both how mobile
the population is and ultimately how large the population is. If you catch a great number of already
marked individuals on your second attempt, the population is generally smaller and vice versa.
Ethical considerations include the need for inconspicuous marking of the organisms as it could lead
them to be more obvious to predators.
10. Ecologists use many different types of indices to discover the great network of relationships in
the scientific discipline. Which of the following indices is also known as the index of diversity?
The correct answer was Simpson's Index
There are three closely linked indices that go by this name including Simpson's Index, Simpson's
Index of Diversity and Simpson's Reciprocal Index.
Simpson's Index measures the probability that two organisms that are picked by a random sampling
process belong to the same species. The index of diversity measures something very similar to the
index above, but, this time the probability relates to picking individuals of different species. The
reciprocal index just inverts the calculations so that instead of getting a value of biodiversity between
zero and one*, (which is always the result of the first two indices); the value is from one upwards.
*The scale of zero to one quantitatively displays whether a particular area is diverse (one) or not (0).
Of course, there are very many values in between.