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WITNESS Getting Started Materials

© Lanner Group Limited, 2009


© Lanner Group Limited, 2009

Table of Contents

Preface 6
What is new? 7
Getting installed and running 8
Licensing your copy 15
Getting Started 16
Simulation 16
The WITNESS Product Family 17
WITNESS 17
WITNESS Scenario Manager 17
WITNESS Documentor 18
WITNESS Optimizer 18
WITNESS VR 18
Lanner Group 19
Building your first model 20
Stage 1 20
Stage 2 24
Stage 3 28
Stage 4 32
Stage 5 38
Summary 40
Case study: JETTY.MOD 41
Conducting a Simulation Project 49
Overview 49
Establish objectives 50
Scope and level of model detail 51
Data Collection 52
Structuring the model 53
Building the model 54
Running the model 55
Generating reports 56
Testing the model 57
Experimentation 58
Documentation 60
Presentation of results and implementation 61
Modeling With WITNESS 62
Elements: the WITNESS building blocks 62
Discrete Elements 63
Parts 63
Buffers 63
Machines 64
Labor 64
Conveyors 64
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Paths 65
Tracks 65
Vehicles 65
Power & free elements 66
Network 66
Section 66
Station 66
Carrier 66
Continuous Processing Elements 67
Fluids 67
Processors 67
Tanks 67
Pipes 68
Logical Elements and Modules 69
Attributes 69
Variables 69
Files 69
Distributions 70
Functions 70
Part Files 70
Shifts 70
Modules 71
Graphical & Reporting elements 72
Pie Charts 72
Timeseries 72
Histograms 72
Reports 72
Manipulating elements: Rules, Expressions and Actions 73
Rules 73
Expressions 73
Actions 73
Using and enhancing a WITNESS model 75
WITNESS Model Storage Formats 75
Help 76
Enhancing the screen display 77
Useful buttons 78
Example models 79
Dem1.mod - Simple Assembly Model 79
Dem2.mod - Simple Logistics Model 83
Model Gallery 86
Typical Manufacturing Model 86
Typical Warehouse Model 87
Office Model 88
Call Centre Business Process 89
Airfield Logistics 90
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Tracks and Vehicles 91


Garage Forecourt 92
Chemical Processing Plant 93
Further learning resources 94
Learning More 94
Support 95
Appendix 96
System requirements 96
CD Installation Instructions 96
Licensing technologies and options 97
Stand alone with Dongle-less licensing 97
Stand alone with Dongle licensing 99
Installation of network license server with Dongle security 102
Installation of Network license server with Dongle-less (Software) security 104
licensing
Running WITNESS on Client Machines 109
Installing Olicense on a LINUX Server 111
Installing Scenario Manager 112
Installing WITNESS Scenario Manager on Windows XP and Windows 2000 112
Install instructions for Windows Vista 115
Install instructions for Windows NT 4 119
Copyright & trademarks 120

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WITNESS Getting Started Materials

Dear User,

Thank you for choosing WITNESS from Lanner Group. With Lanner simulation, business managers
can model, analyze and optimize processes to make superior decisions in a risk-free environment.
Lanner simulation is the key to improving productivity, efficiency and reducing costs. The aim of this
document is to make your first experience with our latest build of WITNESS highly productive.
Feedback on ways we can improve your experience and use is always appreciated.

Yours sincerely
David Jones
CEO

-o-

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What is new?

WITNESS “Power with Ease”


 New window with automatically generated 3D simulation animations from 2D layouts within

WITNESS

 New ‘high realism’ 2D and 3D shapes library

 Facility for users to add associations between 2D and 3D shapes

 3D shapes are scaled based on the 2D footprint

 Facility to override scaling by explicitly setting the 3D shape dimensions

 Improved handling of queues within 3D animations

 Improved 3D animation navigation with pre set camera angles

 Simplified ’getting started’ experience for new and occasional users

Go online to see more on earlier releases http://www.lanner.com/en/media/witness/whats_new.cfm

-o-

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Getting installed and running

System Requirements
WITNESS can be installed from CD or by download in the following configurations

WITNESS Full version With the WITNESS full version you can
optionally install Optimizer, Virtual Reality,
Scenario Manager and WITNESS
Presentation Manager.

 We recommend installing WITNESS on Microsoft Windows XP Service Pack 2 and above. See
Appendix/System requirements for more details.

 We strongly recommend that you install WITNESS on each system that is required to run it. It is
possible to install WITNESS on a central ‘server’ but this will greatly reduce the performance and
responsiveness of the software.

Installation
Installing from CD, insert CD1 and follow the on screen instructions. If the CD install does not self start
refer to CD installation instructions.

The on screen instructions will offer you the following choices:

 Language
 Manufacturing or Service edition
 Options (optional modules and examples – see diagram below)

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In order to make use of Virtual Reality, Optimizer and mantra4D Designer modules you will need to
have purchased the necessary additional licenses.

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For information on security device options go to section Licensing your copy

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For information on installing Scenario Manager, click here

The installation should take less than 5 minutes.

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-o-

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Licensing your copy

WITNESS full version requires you to register your copy with Lanner and receive a license security code.

Lanner offers two licensing security technologies, dongle or dongle-less(software) and two options of
installation, floating (network) or node locked(standalone). For more information see licensing technologies
and options.

Getting either type of license security code involves 3 steps.

1. Generate a license security code request

2. Send it to support@lanner.com, who will generate a security code / file

3. Install as instructed the security code / file

Choose your selected type of licensing security from the 4 options below; click on the adjacent link and
follow the instructions.

Stand alone with Dongle Click here

Stand alone Dongle-less Click here

Network with Dongle Click here

Network Dongle-less (Software) Click here

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Getting Started

Simulation

Simulation has much to offer all organizations, whether they are in manufacturing or in the service
industries.

The role of simulation is to evaluate practical alternatives available either in support of major strategic
initiatives which might involve a large financial outlay, or in support of the continuous search for better
performance at operational and tactical levels. Examples of such evaluations include changes to the product
mix, increases or decreases in volumes, improvements in throughput, shorter lead times and improved
customer response times.

Simulation provides the user with a greater breadth and depth of information on which to base decisions: it
is not an optimizing tool. It is capable of handling the complexity of large systems, even a whole factory. In
addition, the simulation approach supports sensitivity analysis by allowing rapid changes to the model logic
and data.

What is Visual Interactive Simulation?

“Visual Interactive Simulation is one which has features for graphical creation of simulation models,
dynamic display of the simulated system and user interaction with the running program. Interaction
implies that the simulation halts and requests information from the user, or the user stops the simulation
at will and interacts with the running program.”

R. D. Hurrion, Engineering Journal of Operations Research

WITNESS is Lanner Group’s simulation software package. It is the culmination of more than a decade’s
development experience with computer-based simulation. This experience has led us to evolve a visual,
interactive and interpretive approach to simulation without the need for compilation.

There are currently more than 6,500 WITNESS systems in use worldwide, in organizations ranging from
automotive to pharmaceutical, aerospace to electronics, hospitals to banks, airports to defense and more.
The WITNESS Manufacturing Performance Edition is the version of WITNESS specially designed for
manufacturing applications. It is ideally suited to a variety of production and storage layout and logistical
modeling scenarios.

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The WITNESS Product Family

WITNESS

WITNESS Can Provide The Right Answer For Your Business

- Reduces Risk in Decision Making - Accurately predicting how proposed changes to a facility or
process will work.

- Supports Investment Decisions - Provides evidence to identify profitable ideas and avoid costly
mistakes.

- Communicates the Optimal Solution to Decision Makers - Enables scenarios to be compared and the
best option for the business to be graphically reported.

- Generates an Operational Asset - Simulations deployed as robust applications become an asset in


operational decision making.

WITNESS is an established dynamic process simulation tool used by thousands of organizations to validate
a proposed facility or business process, to achieve a desired process performance metric or to support
continuous process improvement activities.

How WITNESS Works

WITNESS works by enabling you to represent a real world process in a dynamic animated computer model.
You see exactly how the process is operating as time advances. A simulation model can incorporate all the
variability of real life experience (variable reliability, process times, resource efficiency etc.). This ability to
include real life variability is a key advantage over spreadsheet models where averages must be used.

For more information on WITNESS go to http://www.lanner.com/en/witness.cfm

-o-

WITNESS Scenario Manager

A module included as standard with both the manufacturing performance edition and the service and
process performance edition of WITNESS.

It offers a highly flexible framework for experimentation and analysis including:

 Choice of model, run length, number of replications

 Specification of model parameters for experimentation

 Parameter groups for linked input values

 Full factorial simulation runs with progress indicators

 Comprehensive statistics generated automatically for each model run

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 Flexible charting

 Wizards to help

 Professional SQL Server database repository

 Option to add non simulation parameters such as investment level

 Compare different experiments on different models with aliasing to align statistics for comparison
and charting.

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WITNESS Documentor

WITNESS Documentor enables easy documentation of WITNESS models. It generates a formatted report
for selected model details and notes to act as a record of model structure.

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WITNESS Optimizer

WITNESS Optimizer finds the best solutions for your simulation model. You choose a measure of
performance which is fully customizable, set the parameters that are allowed to change and the optimizer
will perform experiments intelligently to find the best solutions. It is an intelligent helper and will work
tirelessly to improve your results.

Using the latest in sophisticated mathematical techniques, it offers an easy-to-use interface and the
presentation of optimal results in a selection of useful and innovative tables and graphs.

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WITNESS VR

WITNESS VR incorporates stunning 3D displays to any WITNESS simulation model and is designed to be
used where first class presentation of a key proposal is required. Utilizing the latest graphics technology that
stems from the video gaming industry WITNESS VR offers easy navigation of a 3D world using a standard
mouse with full free flight capability. View your models from any angle, set up flypasts, add additional
animation effects or create a full background world to set your model in a realistic setting. WITNESS VR can
also be used separately to any simulation model. Using the full world editing software called mantra4D
which is shipped with WITNESS VR powerful animations can be created for pure animation effect.

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Lanner Group

Lanner simulation software enables business process improvement for world leading organizations. With
Lanner simulation, business managers can model, analyse and optimize processes to make superior
decisions in a risk-free environment. Lanner simulation is the key to improving productivity, efficiency and
reducing costs.

Lanner's advanced simulation technology is supplied to simulation professionals through its WITNESS®
brand. Lanner's L-SIM™ brand has quickly established itself as the leading embedded simulation engine
used in enterprise suites from the top software solutions suppliers. Lanner's technology is also embedded
within its expanding range of individually badged, task specific simulation and planning applications. Based
in the UK with subsidiaries and partners in Europe, The Americas and the Far East, Lanner applications are
used by more than 3,500 companies globally.

Please visit the Lanner website for the latest product and support information :

Contact our web site for support and information:

www.lanner.com

-o-

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Building your first model

Stage 1

Open the model STARTUP.MOD, which is located in the demo\tutorial subdirectory of your WITNESS
installation directory.

This designer elements model allows you to add WITNESS elements to your model quickly and easily.

The first stage of the model you are about to build contains a part, which is called Widget, a producing
machine (Produce) and a buffer (QWash).

Click on the machine icon in the designer elements window, it will become selected (you will know
when it is selected as the cursor changes to a cross and an outline rectangle is shown).

Position the cursor in the layout window and click with the left-hand mouse button. A machine (called
Machine001) appears selected in the simulation window.

Hold down the left mouse button whilst the cursor is inside the net and you can drag the new element
around the screen to position it. Click outside the net to remove it.

The machine is now part of the model you are building.

Add a buffer by clicking on the buffer icon in the designer elements window. Once it is selected move
the cursor into the layout window and click again to place the display which represents the buffer. Drag
the buffer to the position that you want.

Add a part in the same way.

The three elements for this first stage are now all added to the model and the next step is to add the detail
needed to run the model.

Process Flow Logic


The next step in this model is to define logic rules linking these elements together. The simplest way to input
these rules is by the toolbars and the mouse. There are several types of connection rules in WITNESS

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(please see the Quick Reference Book for full details). Common ones include push and pull, percent and
sequence rules. Less common ones also exist to offer complex rules which will match attributes or
conditions, ‘if’ rules to enter complex decision logic, etc.

We will begin by using simple PUSH and PULL rules to describe the flow of parts through the system.

Machine rule information

Select the machine Machine001 by clicking on its icon. Now click on the visual pull button on the

standard toolbar:

The default rule should be pull – leave this in this case but note that others are selectable from the pull
down combo box.

Click on the Part001 display and then the WORLD button and you should see the following:

Hint : When you click on the Part001 display, it may appear that nothing has happened. There is a
small message at the bottom left of your screen that shows the current part type selected. It initially
says 'Current part: ALL', and will change as the part is selected.

WORLD is a term used by WITNESS to indicate parts that are outside the model, and hence will be created
and brought into the model by this command.

Click on the OK button to accept the rule.

Now click on the Visual Push button :

Click on the buffer display and then OK to select this rule.

Running the model


Set the end time for the run in the text box next to the run until button (alarm clock symbol) on the run
toolbar by clicking in the box and then typing in 100. Now click on the run button (single arrow pointing right)
to start the model running.

WITNESS has been designed with an inbuilt safety mechanism to prevent you from running a model if vital
information is missing.

You have not entered a cycle time for the machine, so as soon as you start to run the model, it prompts
you for this. Enter:

Cycle Time: 5

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Click on the OK button.

Run the model at different speeds using the run toolbar controls and adjusting the walk rate and turning walk
on and off using the run toolbar button and slide control:

Note the changing color of the machine's status icon – yellow is idle (ready to work), green is working. There
are several more colors that you will see later on including blue – waiting for cycle labor, red – broken down,
magenta – blocked and light blue for machine setups.

Anticipated results
With a cycle time of 5 minutes it is apparent that after 100 minutes you would expect 20 parts to have been
produced and be in the buffer waiting for the wash operation.

Observe this and also note in the statistics report for part (use the right hand mouse button menu on the
Part001 display and select statistics with the left hand mouse button) that 21 parts are now present in the
model in total. That means 20 in the buffer and 1 in the machine.

Giving meaningful names to the elements


Although our model works, it relies on us knowing that the part is a widget, and the machine is the 'Produce'
machine. As we extend the scope model, it will become more difficult to recognize all of the machines,
buffers etc. To help with this, we must change the names of the elements, and later we will also change the
icons used for their display.

You may have been using WITNESS with the element selector window open; this will allow you to see
the names of all of the elements as you add them to your model. If it is not already open, you should

open it now by using the element selector button from the toolbar.

In the element selector window, select Part001. Now click on Part001 again (don't double-click or it will
open up a far more complex data form that we will look at later on), and you will be able to type in a
new name. Call it Widget.

Repeat the process to change the names of :-

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Machine001 to Produce

Buffer001 to QWash.

The model has not changed in terms of how it will perform, simply in terms of how it looks and what things
are called. Check this out by re-running your model and ensuring that the results are correct. Note the use

of the Begin button to rewind the simulation back to time zero in order to re-run a simulation.

This corresponds to the model STAGE1.MOD.

-o-

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Stage 2

Now you have created one machine and one buffer, and checked that the model works so far, you can add
more model elements.

The value of building a model in incremental stages like this cannot be emphasized too strongly. It is much
easier to isolate mistakes and potential problems and it enables you to understand what is happening much
more clearly. Additions and changes can be made at any time and these are incorporated immediately
without the need to reset your model.

You can continue building your model using the part and machine that you have already used in the Basic
set of designer elements. However, as a quick way of selecting machines with different appearances, there
are some alternatives available in the 'More Buffers' and 'More Machines' designer groups. First of all select
the 'More Machines' designer group.

Add another machine to the model by clicking on Mc_Wash in the designer elements window and
positioning the new machine to the right of the existing buffer.

In terms of its logical behavior, this machine is exactly the same as the machine that you added previously;
however, you will see that it's display has been configured differently.

Change the name of this machine from the element selector as before.

Its new name is : Wash

When prompted, enter the Cycle Time : 4

Now add another buffer following the WASH machine. This time use the 'Bf_Count' designer element
from the 'More Buffers' designer group; you will find that this displays a count of how many parts are in
the buffer rather than showing the parts. Change the name of this buffer in the usual way:

Name : QWeigh

Add another machine based on the Mc_Weigh machine in the 'More Machines' group, and as before
set:

Name : Weigh

When prompted, enter the Cycle Time : 3

Rules
In order to make the model run, the last step is to enter the input and output rules which control the flow of
parts through the model in the same way as in stage 1.

Click on the Wash machine to select it.

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(note Wash is displayed in the select box on the standard toolbar).

Click on the visual pull button.

Then click on the QWash buffer display.

Click on OK to accept the rule Pull QWash

Then for the WASH machine:

Use the visual push button to create the rule Push QWeigh

Next, for the WEIGH machine:

Use the visual pull button to create the rule Pull QWeigh

Use the visual push button to create the rule Push SHIP

(use the SHIP button on the VISUAL RULE Bar)

SHIP is an expression used by WITNESS to represent things that are outside the model. It is similar to the
WORLD expression that we saw earlier. When a part is pushed to SHIP, it leaves the model.

Rearrange the elements on the screen if necessary. It should now look something like this :

Anticipated results

You know that the time taken to process a widget now is :

3 minutes to produce

4 minutes to wash

5 minutes to weigh

Therefore the first widget will be produced (shipped) after 12 minutes and one every 5 minutes thereafter
(due to the limiting rate of the Produce operation).

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Therefore it can be calculated that after 100 minutes 18 will have been shipped. Use the statistics report as
in stage one to confirm this for a run of 100 minutes.

Modifying the model display

You may wish to modify the way elements are displayed to enhance the look of the model.

Element displays can be selected and dragged around the screen with the mouse. You can also move the
display of several elements at a time by drawing a net around the elements with the mouse and then
dragging the net.

WITNESS allows you to lock displays on windows or display layers, and also to link the various display
items for an element together. To lock displays use the view/layers option or the window/control option.

Many display items can be changed directly through selecting on the screen and using the toolbar buttons –
e.g. fonts, colors and layers. All other items have their displays altered using the display toolbar for an
element. Element displays can also be stretched and deleted, this is done using the mouse.

To delete a graphical display of an element, select the graphic to remove using the right mouse button to
access the context menu. Now select the Delete Graphics option to remove the graphic from the window.

To stretch a graphic, select it with the left mouse button, then use the handles that appear around the
graphic as well as holding the Control (Ctrl) button to change its size. Handles will only appear in Graphical
Editing mode and if the graphic is resizable. To enable the graphical editing mode use the View\Graphical
Editing menu.

As an example of changing the graphical display, we will modify the icon for the Produce machine. Right
Click on the Produce machine icon and select 'Update Graphic...' from the menu with the left hand mouse
button.

You should see the following:

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Double click on the icon on the dialog to show the picture gallery. Then choose icon number 3 and click OK
to select from the gallery and Update to update the icon display.

Your model display should now look like this :

This corresponds to the model STAGE2.MOD.

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Stage 3

Now we will add a conveyor and the packing machine to finish the production line.

To create a conveyor select the Transport tab in the designer elements window. Click on Conveyor in the
designer window to select it and then click below Produce in the layout window.

Click again in order to position the conveyor. In order to create the correct layout for the conveyor select it
again and then use the Ctrl key on the keyboard in conjunction with the mouse left hand button to drag the
nodes of the conveyor to the correct places. The mouse is positioned correctly to move a node when the 4
way arrow display changes to a 2 way arrow display. Selecting and dragging in this way the directional
arrows in the center of each section of conveyor (with the Ctrl key) creates additional sections and allows
the creation of corners.

Lay out your conveyor roughly as shown – with the co-ordinate displays turned on (Window/Co-ordinates
menu item) note that the dimensions are shown for accurate depiction. Note also that the display grid/
display/snap to grid are all options – please see on-line help for full details.

Add another machine to the model by returning to the basic tab in the designer elements window and

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clicking on machine and positioning the new machine to the right of the end of the conveyor.

Change the name of the machine in the usual way.

Name : Pack

Detailing an Element
You are about to enter the Detail form for the new machine. This is your first introduction to a very powerful
facility that allows you to change the characteristics and behavior of WITNESS elements.

Elements can be detailed in several ways:

The easiest way to access and change the details of an element is to double-click on the element displayed
on the screen (that is, the machine icons or the buffer numerical display).

Other options include:

 Clicking once on the element’s icon, then clicking on the detail button on the standard toolbar

 Using the right mouse button on the element in the element selector and selecting detail.

Change the detail of the new Pack machine by double clicking on its icon. Enter:

Type of Machine : Batch (select from pull down list)

Batch Min. : 2

Cycle Time : 7 (Note that we have always input a cycle time previously by waiting to be asked.
You can now see how you would change the previous answers to adjust the model.)

Press the OK button to accept changes to the Pack Detail form.

The packing machine packs two widgets together. Often this would be classified as an assembly machine
but in this instance where it is the end of the line we will leave it as a batch machine.

Change the detail of the conveyor by double clicking it. Enter:

Length in parts : 40

Rules

Click on the Weigh machine to select it.

Click on the visual push button.

Delete SHIP in the rule

Then click on the Conveyor path display.

Click on OK to accept the rule Push Conveyor001

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Click on the Pack machine to select it.

Click on the visual pull button.

Then click on the Conveyor path display.

Click on OK to accept the rule Pull Conveyor001

Click on the visual push button.

Click on SHIP in the rule bar

Click on OK to accept the rule Push SHIP

Running the Model

Run the model again for 100 time units entering the index time of the conveyor when prompted to be
1.0

After 100 time units we would expect just 8 to have been shipped when we take into account the time spent
on the conveyor and all the machines.

Adding a Variable Counter


To create a variable to record and display the output from Pack on the screen choose the designer element
VInteger (integer variable on the variables tab) and position on the screen as you have done with other
elements.

Change its name to NumberShipped (no spaces) in the usual way. You could also change its name by
double-clicking on it to go to the Detail page, and then changing its name there.

We will now use this to count widgets that are packed.

Double click on the Pack machine to select it.

Click on the actions on output button.

Enter: NumberShipped=NumberShipped+1

This is an action that occurs for every part the leaves the Pack machine;

it increases the value of our variable by one for each part counted.

(it can help to select the element name from the element names assistant on the assistant
toolbar

see quick reference guide/helptext for details)

Click on the OK button to accept this statement.

Click on the OK button to accept the Pack detail.

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Experiment with the way that the variable is displayed, for example:-

 Draw a net around the variable (name and value) to select it all

 Change the font (button on the display edit toolbar) to be larger and bold

 Change the font color (another button on the display edit bar).

The screen should now look like this:

Run the model and see the counter display change as parts are packed.

This corresponds to the model STAGE3.MOD.

-o-

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Stage 4

Now we will add a breakdown pattern (with variability) for the Wash machine and labor requirements into the
model.

Add a labor element to the model from the basic tab in the designer elements window. Position in the layout
window.

Change the name of this element in the usual way. Enter:

Name : Technician

Random sampling
In real life, operations are subject to a certain degree of variability. You can introduce this variability into your
model by using distributions. WITNESS provides a wide range of distributions for you to choose from (or
lets you define your own, if you wish to use your own data).

WITNESS uses random number streams to sample from distributions. You may either specify these or leave
WITNESS to assign different random number streams in different places – necessary for repeatable and
proper experimentation.

Double click on the Wash machine and select the Breakdowns tab.

Click on the add breakdown button (circled in red below) to add the default New Breakdown.

Change the breakdown mode to busy time from the pull-down list as shown below.

We will then need to tell the model how frequently the machine breaks down, and how long it takes to
repair.

Locate the cursor in the time between failures field of the breakdown mode section of the screen. Now you

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are going to use the distribution assistant to define this.

In the element selector window, select the 'Assistants' tab.

Expand the 'Distributions' heading to show all distributions available.

Right-click the UNIFORM distribution (scroll down if necessary) and select Insert with Distribution
Wizard.

Enter the limits as 100 and 300, and press the Preview button. This can be very useful to visualize the
shape of the distribution, especially when more complex distributions are used.

Click OK to accept the information entered.

Click on the Repair Time field.

Use the same procedure as before to add a Triangle distribution

Enter the parameters as Minimum=30, Most Likely=60 and Maximum=120 .

Click OK to accept the data entered & OK again to close the machine dialog.

This means that the Wash machine now calculates:

 the time between breakdowns using the uniform distribution with equal likelihood of any time between
100 and 300 minutes

 the repair time using the triangle distribution to sample a time between 30 minutes and 2 hours with the

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most likely value being 1 hour.

Now we will add the rules for the Wash and Pack machines to use labor:

Click on the Pack machine to select it.

Click on the labor rule button then click on the Technician labor element.

Click on the Save button, and then on the Close button

Click on the Wash machine to select it.

Click on the labor rule button again, but don't select the technician yet

This time change the type from Cycle to Repair using the pull-down list. This specifies the task that
the labor performs on this machine.

Now select the technician again as we did for the cycle of the Pack machine.

Now that you have introduced breakdowns, you should run the model for a longer time, for example to time
5000, to ensure that several breakdowns occur. This is so that you can see the full interaction between
processes and the competition between elements for labor. Even in this very simple model it is by now
impossible to calculate all model statistics manually.

The model should now look as follows:

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This corresponds to the model in STAGE4.MOD.

Running the Model

Run the model for 5000 time units (use the batch key to run fast if you wish).

As you might predict from the figures for breakdown, the wash machine is not keeping up with the work rate.

Note the queue of widgets in front of the wash machine – the number of parts in this buffer is growing
steadily.

The statistics for the wash machine (use the right hand mouse button menu to access statistics) show us
that the time spent waiting for the technician to come to repair the machine is small compared to breakdown
times and therefore the main problem is the reliability of the machine itself.

There are a number of alternative options. We'll look at just two.

First let us try adding a second wash machine.

Double click on the Wash machine and change the quantity to 2.

Reposition the display by dragging the second main icon below the first – note that as the display items
are locked the other queues and icon representing the second wash machine move with the main icon.

Your display should look as follows:

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Running the model to 5000 now indicates that the wash is no longer the bottleneck of the system – however
the bottleneck has just moved downstream.

A powerful way to see this is to draw a net around all of your elements, and right-click to select statistics.
This will initially show statistics for the Widget, and by clicking the double right arrows you can move on to
buffers, machines etc. With the machines shown, press the Chart States button. This gives the graphical
representation of how each machine was occupied, as shown below.

The model statistics show that the machine Weigh is blocked for a large percentage of the time and that the

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Pack machine is waiting for labor for a large percentage of the time. Therefore it is unlikely that any extra
Weigh or Pack machines are needed. We could consider more labor at this point, and may have to –
however there may be other alternatives. Although the Produce machine is fully used, we can see from the
screen that the buffer in front of Weigh is getting full; so we may get more throughput by clearing this.

And here is the power of simulation – we can try out what-if scenarios to evaluate many alternatives.

What if we could improve the reliability of the Wash machine. It may be worth a Six Sigma project in this
area. But is it? Let us try – what if the interval between breakdowns could be increased to between 150 and
300 minutes or even between 300 and 500 minutes.

Try these experiments by altering the parameters in the uniform distribution on the breakdown tab for
the Wash machine.

The first has no great beneficial value. However if the second were possible then it would cure all
throughput problems and even remove the need for a second wash machine (try this too!).

This type of sensitivity analysis is a great result from simulation. What are the key production levels that
require more machinery or labor – can improved control help – e.g. prioritizing work at different areas? All
ideas can be tried.

Of course in reality this model would be more complex. It may include shift patterns, raw material deliveries
or availability and complex production rules. All manner of complexity can be included and tried in models.

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Stage 5

Looking at the model in three dimensions


We have built our WITNESS model as a two dimensional representation of the facility drawn in plan view.
This can be extremely powerful for understanding the layout and the flow. In particular the use of status
colors to show what each machine is doing can add a great deal of extra information to the display.

However, there are times when it is useful to see the model in three dimensions. Each of the two
dimensional shapes in the WITNESS picture gallery is associated with a 3D shape. By using the Model/
Quick 3D menu option, a three dimensional view of your model will be created. As you learn more about
using WITNESS, you will discover how you can make adjustments to this 3D display. Beyond that, the
WITNESS VR module is available to extend this to produce fully realistic 3D simulations of your own facility.

You will notice that in the default 3D view that you created has all equipment at floor level, which may of
course be correct. It is quite simple to adjust the height of items in the 3D display, and indeed to create
additional floors if necessary.

Let us suppose that the Produce machine, and the buffer before the Washers are at an elevated position
two metres above ground. We will place this on a different 'layer' in the simulation model. Draw a net
around the machine and the buffer, and change them from being on the 'Simulation Layer' to the layer called
'Floor plus 2 metres'. You will see that a number of additional layers are defined in the Startup model.

If you now run the Model/Quick 3D option again, you will find that machine and buffer appear at an elevated
position as shown below. The 3D window contains a number of toolbar buttons to allow you to navigate
around the 3D world and change its appearance. You will find details about how to use these options in the
Help system.

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Summary

We hope you have seen how easy it is to build models in WITNESS, and how quick changes can lead to
quick results.

Remember that you can use models in a group environment; to get new ideas, develop them, and obtain
consensus by being able to try them out. This manual contains relatively simple models which introduce
WITNESS, although WITNESS is capable of handling large, “real life” problems as well.

The complete, visual and interactive environment of WITNESS is unique and really does allow managers
and engineers to obtain the benefits that simulation can offer.

As well as interactive experimentation WITNESS offers a number of methods to conduct experiments


automatically – please see the help text for details of experimentation and analysis.

The WITNESS Optimizer offers extended experimentation with algorithms that provide intelligent searches
for good solutions. If you have the WITNESS Optimizer you can try it with this model.

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Case study: JETTY.MOD

This model is a representation of a jetty where ships arrive to deliver a range of products. The crane labor
element is used by the jetty machine to represent the constraint that only one ship may unload at any one
time due to only one crane being available. Ships can only pass through the lock under certain tide
conditions. The tide is represented by the tide processor element which has rising and warning levels to set
the state of the tide.

To open this model, start WITNESS and then use the file/open command or the open file button on the
standard toolbar to open JETTY.MOD in the DEMO directory beneath your WITNESS installation.

Use the Window command to view different windows which contain additional information.

A histogram of mooring delays can be seen by using the associated view from the histogram icon at the top
left of the window entitled Facility Overview. The window entitled Jetty Utilization displays a series of pie
charts showing jetty utilization’s.

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This model can be used to illustrate the power of simulation in determining how facilities can be improved.

To understand this scenario fully, it is necessary to find out more information. This is a typical phase of
many simulation projects and generally you should do this before you start building a model. It is vital to
understand the process or business situation being modeled as fully as possible and to establish the
objectives of the modeling work to be done.

For this particular scenario the Harbor Operations Manager has been targeted with establishing how
business could be increased. Ships that pass this harbor have the option of using alternative facilities a
short distance further on. If the outer harbor area here is full, no ships will wait, and they will move on to the
alternative facilities. However if the outer harbor area is not full (and the current capacity for holding inbound
ships here is 2 ships only) then all ships will wait.

The above story illustrates an occasion when a skilled simulation practitioner will, at the very least, ask one
or two more questions about this situation. When considering the alternatives open to the Harbor Operations
Manager, it is important to verify the accuracy of the above rules. For example, it may be the case that the
alternative facility owners may be enticing custom for some ships with special ‘two for the price of one’
offers. Therefore, it may not be the case that all ships will prefer this harbor, even if they are given the
opportunity. It is vital that you establish as much information regarding the model as possible so that you
can explore the ‘what-if’ scenarios accurately.

In this case, we will take it that the above rules have been established to be true.

The timing data for the base case model has all been established and is already loaded into the model
included in the WITNESS installation. Timings include :

Lock timing for one ship 20 minutes

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Inter-arrival rate for ships NEGEXP(60,1)

Crane Unloading time for each ship 150 minutes

Capacity of Outer Harbor Holding area for inbound ships 2

Capacity of Inner Harbor Holding area for inbound ships 3

Capacity of Inner Harbor Holding area for outbound ships 2

Number of Cranes 1

High tide to low tide in 5 hours. Low tide to


Tidal System
high tide in 5 hours. 1 hour at full tide.

Lock operation depth above 3 meter depth

The inter-arrivals rate NEGEXP(60,1) means that, on average, one ship arrives every 60 minutes (but
spread randomly). This random arrival pattern is represented by the Negative Exponential distribution which
is one of WITNESS’s many standard distributions. The 1 represents pseudo random number stream 1. You
could think of this as an electronic die which is rolled whenever a value needs to be used. In this way,
different arrival intervals are set as the simulation runs. WITNESS experiments are repeatable in that every
run will generate the same samples of random numbers (in this case, the same arrival pattern).

Again, the distributions and accuracy of timings and so on can be vital to the simulation results. If a timing
can vary between ten and twenty minutes, then you may need to model this.

Dealing with uncertain data

When data is uncertain, the best course of action is to use the ‘best guess’ data available, but make
sure that sensitivity analysis on this data is carried out in the experimentation.

For example, if a timing is given as 10 minutes but it could be anywhere between 5 and 15 minutes,
then (if you cannot time it easily) use the value 10 in the model but do some model runs with values of
5 and 15, and perhaps several values in between. If the different timings make a significant difference
to your results, then it is important that you establish the data more accurately. The simulation model
has proved that you need to know this data if you are to predict ‘what-if’ information.

However, if the different timings make little or no difference, then why waste time and energy in
establishing the data more accurately?

Let us now look at the base experiment with the model. A suitable run time for this model is one hundred
days. Please note that many simulation models should be run for a long time. This example model contains
a particularly unpredictable distribution in the negative exponential. It is this that means that the model must
be run for a fairly long time to cater for all the inherent variability in the process.

If your machine is not powerful enough and is taking too long to perform the experiments then try shorter run
lengths; although the results will not match the ones shown here exactly, the comparisons between runs will
probably still largely be indicative of the true choices. However, please be aware of the problems of run
lengths which are too short.

Several of the standard texts on simulation give full explanations of how to establish run length (or in the
case of non-equilibrium situations, the number of replications with different random number settings to be

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run). In essence, you need to run the model until the model has experienced all the variability – a simple
test of this is to look at the variability of the results over successive time segments. That is, if the result from
each 1000 minutes over a 10,000 minute run is the same, then 1000 is possibly the right length of run for
further experiments. However, this can be misleading (for example, if the data contains one event that will
only happen in a million time units then a million or more may be necessary).

To run the model for 100 days you can enter 100*24*60 in the box in the ex ecutetoolbar at the bottom
of the screen and then click on either the run or the batc h(fast forward) button. The simulation model
will stop at the entered time (as long as the c loc kbutton by the side of the box is depressed).

To view results, display other windows by using the windows command. You can also look at the
standard result tables by using the reports, select all the elements in thes imulat ionsection of the
element selector and then click on the s tat is t ic sbutton. The forward and backward arrow keys in the
reports dialogs enable you to move through the different pages of the reports.

As explained above, the results shown below represent a run of the base model data for one hundred days,
which is assumed to be sufficient in this case. This raises the question of which results should be examined.
In this case the key result is the level of business – that is, the number of ships unloaded versus the number
rejected (and consequently lost to the competition).

Other interesting results include the average time that a ship takes to be unloaded (from entering the
harbor). This represents the level of service, which could affect the decision to return.

Other statistics will guide us as to the key options for change by indicating high or low utilization’s of different
facilities, showing where bottlenecks occur in a process and where investment may help.

956 ships have been shipped, the average turnaround time is 1102.35 minutes and ships at berth positions
have spent time waiting for the one crane available. If you examine the other WITNESS results windows, the
other key figures here are :

 Crane busy 99.86% of the time

 Lock busy 26.64% of the time (however, from calculation it is available only 5/11 or 45.45% of the time

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due to tidal considerations).

It is often helpful to tabulate these results for comparisons with other runs :

Sc enario Tit le Bas e Cas e Run

Ships Shipped 956

Ships Rejecting Harbor because full 1450

Average Turnaround Time 1102.35 mins

Crane Utilization 99.86%

Lock Utilization 26.64%

Berth Waiting for Crane 64.62% averaged over 3


jetties

Berth Blocked for ship leaving 1.58% averaged over 3


jetties

We will now assume that these results have been validated against actual performance data. This is another
vital step in many simulation projects, as if the model is inaccurate then conclusions from comparative runs
may also be wrong.

Now we can examine the options open to the Harbor Operations Manager. In most simulation projects there
are usually a number of real-life options favored by the experience of the management of the facility. This
experience may uncover other data which may be relevant and need to be included in a model. Often this
experience will help you to decide the most useful options for experimentation. However, it is also your duty
as a simulation practitioner to explore the model that you have created; to understand the relationships
between the model parameters and to get to know the full dynamics of the process. By playing with the
model you can learn a lot which, in conjunction with other factors such as experience, should help you to
determine the best way ahead.

Some options may be ruled out as impractical or too costly. Cost is often to be taken into account.

In this example we will first simply look at the options which may increase the number of ships served.

You may care to think about this yourself before proceeding. What options do you think may lie open to the
Harbor Manager ?

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Some options include :

i) Increasing the number of unloading cranes

ii) Increasing the speed of the unloading cranes

iii) Increasing the capacities of the different harbor areas to accept more ships (3 separate options
here)

iv) Increasing the capability of the lock to handle ships for longer periods of time

v) Increase the capacity of the lock

vi) Dredge the channels to the lock so that the lock can operate at lower levels.

There may well be other options which are dependent on the type of goods to be unloaded – alternative
unloading mechanisms, different traffic organization in the inner harbor, and so on.

The results show that with the current situation the jetties are waiting for a crane for a long time. Therefore
our first experiment here may be to try adding another crane.

Double-click on the word crane on the jetty layout – the jetty dialog should appear. Change the quantity
of cranes to 2 and click on the OK button.

Now run the model (first begin and then batch the model) to the 100 day mark again.

The results this time show the following:

Sc enario Tit le Bas e Cas e Run Two Cranes

Ships Served 956 1355

Ships Rejecting Harbor because full 1450 1055

Average Turnaround Time 1102 mins 647 mins

Crane Utilization 99.86% 70.68%

Lock Utilization 26.64% 37.67%

Berth Waiting for Crane 64.62% averaged 14.69%


over 3 jetties

Berth Blocked for ship leaving 1.58% averaged over 22.69%


3 jetties

The comparisons show us that investing in a second crane would increase the number of ships that can be
shipped by 41.7%.

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However the results also show that if this is done, the bottleneck is no longer the crane operation. With
berths being blocked for over 20% of the time there is now a bottleneck beyond this operation. We can now
try increasing the number of ships allowed in the inner harbor in the outgoing queue or perhaps try
increasing the availability of the lock.

To reset the capacity of the outward queue in the inner harbor, double click on the appropriate queue
and enter a capacity of 3 (for example) instead of 2.

To change the capability of the lock, double click on the tide processor element, select the warning
levels page and alter both the rising and the falling level to 2. (You can do this by clicking on the level,
altering the value in the box above and then updating the level).

Try each of these options singly and then both together, keeping 2 cranes in each case. This table shows the
evaluations of all five scenarios so far:

Sc enario Bas eCas e 2 3 4 5

DATA

Number of Cranes 1 2 2 2 2

Outgoing Harbor Queue 2 2 3 2 3


Capacity

Lock availability in hours out of 5 5 5 7 7


11

RESULTS

Ships Shipped 956 1355 1379 1696 1705

Ships Rejecting Harbor 1450 1055 1031 714 705


because full

Average Turnaround Time 1102 647 626 488 473

Crane Utilization 99.86% 70.68% 71.93% 88.44% 88.91%

Lock Utilization 26.64% 37.67% 38.33% 47.14% 47.39%

Berth Waiting for Crane (jetty 64.62% 14.69% 14.17% 20.74% 21.02%
average)

Berth Blocked for ship leaving 1.58% 22.69% 12.82% 7.11% 1.94%
(jetty average)

This shows that if the channels to the lock can be dredged to enable it to operate for 7 hours out of 11
instead of 5, this has a much bigger effect than enabling more queuing space in the inner harbor for
outgoing ships.

However all these results must be balanced with the practicality of the solution and the costs.

For this example we shall establish some costs:

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 Cost of an additional crane is $10Million (depreciated over 500 days)

 Cost of additional labor for new crane $1000 per day

 Cost of dredging channels to lock $2,000 per day

 Cost of increasing outgoing harbor queue to 3 (through new organization/flow buoy installation/extra
drainage) $1,000 per day

 Profit cleared on normal operations for unloading one boat $4,000

 Cost of third crane would be the same as the second

 Cost of increasing other queuing capacity areas by one in the model is the same as for the outgoing
harbor queue.

 Cost of building a second lock $10Million (depreciated over 500 days)

Lanner’s challenge to you is to establish the best option for this harbor, based on the information
given above. You can submit the result to support@lanner.co.uk for verification.

-o-

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Conducting a Simulation Project

Overview

Projects which involve simulation have several unique aspects which must be managed particularly carefully
to ensure their success. The topics in this chapter outline a typical sequence of events in a project, using a
practical methodology:

 establishing objec t iv es
 deciding the s c ope and level of detail in the model
 collecting data
 s truc turingthe model
 buildingthe model
 running the model
 generating reports
 t est ingthe model
 ex perimentingwith the model
 doc umentingthe model
 presenting the res ult sand implement ingthem

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Establish objectives

This is the first and most important phase of any simulation project. The aim of any simulation project should
be to make a better business decision. You, as simulation modeler, must understand this business decision
as it is likely to have important implications for the content of your simulation model.

For example, consider two models of exactly the same production cell built for two entirely different reasons.

The first model is built in order to discover the theoretical maximum throughput of the cell as it is subjected
to different product mixes. The model therefore contains detailed information on part availability (contained
within a part file) and the cell's production schedule (contained within a data file). Labor required to operate
the cell at the maximum rate is not a consideration.

The second model is built to investigate the number of operators required to operate the cell efficiently. The
model therefore contains detailed information about labor priorities, job interruptions, and shift patterns. In
this case, the production schedule might assume less importance.

Thus the content of the models is driven by the business decision which needs to be made. There is no
requirement to represent every single feature of the real world production cell in either model.

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Scope and level of model detail

The scope of a simulation model refers to where it begins and where it ends. For example, consider a
model of a typing pool. The objective of the model is to decide how many typists are required in order to
provide a particular document delivery time. The typing pool could be considered in isolation.

Parts arrive in an in-tray (buffer). Each typist takes documents from the in-tray, processes them and pushes
them out of the model (to SHIP).

Alternatively, the typing pool could be considered part of the paper-flow of the entire organization. This
involves shifting the start and end points of the simulation model to encompass more of the real world.

It is important to limit the scope of the model as far as possible. With regard to the level of detail contained
within a model, the golden rule is to model the minimum necessary in order to achieve the model's
objective.

At the beginning of the model-building process, small additions to the model lead to large increases in its
accuracy. As the model becomes more detailed, however, each subsequent addition adds less to the
model's accuracy. In fact, it could be argued that the addition of unnecessary detail could lead to an
eventual fall in the accuracy of the model. This is particularly true where you are trying to model human
behavior, which is often inconsistent. The graph below shows a typical relationship between the level of
detail of a model and the model's accuracy.

It is possible to use WITNESS elements to represent combinations of real world processes and therefore to
model a process at a 'higher level'. For instance, a manufacturing cell or even an entire manufacturing plant
could be represented solely as a WITNESS machine.

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Data Collection

Information for a model is likely to fall into one of three categories:


1. Available - data is readily available and it is in an appropriate format that the model can use
immediately.

2. Not available but collectable - data is either in an incorrect format or it has not been collated before.
You might need to perform a small work study in order to collect this type of data (for example, timing
certain processes manually).

3. Neither available nor collectable - data is not currently available and it is not easily collectable (for
example, for a model of a new factory on a green-field site with new machinery).

If the data is neither available nor collectable, you must use estimates. You can obtain useful estimates by:

1. Using manufacturer's data - Machine manufacturers often include information (for example,
reliability data) in their promotional literature and machine specifications.

2. Sensitivity analysis - involves replacing an unknown parameter (for example, a machine cycle time)
with a high value and a low value in turn and comparing the results of the entire simulation. If the
results are similar, then it follows that the machine cycle time is not a critical part of the entire process
and that a rough-cut estimate of the cycle time should be sufficient. If the results differ markedly, then
the machine cycle time is a critical statistic and further work will be required to ensure that it is
estimated closely.

Whenever you use an estimate, you should declare it as an assumption upon which the model is based. If
the model later proves inadequate as a representation of the real world situation, then it is possible to
scrutinize the assumptions upon which it was based.

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Structuring the model

An important final step before building the simulation model is to structure it. This will identify the most
difficult areas for the model building and highlight any additional data requirements that may have been
overlooked up to now, such as a transfer time for parts between processes.

This plan typically takes the form of a sketch of the facility to be modeled. The plan should identify which
WITNESS element (or collection of elements) is to be used to model each real-life process. It may also
contain information regarding the input and output rules to be used on key elements and a summary of the
actions language that needs to be included in the elements to give the necessary degree of logical control.
You may also incorporate other items (such as the cycle times of machines and the capacities of buffers)
into the plan.

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Building the model

It is recommended that you build the model incrementally, and that you test each stage thoroughly before
you build the next stage. If you do this, it is easier to find possible problems for a model than if you have to
search through an entire model.

Avoid the temptation to experiment with a model before it is complete. It is better to have a complete, well-
tested, model to act as a benchmark against which experimental results can be compared.

The main steps in building a model are creating elements (defining, displaying and detailing them), then
linking them together with rules.

You can also build more complex logic into your model by using actions.

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Running the model

After defining, displaying and detailing the elements of your model, you can run it immediately, then modify it
by adding, changing or deleting elements. You can then run the model again in order to assess the impact
of these changes.

This ability to build a model incrementally, testing each section as you go, is a powerful aid to productivity,
and generates confidence in the validity of your model.

You can run the model in different modes, from step-by-step (with full screen display) to a ‘batched’ time in
the future (with no screen display).

There are many WITNESS features which aid analysis, including standard report tables and graphs (which
list the basic mathematical behaviors of all elements in the model automatically), meteor trails, elements
flows and process views. You can also create timeseries, pie charts, histograms and customized report
tables and expressions in WITNESS.

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Generating reports

When you have built and run your model, you can use WITNESS reports to help you choose between
alternative modeling scenarios.

For example:

 In order to increase the utilization of machinery, you may be most interested in the proportion of the time
that machines spent in an idle state compared to the time they spent in a busy state during a simulated
shift.

 In order to increase the throughput of your operation, you may be most interested in the number of parts
processed during a simulated day’s operation.

 In order to rationalize your work force, you’ll be interested in the proportion of time that operators of
each grade spend busy.

 In order to reduce wastage, you may be interested in the quantity of parts that were scrapped during the
simulated period.

 In order to avoid losing customers because your queues are too long, you’ll be interested in the number
of customers who failed to enter for this reason (number of parts rejected).

 In order to estimate the life of your vehicles, you’ll be interested in the total distance they travel in a
simulated week.

You can choose different types of report to run and you can output the report to a printer, display it on
screen, or save it to various types of file (including CSV and HTML formats). You can copy all standard
reports and graphs to the Windows clipboard and paste them into other applications.

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Testing the model

Testing a simulation model consists of verification and validation.

Verification ensures that the content of the model is consistent with your expectations. For example,
establish that the parts are traveling along the correct routes between elements and that any labor used is
attending to the correct elements in the correct priority order.

Validation (which usually follows verification) investigates the accuracy of the model compared with the real
world. A typical validation exercise might involve providing a typical set of inputs (for example, a part arrival
and production schedule) and studying a set of model outputs (for example, the average level of work-in-
progress for a part, or part throughput times).

The verification and validation stages of a simulation study are usually iterative in that they involve re-visiting
some of the stages already described. For example, the model may require the addition of some processes
not yet modeled, thus increasing the model's scope.

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Experimentation

When you are satisfied that the model resembles the behavior of the real-life situation, you can investigate a
number of what-if scenarios. The scenarios should have been defined within the original objectives of the
simulation study.

Successful experimentation typically involves using a warm-up period or starting conditions, deciding on a
suitable run-length, and running the model with more than one random number stream.

A warm-up period allows the model to reach a steady state before WITNESS collates any results. For
example, it is highly unlikely that a production line would be completely empty of parts first thing on a
Monday morning, although the computer simulation would start from such a situation. A warm-up period of,
for example, one week would allow stocks to build up to a typical level. You could then instruct the model to
disregard the results for the first week and start to collate results from Monday morning of the second week.
You can use the model/options/statistics command or the model/experiment command to specify a warm-
up period.

A possible alternative to a warm-up period is to include some starting conditions within the model. At time
zero, parts are dispatched to various elements. The numbers of parts and their destinations correspond to a
typical work-in-progress situation. There is now no need for a warm-up period as the model is being run
from a typical real-life situation. You can create starting conditions by using active part arrivals or dummy
starting condition machines which process large numbers of parts at time zero but are then made inactive
for the remainder of the simulation.

You can also use part files to load a new model with element definitions.

Although most simulation runs require either warm-up periods or starting conditions, some situations do not
need either. For example, a model built to study customer service levels at a bank would preferably start
from an empty state since banks contain no customers when they open their doors each morning.

Any experiment involves running a model for a specified length of time under different circumstances. The
length of the run should be determined by a number of factors. The most important factor is that a
reasonable sample of random numbers is taken from each of the random number streams used in the
model. Each run should aim to use at least 10-15 numbers from each stream. If one stream is being used to
calculate a breakdown interval of between 1 and 2 weeks then a run length of between 20 and 30 weeks
would be necessary.

Another factor is the reporting period of the real-life situation being modeled. It makes little sense to
calculate an optimum run length of 3 weeks and 1 day if you need to compare your model results with a
real-life situation which reports every 30 day period.

It is important to run any model with random activity by using several different sets of random number
streams before you can place any confidence in the model's results. Otherwise it is possible that the results
obtained are solely the consequence of one set of the random number streams chosen rather than any
model changes that you have made. You should compare each set of results; if you find any
uncharacteristic values, you should review and assess them and, if necessary, discard them.

You can use the model/random numbers command to reset random streams from antithetic to regular, or
regular to antithetic. Alternatively, you may use the model/experiment option to automate the run of a model
which uses number streams.

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Documentation

It is a good idea to document the way in which you built the model, as it makes it easier to understand if you
(or someone else) examines it at a later date. Such documentation should include the model structure
diagram. WITNESS also provides other facilities for model documentation, either within the model itself, or
externally to a file or a printer.

You can attach notes to most element detail dialogs and display the notes in the simulation window. You
can use these to enter descriptions of how each part of the model should work. You can also use an
exclamation mark in rules and actions in order to insert comments about the purpose of the rule or action.

The sources of data used, the assumptions made and the results obtained should also form part of the
model documentation. If the project is documented as it proceeds then the documentation will prove to be a
less onerous task. It is recommended that any project documentation is completed before the presentation
of results as there is often less inclination to document a project which has been laid to rest.

The WITNESS Documentor module allows the creation of a report from the names, notes and other
property fields within a model.

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Presentation of results and implementation

The method of presentation for results depends on the size of the simulation project and the culture of your
organization.

An animated model provides an effective communication tool to support business decisions, particularly if
you have enhanced its graphical display.

You should try to ensure that model results form part of the decision-making process and that the model is
not simply used to justify a past decision. Actions resulting from study of the simulation model should be
implemented. Otherwise, all your efforts will be wasted.

If your model is effectively documented, it will probably be used again, perhaps with changes made to some
of the parameters. The model will evolve to support better decision-making in the future.

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Modeling With WITNESS

Elements: the WITNESS building blocks

A business or commercial operation might produce a number of different parts using a variety of machines,
conveyors, vehicles, other equipment and people.

A WITNESS model uses the same combination of parts, people, machines and other simulation devices,
called modeling elements, in order to simulate the operation being studied.

There are two main versions of WITNESS which offer different terminologies for manufacturing and for
service and process applications. This book is designed for people principally modeling manufacturing
applications. However the elements give scope for modeling other applications too. For example it is
possible to model logistical operations.

It is also possible to treat the manufacturing terminology in the product abstractly – modeling people or
telephone calls as parts to be processed by different activities – represented by machines, and so on. For
customers principally modeling non-manufacturing activities we recommend the Service and Process
Performance edition of WITNESS. Please contact Lanner for details.

As you become more familiar with the capabilities of each element, you will find that virtually any aspect of
your operation can be meaningfully represented.

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Discrete Elements

These are displayed as dynamic icons and represent tangible elements in the real-life situation being
studied.

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Parts

Parts flow through the model. They can represent, for example:

 products (cars, engines, etc).


 product batches.
 a project progressing through a large corporation.
 calls in a telephone exchange.
 tiny electronic components or whole computers.

Parts can be:

 displayed in different ways – as an icon or a text description.


 characterized by a particular set of attributes (for example, weight, length, color), which can be fixed
(for every part of the same type) or variable (for each individual part of the same type).
 handled in different ways (batched, created singly or in lots, changed into other parts, many parts can
be combined into one part, or one part can be split into several parts).
 filled with fluid and emptied of fluid.

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Buffers

These are places where parts can be held. For example:


 parts awaiting an operation on a factory floor.
 people in a queue.
 the space containing aircraft waiting to land.
 a hopper containing components at an assembly station.

Buffers can:
 have parts arranged within them according to different ordering methods (for example, first-in first-out
or by priority).
 be tied directly to machines (dedicated buffers).
 hold parts for a specified minimum time. In this way buffers can be used to simulate equipment such
as ovens and operations such as settling or cooling.
 hold parts for a specified maximum time after which they attempt to leave the buffer. An example of a
use of buffers In this way is to be used to simulate shelf life of components after which they must be
scrapped.

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Machines

These are powerful elements which are used to represent anything that takes parts from somewhere,
processes them and sends them on to their next destination. For example:
 a machine tool, lathe or a press.
 a complete shop or a single supermarket checkout.
 an organization which handles a project then passes it on.
 an entire plant or an individual work cell.

Machines can:
 be one of seven types, handling parts in a variety of ways.
 model such factors as the time a machine takes to process a part, time between breakdowns,
multiple setups, multiple stations, multiple cycles, time to repair breakdowns and to set a machine up,
as well as labor for these events.
 fill and empty parts with fluid.

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Labor

This element can be used to model both human and physical resources (for example, tools, people or
equipment) which may be required by other elements for processing, setting up, repair, cleaning and so on.
Controlling labor use is usually very important in modeling. There are many different options available in
WITNESS e.g. complex rules for allocation and the ability to take labor resources away from an element so
that a more important task can be completed for another element (resource pre-emption).

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Conveyors

These are used to move parts from one fixed point in the model to another over time, both belt and roller
conveyors can be represented. There are two types of conveyors.
 Fixed conveyors maintain a constant distance between parts. If the conveyor stops, the distance
between the parts on the conveyor remains the same.
 Queuing conveyors allow parts to accumulate. If the conveyor becomes blocked, the parts will slide
together until the conveyor is full.

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Paths

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A path is an element that parts or labor units can travel along in order to get from one element to another
element. You can use it to represent the length and the physical route of a real life journey in your model.

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Tracks

These are the paths that vehicles follow when transporting parts. They also define points at which vehicles
may load, unload or park. You can model unidirectional or bi-directional tracks.

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Vehicles

These represent vehicles, (for example, Automatic Guided Vehicles, cranes, forklift trucks) which transport
parts. You can specify:
 a variety of destinations and priorities for vehicles.
 the time a vehicle should stop at the end of a track before going on to the next track.
 a length of time the track remains busy after a vehicle has left it (for example, to avoid collision with
the long train of the front vehicle).
 a maximum speed for a vehicle on a track.
 the speed of a vehicle when loaded and unloaded.
 vehicle acceleration and deceleration.
 the time it takes for parts to be loaded and unloaded from a vehicle.

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Power & free elements

Power and free elements allow you to model the specialized form of material transportation systems. There
are four types of power and free elements.

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Network

The network groups a set of sections, stations and carriers together. There are two types of network: self-
powered and section-powered, and the type affects the behavior of sections and carriers within the network.

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Section

This is the path that carriers move along, the section must be part of a network. The network determines the
behavior of a section.

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Station

A point (at the beginning or end of a section) at which you can execute actions either on the carrier or on the
entity in the carrier. There are four types of power & free stations: Basic stations (allowing simple actions),
Loading stations, Unloading stations and Parking stations.

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Carrier

A carrier transports parts along sections or through stations, its behavior is determined by the type of
network it is on. If the network is self-powered, the carriers are active and propel themselves along passive
sections. If the network is section-powered, the carriers are passive and are picked up and carried along
sections by hooks (or ‘dogs’)

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Continuous Processing Elements

These are used to simulate models where continuous flow is a factor.

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Fluids

Fluids represent liquids and free-flowing products, such as powder. They are displayed as blocks of color
that flow through pipe, tank and processor elements. Mixtures of fluids are shown bands of different colors
(proportionate to the amount of each fluid in the mixture).

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Processors

Fluids flow into processors, undergo some type of operation, then flow out (that is, they act like machines for
fluids). An example of a processor could be a vessel in which a number of fluids are mixed and then heated
for a specified time. Processors can:
 have calibrated levels, showing precise contents.
 display the proportions of the mix of fluids in a processor as a percentage, together with the names of
the fluids.
 have a minimum process level, below which the processor will not cycle.
 be cleaned according to certain criteria.
 break down according to certain criteria.
 have specified rising and falling warning levels which cause something to happen when reached.
 change the name and color of a fluid on input or output.

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Tanks

Tanks are continuous processing elements in which fluids may be held or stored (that is, they act like
buffers for fluids). Tanks can:
 be cleaned at various stages.
 have specified rising or falling warning levels, which cause something to happen when they are
reached.
 change the name and color of a fluid on input or output.
 be displayed in different ways.
 display their contents in volume units on the screen.
 display the proportions of mixtures of fluids as a percentage, together with the names of those fluids.

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Pipes

These are the elements used to connect processors and tanks. Fluids flow through pipes at a given rate.
Pipes can:
 be cleaned according to certain criteria.
 break down according to certain criteria.
 change the name and color of the fluid on input or output.
 have negative flow rates.
 flow with or without an output.

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Logical Elements and Modules

These represent the data and reporting aspects of the model (that is, control and information). They enable
you to handle data easily, customize reports and build more complex logic into WITNESS models.

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Attributes

These are characteristics of a specific part or labor unit. For example, the number of cylinders in an engine
could be held in an attribute, and you could then use this attribute to determine the amount of time required
for tuning and adjustment. Each attribute may hold an integer, or a real number, or a string, or a reference to
another WITNESS modeling element.

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Variables

Variables are values which can be accessed from anywhere in the model. For example, a variable could be
used to record the value of items in an inventory. In addition to variables that you define yourself, WITNESS
provides several system variables (including one which holds the current simulation clock time and one
which holds the number of the current part in a batch). A variable can:
 hold an integer, or a real number, or a string, or a reference to another WITNESS modeling element.
 be set equal to an expression involving attributes, to a constant value, to a sample from a distribution
or to another variable.
 display its name and value on the screen.

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Files

Files allow you to take values that are relevant to the simulation and load them into a WITNESS model, or
save values from the WITNESS model to a file so that you can use them in another application (in order to
produce customized reports, for example).

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Distributions

Distributions allow you to build variability into a model by including data which you have collected from the
real world. For example, if observations show that the milling operation on type X widgets takes between 5
and 10 minutes but most often takes 8.2 minutes, the information could be introduced into the model using a

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distribution. Distributions can:


 be defined by you.
 be one of the wide range of integer and real distributions already provided by WITNESS.
 be either continuous or discrete.

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Functions

WITNESS provides a large number of built-in functions which you can use to build intelligence into the logic
of your model. For example, you could use a function to detect the number of parts currently on a conveyor.
You may also create your own functions. Built-in functions include:
 reporting and status functions, for example, returns the number of parts in a specified element,
returns the amount of free space in an element.
 random sampling functions, for example, returns a sample from a Normal distribution.
 arithmetic and name functions.
Functions can:
 display their name and most recently returned value on the screen as part of the model.
 be created as elements and then be used repeatedly in the model with the same ease as the built-in
functions.

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Part Files

A part file contains a list of parts; for each part in the file, you may specify the lot size (how many parts arrive
at once), attributes of the part (for example, icon, color, weight) and the arrival time of the part in the model.
This is useful for modeling simple production scheduling problems where the normal part inter-arrival
mechanism does not allow you to specify part arrivals with sufficient precision.

You can also output parts from the model to part files. In this way it is possible to produce a part file as an
output from one model which is then used as an input to another model.

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Shifts

The shift element is used to simulate a shift pattern (or a series of shift patterns) which is, in effect, a
sequence of working and non-working periods. Shift patterns may be applied to labor and other elements in
order to simulate shift working.

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Modules

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A module is an element consisting of a collection of other WITNESS elements. Modules may be used to
facilitate “black-box” or hierarchical model building. You can define, display and detail a module just like any
other WITNESS element, and protect the module with a password. The options for using modules are very
extensive. Links to external module files provide concepts of inheritance.

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Graphical & Reporting elements

These are graphical representations of what is happening to the model as a run proceeds.

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Pie Charts

Pie charts allow you to present simulation results on the screen in the standard pie chart format. You can
incline the pie chart’s display and pull out segments for greater impact. Pie charts are useful to represent the
percentage of time that an element spends in a certain state (for example, that amount of time that is spent
in a busy or idle state).

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Timeseries

Timeseries allow you to present simulation results on the screen in the form of a graph which plots values
taken from the simulation against time. Up to seven values may be plotted with seven different colors.
Timeseries are useful for determining the trends or cycles underlying the model since they provide a history
of the specified value as well as a mean and standard deviation.

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Histograms

Histograms allow you to present simulation results on the screen in the form of a bar chart. This is useful for
determining the range of values observed for some parameter of the simulation.

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Reports

Report Elements allow the definition of a custom report. This may either have the default display of a table
of values or a chart. The report element contains the details of the calculations to generate the report which
is usually based on the value of other functions or variables in a model.

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Manipulating elements: Rules, Expressions and Actions

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Rules

Parts and fluids are transferred between elements according to input and output rules on the detail dialogs
for those elements. Rules can:

 allow you to model complex decisions about the transfer of parts and fluids based on almost any
criteria.
 be entered semiautomatically by using a prompt feature in WITNESS.
 contain comments documenting your logic.
 direct parts and fluids to a variety of locations outside the model (for example, they can be shipped or
scrapped).
 be created simply using buttons on the Standard toolbar.

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Expressions

One of the most powerful features of WITNESS is the flexibility with which it handles values. Wherever a
value is required, you may specify a formula or expression (if you use spreadsheet programs you will
recognize this concept). Depending on the context, WITNESS either works out the value immediately or
stores the expression for future use. For example, a machine’s cycle time can be entered as an expression
which is reevaluated each time the machine cycles.

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Actions

WITNESS provides a simple programming language known as Actions. This shares similarities with the
BASIC programming language but reads more like English and incorporates help facilities. Using actions,
you can give WITNESS specific instructions about the logic of your model, allowing you to model the
calculations and formulae which underpin decisions in the reallife situation under study. Actions can:
 be used to introduce interaction between the model and the person using it, for example by prompting
them for specific responses at suitable points when the model is running.
 be used at key stages of an element’s operation (for example, at the end of a machine cycle, when a
part leaves the model, before observations are plotted on a timeseries, when a processor finishes
cleaning).
 be used to set the initial conditions of the model.

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 be used at any stage during the running of the model.

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Using and enhancing a WITNESS model

WITNESS Model Storage Formats

WITNESS allows you to save models and parts of models in several different formats. Some of the most
useful of these are :

.MOD Model file. This is the standard model save format. It includes all the definition of
the model in a fast loading format.

.SIM Model and status file. This is an extremely useful save format for WITNESS
models in that it saves a model at a particular point in a model run. When this
file is loaded again it is possible to view run statistics and even to run the model
on from that saved point in time.

.LST Library file. This is a text definition of a model file. It provides a way of looking at
a model file in a standard editor such as Notepad or Wordpad. The file can be
altered (carefully) and loaded again as required.

.DES A designer elements elements file. This file format saves a single tab of a set of
designer elements to a file. This allows easy portability of designer elements
between models – simply add another tab to the designer window in WITNESS
and load a DES file.

.MDL A module file. This saves part of a model (or all if a single module) to a file for
re-use in another model. A designer module in the WITNESS designer element
palette links to an mdl file to define a whole model section at once.

.WXM A WITNESS model in XML format. Another text format of a model saved
according to the WITNESS XML schema.

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Help

In addition to the WITNESS manuals and Help Desk support, on-line help is provided with the full version of
WITNESS. This is the most comprehensive documentation and contains hypertext jumps and search
facilities to move you quickly to the topic you require. Press the function key <F1>.

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Enhancing the screen display

The following facilities are examples of the ways in which you can enhance your model and make it clearer.
You can add:

 A backdrop display created in a CAD drawing package, by importing from a .DXF file.

 Extra icons. You can also design your own icons, which can change color to reflect the status of the
element that they are representing. Later, in the course of building a model, there is an example of an
icon library. It is possible to import bit-map files (.BMP), JPEG files (.JPG), GIF files (.GIF), windows
metafiles (.WMF), enhanced meta-files (.EMF) and Autodesk Drawing Interchange files (.DXF), these
can all be used as WITNESS icons.

 Text & Explanatory labels.

 Lines for example, to indicate the flow of work in progress.

 Boxes and ellipses for example, to divide the model into zones indicating operations or to draw
attention to certain areas.

 Company logos.

 Keys showing status colors for elements.

 Audio enhancements (using .wav files).

 Video enhancements (using .av i files).


You can choose:

 Different colors for displaying text, lines and element names. Both background and foreground colors
may be altered.

 Different fill patterns for boxes, circles or ellipses.

 Different text fonts.

 Different icon sizes.

 To redefine the digital and analogue simulation clocks to your requirements.

Display items can only be dragged, stretched, rotated etc after the button has been pressed to
enable the WITNESS 'Display Edit' toolbar.

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Useful buttons

A complete listing of all menu commands and toolbar buttons is included in the Quick Reference Book.
Some of the most common are also listed below:

The open model button lets you open a WITNESS model.

The run button runs the model with the simulation visible on all currently selected windows.

The s top button stops a run in any of the chosen modes.

The s tep button lets you examine each step that is taken as the run proceeds.

The begin button resets the clock to time zero, clears statistics and sets elements to an idle state.

The detail button lets you edit an element's details.

The dis playbutton lets you edit an element's display features.

The v is ual pull button lets you define a pull rule for a selected element.

The v is ual pus hbutton lets you define a push rule for a selected element.

When activated (pushed in) the run unt ilbutton enables you to run a model either until the time
entered in its text box is reached or until an event occurs for a named element

The element selector

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Example models

Dem1.mod - Simple Assembly Model

In this model, a TOP and a BOTTOM are screwed together using two screws.

The assembly operation is modeled and is followed by a Test and Inspection operation after which the
finished parts leave the model.

1 Open DEM1.MOD. To see the model at its best, activate the walk button on the execute toolbar
(by clicking on it):

then run the model by clicking on the run button:

2 Adjust the slider control on the walk button to control the speed of the model.

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The detail for each element can be viewed by double clicking on its display.

 The left hand buffer, TOPS, holds TOP parts which arrive in lots of 1 at variable times. The first TOP
arrives straight away. The middle buffer, BOTTOMS, holds BOTTOM parts which arrive in lots of 1 at
variable times. The first BOTTOM arrives straight away. The right hand buffer, SCREWS, holds SCREW
parts which arrive in lots of 6 at variable times. The first batch of SCREWs arrives after 5 minutes.

 The assembly machine, ASSEMBLY, pulls in 1xTOP, 1xBOTTOM and 2xSCREW parts and cycles for
2.0 mins, merging all parts into 1xASSM part.

 1xASSM part is output to the INSPECTION machine on the right, where they are collected in groups of
four and inspected for 5.0 mins before being shipped out of the model.

 A timeseries, COST, shows two plots. A reading for each plot is taken every 5.0 minutes.

 The first plot (called RAW MATERIALS) appears when you run the model and is shown as a yellow line.
It indicates the value of the raw materials in the model. A builtin WITNESS function is used to calculate
the number of parts in each of the three buffers and their value.

 The second plot (called ASSEMBLY/INSPECTION) also appears when the model is run and is shown as
a dark red line. It indicates the value of all parts currently in the ASSEMBLY and INSPECTION machines
(with the value of finished parts greater than the sum of constituents).

 The clock display has been customized to show the week, day and (current) time in hours and minutes.
The simulation time is also shown on the run toolbar.

3 Try running the model in step mode :

 Click on the begin button to return the time to zero and then use the step button.

 WITNESS waits for you to press the <Enter> key or click the left mouse button so that it can proceed to
the next step, which occurs at the next unit of simulated time. Each step is accompanied by a
commentary in the window labeled Interact Box of what is happening in the model.

 Press the <Enter> key. Initially, a TOP part and a BOTTOM part arrive and enter the ASSEMBLY
machine. Keep stepping (by pressing the <Enter> key) as the ASSEMBLY machine is waiting for
SCREW parts before it can cycle.

 Another TOP and BOTTOM enter the model. They are not needed yet and wait in the buffers.

 At time 5 a batch of six screws arrives. Two go into the ASSEMBLY machine and the rest wait in the
buffer. The ASSEMBLY machine starts to cycle and turns from yellow (idle) to green (busy).

 At time 7 the completed ASSM part goes to the INSPECTION machine (which remains idle because it
needs three more ASSM parts before it can cycle). The Assembly machine fills again.

 At time 18, the fourth part enters the INSPECTION machine and the icon turns green (busy).

 Keep pressing the <Enter> key until time = 20. At this point, the ASSEMBLY machine is blocked and
turns magenta because the INSPECTION machine is still busy and the ASSEMBLY machine cannot
output its part. It remains blocked until the four ASSM parts are shipped out of the model. The completed
ASSM part can then move from the ASSEMBLY machine into the INSPECTION machine and then the
ASSEMBLY machine can pull in four new parts to continue cycling normally.

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 Continue stepping through the model in this way and notice the changing status of the model and the
changing value of Work In Progress.

 To stop the model running, click on the stop button.

You can stop the model at any time and examine the reports that were generated during the model’s run.

4 To access reports, click on an element and press one of the report buttons:

The s tat is t ic s report


button provides the most detail, selected elements are grouped by type in
the reports.

The s ummary reportbutton provides a single line description of the detail logic for each selected
element.

The ex plode reportbutton provides information on the current status of the selected elements. It
shows a list of parts currently at a location.

The us ed reportbutton shows whether any elements reference the selected element, and if so,
how they are used.

Click on the >> and << buttons to view the next or previous report in sequence.

To look at multiple element reports use the element selector, if this is not shown use view/Element Selector

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command to display it, which contains a tree of all the elements that you can select a report for.

Expand the tree fully for the simulation branch by clicking with the right-hand mouse button on the
simulation branch, then choosing the expand all option with the left-hand mouse button. Then, using the
right-hand mouse button, click on the simulation branch again, then choosing the select all option to select
all elements. Finally, click on one of the report buttons to generate the reports. (There are several other
ways to access reports – please try one of the other right mouse button options and the screen selection
including netting.)

You can see from the machine reports that, when the model is run to time 50, the ASSEMBLY machine is
idle for more than a third of the time, blocked for more than 10% of the time and the INSPECTION machine
is idle for more than two thirds of the time.

One of the ways that you could improve overall capacity would be to reduce the amount of time that the
INSPECTION machine blocks the ASSEMBLY machine by reducing the batch size and shortening the
inspect time.

5 Try altering the model in the following way:

 Doubleclick on the INSPECTION machine icon.

 Edit the batch min field by clicking on the 4 and typing 2.

 Edit the cycle time field by clicking on the 5.0 and typing 2.5.

 Click on the OK button.

Start the model again and run it as before to see the difference in the blocked time for ASSEMBLY.

You should see that, when the model is run to time 50, the blocked time is reduced to 4%.

There are many other experiments you can try by changing other parameters in this model. Why not explore
some of these options and see how simulation can show the effect of changes to a process?

Further example: try decreasing the inspection time for 4 units (batch minimum) to 4 minutes and see the
resulting decrease in blocking time to 8% for the ASSEMBLY machine.

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Dem2.mod - Simple Logistics Model

Open the model DEM2.MOD. This is located in the DEMO\TUTORIAL subdirectory of your
WITNESS installation directory.

In this model, parts called TRUCKS are pushed into the rear of a buffer WAITINGQ according to a time
profile of arrivals. Time profiles are commonly used in WITNESS and this model shows just one of the ways
in which WITNESS can define these. If you double click on the Truck name in the element selector tree
under Simulation you will see several detail tabs for the TRUCK entity. Under the Arrival Profile you will see
that 4 trucks arrive every half hour except for a couple of two hour periods in the day when the arrival rate is
raised to 6 trucks per half hour. With an arrival profile such as this WITNESS will randomize arrivals at the
given rate within the half hour periods.

Trucks queue in WAITINGQ until pulled by the LOADINGBAY machine. The loading bay activity (machine)
takes between 3 and 8 minutes for each truck. The time for each is sampled from the uniform distribution.

In this particular model the loading bay has a problematical loading ramp. This often fails and needs
repairing. This type of event is modeled in WITNESS using the breakdown tab on the machine. Double click
on the display of the LOADINGBAY on the screen or in the tree and look at the Breakdown tab. You will see
that the ramp fails according to a distribution with mean of 4 hours and is takes between 10 and 25 minutes
to repair. One of the strengths of simulation as a technique is that you can evaluate the performance of

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systems such as this where parameters such as durations and stoppages vary over time. When you run the
model, you can see the trucks queuing up as they arrive and have to wait their turn for loading.

A variable called TRUCKSSERVED is incremented by 1 every time a truck is pushed to served out of the
model. A timeseries called THROUGHPUT plots the TRUCKSSERVED number every 60.0 mins and resets
the variable back to zero. A piechart, which refreshes every 30 mins, reports on the utilization of
LOADINGBAY.

Another key statistic collected is the service time for trucks. A histogram on a second display window shows
a histogram of turnaround time for TRUCKS in minutes. Each truck records its time of arrival in an attribute
called ENTRYTIME. A record of TIME-ENTRYTIME is made in the histogram as a TRUCK leaves the
model. Run the model and examine the reports as before.

To improve service times you could, for example, alter the performance of the LOADINGBAY machine by
increasing the reliability of the loading ramp.

Try reducing the breakdown rate from 240 minutes average to 400 minutes average and run the
model again to see the difference in results.

Another plan might be to add a second loading bay – try changing the quantity of LOADINGBAY to
2. This has a dramatic effect!

To see significant changes it is sometimes necessary to run the model for a long period. This is especially
true where there is significant variability in the model. Look at the key result of average turnaround time
(shown in the histogram window) after you have run the model for 500 time units and again after running to
2000 time units and note what the differences are. For the unaltered model the results show :

SIMULATION TIME in minutes Average Turnaround Time in


minutes

500 13.15

2000 16.82

6000 20.80

10000 18.12

20000 18.19

30000 18.16

50000 18.07

200000 (over 20 weeks) 17.90

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This shows that it takes many minutes for the results of the simulation to become truly known. There are
many standard texts which explain in detail how you should establish simulation run time lengths, or when
you should choose to execute many different simulation runs with different random number seeds. The
above illustrates the importance of this.

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Model Gallery

Typical Manufacturing Model

A typical layout of a manufacturing facility model in WITNESS. It includes standard conveyors, robots,
machines, a carousel, manufacturing cells and a power and free conveyor system. It incorporates a zoom
view window and various customized reports.

One of the standard WITNESS designer module sets can also be seen.

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Typical Warehouse Model

A typical warehouse model in WITNESS. It includes conveyors from production and three different uses of
tracks and vehicles constructs in a high bay racking area, an AGV network serving P&D stations and
feeding a sortation lane system.

A repeat timeseries is included showing min, max and mean levels of stock per hour of the day and a
custom chart of throughput and service levels.

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Office Model

This model represents the layout and movement around an office complex.

It uses WITNESS path elements for modeling all movement routings and timings.

A key statistic in this model is the congestion at the cafeteria and the waiting times for people completing
registration and application activities. The element tree display shown is standard in all models to enable
easy access to data and reports. The table and central chart are standard reports.

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Call Centre Business Process

This model is a detailed business process model where each individual job carried out can be seen on
screen.

Each stage of the process is expanded to show the input queue, the entities being processed and the
human resources used to perform the tasks.

The model incorporates six sigma scores for achievement of the quality targets and process throughput
timing targets and a range of other custom reports and charts indicating other key performance indicators.

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Airfield Logistics

This model shows an airfield logistics model where different strategies of local and central repair are being
experimented with for a key navigational component.

Success is measured in flying availability terms with the aim to keep all aircraft up and running for the
minimum spares cost.

Colored icons are used to distinguish components for different airfields, pie charts illustrate the flying
availability and fitting times. A special type of WITNESS timeseries shows the maximum, mean and
average repair loading across a repeated time period.

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Tracks and Vehicles

This model shows another example of WITNESS tracks and vehicles, with a shuttle mechanism feeding
parts to and from machines.

Parts are produced on four assembly machines from components held in the stores. The parts are then
taken at random but in equal proportions to one of five paint booths.

Colored icons are used to distinguish finished parts from the unpainted ones. Finally the parts are baked,
tested and dispatched. A graph shows production per eight-hour shift.

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Garage Forecourt

These models of garage forecourts show the ability of WITNESS to model at different levels.

Whilst one model is at the site level, the other models the exact distances between cars and the fuel
dispensers.

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Chemical Processing Plant

This model represents a chemical processing plant.

It shows the great variety of possibilities with WITNESS for the chemical and other process industries. There
are filling stations, logistics, production by order priority, recipes, multi-cycle reactors, production planning
etc.

Continuous modeling elements of fluids, pipes, tanks and processors are all available in WITNESS>

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Further learning resources

Learning More

Lanner has a set of learning materials to support users through their use of WITNESS. They are organized
like a target – new users starting in the center and moving through to become experts by the time users
reach the outside. Materials are organized as self-paced learning and available online, with the exception of
the 1-5 day training.

The latest revision of the learning materials is available online via the MyLanner portal and is delivered as
part of each new WITNESS release. Teacher led Lanner Certified Practitioner Training courses can be
booked online at:

http://www.lanner.com/en/training-courses.cfm

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Support

All users are recommended to invest in Support, Enhancements and Maintenance (SEM) contracts.
Through these contracts you can access to the MyLanner portal in which you can:

 Log and track support cases

 Find solutions, tips and tricks out of hours

 Download the latest product builds and learning materials.

MyLanner portal at http://www.lanner.com

In addition, for customers that have attended a Lanner Certified Practitioner Training course, the support
service provides an industry leading simulation modeling advisory service. This service is aims to assist
users if need to talk though a ‘how to’ modeling issue.

For users having Support, Enhancements and Maintenance (SEM)


contracts
To access the advisory service we recommend you send an email to support@lanner.com with a
description of your issue; a copy of the WITNESS model file and any associated files (Excel) that you are
using. If your email system does not permit sending large attachments, you can use the link below to post
your files.

https://dropbox.yousendit.com/transfer.php?action=dropbox&dropbox=LannerGroup&secure=1

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Appendix

System requirements

WITNESS is supported on:

Intel® or AMD ® processor

Minimum Processor Speed 500MHz, >2GHz recommended.

Microsoft Windows NT 4 (Intel platform only, SP3 or higher), Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows Vista,
Windows XP64, Vista64 and Windows 7 (32 and 64 bit)

512MB of RAM (1024MB recommended)

Approx. 100MB of available hard-disk space

800x600 screen resolution (1024x768 or above recommended)

CD-ROM/DVD drive (WITNESS issued on CD)

Parallel port or USB socket required for security device option. Hardware locking options available –
please contact Lanner for details.

WITNESS VR requires graphics acceleration for best performance. Open GL ® or DirectX ® acceleration.
Examples include NVIDIA GeForce ® or ATI Radeon ® graphics cards commonly supplied with PC’s.
Please ask Lanner for more details as the range available alters frequently.

Sound Card optional to support multimedia features such as sound files and video with sound which may
optionally be embedded in a WITNESS model.

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CD Installation Instructions
Insert WITNESS CD1 into your CD Drive. Then please select and run SETUP.EXE in the root directory of
the CD and follow the instructions that appear on the screen. When complete you may optionally install
Scenario Manager and WITNESS Presentation Manager which are to be found on WITNESS CD2.

To install Scenario Manager, please insert WITNESS CD2 into your CD Drive and select and run SETUP.
EXE in the “WITNESS Scenario Manager” directory of the CD and follow the instructions that appear on the
screen.

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Licensing technologies and options

A ‘standalone’ installation enables WITNESS Full version to run on a select PC.

A Network (floating license) permits an agreed number of users to run WITNESS across a company
network. The license server is a machine remote from the WITNESS user’s machines that serves multiple
licenses to users across the network. When the agreed number of WITNESS copies is running on the
network, no more can be started until a license is freed by another user closing down WITNESS. A Network
license is not a Global license; it does not give the user the right to move or use the software to other
countries.

Dongle-less (software) licensing


Lanner recommends Dongle-less (software) licensing for customers installing after October 2009 as it
provides users with the following benefits

Standalone Web based out of hours self service licensing to


speed installation and reinstallation.
Security compliance by not using USB memory
devices (US)

Network As above plus


Redundant server support.
Token check out for off-network working.
Improved reports and visibility of product usage.

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Stand alone with Dongle-less licensing

Dongle-less (Software) licensing requires Windows 2000 Pro SP4;Windows XP Pro SP2 or Windows
VISTA.

1 In the directory in which you installed WITNESS find two applications: “OLRequestForm.exe” and
“olicenseserver.exe”

If they are not there, they can be copied from the installation CD (CD1) or located in the downloaded Zip file
in the “OLicense server\Windows” directory.

2 Run OLRequestForm.exe. The following dialog should appear:

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3 Complete ‘Customer Details’ and ‘Product’ sections.

4 Select either ‘Standalone License for This Computer’ or ‘Temporary Evaluation – a Standalone
License Secured For This Computer’

The hardware information is combined with the information you provide on the form into an XML file (.
OLCIML).

5 Send the XML file (.OLCIML) to LicenseUK@Lanner.com.

Lanner will send back an e-mail with an attachment. This attachment OLicense.olixml will contain your
license.

6 The attachment needs to be saved in the same directory as the Product. i.e. where
OLRequestForm.exe and “olicenseserver.exe” are also present. The file must be called: OLicense.
olixml

In the unlikely event that you have previously used WITNESS in network server mode, it may be necessary
to re-configure the settings. In this case, when the license server cannot be found you will be prompted with
the following dialog.

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Enter “local” which means “This machine”. This information is stored in the registry, so you should not be
necessary to enter it again.

7 ONE Last Step – Adjust your Firewall. You may already have been prompted to allow
olicenseserver.exe to run by your firewall protection.

Especially now in Windows XP SP2 the machine is likely to be blocking the network traffic allowing it to
serve licenses to other machines on your network.

You should select “Unblock” . This will allow olicenseserver.exe

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Stand alone with Dongle licensing

1 To start to use WITNESS you should plug the supplied dongle in to your PC.

As a new user of WITNESS for standalone use you may have one of two types of dongle:

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The first (and most common) dongle type is the SuperPro USB dongle. This device plugs in to the USB port
on your system. Please note that this device is only recommended for use with Microsoft Windows 2000 and
above.

Alternatively you may have requested a Sentinel SuperPro dongle. The Sentinel SuperPro dongle plugs in
to your parallel port and consists of a small plastic box with two 25 pin connectors on opposite sides.

2 Run WITNESS, when it finds no security code it will prompt you as a below.

3 Press the License Administration button and the following screen will appear:

This example shows that there are currently no software licenses supplied for this security device
(Alternatively this screen may show some codes with an expired status or some codes valid for earlier
version of WITNESS).

4 To request a new license security code press the License Request Form Button.

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5 Fill in the details requested on the form and send it by email (using the ‘Request by E-mail’ button).
Alternatively print it out and fax to Lanner at your chosen location. Then press the Close button.

By return of fax or email, Lanner will send you a code consisting of 20 letters and digits.

6 When you have the code, please repeat steps 1-3 of the process above and enter the code in the
boxes at the bottom of the form, then press add license.

It is not necessary to enter any dashes – simply the numbers and letters. As you enter the last character the
Add License button will un-grey itself and may be pressed to add the license. If the Add License button does
not un-grey then please check the code carefully and if correct please contact Lanner support.

Congratulations, a successful addition of a license will add a line to the dialog such as that below:

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Installation of network license server with Dongle security

This document gives you the information needed to install the WITNESS Network License on your system
where a physical security dongle is being used.

To install the WITNESS Network License you are recommended to follow the steps described below.

 Install the WITNESS Network License on the 'License Server'


 Configure the WITNESS 'Clients'

The basic principle of the WITNESS Network License revolves around a security key known as a dongle.
This security key must be installed and configured on your system for WITNESS to run.

The NetHASP Network dongle is connected to a central system on the network. This system runs an
application, the “NetHASP License Manager” which controls the distribution of WITNESS licenses. Client
systems on the network wishing to run WITNESS communicate with the NetHASP License Manager to
request a WITNESS license.

The NetHASP Network dongle is supported on a variety of PC networks using NetBIOS/NetBEUI, IPX and
TCP/IP.

Installing the WITNESS Network License on the License Server


The NetHASP Network dongle should be connected to the parallel or USB port of the system selected as
the License Server as appropriate. Please note that this system can be any machine on the network, it does
not need to be a file or network server.

To install the NetHASP License Manager (LM) and HASP Device Driver, run the included LMsetup.exe file
(found in the support directory on CD1).

As part of this installation wizard you are presented with the option to install the LM as a service so that it
automatically starts on system startup, or as an application so that you can manually start and stop it. Select
your preferred option.

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Configuring the WITNESS Clients


In the vast majority of cases it should not be necessary to configure the WITNESS clients as the WITNESS
Network License will work automatically using default options.

In rare instances the WITNESS client will not find the NetHASP License Manager on the network. In these
cases you should use a nethasp.ini file which allows for the manual setting of the network options.

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Installation of Network license server with Dongle-less (Software)


security licensing

These installation instructions are a quick guide to setting up the license server, so that it can serve one or
more run-time WITNESS licenses to WITNESS users.

You should take care in selecting the machine you install the license server on. The machine will need to
meet the following criteria:

 Expected to be always connected to the network.

 Expected to be allocated to this function for many years.

The machine does not need to be very powerful to run the License server. The License server has a very
small footprint and places a very small load on the chosen equipment.

In a Lab or teaching environment the machine chosen may be within the direct control of the Users or the
Tutor. In this way access to the machine can always be assured, should it suffer from a power-failures etc.

In a large corporate environment, the most appropriate machine would be located in a centralised server
area, where its daily function is being monitored by IT personnel.

System requirements
OLicense-Server

Pentium min. 600 MHz

Processor

Operating system Windows 2000 Pro SP4

Tested on: Windows XP Pro SP2

Linux SuSE 9.3 **

Linux RedHat

Hard disk: Approx. 6MB

RAM: Approx. 5 MB (real)

Screen resolution: Arbitrary

Network protocol TCP/IP

Internet Browser Tested with :

Mozilla Firefox 1.0.7

Microsoft Internet Explorer 6.0 +

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Installing the OLicense-Server Software.


You will need administrator rights to install the software.

1 Run the program Oinstall.exe on CD1, the directory Olicense Server/Windows and answer all the
questions.

The Comprehensive Installation Guide is available in Olicense Server/olicenseserver_en.pdf but should


not be necessary.

2 Once installed, start the License server. You are offered a simple choice via the start Program
Menu:

Start Programs/OLicense-Server/Start O-License Server Port 80

Or

Start Programs/OLicense-Server/Start O-License Server Port 8080

Other options are available if these ports are not suitable – consult the Comprehensive Installation Guide.

3 With the license manager started, Start Programs/OLicense-Server/OLicense-Server Administration


(which runs in a browser). Select the Port you started the server on and you should get the Control
panel below :

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If you see a different page, Possible discussing Microsoft IIS Services, then the Port (80) is in use. In which
case you should Stop the license server and start it again on Port 8080. Restart the Administration page.

The WITNESS software licenses are tied to the hardware ID of the server machine. You need to send a
license request to lanner, so that lanner can generate a license file for your server.

4 Copy the application: Olicense Server/Windows/OLRequestForm.exe from the CD into the directory
you installed OLicense Server into.

5 Run OLRequestForm.exe, the form below will appear. Complete ‘Customer Details’ and ‘Product’
sections.

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The hardware information is combined with the information you provide on the form into an XML file (.
OLCIML).

6 Send the XML file (.OLCIML) to LicenseUK@Lanner.com.

The information can either be sent via e-mail directly from the application, or saved to disk for you to send
independently. This allows you to save the .olciml file to a shared area on the network where you can
access it from a machine that does have a mail account.)

7 Lanner will send back an e-mail with an attachment. This attachment OLicense.olixml will contain
your license.

If you have a mail account on the license server machine, you will be able to double click on the
attachment, which will import it directly into the server. Alternatively you should import it into the
License administrator via this feature:

Once Imported use the

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Feature to see that the license is running.

8 ONE Last Step – Adjust your Firewall.

Especially now in Windows XP SP2 the machine is likely to be blocking the network traffic allowing it to
serve licenses to other machines on your network.

Please check the status of the firewall

In this example we show the Windows XP Firewall.

We have used the [Add Port…] to ensure that TCP traffic is allowed through on Port 80. (Your may have to
enable it for 8080 if that’s where OLicense-Server is running).

Your will also see that Olicense-server is listed as a permitted application.

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Also see Running WITNESS on Client Machine

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Running WITNESS on Client Machines

Once installed in client machines, WITNESS should already be configured to be expecting to talk to an
OLicense server. This is achieved by the existence of a commandline.ini file in the
<CommonApplicationData>\Lanner Group\Witness directory e.g. Microsoft Vista c:\ProgramData\Lanner
Group\Witness

This file (commandline.ini) contains the commands:

-device Olicense

It may also contain other instructions depending on the version you have installed.

The educational version for example comes pre-setup as

-device OLicense –rl 1

This runs the product in run-level 1, The Educational version, by default which avoids it searching for other
licenses first. Consequently the application starts quicker.

When WITNESS is run for the first time


WITNESS is pre-configured to work with local licensing. So when it is run for the first time on a client
machine, it will not be able to find the network license. The user will be presented with the following dialog:

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You should configure this screen to the machine name and port number on which the license server has
been installed. E.g.: CentralApplicationServer:80

If you have installed the software on the same machine in port 8080 then this can be set to localhost:8080

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Installing Olicense Server on a LINUX System

If you are using a SUSE and RedHat Linux installs can be found on the CD in Olicense/SUSE and Olicense/
RedHat directories

Please refer to Olicense_server/olicenseserver_en.pdf for detailed instructions.

The tool supplied on the installation CD will only support license requests from Windows-based servers.
License requests for LINUX-based servers must obtain the license server information manually.

1 Install the License server as described in Olicense_server/olicenseserver_en.pdf

2 Run Olicense Server Administration

3 Select “Administrate Server”

4 Please send the values of the Server ID’s, via e-mail to LicenseUK@Lanner.com quoting the
contents of the three Server ID Boxes.
- Server ID
- Alternative Server ID
- U3 Smart Drive ID

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Installing Scenario Manager

1 If you have not already done so install WITNESS (from CD1) on to your system (click here)

This document is divided into installation instructions for 3 different Microsoft Platforms:

 Installing WITNESS Scenario Manager on Windows XP and Windows 2000


 Install instructions for Windows Vista
 Install instructions for Windows NT 4

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Installing WITNESS Scenario Manager on Windows XP and


Windows 2000

NOTE: This installation will install MSDE, if you would rather use SQL Server Express please follow the
instructions as for Windows Vista. SQL Server Express is supported on Windows 2000 Professional SP4
(not Windows 2000) and Windows XP.

1 Insert WITNESS CD2 into your CD-ROM Drive, run ‘Setup.exe’ in the directory ‘WITNESS
Scenario Manager’.

The first dialog allows you to select the language for the installation.
After this the following dialog may be displayed:

This dialog is displayed for several minutes because at this stage the installation is installing the Microsoft .
NET 2.0 Framework.

WITNESS Scenario Manager Database Configuration


2 Select the repository to be used for all of the WITNESS Scenario Manager data.

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Option 1 - Install a copy of MSDE for my use (Recommended)

Use this option if you would like to install a new SQL Server on the machine running the install. A database
named ‘SM’ is created on the newly installed server and is be used by Scenario Manager. This option
installs a copy of Microsoft SQL Server 2000 Desktop Engine, if it does not already exist on you local
machine.

Option 2 - Create a new database on an existing SQL Server

If you would like to use an existing SQL Server, either on your machine or on a machine on your network,
use this option. A database named ‘SM’ is created on your existing SQL server for use by Scenario
Manager.

Option 3 - Connect to an existing Scenario Manager database

If you would like to use a Scenario Manager database that has been created previously use this option. The
SQL Server database can be located either locally or remote.

The default option, option 1, installs a copy of MSDE (Microsoft SQL Server Desktop Engine) using an
instance name of ‘LANNERSQL’. When installed, WITNESS Scenario Manager refers to this SQL Server
using <machine name>\LANNERSQL or (local)\LANNERSQL.

The following dialog is displayed if you have chosen an option that requires you to select an existing
SQL Server Database (options 2 and 3 from the previous dialog). First enter the SQL Server name
or use the browse button which displays a dialog containing a drop down list of all the SQL Servers
found on the local network.

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You have to choices for the database authentication option, either Windows NT Authentication or SQL
Authentication. If you are connecting to a SQL Server created through the WITNESS Scenario manager
install you can use Windows NT Authentication to connect to a locally installed server or use the SQL login,
username ‘SM’, password ‘SMUSER’. The other login available on WITNESS Scenario manager servers is
username ‘sa’ password ‘Lanner’. This is the database administrator user name and password for the
database and should be used if you wish to change any configuration of the server.

If you are connecting to a SQL Server not created through the WITNESS Scenario Manager install then you
will need to contact the SQL Server administrator to find out which method to use.

This dialog allows you to select a SQL Server database from those found on the network. Please note that
in some cases this dialog may not contain the instance of SQL Server you require and you will therefore
have to type the name of the server in.

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This dialog allows you to name the database that is created by the installation. WITNESS Scenario Manager
uses this database to persist all of its data. The default name for WITNESS Scenario Manager Databases is
‘SM’. The database name should be no longer than 128 characters. This dialog is only displayed if a
database named ‘SM’ already exists.

3 The next dialog is used to name the database that is to be used by Scenario Manager; the
default name is ‘SM’. Next .

The installation is complete

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Install instructions for Windows Vista

The Scenario Manager installation will install MSDE (Microsoft SQL Server Desktop Engine); this is no
longer supported on Windows Vista.

We have therefore provided an installation for Microsoft SQL Server Express on the installation media.
Please note that SQL Server Express is not supported on Windows Vista Starter Edition.

1 Insert WITNESS CD2 into your CD-ROM Drive, run ‘SMSQL2005SP2.EXE’ in the ‘Witness
Scenario Manager\Sql Server Express ’ directory

This will install an instance of SQL Server Express, no questions will be asked. The database instance is
called ‘LannerSQL’.

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2 Run ‘Setup.exe’ in the directory ‘WITNESS Scenario Manager’.

The first dialog allows you to select the language for the installation.
After this the following dialog may be displayed:

This dialog is displayed for several minutes because at this stage the installation is installing the Microsoft .
NET 2.0 Framework.

3 When the following installation screen appears: Choose the ‘Create a new database on an
existing SQL Server’ option; this will setup a database on the SQL Server Express that was
installed previously.

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4 Enter ‘(local)\LannerSQL’ for the SQL Server name and choose the ‘Windows NT Authentication’
option.

This dialog allows you to name the database that is created by the installation. WITNESS Scenario Manager
uses this database to persist all of its data. The default name for WITNESS Scenario Manager Databases
is ‘SM’. The database name should be no longer than 128 characters. This dialog is only displayed if a

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database named ‘SM’ already exists.

5 The next dialog is used to name the database that is to be used by Scenario Manager; the default
name is ‘SM’. Next .

The installation is complete

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Install instructions for Windows NT 4

The prerequisites for Windows NT 4 are NT Service Pack 6a and MDAC 2.8 sp1. NT Service Pack 6a can
be downloaded from the Microsoft website while MDAC 2.8 sp1 is located on the installation media.

Once these are installed then WITNESS Scenario Manager can be installed by running setup.exe.

Installing MDAC 2.8 sp1


 From installation CD2, browse to the MDAC 2.8 sp1 folder located under the WITNESS Scenario
Manager setup files.
 Run the setup program by clicking on the MDAC_TYP.EXE file. This automatically installs MDAC
2.8 sp1 on your machine.
 At the end of the installation you are prompted to reboot Windows. Select this option and wait for
Windows to restart.

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Copyright & trademarks

Copyright © 2009 Lanner Group Ltd

All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced in any form or by any means, including
photocopying and recording, without written permission of Lanner Group Ltd, application for which should be
addressed to the publisher.

WITNESS is a trademark of Lanner Group Ltd.

The information in this document is believed to be accurate. However no responsibility for its use is
assumed by Lanner Group Ltd. The information is subject to change without notice and it must not be
construed as a commitment by Lanner Group Ltd.

IBM is a trademark of International Business Machines Corp.

Pentium is a trademark of Intel Corp.

Windows is a trademark of Microsoft Corp.

Sentinel C-Plus B, Sentinel SuperPro, SuperPro USB and Sentinel are trademarks of SafeNet,
Inc.

NetHASP is a trademark of Aladdin Knowledge Systems.

OLicence is a trademark of Optimum Datamanagement Solutions GmbH.

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w w w .lanner.com