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NASA SP-149

su
NI EXTRAVE

Edited by:
Reginald M. Machell
Manned Spacecraft Center, NASA
Houston, Texas

Scientific and Technical Information Division


OFFICE OF TECHNOLOGY UTILIZATION 1967
NATIONAL AERONAUTICS A N D SPACE ADMINISTRATION
Wadington, D.C.
N A T I O N A L AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION

For sale by the Clearinghouse for Federal Scientific and Technical Information
Springfield, Virginia 22151- CFSTI price $3.00
CONTENTS

Section Page

TABLES ........................ xi

FIGURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xii

1.0 S W Y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1

2.0 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1

3.0 GEMINI EXTRAVEHICULAR ACTIVITIES . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1


3.1 GEMINI IV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3

3.2 GEMINI VI11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6

3.3 GEMINI IX-A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8

3.4 GEMINIX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-12

3.5 GEMINI XI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-19

3.6 GEMINI XI1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-25

4.0 LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEMS FOR EXTRAVEHICULAR


ACTIVITY ...................... 4-1
4.1 EXTRAVEHICULAR SPACE SUITS . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1

4.1.1 Gemini IV Suit . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2

4.1.1.1 Design . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2


4.1.1.2 Development and qualification
testing . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2
4.1.1.3 Mission results . . . . . . . . 4-6
4.1.2 Gemini VI11 Suit . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7
4.1.2.1 Design . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7
. 4.1.2.2 Development and qualification
testing . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7
4.1.2.3 Mission results . . . . . . . . 4-7
4.1.3 Gemini IX-A Suit . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8

iii
Section

4.1.3.1 Design ............ 4-8


4.1.3.2 Development and qualification
testing . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8
4.1.3.3 Mission results . . . . . . . . 4-9
4.1.4 Gemini X Suit . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9
4.1.4.1 Design . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9
4.1.4.2 Mission results . . . . . . . . 4-10

4.1.5 Gemini XI Suit . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-11

4.1.5.1 Design . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-11


4.1.5.2 Mission results . . . . . . . . 4-11

4.1.6 Gemini XI1 Suit . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-11

4.1.6.1 Design . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-11


4.1.6.2 Mission results . . . . . . . . 4-11

4.1.7 Suit Mobility ............. 4-12

4.1.7.1 Limitations . . . . . . . . . . 4-12


4.1.7.2 Arm and leg mobility . . . . . 4-12
4.1.7.3 Glove mobility ........ 4-12
4.1.7.4 Coverlayer effects ...... 4-13
4.1.7.5 Pressure effects . ...... 4-13
4.1.7.6 Suit mobility
improvement . . . . . . . . . 4-13
4.2 LIFE SUPPORT PACKAGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-24
4.2.1 Ventilation Control Module System ... 4-24
4.2.1.1 Ventilation Control Module ... 4-24
4.2.1.2 Umbilical assembly ...... 4-26
4.2.1.3 Development and
qualification ........ 4-26
4.2.1.4 Mission results ........ 4-28
4.2.2 Extravehicular Life Support System . . . 4-29
4.2.2.1 ELSS chestpack . . . . . . . . 4-29
4.2.2.2 ELSS testing . . . . . . . . . 4-34
4.2.2.3 System design problems and
modifications . . . . . . . . 4-46

iv
Section Page

4.2.2.4 Minor design problems..... 4-50


4.2.2.5 Mission results and
equipment
performance......... 4-51
4.2.2.6 Assessment of chestpack
capability ......... 4-56

4.2.3 Extravehicular Support Package . . . . . 4-58

4.2.3.1 ESP backpack . . . . . . . . . 4-58


4.2.3.2 Seventy-five-foot tether . . . 4-59
4.2.3.3 Mechanical interface
requirements . . . . . . . . 4-59
4.2.3.4 Development and
qualification . . . . . . . . 4-60
4.2.3.5 Significant problem areas . . . 4-64
4.2.3.6 Mission results . . . . - . . . 4-65

4.3 UMBILICAL AND TETHER COMBINATIONS . . . . . . . 4-86


4.3.1 Umbilical Development . . . . . . . . . 4-86
4.3.1.1 Twenty-five-foot
umbilical..... . . e.. 4-86
4.3.1.2 Seventy-five-foot
....
electrical tether .. 4-88
4.3.1.3 Fifty-foot and thirty-foot
umbilicals....... .. 4-88
4.3.2 Umbilical Testing ......... . 4-89

4.3.2.1 Twenty-five-foot umbilical. . . 4-89


4.3.2.2 Fifty-foot and thirty-foot
umbilica1s . . . . . . . . . 4-90
4.3.2.3 Seventy-five-foot
electrical tether . . . . . . 4-92
4.3.2.4 One-hundred-twenty-five-foot
AMU tether . . . . . . . . . 4-92

4.3.3 Flight Equipment Design . . . . . . . . 4-93


4.3.3.1 Twenty-five-foot umbilical. . . 4-93
4.3.3.2 Gemini VI11 75-foot tether. . . 4-94
4.3.3.3 Gemini X 50-foot umbilical
assembly . . . . . . . . . . 4-95
Section

4.3.3.4 Gemini XI 30-foot u m b i l i c a l


assembly .......... 4-95
4.3.4 Results and Discussion . . . . . . . . . 4-95
.
5.0 BODY POSITIONING AND RESTMINTS . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1
5.1 CONTROL OF BODY POSITION . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1
5.1.1 Foot R e s t r a i n t s . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1
5.1.2 Underwater Zero-G Simulation ...... 5-2
5.1.3 Handholds and Tether Devices . . . . . . 5-2
5.2 RESTRAINT EQUIPMENT .............. 5-6
5.2.1 Rectangular Handrails . . . . . . . . . 5-6
5.2.2 Large C y l i n d r i c a l Handbars . . . . . . . 5-6
5.2.3 Small C y l i n d r i c a l Handbars . . . . . . . 5-7
5.2.4 Telescoping C y l i n d r i c a l Handrail . . . . 5-7
5.2.5 Fixed Handholds . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8
5.2.6 F l e x i b l e Velcro-Backed P o r t a b l e
Handholds .............. 5-8
5.2.7 Rigid Velcro-Backed P o r t a b l e
Handholds .............. 5-8
5.2.8 Waist Tethers . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-9
5.2.9 Pip-Pin Handhold/Tether Attachment
Devices ............... 5-11
5.2.10 Pip-Pin A n t i r o t a t i o n Devices ...... 5-11
5.2.11 U-Bolt Handhold/Tether Attachment
Devices ............... 5-12

5.2.12 Foot Restraints . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-12

vi
Section Page

5.2.13 Standup Tether ........ 5-12

5.2.14 S t r a p s on Space S u i t Leg ... 5-13


5.3 CONCLUDING REMARKS ............... 5-29

6.0 MANEUVERING EQUIPMENT ................ 6-1


6.1 HAND HELD MANEUVERING SYSTEMS DEVELOPED
FORGEMINI ................. . 6-1
6.1.1 Gemini I V Self-contained HHMU . . . . . 6-2

6.1.2 Gemini V I 1 1 Backpack-Supplied HHMU . . . 6- 3


6.1.3 Gemini X Umbilical-Supplied HHMU . . . . 6-4
6.1.4 Gemini X I Umbilical-Supplied HHMU . . . 6- 5
6.1.5 Ground Training f o r HHMU
Maneuvering ............. 6-6
6.1.5.1 Control l o g i c for maneuvering
with t h e HHMU ........ 6-6
6.1.5.2 Air-bearing t r a i n i n g
equipment .......... 6-7
6.1.5.3 Representative t r a i n i n g
runs ............ 6-8
6.1.5.4 Inertia coupling t r a i n i n g - a i d
model ............ 6-9
6.1.6 HHMU F l i g h t Maneuvering
Performance ... .......... 6-10

6.1.6.1 Gemini I V . .......... 6-10


6.1.6.2 Gemini X . .......... 6-11
6.2 ASTRONAUT MANEUVERING UNIT . .......... 6-27

6.2.1 Equipment Description . . . . . . . . . 6-27

6.2.1.1 Structure ........... 6-27


6.2.1.2 Propulsion system ....... 6-28
6.2.1.3 .....
F l i g h t c o n t r o l system 6-28
6.2.1.4 Oxygen supply system ..... 6-29

v ii
Section Page

6.2.1.5 ......
Power supply system 6-30
6.2.1.6 Alarm system ......... 6-30
.....
6.2.1.7 Communications system 6-31
6.2.1.8 AMU tether .......... 6-32
6.2.2 AMU Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-32
6.2.2.1 Gemini spacecraft . . . . . . . 6-32
6.2.2.2 Extravehicular Life Support
System . . . . . . . . . . . 6-34
6.2.2.3 Gemini suit . . . . . . . . . . 6-35
6.2.3 Training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-35
6.2.4 Mission Results ............ 6-39
6.2.5 Concluding Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . 6-40
7.0 EXTRAVEHICULAR TRAINING AND SIMuLclTION . . . . . . . . 7-1
7.1 ONE-G TRAINING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1
7.1.1 Training Objectives . . . . . . . . . . 7-1
7.1.2 Training Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1
7.1.2.1 One-g walk throughs . . . . . . 7-1
7.1.2.2 Altitude chamber tests . . . . 7-2
7.1.2.3 Air-bearing platform . . . . . 7-2
7.1.2.4 Body harnesses . . . . . . . . 7-2
7.1.3 Equipment and Procedures
Familiarization ........... 7-2
7.1.3.1 Spacecraft stowage . . . . . . 7-2
7.1.3.2 Equipment familiarization ... 7-3
7.1.3.3 Procedures
.......
familiarization 7-3
7.1.4 Developing Coordinated Work Effort . . . 7-5
7.1.5 Concluding Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5
7.2 ZERO-G TRAINING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-17

viii
Section Page

7.2.1 Training Methods and Objectives .... 7-17


7.2.2 Mission Results ............ 7-18
7.2.2.1 Gemini IV . . . . . . . . . . . 7-18
7.2.2.2 Gemini VI11 . . . . . . . . . . 7-18
7.2.2.3 Gemini IX-A . . . . . . . . . . 7-20
7.2.2.4 Gemini X . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-21
7.2.2.5 Gemini XI . . . . . . . . . . . 7-22
7.2.2.6 Gemini XI1 ........... 7-23

7.2.3 Concluding Remarks ........... 7-23

7.3 UNDERWATER TRAINING ............... 7-34

7.3.1 Simulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-34

7.3.2 Concluding Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . 7-36

8.0 OPERATIONAL ASPECTS OF EXTRAVl3HICULAR ACTIVITY .... 8-1


8.1 ZERO-G ENVIRONMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1
8.2 SCHEDULING OF EXTRAVEHICULAR ACTIVITY . . . . . . 8-4
8.3 CAPABILITIES OF THE EXTRAVEHICULAR PILOT . . . . 8-5
8.4 DETAILED EXTRAVEHICULAR PROCEDURES ....... 8-7
8.5 DOCUMENTATION OF EXTRAVEHICULAR ACTIVITY . . . . 8-15

8.6 NIGHT OPERATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-16


8.7 SPACECRAFT CONSTRAINTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-17
9.0 MEDICAL ASPECTS OF EXTRAVEHICULAR ACTIVITY . . . . . . 9-1
9.1 DISCUSSION OF MEDICAL FACTORS . . . . . . . . . . 9-1
9.2 CONCLUDING REMARKS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-13

10.0 RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-1

10.1 CAPABILITIES DEMONSTRATED . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-1

ix
S e c t ion Page

10.2 PRINCIPAL PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS ........ 10-3

10.3 CONCLUSIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-5

11.0 RECOMMENDATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-1

12.0 REFERENCES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-1

X
TABLES

Table Page

3.0-1 ....
SUMMARY O F EXTRAVEHICULAR A C T I V I T Y DURING GEMINI 3-2
4.1-1 COMPUTED G4C SUIT NET HEAT LEAKAGE RATES ........ 4-14

5.2-1 RESTRAINT DEVICES USED DURING GEMINI EXTRAVEHICULAR ... 5-14


7.1-1 SPACECRAFT 12 LAUNCH STOWAGE .............. 7-6
8.3-1 SUMMARY OF GEMINI EXTRAVEHICULAR TASKS . . . . . . . . . 8-6

xi
FIGURES

Figure Page

3.1-1 Gemini I V EVA equipment ... . .. ......... 3-4


3.1-2 Gemini IV EVAtime l i n e . . . . ........... 3-5
3.2-1 Gemini V I 1 1 EVA equipment . . . .. ......... 3-7
3.3-1 Gemini IX-A EVA equipment . . . .. ......... 3-10
3.3-2 Gemini IX-A EVA time l i n e . . . .. ......... 3-11
3.4-1 Gemini X u m b i l i c a l EVA equipment . ......... 3-15
3.4-2 Gemini X standup EVA time l i n e . . ......... 3-16
3.4-3 Gemini X u m b i l i c a l EVA time l i n e . ......... 3-17
3.4-4 Beginning of t h e Gemini X EVA t r a n s f e r . . . . . . . 3-18
3 -5-1 Gemini X I u m b i l i c a l EVA equipment . . . . . . . . . . 3-21
3.5-2 EVA f o o t r e s t r a i n t s used on Gemini X I and X I 1 . . . . 3-22
3.5-3 Gemini X I u m b i l i c a l EVA time l i n e . . . . . . . . . . 3-23
3.5-4 Gemini X I standup EVA time l i n e . . . . . . . . . . . 3-24
3.6-1 Gemini X I 1 EVA work s t a t i o n i n a d a p t e r
equipment s e c t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-27
3.6-2 Gemini X I 1 TDA work s t a t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-28
3 06-3 Gemini X I 1 EVA equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-29
3.6-4 Gemini X I 1 f i r s t standup EVA time l i n e . . . . . . . 3-30
Gemini X I 1 umbilical EVA time l i n e ......... 3-31
Gemini X I 1 second standup EVA time l i n e ....... 3-32
Gemini IV e x t r a v e h i c u l a r space suit and l i f e
support system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-15

x ii
Figure Page

4.1-2 Gemini &C extravehicular space suit . . . . . . . . 4-16


4.1-3 Gemini IV extravehicular helmet ........... 4-17
4.1-4 EVA protective jacket for pilot ........... 4-18
4.1-5 Explosive decompression test ............ 4-19
4.i-6 Comparison of Gemini IV and Gemini VI11
extravehicular coverlayer construction ...... 4-20
Integrated pressure-thermal gloves for EVA . . . . . 4-21
Gemini IX-A extravehicular space suit and
Astronaut Maneuvering Unit ............ 4-22
4.1-9 Gemini IX-A extravehicular space suit
construction ................... 4-23
4.2-1 Ventilation Control Module system . . . . . . . . . . 4-66
4.2-2 Ventilation Control Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-67
4.2-3 ELSS components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-68
42-4 ELSS chestpack pneumatic subsystem with nominal
component performance values . . . . . . . . . . . 4-69
4.2-5 ELSS chestpack controls and displays panel
with AMU emergency displays ............ 4-70
4.2-6 ELSS electrical system block diagram . . . . . . . . 4-71
4.2-7 ELSS pressureltemperature qualification ,

testprofile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-72
4.2-8 ELSS random vibration qualification test
profile ...................... 4-73
4.2-9 ELSS acceleration qualification test profile .... 4-74
4.2-10 Test schematic for contractor qualification testing
of ELSS in Space Environment Simulator ...... 4-75
4.2-11 Gas flow rate calibration for ELSS chestpack 105. . . 4-76

xiii
Figure Page

4.2-12 Gas flow rate calibration for ELSS chestpack lo7 ... 4 -77
4.2-13 Simulated metabolic heat profile .final test of
ELSS in contractor Space Environment
Simulator ..................... 4-78
4.2-14 ELSS chestpack performance during Gemini XI pilot
test in MSC Chamber B . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 4-79
4.2-13 Comparison of ELSS chestpack fill port
checkvalves ................... 4-80
4.2-16 Gemini VI11 extravehicular system .ELSS/ESP . . . . 4-81
4.2-17 ELSS operating time versus remaining ESP oxygen . . . 4-82
4.2-18 ESP acoustic noise qualification spectrum . . . . . . 4-83
4.2-19 Front view of ESP with 75-foot tether stored . . . . 4-84
4.2-20 ESP internal components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-85
4.3-1 Cross section of integral coaxial umbilical . . . . . 4-96
4.3-2 Temperature performance envelope of coaxial
umbilical with gold outer sheath . . . . . . . . . 4-97
4.3-3 Coiled configuration of 25-foot umbilical ...... 4-98
4.3-4 Twenty-five-foot umbilical stowed in bag ...... 4-99
4.3-5 Design and interface requirements of the
50-foot umbilical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-100
4.3-6 GeminiX extravehicular equipment . . . . . . . . . . 4-101
4.3-7 Umbilical thermal test, June 14. 1965 . . . . . . . . 4-102
4.3-8 Gemini ELSS environmental operation qualification
test. umbilical surface temperature.
test day 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-103
4.3-9 Gemini ELSS environmental operation qualification
test. umbilical gas temperature. test day 4 .... 4-104

xiv
Figure Page

43-10 Fifty-foot umbilical q u a l i f i c a t i o n t e s t setup i n


Chamber E f a c i l i t y ................ 4-105

4.3-11 Fifty-foot umbilical test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-106

4.3-12 G e m i n i I V w n b i l i c a l assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-107

4.3-13 E l e c t r i c a l schematic of Gemini N u m b i l i c a l . . . . . 4-108

4.3-14 ELSS u m b i l i c a l - s p a c e c r a f t oxygen attachment


point ....................... 4-109

4.3-15 ELSS 25-foot u m b i l i c a l used f o r Gemini V I 1 1 . . . . . 4-110

4.3-16 E l e c t r i c a l schematic f o r Gemini V I I I . M.A. and


X I 1 umbilicals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-111
4.3-17 ELSS 25-foot u m b i l i c a l used f o r Gemini IX-A . . . . . 4-112

4.3-18 ELSS + f o o t u m b i l i c a l used f o r Gemini X I 1 ..... 4-113


4 3-19 Seventy-five-foot electrical tether . . . . . . . . . 4-114
4.3-20 E l e c t r i c a l schematic of 75-foot e l e c t r i c a l
tether . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-115
4.3-21 ELSS 50-foot u m b i l i c a l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-116
4.3-22 E l e c t r i c a l schematic f o r Gemini X and X I
umbilicals .................... 4-117
4.3-23 ELSS 30-foot umbilical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-118
5.1-1 AMU donning without f o o t r e s t r a i n t s i n zero-g
aircraft ..................... 5 -4
5.1-2 AMU donning with f o o t s t i r r u p s i n zero-g
aircraft ..................... 5 -5
5.2-1 Extendible h a n d r a i l s on s p a c e c r a f t adapter . . . . . 5 -15
5.2-2 Gemini IX-A a d a p t e r p r o v i s i o n s f o r EVA ....... 5-16
5.2-3 Handrail on Gemini X I 1 GATV .r i g h t s i d e . . . . . . 5 -17
5.2-4 Handrail on Gemini X I 1 GATV .l e f t s i d e . . . . . . . 5-18

XV
Figure Page

5.2-5 Telescoping handrail used on Gemini XI1 ....... 5-19


5.2-6 Telescoping handrail ..........
.compressed 5-20
5.2-7 Flexible Velcro-backed portable handholds . . . . . . 5-21
5.2-8 Rigid Velcro-backed portable handholds . . . . . . . 5-22
5.2-9 Waist tethers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-23
5.2-10 EVA provisions on Gemini XI1 GATV docking cone . . . 5-24
5.2-11 Pip-pin handhold/tether attachment devices . .. . . 5-25
5.2-12 EVA restraint provisions on Gemini XI1 GATV . .. . . 5-26
5.2-13 Standup tether . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 5-27
5.2-14 Strap on space suit leg . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 5-28
6.1-1 Gemini IV Hand Held Maneuvering Unit . . . . .. . . 6-15
6.1-2 Cutaway of Gemini IV Hand Held Maneuvering Unit . . . 6-16
6.1-3 Gemini VI11 Hand Held Maneuvering Unit . . . . . . . 6-17
6.1-4 Gemini X Hand Held Maneuvering Unit . . . . . . . . . 6-18
6.1-5 Gemini XI Hand Held Maneuvering Unit ........ 6-19
6.1-6 Rules for attitude control using HHMU during
straight-line travel ............... 6-20
6.1-7 HFLTI/Iu air-bearing simulation (yaw-axis training) ... 6-21
6.1-8 =/ESP air-bearing simulation (yaw-axis
training) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 6-22
6.1.9 HHMU air-bearing simulation (pitch-axis
training) ..................... 6-23
6.1-10 HHMU air-bearing simulation (roll-axis
training) ..................... 6-24
6.1-11 Inertia coupling training-aid model ......... 6-25

xvi
Figure Page

6.1-12 Gimbal arrangement f o r i n e r t i a coupling model .... 6-26

6.2-1 Experiment DO12 - AMU stowage i n a d a p t e r


assembly ................... .. 6-42

6.2-2 AMU i n s t a l l a t i o n i n s p a c e c r a f t a d a p t e r . . . . . .. 6-43


6.2-3 Experiment DO12 - AMU c o n t r o l s and i n d i c a t o r s . .. 6-44
6.2-4 AMU w i t h thermal p r o t e c t i v e cover removed . . . . .. 6-45
6.2-5 AMUmoving-base s i m u l a t o r . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 6-46
7.1-1 EVA procedures t r a i n i n g using crew s t a t i o n
mockup ................... . .. 7-12

7.1-2 EVA procedures t r a i n i n g using a d a p t e r mockup . . .. 7-13

7.1-3 A l t i t u d e chamber t r a i n i n g f o r AMU . . . . . . . . .. 7-14


7.1-4 C r e w s t a t i o n stowage a r e a s . . . . . . . . . . . .. 7-15
7.1-5 Crew s t a t i o n t r a i n i n g e x e r c i s e . . . . . . . . . .. 7-16
7.2-1 I n g r e s s t r a i n i n g i n zero-g a i r c r a f t . . . . . . ... 7-24

7.2-2 Body p o s i t i o n f o r hatch c l o s i n g . . . . . . . . ... 7-25

7.2-3 Technique f o r handoff of ELSS during i n g r e s s .. . . 7-26


7.2-4 Removal of Experiment SO10 (Agena Micrometeorite
C o l l e c t i o n ) i n zero-g a i r c r a f t .......... 7-27

7.2-5 Training f o r Experiment ~ 0 1 6(Power Tool Evaluation)


i n zero-g a i r c r a f t ................ 7-28

7.2-6 Standup p o s i t i o n f o r Experiment SO13 ( U l t r a v i o l e t


Astronomical Camera) ............... 7-29

7.2-7 Training f o r i n g r e s s w i t h 50-foot u m b i l i c a l i n


zero-g a i r c r a f t .................. 7-30

7.2-8 Training f o r 50-foot u m b i l i c a l n i t r o g e n l i n e hookup


i n zero-g a i r c r a f t ................ 7-31

7.2-9 I n s t a l l a t i o n of u m b i l i c a l i n adapted u m b i l i c a l
guide.. ..... ............... 7-32

x v ii
Figure Page

7 * 2-10 TDA work s t a t i o n t r a i n i n g i n zero-g a i r c r a f t .... 7-33


7.3-1 Underwater s i m u l a t i o n o f Gemini IX-A EVA . . . . . . 7-37
7 - 3 4 Underwater s i m u l a t i o n of Gemini X I EVA . . . . . . . 7-38
7.3-3 Underwater s i m u l a t i o n of AMU p r e p a r a t i o n s . . . . . . 7-39
7.3-4 Underwater s i m u l a t i o n of Gemini X I 1 EVA t r a n s i t
between adapter and TDA work s t a t i o n s ....... 7-40
8.4-1 Standup EVA c h e c k l i s t f o r Gemini X . . . . . . . . . 8-9
8.4-2 Umbilical EVA c h e c k l i s t for Gemini X I 1 . . . . . . . 8-10
9.1-1 P r e f l i g h t ergometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-4
9.1-2 Exercise c a p a c i t y t e s t r e s u l t s

( a ) part^. .................... 9-5


(b) P a r t 1 1 .................... 9-6
9.1-3 Umbilical EVA

( a ) Gemini I V ................... 9-7


( b ) G e m i n i IX-A .................
; 9-8
(c) GeminiX .................... 9-9
( a ) Gemini X I ................... 9-10
(e) GeminiXII ................... 9-11
9-14 P r e f l i g h t and i n f l i g h t e x e r c i s e s t u d i e s ....... 9-12

x v i ii
1.0 SUMMARY

NASA Manned S p a c e c r a f t Center S t a f f


1.0 SUMMARY

The Gemini Program e x t r a v e h i c u l a r o p e r a t i o n s have been summarized


i n t h i s r e p o r t . The a c t u a l systems employed, t h e t e s t i n g and q u a l i f i c a -
t i o n s of t h e s e systems, t h e p r e p a r a t i o n of t h e f l i g h t crews, and t h e
o p e r a t i o n a l and medical a s p e c t s w e r e described from a developmental view-
point.

During t h e Gemini Program, t h e b a s i c f e a s i b i l i t y of e x t r a v e h i c u l a r


a c t i v i t y w a s e s t a b l i s h e d . Other s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s were:

( a ) Demonstration of r e t r i e v a l of equipment from w i t h i n t h e space-


c r a f t a d a p t e r and from another s a t e l l i t e

( b ) Establishment of requirements f o r handholds, f o o t r e s t r a i n t s ,


and body r e s t r a i n t s

(c) Evaluation of t h e dynamics of motion on a s h o r t t e t h e r

(d) Preliminary e v a l u a t i o n of a hand h e l d maneuvering device

( e ) Demonstration t h a t t h e e x t r a v e h i c u l a r workload could be main-


t a i n e d w i t h i n t h e l i m i t s of t h e l i f e support system and t h e c a p a b i l i t i e s
of t h e p i l o t

( f ) Demonstration t h a t underwater zero-g simulation w a s v a l i d i n


solving body r e s t r a i n t problems and i n a s s e s s i n g workloads

While most of t h e e x t r a v e h i c u l a r o p e r a t i o n s were s u c c e s s f u l , s e v e r a l


l i m i t a t i o n s w e r e i d e n t i f i e d . The most s i g n i f i c a n t l i m i t a t i o n s w e r e t h e
i n a b i l i t y t o perform e x t r a v e h i c u l a r t a s k s without t h e proper body re-
s t r a i n t s , t h e m o b i l i t y r e s t r i c t i o n s imposed by t h e design of t h e space
s u i t , and t h e l i m i t e d cooling c a p a c i t y of l i f e support systems u s i n g
gaseous cooling.

Recommendations a r e made f o r development of f u t u r e e x t r a v e h i c u l a r


operations.

1-1
2.0 INTRODUCTION

NASA Manned S p a c e c r a f t Center S t a f f


2.0 INTRODUCTION

The Gemini Program provided t h e f i r s t experience i n e x t r a v e h i c u l a r


a c t i v i t y (EVA) i n t h e United S t a t e s manned space e f f o r t . The o r i g i n a l
o b j e c t i v e s included t h e following:

( a ) Develop t h e c a p a b i l i t y f o r EVA i n f r e e space

(b) Use EVA t o i n c r e a s e t h e b a s i c c a p a b i l i t y of t h e G e m i n i space-


craft

( c ) Develop o p e r a t i o n a l techniques and e v a l u a t e advanced equip-


ment i n support of EVA f o r f u t u r e programs

I n g e n e r a l , t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s were met. Because of problems encountered


during t h e equipment e v a l u a t i o n , emphasis w a s s h i f t e d from maneuvering
equipment t o body r e s t r a i n t devices.

I n t h e i n i t i a l Gemini design g u i d e l i n e s , missions were contemplated


t h a t had 30 t o 60 minutes of EVA with very low workloads and metabolic
heat r a t e s of approximately 500 Btu/hr. The needs f o r longer periods of
EVA and g r e a t e r h e a t d i s s i p a t i o n c a p a b i l i t i e s were subsequently i n d i c a t e d
from various ground simulations. The design c r i t e r i a f o r t h e e x t r a -
v e h i c u l a r l i f e support equipment were u l t i m a t e l y s e t a t a mission l e n g t h
of 140 minutes with a normal metabolic r a t e of 1400 Btu/hr and a peak
r a t e of 2000 Btu/hr. The f l i g h t r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t i n s e v e r a l
i n s t a n c e s t h e s e c r i t e r i a were u n i n t e n t i o n a l l y exceeded. I n t h e f i n a l
mission, Gemini X I I , t h e equipment and procedures were demonstrated by
which t h e workload and t h e metabolic r a t e s could be maintained within
the desired l i m i t s .

One of t h e most d i f f i c u l t a s p e c t s of developing an e x t r a v e h i c u l a r


c a p a b i l i t y w a s simulating t h e e x t r a v e h i c u l a r environment. The combina-
t i o n of weightlessness and high vacuum w a s u n a t t a i n a b l e on e a r t h .
Zero-g a i r c r a f t simulations were v a l u a b l e , but t h e r e s u l t s of t h e s i m u l a -
t i o n s were o c c a s i o n a l l y misleading. Underwater n e u t r a l buoyancy simula-
t i o n s u l t i m a t e l y proved t o be t h e most r e a l i s t i c d u p l i c a t i o n of t h e
weightless environment f o r body p o s i t i o n i n g and r e s t r a i n t problems. The
novel c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e e x t r a v e h i c u l a r environment and t h e l a c k of
comparable p r i o r experience made i n t u i t i o n and normal design approaches
o c c a s i o n a l l y inadequate. From t h e accumulation of f l i g h t experience,
an understanding of t h e environment and of t h e techniques f o r p r a c t i c a l
operations w a s g r a d u a l l y obtained. This r e p o r t documents t h e f a c t s and
examines t h e f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d with t h e development of e x t r a v e h i c u l a r
c a p a b i l i t y during t h e Gemini Program.

2-1
3.0 GEMINI EXTRAVEHICULAR ACTIVITIES

Frederick T. Burns, Gemini Program Office


James W. Prim, 111, Gemini Program Office
Hilary A. Ray, Jr., Gemini Program Office
Antoine F. Smith, Flight Crew Support Division
3.0 G E M I N I EXTRAVEHICULAR ACTIVITIES

E x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t y (EVA) w a s accomplished on 5 of t h e 1 0 manned


Gemini missions. A t o t a l of 6 hours and 1 minute w a s accumulated i n
f i v e e x t r a v e h i c u l a r excursions on an u m b i l i c a l ( t a b l e 3.0-1). An addi-
t i o n a l 6 hours and 24 minutes of hatch-open time was accumulated i n
s i x p e r i o d s of standup EVA i n c l u d i n g two p e r i o d s f o r j e t t i s o n i n g equip-
ment. The t o t a l e x t r a v e h i c u l a r t i m e f o r t h e Gemini Program w a s 1 2 hours
and 25 minutes.

3-1
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3.1 GEMINI I V

Two of t h e o b j e c t i v e s of t h e Gemini I V mission w e r e t o e s t a b l i s h t h e


i n i t i a l f e a s i b i l i t y of EVA and t o e v a l u a t e a simple maneuvering device.
The l i f e support system w a s a s m a l l chestpack c a l l e d t h e V e n t i l a t i o n
Control Module (VCM), with oxygen s u p p l i e d through a 25-foot u m b i l i c a l
hose assembly ( f i g . 3.1-1). The Hand Held Maneuvering Unit (HHMU) w a s
a s e l f - c o n t a i n e d , cold-gas propulsion u n i t which u t i l i z e d two 1-pound
t r a c t o r j e t s and one 2-pound pusher j e t . The G4C space s u i t w a s worn
with an e x t r a v e h i c u l a r coverlayer f o r micrometeorite and thermal pro-
t e c t i o n . While o u t s i d e t h e s p a c e c r a f t , t h e p i l o t a l s o wore a s p e c i a l
sun v i s o r designed f o r v i s u a l p r o t e c t i o n .

The hatch w a s opened a t 4 hours 18 minutes ground elapsed t i m e


(g.e.t.). The p i l o t w a s o u t s i d e t h e s p a c e c r a f t f o r 20 minutes and
followed t h e t i m e l i n e shown i n f i g u r e 3.1-2. The r e s u l t s e s t a b l i s h e d
t h e f e a s i b i l i t y of simple EVA without d i s o r i e n t a t i o n . The u t i l i t y of
t h e HHMU f o r self-propulsion without a r t i f i c i a l s t a b i l i z a t i o n w a s
t e n t a t i v e l y i n d i c a t e d , although t h e t o t a l a v a i l a b l e t h r u s t of 20 seconds
w a s t o o b r i e f f o r a d e t a i l e d e v a l u a t i o n of s t a b i l i t y and c o n t r o l . The
e x t r a v e h i c u l a r p i l o t e v a l u a t e d t h e dynamics of a 25-foot t e t h e r , and wa s
a b l e t o push out from t h e s u r f a c e of t h e s p a c e c r a f t under g r o s s c o n t r o l .
The u m b i l i c a l t e t h e r caused t h e p i l o t t o move back i n t h e g e n e r a l d i r e c -
t i o n of t h e s p a c e c r a f t . The t e t h e r provided no means of body p o s i t i o n -
i n g c o n t r o l o t h e r t h a n as a d i s t a n c e l i m i t i n g device. I n g r e s s t o t h e
cockpit and hatch c l o s u r e w e r e s u b s t a n t i a l l y more d i f f i c u l t t h a n a n t i c i -
p a t e d because of t h e high f o r c e s r e q u i r e d t o p u l l t h e h a t c h f u l l y closed.
The hatch-locking mechanism malfunctioned, which f u r t h e r complicated t h e
t a s k of i n g r e s s . I n coping with t h e hatch-closing problems, t h e metabolic
h e a t output of t h e e x t r a v e h i c u l a r p i l o t exceeded t h e cooling c a p a c i t y of
t h e VCM. The p i l o t w a s g r e a t l y overheated and experienced s l i g h t v i s o r
fogging a t t h e completion of i n g r e s s , although he had been cool while
o u t s i d e t h e s p a c e c r a f t . Several hours were r e q u i r e d f o r t h e p i l o t t o
cool o f f a f t e r completion of t h e e x t r a v e h i c u l a r p e r i o d ; however, no
continuing a f t e r e f f e c t s were noted. Because of t h e hatch-closing prob-
lems, t h e hatch w a s not opened f o r j e t t i s o n i n g t h e e x t r a v e h i c u l a r equip-
ment.

The i n f l i g h t experience showed t h a t s u b s t a n t i a l l y more time and


e f f o r t were r e q u i r e d t o prepare f o r t h e EVA t h a n had been a n t i c i p a t e d .
The i n c r e a s e d hazards of EVA d i c t a t e d meticulous c a r e i n t h e i n f l i g h t
checkout b e f o r e t h e s p a c e c r a f t w a s depressurized. The f l i g h t crew found
t h e use of d e t a i l e d c h e c k l i s t s a necessary p a r t of t h e p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r
EVA. I n summary, t h e G e m i n i I V mission proved t h a t EVA w a s f e a s i b l e
and i n d i c a t e d s e v e r a l a r e a s where equipment performance needed improve-
ment.

3-3
NASA-S-67-835

Figure 3.1- 1. - Gemini I4! EVA equ iprnent e

3-4
NASA- 5-67-285

Day
4:lO

- 4:15

Hatch open
- 4:20 Install 16mm camera
Install umbilical guard

- 425 Standing i n seat - preparing HHMU

- 4:30 Egress from spacecraft using HHMU


HHMU evaluation

HHMU out of propellant


- 4:35
Umbilical evaluation

- 4:40
Smeared command pilot's window

- 4:45
Standing on spacecraft surface

- 4:50 Standing in seat - starting ingress

Figure 3.1-2. - Gemini Ip EVA time line.

3-5
3.2 GEMINI V I 1 1

The primary o b j e c t i v e s f o r EVA during t h e G e m i n i . V I I 1 mission were


e v a l u a t i o n of t h e Extravehicular L i f e Support System (ELSS), t h e HHMU
and t h e Extravehicular Support Package (ESP). The ELSS w a s a chestpack
u n i t w i t h an i n c r e a s e d r e s e r v e oxygen supply and a s u b s t a n t i a l l y g r e a t e r
thermal c a p a c i t y t h a n t h e VCM used during Gemini I V . The ESP c o n s i s t e d
of a backpack u n i t c o n t a i n i n g an independent oxygen supply f o r l i f e
support, a l a r g e r p r o p e l l a n t supply f o r t h e HHMU, and a n u l t r a h i g h f r e -
quency r a d i o package f o r independent voice communications. A d e t a i l e d
e v a l u a t i o n w a s planned o f t h e HHMU w i t h t h e p i l o t on a 75-foot l i g h t -
weight t e t h e r . The equipment f o r t h e EVA i s shown i n f i g u r e 3.2-1. The
Gemini V I 1 1 mission w a s terminated b e f o r e t h e end of t h e f i r s t day be-
cause of a s p a c e c r a f t c o n t r o l system malfunction; t h e r e f o r e , no EVA w a s
accomplished.

Equipment design proved t o be q u i t e complex, with a s u b s t a n t i a l


number of l a t e m o d i f i c a t i o n s , during p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e Gemini V I 1 1
mission p r i m a r i l y because t h e chestpack had t o i n t e r f a c e w i t h (1)t h e
25-foot ELSS u m b i l i c a l , ( 2 ) t h e 7 5 - f O O t e l e c t r i c a l t e t h e r , and ( 3 ) an
ESP l i n e f o r oxygen. Acceptable designs and procedures were e s t a b l i s h e d ;
however, t h e handling procedures were more d i f f i c u l t t h a n w a s d e s i r e d .
Although t h e equipment provided f o r t h e Gemini V I 1 1 EVA w a s not used i n
o r b i t , i t s use i n t r a i n i n g and i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r f l i g h t provided i n i -
t i a l i n s i g h t i n t o t h e problems of complicated equipment connections.

3-6
NA SA- S-6 7- 832

EVA equipment.

3- 7
3.3 GESIINI IX-A

The prime o b j e c t i v e of t h e Gemini IX-A EVA w a s t o e v a l u a t e t h e ELSS


and t h e A i r Force Astronaut Maneuvering Unit (AMU). The AMU w a s a back-
pack which included a s t a b i l i z a t i o n and c o n t r o l system, a hydrogen
peroxide propulsion system, a l i f e support oxygen supply, and an
u l t r a h i g h frequency r a d i o package f o r voice communications. The mission
p r o f i l e planned f o r t h e EVA w a s v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h e ’ p r o f i l e intended f o r
Gemini V I I I . The h a t c h w a s t o be opened a t s u n r i s e of a’daylight p e r i o d
when good communications could be e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h t h e t r a c k i n g s t a t i o n s
i n t h e c o n t i n e n t a l United S t a t e s . The f i r s t d a y l i g h t p e r i o d w a s t o be
devoted t o f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n with t h e environment and t o conducting simple
e v a l u a t i o n s and experiments. The following n i g h t p e r i o d w a s t o be spent
i n t h e adapter equipment s e c t i o n of t h e s p a c e c r a f t checking out and
donning t h e M . The second d a y l i g h t p e r i o d w a s t o be spent e v a l u a t i n g
t h e M . Then, t h e p i l o t w a s t o r e t u r n t o t h e c o c k p i t , d i s c a r d t h e AMU,
perform a simple s c i e n t i f i c photographic experiment, and i n g r e s s . The
equipment f o r EVA during Gemini IX-A i s shown i n f i g u r e 3.3-1.

The Gemini IX-A EVA proceeded e s s e n t i a l l y as planned f o r t h e f i r s t


d a y l i g h t p e r i o d and i s i n d i c a t e d i n t h e time l i n e of f i g u r e 3.3-2.
Higher f o r c e s t h a n expected were r e q u i r e d t o move t h e hatch i n t h e
p a r t i a l l y open p o s i t i o n , but t h i s condition d i d not cause immediate
d i f f i c u l t y . While o u t s i d e t h e s p a c e c r a f t , t h e p i l o t discovered t h a t t h e
f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n t a s k s and e v a l u a t i o n s r e q u i r e d more time and e f f o r t than
t h e g r o u n d - s i m u l a t i o n s . Minor d i f f i c u l t y w a s a l s o e x p e r i e n c e d . i n con-
t r o l l i n g body p o s i t i o n . Before t h e end of t h e f i r s t d a y l i g h t p e r i o d ,
, t h e p i l o t proceeded t o t h e s p a c e c r a f t a d a p t e r and began t h e p r e p a r a t i o n s
f o r donning t h e AMU. The t a s k s of p r e p a r i n g t h e AMU r e q u i r e d much more
work t h a n had been expected, p r i n c i p a l l y because of t h e d i f f i c u l t y i n
maintaining body p o s i t i o n r e l a t i v e t o t h e f o o t b a r and hand bars. A t
approximately 1 0 minutes a f t e r s u n s e t , t h e v i s o r on t h e helmet began t o
fog. The fogging i n c r e a s e d i n coverage and s e v e r i t y u n t i l t h e crew were
f o r c e d t o d i s c o n t i n u e t h e a c t i v i t i e s w i t h t h e AMU. A f t e r s u n r i s e , t h e
fogging decreased s l i g h t l y , but i n c r e a s e d again when t h e e x t r a v e h i c u l a r
p i l o t expended appreciable e f f o r t . Although t h e AMU w a s donned, it
w a s not evaluated. The EVA w a s terminated e a r l y because of t h e v i s o r
fogging. The p i l o t experienced more d i f f i c u l t i e s i n moving t h e h a t c h
when it w a s i n t h e intermediate p o s i t i o n ; however, t h e f o r c e s r e q u i r e d
t o c l o s e and lock t h e hatch were normal. L

P o s t f l i g h t e v a l u a t i o n i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e ELSS w a s functioning nor-


m a l l y . The t a s k o f preparing t h e AMU and t h e l a c k of adequate body
r e s t r a i n t s r e s u l t e d i n workloads which exceeded t h e design l i m i t s of t h e
ELSS. Visor fogging w a s a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e p i l o t ’ s high r e s p i r a t i o n r a t e
and t o t h e r e s u l t i n g high humidity i n t h e helmet. The p i l o t r e p o r t e d t h a t

3- 8
he w a s not e x c e s s i v e l y hot u n t i l t h e time of i n g r e s s . The performance
of t h e ELSS h e a t exchanger may have degraded a t t h i s t i m e because of
d e p l e t i o n of t h e evaporator water supply.

S e v e r a l c o r r e c t i v e measures were i n i t i a t e d f o r t h e problems encoun-


t e r e d during t h e Gemini IX-A EVA. To minimize v i s o r fogging, an a n t i f o g
s o l u t i o n w a s t o be a p p l i e d t o t h e space s u i t helmet v i s o r s immediately
b e f o r e EVA on f u t u r e missions. Each e x t r a v e h i c u l a r t a s k planned f o r
t h e succeeding missions was analyzed i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l concerning t h e
type of body r e s t r a i n t s r e q u i r e d and t h e magnitude of t h e f o r c e s involved.
An overshoe t y p e of p o s i t i v e f o o t r e s t r a i n t w a s i n s t a l l e d i n t h e space-
c r a f t adapter s e c t i o n t o be used f o r Gemini X I and X I I . Also, under-
water simulation w a s i n i t i a t e d i n an attempt t o simulate t h e weightless
environment more a c c u r a t e l y t h a n zero-g a i r c r a f t s i m u l a t i o n s . P r i o r t o
t h e Gemini X and X I missions, t h e underwater s i m u l a t i o n s w e r e used only
f o r procedure v a l i d a t i o n , but not f o r t r a i n i n g or development of time
l i n e s . For t h e Gemini X I 1 mission, underwater simulations were used f o r
crew t r a i n i n g and time l i n e development.

3-9
NASA- S-6 7-831

Figure -
3.3-1. Gemini IX-A EVA equipment.

3-10
NASA-567-286

I e. t. I e.t.
49:20 50:30
Unstow oxygen hose
Hatch open
Stand i n seat
Opening oxygen supply
49:25 Equipment jettisoned. Deploy handrail 50:35
Retrieve Experiment SO12 micrometeorite package Oxygen valve open. Release nozzle extensions
Position debris cutters Back into AMU. Visor fogged. Rest.

-49:30 - 50:40
Mount 16-mm camera
Switch to AMU electrical cable
70-mm pictures
. 49:35 50:45

- 49:40 Attach docking bar mirror - 50:50


.Umbilical evaluation

' 49:45 50:55


Velcro hand pad evaluation

- 49:50 Return to cabin


Rest
- 51:OO AMU activities terminated. Waiting for visor to clear

Hand 16-mm camera i n


49:55 Install 16-mm camera 51:05 Switch back to umbilical
Pilot out of AMU

Stand in seat Pilot back at hatch. Resting


- 50:OO - 51:lO
Close hatch

. 50:05
Move to adapter. Release handbars 51:15
Visor 40 percent fogged
Remove docking bar mirror

- 50:lO Standing on foot bar - 51:20 Visor fogging increased. Taking pictures
Position mirrors Ingress started
Unstow pen1ights
Connect black tether hook
' 50:15 51:25
Pilot reported hot spots
Rest
Connect orange tether hook
- 50:20 High flow on ELSS - 51:30 Hatch closed

. 50:25
Stopped workon tether hook. AMU inspection 51:35
Unstow attitude control arm
Unstow translational control arm 0 Day
- 50:30 Reported visor fogged. Rest
- 51:40 Night

Figure 3.3-2. - Gemini E - A R I A time line.

3-11
3.4 GEMINI X

The prime o b j e c t i v e of t h e Gemini X EVA w a s t o r e t r i e v e t h e Experi-


ment SOlO Micrometeorite C o l l e c t i o n package from t h e t a r g e t v e h i c l e
t h a t had been launched 4 months e a r l i e r as p a r t of t h e Gemini V I 1 1
mission. The package w a s t o be r e t r i e v e d immediately af'ter rendezvous
with t h e Gemini V I 1 1 t a r g e t v e h i c l e , and t h e umbilical EVA w a s t o l a s t
approximately one d a y l i g h t period. Also planned were t h e e v a l u a t i o n
of t h e HHMU, t h e i n s t a l l a t i o n of a new SOlO experiment package on t h e
t a r g e t v e h i c l e , t h e r e t r i e v a l of t h e Experiment SO12 Gemini Micromete-
o r i t e C o l l e c t i o n package from t h e s p a c e c r a f t adapter s e c t i o n , and t h e
performance of s e v e r a l photographic experiments. Photography w a s sched-
uled f o r 1-1/2 o r b i t s during a p e r i o d of standup EVA.

The EVA equipment included t h e ELSS, an improved HKMU, and t h e


new 50-foot d u a l umbilical. One hose i n t h e umbilical c a r r i e d t h e
s p a c e c r a f t oxygen t o t h e ELSS. The o t h e r hose c a r r i e d n i t r o g e n t o t h e
HHMU. The umbilical w a s designed s o t h a t t h e HHMU and a l l oxygen f i t t i n g s
could be connected before t h e hatch w a s opened; however, t h e nitrogen
hose f o r t h e HHMU had t o be connected while o u t s i d e t h e s p a c e c r a f t cabin.
The configuration and operation of t h i s umbilical were simpler than t h o s e
of t h e Gemini V I 1 1 and IX-A equipment, but t h e 50-foot umbilical required
a s u b s t a n t i a l i n c r e a s e i n stowage volume. The equipment f o r t h e umbil-
i c a l WA f o r Gemini X i s shown i n f i g u r e 3.4-1. For t h e standup EVA,
s h o r t extension hoses were connected t o t h e s p a c e c r a f t Environmental
Control System (ECS) t o permit t h e p i l o t t o remain on t h e s p a c e c r a f t
closed-loop system while standing. The p i l o t a l s o used a f a b r i c s t r a p
standup t e t h e r t o hold himself i n t h e c o c k p i t , thereby avoiding any loads
on t h e extension hoses.

The standup a c t i v i t y began just a f t e r sunset a t an elapsed f l i g h t


t i m e of 23 hours 24 minutes and proceeded normally f o r t h e f i r s t
30 minutes ( f i g . 3.4-2). The p i l o t w a s s a t i s f a c t o r i l y r e s t r a i n e d by t h e
standup t e t h e r , and s i n c e t h e r e w e r e no unusual problems with body po-
s i t i o n i n g , u l t r a v i o l e t photographs of various star f i e l d s were taken.
Immediately a f t e r s u n r i s e , both crewmembers experienced eye i r r i t a t i o n
and t e a r formation which i n t e r f e r e d with t h e i r v i s i o n . The crew e l e c t e d
t o t e r m i n a t e t h e standup EVA a t t h i s time.

The eye i r r i t a t i o n subsided gradually a f t e r i n g r e s s and hatch clo-


s u r e . The cause of t h e eye i r r i t a t i o n w a s not known, but w a s b e l i e v e d
t o have been r e l a t e d t o t h e simultaneous use of both compressors i n t h e
s p a c e c r a f t oxygen-supply loop t o t h e space s u i t s . P r i o r t o t h e umbilical
EVA, an a d d i t i o n a l cabin d e p r e s s u r i z a t i o n w a s conducted t o v e r i f y t h a t
t h e r e w a s no s i g n i f i c a n t eye i r r i t a t i o n when only one s u i t compressor w a s
used and t h e cabin w a s decompressed.

3-12
The Gemini X u m b i l i c a l EVA w a s i n i t i a t e d a t an elapsed t i m e of
48 hours 42 minutes, immediately a f t e r rendezvous w i t h t h e Gemini V I 1 1
t a r g e t v e h i c l e . The t a r g e t v e h i c l e w a s completely p a s s i v e with no
e l e c t r i c a l power a v a i l a b l e because of t h e long staytime i n o r b i t . The
sequence of events i s i n d i c a t e d i n f i g u r e 3.4-3. The p i l o t r e t r i e v e d
t h e Experiment SO12 Gemini Micrometeorite C o l l e c t i o n package from t h e
e x t e r i o r of t h e s p a c e c r a f t a d a p t e r , moved o u t s i d e t o connect t h e n i t r o -
gen u m b i l i c a l supply l i n e for t h e HHMU, and t h e n r e t u r n e d t o t h e cock-
p i t . Meanwhile, t h e command p i l o t w a s f l y i n g t h e s p a c e c r a f t i n c l o s e
formation with t h e t a r g e t v e h i c l e ( f i g . 3.4-4). With t h e docking cone
of t h e t a r g e t v e h i c l e approximately 5 f e e t away, t h e p i l o t pushed o f f
from t h e s p a c e c r a f t and grasped t h e o u t e r l i p of t h e docking cone. I n
moving around t h e t a r g e t v e h i c l e t o t h e l o c a t i o n of t h e Experiment SOlO
Agena Micrometeorite Collection package, t h e p i l o t l o s t h i s hold on t h e
smooth l i p of t h e docking cone and d r i f t e d away from t h e t a r g e t v e h i c l e .
H e used t h e HHMU t o t r a n s l a t e approximately 1 5 f e e t back t o t h e space-
c r a f t . The p i l o t t h e n used t h e HHMU t o t r a n s l a t e t o t h e t a r g e t v e h i c l e .
On h i s second attempt t o move around t h e docking cone, he used t h e wire
bundles and s t r u t s behind t h e cone as handholds, and w a s a b l e t o main-
t a i n s a t i s f a c t o r y c o n t r o l of h i s body p o s i t i o n . R e t r i e v a l of t h e Ex-
periment SOlO Agena Micrometeorite C o l l e c t i o n package w a s accomplished
without d i f f i c u l t y ; however, t h e p i l o t e l e c t e d a t t h i s t i m e t o d i s c a r d
t h e replacement SOlO package r a t h e r t h a n r i s k l o s i n g t h e one he had j u s t
r e t r i e v e d . The p i l o t , c a r r y i n g t h e package, used t h e umbilical t o p u l l
himself back t o t h e cockpit. A t t h i s time, t h e s p a c e c r a f t p r o p e l l a n t
had reached t h e lower l i m i t a l l o t t e d f o r t h e EVA and s t a t i o n keeping
operation. The EVA w a s terminated. During i n g r e s s , t h e p i l o t became
entangled i n t h e 50-foot umbilical. S e v e r a l minutes of e f f o r t by both
crewmembers were r e q u i r e d t o f r e e t h e p i l o t f r o m t h e u m b i l i c a l SO t h a t
he could continue t o i n g r e s s . The hatch w a s t h e n closed normally.

F i f t y minutes l a t e r , t h e crew opened t h e r i g h t hatch and j e t t i s o n e d


t h e ELSS chestpack, t h e umbilical, and o t h e r equipment not r e q u i r e d f o r
t h e remainder of t h e mission.

During t h e u m b i l i c a l EVA, t h e p i l o t r e p o r t e d t h e loss of t h e 70-mm


s t i l l camera used during t h e EVA. The camera had been fastened t o t h e
ELSS with a lanyard, but t h e a t t a c h i n g screw came loose. Also, it w a s
discovered t h a t t h e Experiment SO12 Gemini Micrometeorite C o l l e c t i o n
package w a s missing. The package had been stowed i n a pouch with an
e l a s t i c t o p , but appeared t o have been knocked f r e e while t h e 50-foot
umbilical w a s being untangled.

The p r i n c i p a l l e s s o n s l e a r n e d from t h e EVA phase of t h i s mission


were :

( a ) Preparation f o r EVA w a s an important t a s k and t h e f u l l t i m e


a t t e n t i o n of both crewmev% w a s d e s i r a b l e . Performing a rendezvous

3-13
with a passive t a r g e t v e h i c l e and simultaneous ENA preparation caused
t h e crew t o be rushed and d i d not allow t h e command p i l o t time t o give
t h e p i l o t as much a s s i s t a n c e as had been planned.

(b) The t a s k s of crew t r a n s f e r and equipment r e t r i e v a l from another


s a t e l l i t e w e r e accomplished i n a d e l i b e r a t e fashion without an excessive
workload.

( c ) Formation f l y i n g with another s a t e l l i t e during EVA w a s accom-


p l i s h e d by coordination of t h r u s t e r operation between t h e command p i l o t
and t h e extravehicular p i l o t .

( d ) Equipment which was not securely t i e d down w a s s u s c e p t i b l e t o


d r i f t i n g away during EVA, even when precautions were being taken.

( e ) The bulk of t h e 50-fOOt umbilical w a s a g r e a t e r inconvenience


than had been a n t i c i p a t e d . The stowage during normal f l i g h t and t h e
handling during i n g r e s s made t h i s l e n g t h undesirable.

3-14
NASA- S-6 7-830

Figure 3.4-1. - Gemini X umbilical EVA equipment.

3-15
NASA- 5-67-287

Day
Night G. e. t.
k23:20

Hatch open
23:25 Equipment jettisoned
Experiment SO13 camera mounted
Pilot standing in open hatch
Experiment SO13 photography
-23:30
Left shoulder strap restraining pilot

Pilot feeling warm


* 23:35

Eight exposures completed for Experiment SO13


-23:40 Pilot starts to cool off

. 23:45 Twelve out of twenty Experiment SO13 photographs obtained

Body positioning found to be no problem


- 2 ~ a

. 23:55

Experiment SO13 completed

-24:OO
Experiment SO13 camera handed t o command pilot
Pilot lowered sun visor and received Experiment M410 color plate
* 24:05
Photographed collor plate
Eye irritation problem first reported
Color plate discarded
-24:lO
Experiment SO13 bracket discarded
Hatch closed
- 24:15

-24:20

Figure 3.4-2. - Gemini X standup EVA time line.

3- 16
NA SA-S-67-288

Day
I G. e. t.
48:30

. 48:35 E L S S on medium flow

- 48:40
Hatch open

Handrails deployed
. 48:45

Experiment SO12 micrometeorite package retrieved from adapter

- 4850 Nitrogen quick disconnect hookup initiated for HHMU


Nitrogen hookup completed

. 48:55 Pilot returned to hatch and checked out HHMU


Pilot pushed off from spacecraft to target vehicle
Pilot let go of target vehicle- translated back to spacecraft with HHMU (15 feet)
ELSS on high flow
- 49:OO Pilot translated to target vehicle with HHMU (about 12 feet)

’ 49:05 Experiment SO10 micrometeorite package removed from target vehicle


Pilot moved back to spacecraft hand-over-hand using umbilical
Loss of 70-mm s t i l l camera reported

- 49:lO
HHMU nitrogen line disconnected and pilot standing in hatch
Ingress commenced
- 49:15
Pilot untangling umbilical

- 49:20 Hatch closed

* 4925

Day
- 49:30 Night

Figure 3.4-3. - Gemini X umbilical EVA time line.

3- 17
L

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W
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.-
.-r:
E
a,
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3-18
3.5 GEMINI X I

The prime o b j e c t i v e s of t h e Gemini X I EVA were t o a t t a c h a 100-foot


t e t h e r between t h e s p a c e c r a f t and t h e t a r g e t v e h i c l e and t o provide a
more extensive e v a l u a t i o n of t h e HHMU. I n a d d i t i o n , s e v e r a l experiments,
including u l t r a v i o l e t photography, were scheduled f o r t h e standup EVA.
The u m b i l i c a l EVA w a s scheduled f o r t h e morning of t h e second day so t h a t
t h e s p a c e c r a f t / t a r g e t v e h i c l e t e t h e r e v a l u a t i o n could be accomplished
l a t e r t h a t day.

The equipment ( f i g . 3.5-1) f o r t h e Gemini X I EVA w a s t h e same as


f o r t h e Gemini X mission, except t h a t t h e dual u m b i l i c a l w a s shortened
from 50 t o 30 f e e t t o reduce t h e stowage and handling problems. An
Apollo sump-tank module, which w a s mounted i n t h e s p a c e c r a f t adapter
s e c t i o n , incorporated two sequence cameras t h a t w e r e t o be r e t r i e v e d
during EVA. The H W w a s a l s o stowed i n t h e adapter s e c t i o n . A molded
overshoe type of f o o t r e s t r a i n t ( f i g . 3.5-2) w a s provided f o r body
r e s t r a i n t when performing t a s k s i n t h e adapter equipment s e c t i o n .

The Gemini X I umbilical EVA began a t an elapsed f l i g h t t i m e of


24 hours 2 minutes; almost immediately, t h e r e were i n d i c a t i o n s of d i f f i -
c u l t y . The f i r s t s i g n i f i c a n t t a s k a f t e r e g r e s s w a s t o p o s i t i o n and
secure t h e e x t e r n a l sequence camera. A f t e r t h e camera w a s secured, t h e
p i l o t i n d i c a t e d t h a t he w a s f a t i g u e d and out of b r e a t h . The p i l o t t h e n
moved t o t h e f r o n t o f t h e s p a c e c r a f t and assumed a s t r a d d l e p o s i t i o n on
t h e rendezvous and recovery s e c t i o n i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r a t t a c h i n g t h e
s p a c e c r a f t / t a r g e t v e h i c l e t e t h e r . While maintaining p o s i t i o n and a t t a c h -
i n g t h e t e t h e r , t h e p i l o t expended a high l e v e l of e f f o r t f o r s e v e r a l
minutes. A f t e r r e t u r n i n g t o t h e cockpit t o r e s t , t h e p i l o t continued t o
breathe very h e a v i l y and w a s apparently f a t i g u e d . I n view cf t h e unknown
amount of e f f o r t r e q u i r e d f o r t h e remaining t a s k s , t h e crew e l e c t e d t o
terminate t h e EVA p r i o r t o t h e end of t h e f i r s t d a y l i g h t period. Ingress
and hatch c l o s u r e were r e a d i l y accomplished. The t i m e l i n e f o r t h e
u m b i l i c a l EVA i s shown i n f i g u r e 3.5-3.

The Gemini X I standup EVA w a s i n i t i a t e d a t an elapsed time of


46 hours 6 minutes, j u s t before s u n s e t . The crew began t h e u l t r a v i o l e t
s t e l l a r photography as soon as p r a c t i c a l a f t e r s u n s e t ; t h e photography
of s t a r p a t t e r n s w a s r e a d i l y accomplished. The e x t r a v e h i c u l a r p i l o t
operated at a very low work l e v e l because he was w e l l r e s t r a i n e d by t h e
standup t e t h e r . A s i n t h e Gemini X standup EVA, t h e crew had l i t t l e
d i f f i c u l t y with t h e standup t a s k s . A f t e r completing t h e planned a c t i v -
i t i e s ( f i g . 3.5-41, t h e p i l o t ingressed and c l o s e d t h e hatch without
any d i f f i c u l t y .

3-19
Discussions with the crew and analysis of the onboard films revealed
that several factors contributed to the high rate of exertion during the
umbilical activity and the subsequent exhaustion of the pilot.

(a) A high rate of physical effort was required to maintain the


desired position on the rendezvous and recovery section of the space-
craft because of the lack of body restraints.

(b) The zero-g aircraft simulations had not sufficiently duplicated


the extravehicular environment to demonstrate the difficulties of the
initial extravehicular tasks.

(c) The pilot had experienced difficulty in donning the extravehic-


ular visor on his helmet with the space suit pressurized. As a result,
he had become partially fatigued and overheated prior to opening the
hatch.

(d) The requirement to perform a mission-critical task immediately


following egress did not allow the pilot time to become accustomed to
the environment. This factor probably caused the pilot to work faster
than was desired.

(e) The high workloads may have resulted in a concentration of


carbon dioxide in the space suit helmet high enough to cause the increased
respiration and the apparent exhaustion. Although no measurement of
carbon dioxide concentration was made during the mission, an increase had
been shown during testing of the ELSS at high workloads. For workloads
which exceed design limits, the carbon dioxide concentration may reach
values that cause physiological symptoms, including high respiration
rates, and decreased work tolerance.

The Gemini XI umbilical EVA results failed to substantiate the confi-


dence generated by the relatively successful Gemini X umbilical EVA. In
order to provide a better understanding of the basic techniques for per-
forming EVA tasks, the umbilical EVA planned for Gemini XI1 was redirected
from an evaluation of the AMU to further evaluations of body restraints
and workloads.

3-20
NASA-S-67-829

Figure 3.5-1. - Gemini XI umbilical EVA equipment.


3-21
a
>
W

4
tn
a
z

3-22
NASA- S-61-289

: G. e. t.

Ft
2 00 Seven minutes after sunrise
Hatch open
Standing in hatch
24 :05 Handrail deployed
Experiment SO09 retrieved
EVA camera mounted

2 4 ~ 1 0Pilot at spacecraft nose


Resting
Attaching spacecraft/ target vehicle tether
Tether on

- 24:20 Start film change

F i l m change complete
- 2 4 ~ 2 5Resting while standing in hatch

- 24:30
EVA camera demounted
Ingress complete
- 24:35 Hatch closed

- 24:40 Seven minutes before sunset

- 24:45

- 24:50

Figure 3.5-3. - Gemini XI umbilical EVA time line.

3-23
NASA-S-67-290

I I '.t. ?.t
46:OO 47:15
Standing by for sunset

46:05 - 47:20
Hatch open

- 46:lO Standing i n hatch 47:25

46:15 Experiment SO13 Camera installed


- 47:30

- 46:20 Experiment SO13 photography


Pictures o f Shaula
47:35 Crew napping

46:25 - 47:40 Looked for stars - not visible

- 46:30 47:45
ACS on

Pictures of Antares
46:35 - 47:50

- 46:40 47:55
Pictures of Shaula

Pictures of Orion

Sighted fires in Australia


46:45 - 4a:oo

- 46:50 48:05 Pictures of Orion

46:55 - 4a:io
Experiment SO13 photography completed
Pictures of Houston
- 47:OO 48:15 Hatch closed

Generdl photography
47:05 - 4a:20

- 47:lO
0 Day
H Night
47:15

Figure 3.5-4. - Gemini XI standup EVA time line.

3-24
3.6 GEMINI XII

The prime o b j e c t i v e of t h e Gemini X I 1 EVA w a s t o evaluate t h e type


of body r e s t r a i n t s and t h e a s s o c i a t e d workload required f o r a series of
r e p r e s e n t a t i v e t a s k s . Other o b j e c t i v e s w e r e attachment of t h e
s p a c e c r a f t / t a r g e t v e h i c l e t e t h e r and u l t r a v i o l e t s t e l l a r photography.
The e x t r a v e h i c u l a r equipment f o r t h e Gemini X I 1 mission included a new
work s t a t i o n i n t h e adapter equipment s e c t i o n ( f i g . 3.6-1), a new work
s t a t i o n on t h e Target Docking Adapter (TDA) ( f i g . 3.6-2), and s e v e r a l
added body r e s t r a i n t s and handholds. The p i l o t ' s e x t r a v e h i c u l a r equip-
ment ( f i g . 3.6-3) w a s e s s e n t i a l l y i d e n t i c a l t o t h a t of Gemini IX-A.

The f l i g h t crew t r a i n i n g f o r t h e Gemini X I 1 EVA w a s expanded t o


include f i v e s e s s i o n s of i n t e n s i v e underwater simulation t r a i n i n g . Dur-
ing t h e s e s e s s i o n s , t h e p i l o t followed t h e planned f l i g h t procedures
and duplicated t h e planned umbilical EVA on an end-to-end b a s i s . The
procedures and times f o r each event were e s t a b l i s h e d and used t o schedule
t h e . f i n a l i n f l i g h t t a s k sequence. The underwater t r a i n i n g supplemented
t h e extensive ground t r a i n i n g and zero-g a i r c r a f t simulations,

To i n c r e a s e t h e margin f o r success and provide a s u i t a b l e period


of a c c l i m a t i z a t i o n before t h e performance of any c r i t i c a l t a s k s , t h e
standup EVA w a s schedule6 p r i o r t o t h e umbilical a c t i v i t y . The planned
EVA t i m e l i n e w a s i n t e r s p e r s e d with 2-minute r e s t periods. Procedures
were e s t a b l i s h e d f o r monitoring t h e h e a r t r a t e and r e s p i r a t i o n r a t e of
t h e e x t r a v e h i c u l a r p i l o t ; t h e crewmembers were t o be advised of any
i n d i c a t i o n s of a high r a t e of e x e r t i o n before t h e condition could become
s e r i o u s . F i n a l l y , t h e p i l o t was t r a i n e d t o operate a t a moderate work
r a t e , and f l i g h t and ground personnel were i n s t r u c t e d i n t h e importance
of workload c o n t r o l .

The f i r s t standup EVA w a s very similar t o t h e previous two missions.


A s i n d i c a t e d i n t h e t i m e l i n e of f i g u r e 3.6-4, t h e u l t r a v i o l e t s t e l l a r
and t h e synoptic t e r r a i n photography experiments were accomplished on
a r o u t i n e b a s i s . During t h e standup a c t i v i t y , t h e p i l o t performed
s e v e r a l t a s k s designed f o r f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n with t h e environment and f o r
comparison of t h e standup and umbilical EVA'S. These t a s k s included
mounting t h e e x t r a v e h i c u l a r sequence camera and deploying a h a n d r a i l from
t h e cabin of t h e s p a c e c r a f t t o t h e TDA on t h e t a r g e t vehicle. The p i l o t
a l s o r e t r i e v e d t h e Experiment SO10 Micrometeorite Collection package and
s e v e r a l contamination sample disks from t h e adapter s e c t i o n . The stand-
up a c t i v i t y w a s completed without d i f f i c u l t y .

The umbilical EVA preparations proceeded smoothly. The hatch w a s


opened within 2 minutes of t h e planned t i m e ( f i g . 3.6-5). The use of
w a i s t t e t h e r s during performance of t h e i n i t i a l t a s k s on t h e TDA enabled
t h e p i l o t t o r e s t e a s i l y , t o work without g r e a t e f f o r t , and t o connect
t h e s p a c e c r a f t / t a r g e t v e h i c l e t e t h e r i n an expeditious manner. The

3-25
p i l o t a c t i v a t e d t h e Experiment SO10 Agena Micrometeorite Collection
package on t h e t a r g e t v e h i c l e f o r p o s s i b l e f u t u r e r e t r i e v a l . Before
t h e end of t h e f i r s t d a y l i g h t p e r i o d , t h e p i l o t moved t o t h e s p a c e c r a f t
adapter s e c t i o n where he evaluated t h e work t a s k s of torquing b o l t s ,
making and breaking e l e c t r i c a l and f l u i d connectors, c u t t i n g cables and
f l u i d l i n e s , hooking r i n g s and hooks, and s t r i p p i n g patches of Velcro.
The t a s k s were accomplished using e i t h e r t h e f o o t restraints or t h e
w a i s t t e t h e r s . Both systems of r e s t r a i n t proved t o be s a t i s f a c t o r y .

During t h e second d a y l i g h t p e r i o d of t h e u m b i l i c a l a c t i v i t y , t h e
p i l o t r e t u r n e d t o t h e t a r g e t v e h i c l e and performed t a s k s at a s m a l l work
s t a t i o n on t h e o u t s i d e of t h e docking cone. The t a s k s were s i m i l a r t o
t h o s e i n t h e s p a c e c r a f t adapter s e c t i o n and, i n a d d i t i o n , included use
of an Apollo torque wrench. The p i l o t evaluated working with t h e use
of one or two w a i s t t e t h e r s and without a w a i s t t e t h e r . A t t h e end of
t h e scheduled EVA, t h e p i l o t r e t u r n e d t o t h e cabin and ingressed with-
out d i f f i c u l t y .

A second standup EVA w a s conducted ( f i g . 3.6-6). Again, t h i s


a c t i v i t y w a s r o u t i n e . A l l t h e o b j e c t i v e s were s a t i s f a c t o r i l y completed.

The r e s u l t s of t h e Gemini X I 1 EVA showed t h a t a l l t h e t a s k s


attempted were f e a s i b l e when body r e s t r a i n t s were used t o maintain posi-
t i o n . The r e s u l t s a l s o showed t h a t t h e EVA workload could be c o n t r o l l e d
within d e s i r e d l i m i t s by t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of proper procedures and
indoctrination. F i n a l l y , perhaps t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t w a s t h a t
t h e underwater simulation duplicated t h e a c t u a l e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i o n s
and r e a c t i o n s with a high degree of f i d e l i t y . It w a s concluded t h a t
any t a s k which could be accomplished r e a d i l y i n underwater simulation
would have a high p r o b a b i l i t y of success during t h e a c t u a l EVA.

3-26
z

3-27
.

5
n

3-28
NASA-S-67-827

Figure 3.6-3. - Gemini X I I EVA equipment.


3-29
NASA-S-67-291

r G.e.t. F I !.t.
1920 20:40

1925 . 20:45

Hatch open
19:30 -20:50
Install Experiment SO13 camera

Evaluate standup dynamics

19:35

E
20:55

19:40 - 21:oo

19:45 21:05
Retrieve EVA camera

19:50 - 21:lO
Experiment SO13 photography
- 19:55 21:15

Experiment SO13 photography


- 2o:oo - 21:20

- 20:05 . 21:25

- 20:lO -21:30

- 20:15 21:35

Install EVA camera


- 20:20 Deploy handrail - 21:40
Take down Experiment SO13 camera for grating change

t 20:25 Retrieve Experiment SO12 micrometeorite package 21:45

t 20:30

20:35
Install handbar to target vehicle docking cone

Install Experiment SO13 camera

Retrieve GLV contamination discs


- 21:50

21:55

Hatch closed
17 Day
Night
20:40 General photography - 22:oo

Figure 3.6-4. -Gemini XII first standup EVA time line.

3-30
NASA- S-67-292

r G.e.t. !. t
42:40 '

Ft
43:50
Removing cutters from pauch

Cutting wire strands and fluid hose


42:45 43:55

Loosening Saturn bolt


Hatch open. ELSS i n high flow
42:50
Standup familiarization
- 44:OO Saturn
Removed feet from foot restraints.
bolt removed
Evaluating waist tethers

44:05 Saturn bolt installed


Rest Saturn bolt tight
Evaluating hooks and rings
43:OO
Move to nose on handrail
- 44:lO Rest
Attach waist tether to handrail. Evaluate rest position Pulling Velcro strips
Hookup target vehicle tether Connecting electyical connectors

43:05 44:15 Feet in foot restraints


Tether hookup complete
Retrieve adapter camera

. 43:lO Activate Experiment SO10 on target vehicle - 44:20 Move to cockpit


Install EVA camera
Prepare TDA work station Move to TDA and hook up waist tethers
43:15 44:25
Rest

. 43:20
Observing hydrogen vent outlet
- 44:30
Disconnect and connect electrical and fluid connectors
Return to hatch area and rest
Evaluate Apollo torque wrench
Hand EVA camera to command pilot
43:25 44:35
Pick up adapter camera from command pilot
Move to adapter section Disconnect one waist tether and evaluate bolt torquing task
Position feet in fixed foot restraints
- 4 3 ~ 3 0Install adapter EVA camera - 44:40 Jettison waist tethers and handholds
Evaluate torquing task with no waist tethers
Rest and general evaluation of fixed restraints

Wiping command pilot's window


43:35 - 44:45
Return to cockpit
Unstow penlights Observing thrusters firing

- 43:40 - 44:50
Start ingress

43:45 Torquing bolthead with torque wrench - 44:55 Hatch closed

Day
and connecting eiectrica I connectors
- 4 3 5 0 Disconnecting
Rest - 45:OO
=Night

Figure 3.6-5. -Gemini XU umbilical EVA time line.

3-31
NASA- S-61-293

Day
Night G. e. t.
66:OO

. 66:05
Hatch open

- 66:lO Equipment jettisoned

. 66:15

- 66:20
Ultraviolet photography of stars

- 66:30 Exercise

66:35

- 66:40
66:45
Ultraviolet photography of sunrise

- 66:50

66:55

- 67:OO Hatch closed

67:05

0 Day
- 67:lO Night

Figure 3.6-6. - Gemini XI3 second standup EVA time line.

3-32
4.0 LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEMS FOR EXTRAVEHICULAR ACTIVITY

Larry E. Bell, Crew Systems Division


Harold J. McMann, Crew Systems Division
Elton M. Tucker, Crew Systems Division
Marshall W. Horton, Crew Systems Division
Roger N. Tanner, Crew Systems Division
Donald F. Price, Crew Systems Division
James T. Brown, Crew Systems Division
R. Norman Prince, Crew Systems Division
Willirie M. Beeson, Crew Systems Division
Fred A. Spross, Crew Systems Division
Frederick T. Burns, Gemini Program Office
4.0 LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEMS FOR EXTRAVEHICULAR ACTIVITY

4.1 EXTRAVEHICULAR SPACE SUITS

The Gemini space suit, initially designed for intravehicular use,


was successfully modified for extravehicular use. During an extrave-
hicular mission the' space suit becomes, in effect, a small, close-
fitting pressure vessel which can maintain a structurally sound pressure
environment and aid in provision of metabolic oxygen and thermal control.
Body and joint mobility are necessary to perform the assigned extrave-
hicular tasks.

The Gemini space suit was a multilayer fabric system consisting


generally of a comfort liner, a gas bladder, a structural restraint, and
an outer protective cover. To facilitate donning and doffing the suit
and associated components, quick disconnects were located at the wrists
for the glove connections, at the neck for the helmet connection, and
at the waist for ventilation gas connections. Entry to the suit was
provided through the use of a pressure-sealing zipper closure which
extended from the crotch to the back of the neck. A second zipper was
incorporated into the closure for structural redundancy. Waste manage-
ment functions were also accommodated through this closure.

A gas distribution system inside the suit directed oxygen flow to


the helmet area for metabolic use and to all areas for thermal control.

Additional equipment which was added to the space suit assembly for
extravehicular use included:

(a) Extravehicular coverlayer which provided thermal and micro-


meteoroid protection

(b) Extravehicular gloves which reduced conductive heat transfer


from the spacecraft or equipment surfaces

(c) Low-emittance coating on the exterior surface of the pressure


visor which minimized radiant heat loss

(d) Sun visor which attenuated visible, infrared, and ultraviolet


energy and provided mechanical protection for the pressure visor.
4.1.1 Gemini I V S u i t

4.1.1.1 Design.- The G4C e x t r a v e h i c u l a r space s u i t i s shown i n


f i g u r e s 4.1-1 and 4.1-2. The e x t r a v e h i c u l a r coverlayer c o n s i s t e d of an
o u t e r p r o t e c t i v e l a y e r of high-temperature-resistant (HT-1) nylon , a
l a y e r of nylon f e l t f o r micrometeoroid p r o t e c t i o n , seven l a y e r s of
aluminized Mylar and unwoven Dacron s u p e r i n s u l a t i o n , and two a d d i t i o n a l
l a y e r s of high-temperature nylon f o r micrometeoroid shock absorption.

The helmet , f o r t h i s mission only, was equipped with a detachable


e x t r a v e h i c u l a r v i s o r assembly c o n s i s t i n g of two over v i s o r s ( f i g . 4.1-3).
The o u t e r v i s o r , or sun v i s o r , w a s made from gray-tinted P l e x i g l a s and
w a s coated on t h e o u t s i d e with t h i n gold film t o reduce t h e v i s i b l e
transmittance t o 1 2 percent. The gold f i l m a l s o absorbed t h e eye-
damaging u l t r a v i o l e t l i g h t and r e f l e c t e d much of t h e s o l a r i n f r a r e d
energy. A high-emittance coating, placed over t h e gold f i l m , p r o t e c t e d
t h e gold from f l a k i n g and helped t o reduce t h e surface temperature of
t h e v i s o r when exposed t o f u l l s u n l i g h t .

The second v i s o r , f a b r i c a t e d from a polycarbonate material, w a s


used t o f u l f i l l t h e following requirements:

( a ) Thermal c o n t r o l by means of a low-emittance coating applied t o


the exterior surface

( b ) Visual p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t u l t r a v i o l e t energy through t h e use


of an u l t r a v i o l e t i n h i b i t o r i n t h e polycarbonate m a t e r i a l

(c) Impact p r o t e c t i o n f o r t h e P l e x i g l a s pressure v i s o r

For t h i s mission only, a p a i r of overgloves was provided f o r t h e r -


m a l p r o t e c t i o n . The gloves u t i l i z e d s i l a s t i c palm i n s u l a t i o n t o permit
d i r e c t palm contact with o b j e c t s at 250° or -150' F f o r a period of
2 minutes.

The e x t r a v e h i c u l a r coverlayer was made i n two p a r t s - a main p a r t


which covered t h e t o r s o and a removable j a c k e t ( f i g . 4.1-4) which
covered t h e arms and shoulders. The use of t h e removable jacket per-
m i t t e d t h e p i l o t t o f r e e himself of t h e added encumbrance of t h e cover-
l a y e r i n t h e a r e a of t h e arms and shoulders a f t e r t h e EVA w a s completed.

4.1.1.2 Development and q u a l i f i c a t i o n t e s t i n g . - The t e s t i n g f o r


t h e G4C space s u i t c o n s i s t e d of complete q u a l i f i c a t i o n of a l l new com-
ponents i n addition t o those which were previously q u a l i f i e d f o r t h e
G3C space s u i t before it was modified f o r e x t r a v e h i c u l a r use.

4- 2
4.1.1.2.1 Thermal t e s t s : Three phases of t e s t s w e r e conducted on
t h e Gemini thermal coverlayer. For more d e t a i l e d information, s e e
reference 1.

( a ) S e l e c t i o n of prototype thermal coverlayer: Screening t e s t s


of materials were conducted by t h e c o n t r a c t o r , and t h e s e l e c t e d insula-
t i n g m a t e r i a l w a s f a b r i c a t e d i n t o t h e prototype space s u i t ( f i g . 4.1-2).
The i n s u l a t e d c o v e r a l l garment w a s exposed t o environments t h a t simulated
t h e thermal-vacuum conditions of o r b i t a l space f l i g h t .

The temperature d a t a obtained i n d i c a t e d t h a t a n e t h e a t l o s s would


be observed from t h e s u i t under a l l t e s t conditions. Coverlayer temper-
a t u r e s were w i t h i n allowable l i m i t s and showed a continuous decreasing
temperature g r a d i e n t through t h e l a y e r s . The temperature range o u t s i d e
t h e f i r s t i n s u l a t i o n l a y e r w a s from -200' t o 200' F. The temperature
of t h e s u i t i n n e r l a y e r v a r i e d from 58' t o 86' F.

( b ) Evaluation of t h e production configuration coverlayer: A t t h e


space environment s i m u l a t o r , t h e c o n t r a c t o r t e s t e d a thermal dummy i n a
complete s u i t assembly. The dummy w a s capable of providing t h e s e n s i b l e
heat produced by a man. Environmental conditions simulating an e a r t h
o r b i t a l mission were obtained using a l i q u i d n i t r o g e n shroud, a bank of
mercury xenon lamps, a maximum p r e s s u r e of 10
-4
mm Hg, and a r e f l e c t i v e
aluminum p l a t e coated with a c o n t r o l l e d emittance p a i n t and l o c a t e d
opposite t h e s o l a r lamps. A s p a c e c r a f t s u r f a c e w a s simulated by a sec-
t i o n o f aluminum s t r u c t u r e which could be moved i n t o contack with t h e
s u i t e d dummy. The s u r f a c e temperature of t h e aluminum s t r u c t u r e w a s
a d j u s t a b l e . Thermocouples monitored t h e performance of t h e i n s u l a t i n g
l a y e r s as w e l l as t h e performance of t h e helmet and v i s o r .

T e s t s were conducted t o measure t h e s u i t heat l e a k i n s t e a d y - s t a t e


cold and s t e a d y - s t a t e hot conditions and under e a r t h o r b i t a l conditions.
S u i t o u t e r s u r f a c e temperature d i d not exceed 200' F or f a l l below
-200' F. Visor heat loss when f a c i n g deep space w a s 30 t o 40 Btu/hr,
while v i s o r heat g a i n under d i r e c t s o l a r r a d i a t i o n w a s 40 t o 50 Btu/hr.
Contact with t h e s p a c e c r a f t s u r f a c e a t 1-80' F d i d not produce unaccept-
a b l e hot s p o t s on t h e i n t e r i o r s u r f a c e s of t h e s u i t .

( c ) Evaluation of t h e f l i g h t - c o n f i g u r e d s u i t assembly: The con-


t r a c t o r conducted d e t a i l e d q u a l i f i c a t i o n t e s t s of t h e flight-configured
s u i t t o determine: s u i t temperature p r o f i l e s , i n t e r n a l s u i t tempera-
t u r e s , evidence of heat s h o r t s , n e t s u i t h e a t gain o r l o s s (as a f u n c t i o n
of t h e environmental h e a t load and p o s i t i o n ) , n e t h e a t gain or l o s s
through t h e p r e s s u r e v i s o r , t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h e sun v i s o r , t h e
e f f e c t s of s u i t c o n t a c t with s p a c e c r a f t s u r f a c e s , and t h e f e a s i b i l i t y of
wearing t h e i n t r a v e h i c u l a r s u i t i n s i d e t h e s p a c e c r a f t with one hatch
open. Representative results are shown i n t a b l e 4.1-1. The n e t h e a t

4-3
loss ranged from 34.2 Btu/hr under maximum s o l a r h e a t i n g conditions
(80.4 Btu/hr with t h e sun v i s o r down) t o 354 Btu/hr during a cold soak
with t h e sun v i s o r up. These d a t a i n d i c a t e d t h a t a comfortable tempera-
t u r e would be maintained i n a l l areas i n s i d e t h e s u i t during o r b i t a l
conditions.

4.1.1.2.2 Extravehicular glove thermal C,esting: The pressure glove


and t h e e x t r a v e h i c u l a r thermal overglove were subjected t o manned thermal
t e s t s at temperatures of 250' and -150' F f o r periods up t o 2 minutes.
The s u b j e c t w a s able t o maintain h i s g r i p f o r 2 minutes with a thermal
rod a t temperatures which exceeded t h e s p e c i f i e d extremes.

4.1.1.2.3 Micrometeoroid p r o t e c t i o n : Micrometeoroid environment


t e s t i n g was based on an a n t i c i p a t e d i n i t i a l e x t r a v e h i c u l a r mission
including 1 0 minutes of exposures t o t h e e x t e r n a l space environment. To
avoid mission timing c o n s t r a i n t s , exposure w a s assumed t o occur during
t h e worst shower period.

( a ) Micrometeoroid t e s t s of coverlayer: The meteoroid p r o t e c t i v e


coverlayer design used on t h e Gemini I V mission w a s proof t e s t e d with
simulated meteoroids. The Gemini G 4 C s u i t configuration w a s q u a l i f i e d
t o provide a 0.999 p r o b a b i l i t y of no p e n e t r a t i o n of t h e bladder.
Po
With t h e system pressurized t o 3.7 p s i g , samples o f 4- by 4-inch swatches
of t h e meteoroid coverlayer on t h e bladder were impacted with simulated
meteoroids. Since t h e s e p r o j e c t i l e s approximate t h e meteoroidal energy
t h a t i s absorbed by t h e coverlayer, a corresponding P f o r a 10-minute
0
exposure w a s determined. The exposure w a s for a near e a r t h o r b i t and
2
25 f t of s u r f a c e area on t h e space s u i t . The composition and d e n s i t y
of t h e p r o j e c t i l e s are l i s t e d i n t h e following t a b l e :

Velocity
Density Diameter
Composit ion range, P
gm/cc 1.1 km/sec
0

Cork and epoxy 0.53 300 24 t o 27 0 99988


Pyrex g l a s s 2.2 350 5 t o 6.5 * 99959
Pyrex g l a s s 2.2 400 5 t o 6.5 .99977
Boro s i l i c a t e 2.4 510 5 t o 6.5 99991

4- 4
A pyrex g l a s s sphere 274 microns i n diameter at a v e l o c i t y of
6 km/sec approximates t h e energy necessary t o o b t a i n a P of 0.999 f o r
0
a 10-minute exposure. Acceleration of a p a r t i c l e t h i s s m a l l i s beyond
t h e c a p a b i l i t y of t h e l i g h t gas gun, and l a r g e r p r o j e c t i l e s were used.
These t e s t s were conducted with t h e AVCO RAD l i g h t gas gun, t h e Rhodes
and Bloxsom exploding f o i l gun, and t h e MSC meteoroid technology l i g h t
gas gun. Based on t h e s e s t u d i e s , t h e G4C s u i t w a s determined t o be
adequate f o r t h e Gemini I V mission.

( b ) Micrometeoroid t e s t s of v i s o r m a t e r i a l : Samples of lexan and


merlon polycarbonate v i s o r m a t e r i a l were p r e s s u r i z e d t o 3.7 p s i g and
impacted with g l a s s spheres a c c e l e r a t e d t o hypervelocity with t h e AVCO
RAD l i g h t gas gun. The p r o j e c t i l e impact energy w a s p r o g r e s s i v e l y
increased, u n t i l t h e sample w a s p e r f o r a t e d or a l e a k occurred. An exam-
i n a t i o n of t h e t a r g e t s revealed t h a t t h e 0.098-inch-thick merlon and
lexan withstood t h e impact of a 0.0156-inch g l a s s sphere a t a v e l o c i t y
of 6 km/sec without spa11 or leakage. This p r o j e c t i l e energy, when
e x t r a p o l a t e d t o meteoroidal v e l o c i t y and d e n s i t y , corresponded t o a
P of 0.99993 f o r 135-minute exposure.
0

4.1.1.2.4 Rapid decompression: The parameters of s u i t and cabin


pressure were monitored and recorded through a series of s i x r a p i d
decompression t e s t s . The chamber p r e s s u r e , when s t a b i l i z e d a t
5.5 * 0.5 p s i a , w a s reduced t o maximum a l t i t u d e i n 0.25 second. This
r a p i d p r e s s u r e reduction exerted t h e maximum dynamic p r e s s u r e
d i f f e r e n t i a l a c r o s s t h e s u i t r e s t r a i n t l a y e r and caused a maximum stress
condition upon t h e s u i t s t r u c t u r e . The s u i t p r e s s u r e decreased from
5.6 * 0 . 1 p s i a t o 3.75 p s i a ( f i g . 4.1-5). S u i t l e a k r a t e checks, per-
formed before and immediately a f t e r each decompression, were below t h e
s p e c i f i c a t i o n leakage l i m i t of 1000 Scc/min.

4.1.1.2.5 Other q u a l i f i c a t i o n t e s t i n g :

( a ) Visor t e s t s : The P l e x i g l a s pressure s e a l i n g v i s o r , t h e impact


v i s o r , and t h e sun v i s o r were t e s t e d and accepted f o r s o l a r u l t r a v i o l e t ,
i n f r a r e d , and v i s i b l e region t r a n s m i t t a n c e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The impact
v i s o r t e s t s were a l s o s a t i s f a c t o r i l y mmpleted.

( b ) Mechanical and p r e s s u r e cycling t e s t s : Space s u i t hardware


items were q u a l i f i e d f o r e x t r a v e h i c u l a r missions t o s p e c i f i c a t i o n s f o r

4-5
previous Gemini spacecraft testing programs. Qualification requirements
for suit component cycling are presented in the following table.

Components Number of cycles

Neck disconnect 500


Wrist disconnect 500
Helmet visor 2000
Entrance zipper 500
Inlet and outlet ventilations 500
Complete Gemini space suit 75
don and doff
Pressure cycle, complete 500
space suit assembly , manned
Wrist flexure 500

The G4C configuration gloves were withdrawn from the test because of e: 1-Y
failures and because the intravehicular gloves with protective overgloves
were used for the Gemini IV mission. There were no malfunctions or
failures of the t o r s o , neck disconnects, wrist disconnects, ventilation
inlet and exhaust, and pressure-sealing closures. During the cycle
testing equivalent to ten 14-day missions, the leakage increased from
200 to 820 Scc/min. A maximum leakage of 1000 Scc/min was allowable dur-
ing qualification.

Fabrication of the G4C helmet was completed late in the qualification


testing program and was tested separately. Helmet leakage was undetect-
able at 3.7 psig throughout the 2000-cycle test.

4.1.1.3 Mission results.- During the Gemini IV EVA mission, the


space suits functioned normally. The mission confirmed the following:

(a) The adequacy of the micrometeoroid and thermal coverlayers

(b) The acceptability of the visible-light attenuation of the sun


visor and the need for this visual protection

(e) The adequacy of the visor thermal coating

(d) The adequacy of the structural concepts of the G4C space suit

4-6
(e) The acceptability of suit mobility for spacecraft egress and
ingress, although a high work level at ingress was required to operate
the hatch mechanism

(f) The need for reduced coverlayer bulk to improve unpressurized


suit mobility and pilot comfort

4.1.2 Gemini VI11 Suit

4.1.2.1 Design.- The G4C space suit assembly used in the Gem-
ini VI11 mission was similar to the one used in the Gemini IV mission
(fig. 4.1-2). However, the configuration of the micrometeoroid protec-
tive layers of the extravehicular coverlayer was modified to utilize
two layers of neoprene-coated nylon in lieu of the nylon felt and
6-ounce HT-1 nylon micrometeoroid layers (fig. 4.1-6). Also, the extra-
vehicular pilot used integrated pressure thermal gloves (fig. 4.1-7), in
lieu of the pressure gloves and overgloves used for Gemini IV. The gloves
were designed to protect the hands from micrometeoroids and to prevent
conductive heat transfer through the glove palms caused from touching sur-
faces with temperatures ranging from 250' to -150' F. Structurally and
functionally, the gloves were similar to the standard intravehicular pres-
sure gloves with a pressure bladder, a restraint layer, and a wrist con-
nector. A 1/8-inch-thickY flexible, insulating, silastic material was
provided on the palm side of the glove for conduction insulation. Micro-
meteoroid protection was through additional layers of fabric used in the
layup of the glove.

For intravehicular spacecraft operations, the pilot utilized stand-


ard intravehicular gloves of the same design as the command pilot's.

4.1.2.2 Development and qualification testing.- The new coverlayer


material (fig. 4.1-6) and the integrated pressure thermal gloves
(fig. 4.1-7) were tested to the original specifications (see sec-
tion 4.1.1.2), except a maximum time of 90 seconds was used for thermal
exposure testing. These modifications exceeded qualification specifi-
cations. The micrometeoroid testing of the new coverlayer material
demonstrated a Po of 0.999 for worst-case conditions.

4.1.2.3 Mission results.- The extravehicular space suit components


were not used for EVA because of early termination of the mission.

The reduced coverlayer bulk resulting from the change in micro-


meteoroid protective materials improved the unpressurized suit mobility
for the intravehicular operations.

4-7
4.1.3 Gemini IX-A Suit

4.1.3.1 Design.- The addition of the Astronaut Maneuvering Unit


(AMU) to the flight plan for Gemini IX-A required extensive modifications
to the coverlayer of the G4C space suit. The lower forward-firing and
downward-firing AMU thrusters impinged upon the legs of the suit
(fig. 4.1-8). Temperatures as high as 1300° F were possible at the AMU
thruster impingement areas on the suit surface. Since the HT-1 high-
temperature nylon, which is normally used for the coverlayer, is not
recommended for continuous use at temperatures above 500° F, new suit
materials were required. A stainless steel fabric was incorporated into
the legs of the suit coverlayer to protect it from the heat generated by
AMU thruster impingement. Analysis and testing also indicated that the
temperatures inside the thermal insulation layers of the coverlayer would
exceed the melting temperature of the aluminized Mylar. Aluminized
H-film was developed and found to be adequate for the temperatures
expected and, when separated by layers of fiberglas cloth, worked well
as a high-temperature thermal insulation. Eleven layers each of alumi-
nized H-film and fiberglas cloth were incorporated into the legs to pro-
vide thermal protection during AMU operations. A standard extravehicular
coverlayer layup was utilized for the upper torso and the steel outer
cover with aluminized H-film and fiberglas cloth was used as thermal
insulation for the legs (fig. 4.1-9).

The pressure-sealing visor for the Gemini IX-A mission was fabri-
cated from polycarbonate material, since it provided approximately
10 times more resistance to impact loading than Plexiglas. The use of
the polycarbonate pressure-sealing visor eliminated the need for the
impact visor of the sun visor assembly. The protective visor was deleted,
and the mounting hardware was redesigned to accommodate a single, gold-
coated Plexiglas visor for visible and infrared energy attenuation.

4.1.3.2 Development and qualification testing .-


(a) The test program demonstrated the capability of the space suit
coverlayer to adequately protect the suit structural system from damage
caused from the high-temperature plume impingement of the AMU thrusters.
However, additional positive protection was required in the area of the
hands during thruster firings. Hand protection was provided through the
use of two plume deflection shields attached to the AMU controller arms.
Therefore, pressure thermal gloves similar to those provided for the
Gemini VI11 mission could be used.

(b) The test program, used to qualify the polycarbonate materials


for use in the Gemini IX-A helmet, consisted of toxicology, oxygen and

4-8
humidity compatibility, mechanical cycling, and impact testing. A l l
qualification specifications were met, including a 25.8 ft/lb impact
visor test.

For detailed information concerning extravehicular environment


testing of the AMU coverlayer see references 2, 3, and 4.

4.1.3.3 Mission results.- A s discussed in section 4.2.2.5.2, the


pilot experienced severe fogging of his space suit pressure visor after
a period of particularly high workload associated with AMU preparations.
A s a result of the fogging, the AMU activities were discontinued; the
modified coverlayer could not be evaluated because the AMU thrusters
were not fired. In a postflight test of the Gemini IX-A pilot's space
suit and of ELSS in an altitude chamber, visor fogging occurred at a sus-
tained workload of 2450 Btu/hr. It was concluded that the high inflight
workload and the high respiration rate exceeded the combined capabilities
of the ELSS and the space suit ventilation system. The results indicated
that the dew point in the helmet rose above the visor temperature because
of the excessive moisture introduced through perspiration and respira-
tion. The principal corrective actions planned were reduction of work-
load and provision of antifog solution for use immediately before EVA.
The antifog solution had been applied before the Gemini I V mission, and
was not applied for the Gemini IX-A mission, because the solution was
only effective for about 12 hours.

During the first daylight period of the Gemini IX-A EVA mission,
the pilot reported that the sun caused a "hot spot" on his back which
subsided after sunset. The postflight review of the coverlayer thermal
insulation revealed that it had separated along the attachment to the
entrance closure. The areas where the insulation had separated were the
same as those described by the pilot as "hot spots" when the back of the
suit was oriented toward the sun. The problem was determined to be the
result of an improper repair made to the coverlayer after preflight
training period and immediately prior to flight.

A review of the other portions of the suit and of associated compo-


nents indicated that the general performance of the suit during EVA was
satisfactory and that the suit was structurally sound.

4.1.4 Gemini X Suit

4.1.4.1 Design.- The Gemini X extravehicular space suit configura-


tion was very similar to that of the Gemini V I 1 1 suit. The following
changes were made:

(a> The polycarbonate pressure-sealing visor of the Gemini IX-A


configuration was used.

4-9
( b ) The single-lens sun v i s o r w a s modified t o allow attachment of
t h e v i s o r t o t h e helmet using Velcro i n s t e a d of metal p i v o t s .

(c) The arms and l e g s of t h e underwear w e r e removed a t t h e t o r s o


seams.

( d ) The f i n g e r t i p l i g h t s incorporated on t h e e x t r a v e h i c u l a r pres-


sure thermal gloves u t i l i z e d a red-colored l e n s t o avoid damage t o photo-
graphic film during a dark-side photographic experiment.

( e ) Visor a n t i f o g k i t s , c o n s i s t i n g of wet wipes s a t u r a t e d with a


v i s o r a n t i f o g and cleaning s o l u t i o n , w e r e c a r r i e d f o r i n f l i g h t use by
both crewmen during EVA p r e p a r a t i o n s .

4.1.4.2 Mission r e s u l t s . - A l l real-time and p o s t f l i g h t d a t a r e l a -


t i v e t o t h e space s u i t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t both s u i t s were s a t i s f a c t o r y .

The e x t r a v e h i c u l a r sun v i s o r provided f o r t h e p i l o t , worn during


t h e launch and EVA p r e p a r a t i o n phases of t h e mission, w a s severely
damaged. Approximately 40 percent of t h e gold coating f l a k e d o f f . The
damage was apparently due t o contact of t h e unprotected v i s o r s u r f a c e
with t h e s p a c e c r a f t hatch or with o t h e r items i n s i d e t h e s p a c e c r a f t .

The p o s t f l i g h t inspection of t h e space s u i t u t i l i z e d by t h e p i l o t


i n d i c a t e d t h e s u i t w a s s t r u c t u r a l l y sound; however, two discrepancies
were found, e i t h e r of which would have caused excessive s u i t leakage a t
3.7 p s i g .
( a ) Inspection of t h e s u i t r e l i e f valve, a f t e r excessive suit
assembly leakage w a s noted, revealed t h a t t h e r e l i e f valve w a s retained
i n t h e cracked p o s i t i o n with a s m a l l piece of elastomer. Upon removal
of t h e contaminant, t h e valve performed within s p e c i f i c a t i o n . Source
of t h e contaminant was not confirmed.

The p o s t f l i g h t d e b r i e f i n g s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e p i l o t d i d not n o t i c e
t h e valve leaking while i n f l i g h t . For subsequent missions, prelaunch
s u i t leakage checks were accomplished a f t e r t h e r e l i e f valve performance
had been checked.

( b ) The p o s t f l i g h t leakage t e s t s of t h e s u i t a l s o revealed exces-


s i v e leakage through t h e helmet neck r i n g . It w a s noted t h a t t h e epoxy
bond, which a t t a c h e d a Teflon bearing and wiper s u r f a c e t o t h e neck r i n g ,
w a s opened a t t h e back c e n t e r of t h e r i n g . This condition appeared t o be
t h e result of p o s t f l i g h t handling damage or of i n f l i g h t i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h
t h e e j e c t i o n seat.

4-10
4.1.5 Gemini XI Suit
4.1.5.1 Design.- The Gemini XI space suit configuration was the
same design as Gemini X, with the following exceptions:

(a) The suit incorporated additional redundant locks on the wrist


disconnects, neck ring, Iznd pressure-sealing zipper. The locking tabs
on the suit gas connectors were reduced in size, and locking tab guards
were provided to minimize the possibility of inadvertent operation.

(b) A desiccant assembly was added to the suit pressure gage to


keep it from fogging during EVA.

4.1.5.2 Mission results.- All comments relative to the space suits


indicated that both suits were satisfactory during the lntravehicular and
extravehicular portions of the mission.

The pilot's extravehicular sun visor was cracked at postflight


inspection. After the mission, the crew indicated that the pilot had
experienced considerable difficulty when installing the sun visor on
the helmet with the suit pressurized to 3.7 psig. It is believed that
the visor damage occurred during this installation attempt; however, the
damage was not noticed by the crew and did not affect pilot vision dur-
ing EVA.

4.1.6 Gemini XI1 Suit


4.1.6.1 Design.- The Gemini XI1 space suit used by the pilot was
a slightly modified version of the one used for the Gemini IX-A mission.
The stainless steel fabric on the legs was replaced with high-temperature
nylon, and four layers of the aluminized H-film and fiberglas cloth
superinsulation were deleted from the suit legs. The coverlayer thermal
layup was quilted to the first layer of micrometeoroid protective mate-
rial. A rectangular pattern was quilted over the torso area, which
strengthened the thermal layer and reduced the possibility of tears or
rips in the aluminized H-film and aluminized Mylar layers.

The space suit hose nozzle interconnects utilized a clip-on locking


clamp for redundant locking of the interconnect latching tabs.

4.1.6.2 Mission results.- All real-time and postflight reports


indicated that both suits functioned satisfactorily during all phases of
the mission.

4-11
4.1.7 S u i t Mobility

4.1.7.1 Limitations.- The r e s t r i c t e d mobility of t h e Gemini space


s u i t w a s a l i m i t i n g f a c t o r i n t h e accomplishment of e x t r a v e h i c u l a r t a s k s .
The e f f e c t of t h i s mobility r e s t r i c t i o n w a s not f u l l y appreciated u n t i l
after t h e Gemini IX-A mission. The link-net construction of t h e r e s t r a i n t
l a y e r provided a s i n g l e n e u t r a l p o s i t i o n of t h e pressurized s u i t . Since
t h e a b i l i t y t o c o n t r o l t h e s p a c e c r a f t i n a p r e s s u r i z e d s u i t w a s one of
t h e design p r e r e q u i s i t e s , t h e n e u t r a l p o i n t of t h e s u i t w a s i n a s i t t i n g
p o s i t i o n . The arms of t h e s u i t were positioned f o r optimum access t o t h e
Gemini f l i g h t c o n t r o l s . Whenever a crewmember moved w i t h i n t h e pressur-
i z e d s u i t , he had t o overcome t h e f o r c e s tending t o r e t u r n t h e s u i t t o
i t s n e u t r a l p o s i t i o n . These f o r c e s were p a r t i c u l a r i l y l a r g e when t h e arms
were r a i s e d above t h e shoulder l e v e l . S i g n i f i c a n t f o r c e s were involved
i n j u s t holding t h e hands t o g e t h e r . Although a well-trained crewman could
move about i n t h e s u i t r e a d i l y , considerable efforf, w a s r e q u i r e d which was
f a t i g u i n g . Fatigue w a s p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t when a p o s i t i o n away from
t h e n e u t r a l p o s i t i o n w a s h e l d f o r some t i m e . Therefore, work t a s k s which
could not be accomplished with t h e s u i t i n t h e n e u t r a l p o s i t i o n were for-
midable. I n g e n e r a l , t h e EVA p i l o t could not do s u s t a i n e d work below t h e
waist l e v e l or above t h e shoulder l e v e l .

4.1.7.2 A r m and l e g mobility.- The major s u i t mobility l i m i t a t i o n


was i n t h e areas of t h e arms and t h e shoulders, p a r t i c u l a r l y when work
w a s attempted with t h e EVA p i l o t ' s a r m s above t h e shoulder l e v e l . The l e g
mobility was s u b s t a n t i a l l y less than t h e a r m mobility; however, t h e use of
t h e l e g s i n e a r t h o r b i t EVA w a s very l i m i t e d , and l e g mobility w a s not a
s i g n i f i c a n t l i m i t a t i o n . For nearly a l l t a s k s , t h e arm mobility r e s t r i c t i o n
was t h e p r i n c i p a l f a c t o r i n t h e t o t a l workload. When an EVA p i l o t moved
along a h a n d r a i l , he moved h i s hands i n f r o n t of him with a side-to-side
motion r a t h e r t h a n a hand-over-hand motion, because of t h e r e s t r i c t e d a r m
mobility.

For t h e Gemini IX-A mission, t h e n e u t r a l p o s i t i o n of t h e a r m s on t h e


p i l o t ' s space s u i t w a s adjusted t o be compatible with t h e l o c a t i o n of t h e
AMU c o n t r o l s . This change w a s r e a d i l y accomplished, and t h e e f f o r t re-
quired t o operate t h e AMU was . s i g n i f i c a n t l y reduced.

4.1.7.3 Glove mobility.- The e x t r a v e h i c u l a r glove developed f o r t h e


Gemini V I 1 1 and subsequent missions was b a s i c a l l y an i n t r a v e h i c u l a r glove-
with i n t e g r a l thermal -and micrometeoroid p r o t e c t i o n added. The glove
mobility w a s s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r b r i e f periods of p r e s s u r i z e d operation;
however, f o r long-term p r e s s u r i z e d a c t i v i t y using t h e gloves, t h e p i l o t ' s
hands became very t i r e d . I n t h e Gemini X mission, t h e EVA p i l o t used a
spring-loaded camera s h u t t e r - r e l e a s e cable. H i s hands were not s t r o n g
enough t o hold t h e s h u t t e r - r e l e a s e cable with one hand f o r a 2-minute
time exposure a g a i n s t t h e forces of t h e gloves, and t h e exposures were2
made using both hands.

4-12
4.1.7.4 Coverlayer e f f e c t s . - The i n i t i a l EVA coverlayer f o r t h e
Gemini I V mission incorporated s e v e r a l l a y e r s of HT-1 nylon and a l a y e r
of b a l l i s t i c f e l t f o r meteoroid p r o t e c t i o n . The bulk of t h i s coverlayer
r e s t r i c t e d p i l o t mobility, even with t h e s u i t unpressUTized i n t h e cabin.
For Gemini VI11 mission, t h e coverlayer w a s redesigned t o r e p l a c e t h e
f e l t l a y e r with a layer of coated nylon. Mobility w a s d e f i n i t e l y im-
proved by t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n of t h e new coverla2rer.

4.1.7.5 Pressure e f f e c t s . - The p r e s s u r e i n t h e s u i t a l s o a f f e c t e d


mobility. An increase i n t h e s u i t p r e s s u r e from t h e nominal 3.7 p s i a t o
4.2 p s i a , a s experienced i n Gemini I V EVA, made a l l movements proportion-
a t e l y more d i f f i c u l t . This f a c t o r contributed t o t h e high work l e v e l
experienced a t i n g r e s s during t h e Gemini I V EVA.

4.1.7.6 S u i t mobility improvement.- For low workload i n f u t u r e


e a r t h o r b i t EVA, an improvement i n mobility i n t h e space s u i t arms, shoul-
ders, and waist i s highly d e s i r a b l e . New concepts of entry closures and
w a i s t mobility improvements w i l l be required t o provide adequate mobility
and freedom of movement. Improved glove m o b i l i t y , d e x t e r i t y , and t a c t i l i t y
a r e a l s o highly d e s i r a b l e . F i n a l l y , t h e v a r i a t i o n i n s u i t mobility with
s u i t pressure i s undesirable and should be eliminated from f u t u r e designs
i f possible.

4-13
TABLE 4.1-1.- COMPUTED G4C SUIT NET HEAT LEAKAGE RATES

T e s t system conditions
~ ~~~
Heat leakage
out of s u i t ,
Dummy a t
Thermal condition Visor Suit position Btu/hr
98.6' F

Cold soak No Bare 243

Cold soak Yes Bare 354

Simulated o r b i t Yes Bare -- 195


Heat soak Yes Bare Facing s o l a r 34.2

Heat soak Yes Bare Back t o s o l a r 91.3

Heat soak Yes Insulated Facing s o l a r 77.2

Heat soak Yes Insulated Back t o s o l a r 95.2

Heat soak Yes With sun Facing s o l a r 80.4


visor

Simulated o r b i t Yes With sun Suspended 123


visor

Simulated o r b i t Yes With sun Kneeling on cold a350


visor surface

Simulated o r b i t Yes With sun Prone on cold a338


v i s or surface
a
Simulated o r b i t Yes With sun Kneeling on hot 307
visor surface

Simulated o r b i t Yes With sun Prone on hot "265


v i s or surface

Hatch open Yes Bare Facing deep space, "403


intravehicular
s u i t only

aT e s t values a t 1 hour, systems not s t a b i l i z e d .

4-14
NASA-S-67-2 96

Figure 4.1-1 - Gemini lp extravehicular space suit


and life support system.

4-15
NASA-S-67-843

ar

'er

Figure 4.1-2 .- Gemini G4C extravehicular space suit.

4-16
Et,
S

.-
.-
8

I
e

Tt
m

a
z

4-17
4-18
NASA- 5-67-826

6.0

5.5

5.0

4.5

4 .O

3.5

m
*i;i 3.0
Q

2.5

2 .o

1.5

1.0
Cabin pressure
0.5
f
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Time, seconds

Figure 4.1-5. - Explosive decompression test.


e
.-
c
0
V
S
L
c
v)

I=
0
V
I
W
-3
L
W
>
s
L
-
m
3

4-20
4-21
NASA= S-6 7-2 9 9

Figure 4 .l-8. - Gemini IX-A extravehicular space suit


and Astronaut Maneuvering Unit.

4-22
NASA-S-67-270

HT-1 nylon outer


protective layer

Figure 4.1-9.- Gemini IX-A extravehicular space suit construction.

4-23
4.2 LIFE SUPPORT PACKAGES

The l i f e support packages used during t h e Gemini Program r e p r e s e n t


t h e design, development, q u a l i f i c a t i o n , and f i r s t a p p l i c a t i o n of e x t r a -
v e h i c u l a r l i f e support systems i n t h e United S t a t e s Space Program.
These systems c o n s i s t e d of two b a s i c types of p o r t a b l e environmental
c o n t r o l u n i t s : t h e Gemini I V V e n t i l a t i o n Control Module (VCM) system
which w a s an open-loop system, and t h e semi-open-loop Extravehicular
L i f e Support System (ELSS), which w a s used on t h e Gemini IX-A through
Gemini X I 1 missions.

The Extravehicular Support Package (ESP) and Astronaut Maneuvering


Unit (AMU) were designed t o provide t h e e x t r a v e h i c u l a r crewman with a
s e p a r a t e oxygen supply f o r operation independent of t h e s p a c e c r a f t . The
ESP contained s u f f i c i e n t oxygen f o r approximately 82 minutes of o p e r a t i o n .
The AMU contained an oxygen supply s u f f i c i e n t f o r 60 minutes of o p e r a t i o n .
(The information i n t h i s s e c t i o n i s l i m i t e d t o t h e VCM, t h e ELSS, and
t h e ESP. Information p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e AMU i s included i n s e c t i o n 6 . 2 . )

4.2.1 V e n t i l a t i o n Control Module System

The VCM system included t h e VCM, a 25-foot u m b i l i c a l , a p a i r of


m u l t i p l e gas connectors, and two r e s t r a i n t s t r a p s . I n t h i s system,
oxygen w a s s u p p l i e d t o t h e s u i t i n l e t f i t t i n g by an u m b i l i c a l from t h e
Gemini s p a c e c r a f t . This oxygen flow cooled t h e i n t e r i o r of t h e space
s u i t and purged carbon dioxide from t h e helmet a r e a .

S u i t p r e s s u r e w a s c o n t r o l l e d by a back-pressure c o n t r o l l o c a t e d
at t h e s u i t o u t l e t p o r t . The VCM contained a 9-minute emergency oxygen
supply t h a t w a s ducted d i r e c t l y t o t h e helmet t o a s s u r e adequate oxygen
f o r t h e e x t r a v e h i c u l a r crewman i n t h e event of l o s s of h i s normal umbil-
i c a l oxygen supply.

4.2.1.1 V e n t i l a t i o n Control Module. - During normal o p e r a t i o n , t h e


VCM c o n t r o l l e d t h e s u i t p r e s s u r e with oxygen s u p p l i e d from t h e space-
c r a f t . Emergency oxygen w a s a l s o provided through a probe i n s e r t e d i n
t h e helmet f e e d p o r t t o t h e oro-nasal area from a self-contained b o t t l e .
The emergency oxygen allowed o p e r a t i o n independent of t h e s p a c e c r a f t by
supplying t h e minimum oxygen flow necessary f o r emergency o p e r a t i o n .
The VCM w a s mounted on t h e chest of t h e EVA crewman with connections t o
t h e o u t l e t f i t t i n g and t o t h e feed p o r t of t h e s u i t . Two r e s t r a i n t s t r a p s
were snapped around t h e parachute harness and a t t a c h e d by Velcro t o t h e
f r o n t of t h e VCM.

4-24
An Environmental Control System (ECS) demand r e g u l a t o r and pressure
r e l i e f valve maintained s u i t p r e s s u r e i n t h e r e l i e f mode during normal
operation. The demand r e g u l a t o r p o r t i o n maintained s u i t pressure a f t e r
t h e primary oxygen flow w a s stopped and u n t i l emergency oxygen flow t o
t h e feed p o r t probe w a s manually i n i t i a t e d . S u i t p r e s s u r e w a s maintained
a t 3.9 * 0 . 3 p s i a with a normal flow of 9.0 l b / h r and an emergency flow
of 2.0 l b / h r . The VCM weighed about 7.75 pounds and w a s 13.4 by 5.75
by 3.25 inches. A schematic of t h e VCM system and a photograph of t h e
VCM are shown i n f i g u r e s 4.2-1 and 4.2-2.

4.2.1.1.1 Major f u n c t i o n a l components: All major f u n c t i o n a l com-


ponents of t h e VCM had previously been q u a l i f i e d f o r use i n t h e Gemini
s p a c e c r a f t ECS.

( a ) Demand r e g u l a t o r and pressure r e l i e f valve: The demand regu-


l a t o r and pressure r e l i e f valve maintained s u i t pressure a t 3.9 f

0.3 p s i a . The valve was a l s o designed t o provide a l i m i t e d flow of make-


up oxygen i n case of l o s s of t h e primary oxygen supply from t h e space-
c r a f t and b e f o r e manual i n i t i a t i o n of emergency flow t o t h e helmet. The
flow through t h e demand p o r t i o n w a s l i m i t e d t o a maximum r a t e of
0.22 lb/min. This component w a s proven, through a d d i t i o n a l t e s t i n g , t o
be q u a l i f i e d f o r operation i n t h e re l i ef mode by allowing s a t u r a t e d oxy-
gen t o flow with no i c i n g of t h e r e l i e f p o r t s .

( b ) Emergency oxygen b o t t l e ( e a r l y Gemini egress oxygen system) :


The b o t t l e w a s uprated t o a working pressure of 4000 p s i g from t h e de-
s i g n p o i n t of 3400 p s i g and had a capacity of 0.34 pound. All b o t t l e s
were proof t e s t e d t o 6400 p s i g , or 1.6 times operating pressure.

( c ) Oxygen p r e s s u r e r e g u l a t o r (Gemini ECS secondary oxygen system


r e g u l a t o r ) : This component r e g u l a t e d emergency oxygen flow a t a nominal
110 p s i g with a flow c a p a b i l i t y of 0.35 lb/min.

( d ) Oxygen s h u t o f f valve (Gemini ECS secondary oxygen system shut-


o f f v a l v e ) : This valve w a s used t o i n i t i a t e VCM emergency oxygen flow
t o t h e helmet.

( e ) Pressure gage (Gemini egress o q g e n system): The gage w a s


used t o i n d i c a t e emergency oxygen p r e s s u r e of 0 t o 4000 p s i g . The sense
l i n e w a s shortened and bent t o a new configuration f o r use i n t h e VCM.

( f ) Ehergency oxygen s h u t o f f valve (Gemini ECS primary oxygen sys-


t e m s h u t o f f v a l v e ) : This valve w a s used i n t h e VCM t o a c t i v a t e t h e
emergency oxygen system during EVA preparations. The valve w a s modified
t o remove t h e d e t e n t t h a t locked it i n t h e open p o s i t i o n s o t h a t emer-
gency oxygen flow could be b r i e f l y i n i t i a t e d during i n f l i g h t checkout
procedures.

4-25
( g ) Umbilical check Valve: A Gemini ECS primary oxygen system
check valve w a s used t o prevent s u i t d e p r e s s u r i z a t i o n i n t h e event of
u m b i l i c a l damage or f a i l u r e .

( h ) Emergency oxygen hose: This hose w a s used t o duct emergency


oxygen from t h e VCM t o t h e f e e d p o r t probe. The c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h e
hose w a s s i m i l a r t o t h a t i n t h e u m b i l i c a l assembly. Its major q u a l i f i -
c a t i o n w a s by s i m i l a r i t y , although it w a s subjected t o a d d i t i o n a l f l e x i n g
t e s t s a f t e r cold-soaking a t -60" F.

4.2.1.1.2 New components:

( a ) F i l t e r : A 17-micron absolute f i l t e r w a s l o c a t e d upstream of


t h e emergency flow c o n t r o l o r i f i c e .

( b ) F i l l valve: An MS-28889 valve r a t e d a t 5000 p s i g w a s used


as t h e f i l l valve. The leakage r a t e w a s determined t o be zero. The
s e a l s were changed t o oxygen-compatible m a t e r i a l s .

( c ) Feed p o r t probe: This component w a s designed and f a b r i c a t e d


a t t h e Manned Spacecraft Center.

( a ) S t r u c t u r e and connecting l i n e s : These components were a l s o


designed and f a b r i c a t e d a t t h e Manned Spacecraft Center.

4.2.1.2 Umbilical assembly.- The u m b i l i c a l provided t h e e x t r a -


v e h i c u l a r crewman with oxygen, a s t r u c t u r a l t e t h e r t o t h e s p a c e c r a f t ,
and e l e c t r i c a l connections f o r voice communications and instrumentation.
The umbilical supplied a nominal 9.0 l b / h r oxygen flow t o t h e s u i t i n -
l e t a t approximately 50" F. An o r i f i c e , incorporated i n t h e quick d i s -
connect a t t h e s p a c e c r a f t end of t h e u m b i l i c a l , l i m i t e d t h e maximum
flow t o approximately 10.2 l b / h r . The umbilical-to-suit i n l e t f i t t i n g
w a s provided with a check valve t o s e a l t h e s u i t i n l e t p o r t i f t h e
primary oxygen supply pressure decayed below t h e s u i t p r e s s u r e . The
s t r u c t u r a l t e t h e r w a s capable of maintaining mechanical i n t e g r i t y up
t o a m a x i m u m t e n s i l e load of 1000 pounds, and a l l functions would have
been maintained a t a loading of 373 pounds. The assembly w a s 25 f e e t
long and w a s wrapped with a m e t a l l i c gold f i n i s h t a p e f o r s p e c i f i c
emissive c o n t r o l of thermal r a d i a t i o n . Detailed information p e r t a i n i n g
t o umbilicals i s presented i n s e c t i o n 4.3.

4.2.1.3 Development and q u a l i f i c a t i o n . -

4.2.1.3.1 Development t e s t i n g : The i n i t i a l VCM system w a s de-


signed t o provide normal s u i t v e n t i l a t i o n with emergency oxygen t o be
supplied automatically t o t h e helmet area i f umbilical flow f a i l e d .
Unmanned development t e s t i n g of t h i s u n i t revealed t h a t t h e s u i t w a s

4-26
maintained a t only 3.0 p s i a during emergency o p e r a t i o n , which w a s unde-
s i r a b l e . Further i n v e s t i g a t i o n revealed t h a t , i n t h i s i n i t i a l configu-
r a t i o n , t h e pressure drop i n t h e pressure-sensing l i n e from t h e demand
r e g u l a t o r w a s t o o g r e a t f o r establishment of t h e required s u i t pressure
(3.7 ' 0.2 Psis). The VCM was modified by changing t h e pressure-sensing
point of t h e demand r e g u l a t o r from t h e v i s o r area t o t h e suit o u t l e t
v e n t i l a t i o n f i t t i n g . The VCM demand r e g u l a t o r then provided only s u i t
v e n t i l a t i o n r e l i e f and p r e s s u r i z a t i o n c o n t r o l . The i n i t i a t i o n of VCM
emergency oxygen flow t o t h e helmet feed p o r t became a manual function.
To i n i t i a t e emergency oxygen flow, t h e person using t h e system must be
a b l e t o d e t e c t umbilical flow f a i l u r e .

The f i r s t manned t e s t of t h i s modified u n i t confirmed t h e s u i t a b i l -


i t y of t h e manual emergency system. The subject r a p i d l y detected each
umbilical flow stoppage and i n i t i a t e d emergency flow within 7 seconds.
The s u i t pressure w a s maintained a t 4.2 and 3.8 p s i a f o r t h e normal
and t h e emergency modes, r e s p e c t i v e l y . Four a d d i t i o n a l manned vacuum
chamber t e s t s w e r e performed with t h e modified VCM t o evaluate t h e
normal and t h e emergency o p e r a t i o n a l modes. The system met a l l f l i g h t
requirements .
4.2.1.3.2 Unmanned q u a l i f i c a t i o n t e s t i n g :

( a ) Environmental q u a l i f i c a t i o n : The VCM w a s subjected t o t h e


standard t e s t s f o r random v i b r a t i o n , a c c e l e r a t i o n , shock, and oxygen
atmosphere c o m p a t i b i l i t y required f o r a l l Gemini cabin equipment. A l l
environmental q u a l i f i c a t i o n requirements were m e t .

( b ) Earth o r b i t simulation t e s t : This t e s t consisted of 50 min-


u t e s of exposure t o simulated s o l a r heat f l u x i n a vacuum chamber at
5 x mm Hg and at -320' F. A 60-minute cold soak period followed
i n which t h e chamber vacuum and t h e cold-wall temperature were main-
t a i n e d but t h e s o l a r heat was turned o f f . Instrumentation showed t h a t
t h e inner case temperatures had reached extremes of 126' and -135' F.
The inner s t r u c t u r e temperatures reached extremes of 67' and -310 F.
These temperatures were acceptable f o r t h e VCM thermal design.

4.2.1.3.3 Manned t e s t i n g :

( a ) Mission p r o f i l e t e s t s : A manned t e s t w a s conducted with t h e


VCM system t o q u a l i f y t h e equipment under end-to-end t e s t conditions s i m -
u l a t i n g t h e planned EVA mission. This manned t e s t w a s conducted i n t h e
MSC 20-foot a l t i t u d e chamber. A b o i l e r p l a t e Gemini s p a c e c r a f t (Boiler-
p l a t e 21, which incorporated a complete r e e n t r y module ECS, w a s i n s t a l l e d
i n t h e t e s t chamber. Two crewmen i n B o i l e r p l a t e 2 duplicated t h e f l i g h t
crew functions. After t h e chamber w a s decompressed t o a pressure equiva-
l e n t t o 180 000 f e e t , t h e crewmen c a r r i e d out t h e sequence of events

4-27
planned for the Gemini IV EVA mission. All normal and emergency pro-
cedures were exercised, including the simulated failure of the umbilical
oxygen flow and the procedures for switching back to the spacecraft ECS
connections in a decompressed cabin. All mission profile qualification
testing requirements were met.

(b) Low temperature test: A manned test was conducted in the


20-foot chamber to qualify the VCM system for extremely low temperature
conditions. The test conditions were a chamber pressure equivalent
to 180 000 feet, with the liquid nitrogen cold walls cooled below -300' F.
The test subject wore the VCM and a Gemini extravehicular space suit and
stood in the cold room for 31 minutes. Primary oxygen was supplied
through a flight-configuration umbilical at a flow rate of 9 lb/hr. Both
the normal and the emergency oxygen systems were tested. Throughout the
test, the VCM maintained the suit pressure at 4.5 psia on normal flow
and 4.4 psia on emergency oxygen supply. This test satisfied the manned
qualification requirements for low temperature vacuum operations.

(c) Flight equipment validation: Subsequently, both the Gemini IV


prime and backup EVA pilots underwent the same mission profile test
described in paragraph (a) using the actual flight and backup equipment.
The complete sequence of normal and emergency procedures was validated
by both pilots. These tests served the combined function of crew
familiarization and final end-to-end system testing of the extravehicular
equipment prior to flight.

4.2.1.4 Mission results.- The VCM system was used successfully dur-
ing the Gemini IV EVA mission. Space suit pressure was maintained at a
nominal 4.2 psia with a primary oxygen flow of 8.2 lb/hr. This open-
loop flow was adequate for cooling the pilot throughout the EVA period
except when he was mounting the external camera and during ingress. The
pilot expended a moderately high effort in mounting the camera, and he
became slightly overheated. As soon as he reduced his activity level,
he began to cool off and to return to normal. At ingress he expended a
very high effort pulling the hatch fully closed and in manipulating the
faulty hatch-locking mechanism. During this period of activity he became
greatly overheated, and the cooling capability of the VCM system was
substantially exceeded. The pilot perspired profusely and experienced
slight visor fogging. Because he removed his helmet soon after ingress,
his recovery from the overheated condition was rapid and no prolonged
aftereffects from this condition were seen. The VCM system was concluded
to be adequate for the nominal EVA mission, but the cooling capabilities
with the 8.2 lb/hr normal flow or the 2 lb/hr emergency flow were insuf-
ficient for the high work levels which could be expected in emergency
conditions.

4-28
4.2.2 Extravehicular L i f e Support System

The Extravehicular L i f e Support System (ELSS) provided s u b s t a n t i a l l y


g r e a t e r oxygen r e s e r v e s and g r e a t e r capacity f o r removal of heat and
moisture t h a n t h e VCM system. The ELSS w a s designed t o permit operation
independent of t h e s p a c e c r a f t , using a backpack f o r communications and
primary oxygen. It w a s t h e b a s i c extravehicillar system c a r r i e d on
Gemini V I 1 1 t o Gemini X I I . The c e n t r a l component of t h e Gemini ELSS w a s
t h e chestpack. Other items of t h e ELSS included two m u l t i p l e gas connec-
t o r s , an e l e c t r i c a l jumper cable, two r e s t r a i n t s t r a p s , two s u i t hoses,
and an umbilical ( f i g . 4.2-3). The chestpack w a s held i n p o s i t i o n on t h e
extravehicular p i l o t ' s chest by nylon web r e s t r a i n t s t r a p s , which were
a t t a c h e d t o h i s parachute harness by Pull-dot f a s t e n e r s and t o t h e f r o n t
s u r f a c e of t h e chestpack with Velcro. E l e c t r i c a l connections t o t h e
chestpack, s u i t , and umbilical w e r e made through t h e e l e c t r i c a l jumper
cable. Two f l e x i b l e hoses connected t h e chestpack oxygen loop t o t h e
space s u i t .

4.2.2.1 ELSS chestpack.- Primary oxygen w a s supplied t o t h e ELSS


chestpack by t h e umbilical from t h e s p a c e c r a f t or o t h e r e x t e r n a l source
a t normal r a t e s of 5 . 1 or 7.8 l b / h r . This flow w a s introduced t o an
e j e c t o r pump where it was mixed with t h e secondary ( r e c i r c u l a t e d ) venti-
l a t i o n gas and t h e n supplied t o t h e s u i t f o r cooling and carbon dioxide
washout. S u i t pressure was c o n t r o l l e d t o 3.7 p s i d by a d i f f e r e n t i a l
pressure valve l o c a t e d a t t h e s u i t o u t l e t where gas was exhausted t o
space a t a r a t e equivalent t o t h e primary flow rate. This o u t f l o v was
s u f f i c i e n t t o wash out carbon dioxide a t a r a t e which maintained an
acceptable carbon dioxide p a r t i a l pressure i n t h e oro-nasal a r e a . This
system contained a heat exchanger f o r cooling and removing m o i s t u r e from
t h e secondary g a s , an emergency oxygen supply with a c a p a b i l i t y of up t o
30 minutes of operation, and an emergency audio and v i s u a l warning sys-
tem.

4-29
4.2.2.1.1 Controls, displays, and connections: The chestpack con-
tained the following items.

~~

Flow selector valve


Normal/bypass valve
Emergency shutoff valve
Controls Evaporant control valve
Battery switch
Test/dim/bright switch
Audio reset switch

Emergency oxygen
pressure gage
AMU propellant quantity
gage
Emergency oxygen
Displays warning light
Suit pressure warning
light
Spacecraft power light
Four AMU malfunction
warning lights
~~~ ~~

Two oxygen supply


quick disconnects
Electrical connection
Two suit hose
connection fittings

4.2.2.1.2 Pneumatic subsystem operation: The pneumatic portion


of the chestpack consisted of a medium-pressure oxygen input subsystem,
a low-pressure suit loop, and a high-pressure emergency oxygen supply
(fig. 4.2-4). No electrical power was required for the basic operation
of the pneumatic system.

(a) Medium-pressure oxygen input subsystem: During normal opera-


tion, oxygen at nominal conditions of 70' F and 91 psig was supplied to
the oxygen input subsystem from the spacecraft umbilical or from any oth-
er external oxygen supply. This oxygen was routed to an ejector, where it

4-30
e n t e r e d t h e s u i t loop. E j e c t o r primary oxygen flow was c o n t r o l l e d manu-
a l l y w i t h t h e oxygen flow s e l e c t o r valve. The e j e c t o r primary oxygen
flaw r a t e w a s s e l e c t e d by r o t a t i n g t h e oxygen s e l e c t o r v a l v e from OFF
t o e i t h e r t h e MEDIUM ( S . l l b / h r ) or t o t h e HIGH (7.8 l b / h r ) p o s i t i o n .
The manual bypass valve could be a c t u a t e d t o allow a d d i t i o n a l ( 7.8 l b / h r )
oxygen t o e n t e r t h e s u i t loop downstream of t h e e j e c t o r . This provided
a d d i t i o n a l d r y gas t o t h e s u i t l o o p , depressing t h e dew p o i n t of t h e
s u i t i n l e t gas and i n c r e a s i n g t h e o v e r a l l h e a t r e j e c t i o n c a p a b i l i t y of
t h e chestpack. I n t h e event of a decrease i n s u i t p r e s s u r e below
3.3 p s i g , t h e chestpack would supply a d d i t i o n a l oxygen through t h e s u i t
p r e s s u r e r e g u l a t o r v a l v e t o maintain t h e s u i t p r e s s u r e a t 3.3 * 0 . 1 p s i g .
If t h e s u i t p r e s s u r e r e g u l a t o r were a c t u a t e d , t h e demand flow sensor
would sense t h e flow through t h e s u i t p r e s s u r e r e g u l a t o r v a l v e , i l l u m i -
n a t e t h e SUIT PRESS warning lamp ( f i g . 4.2-5) on t h e chestpack c o n t r o l
p a n e l , and i n i t i a t e an audio warning t o n e t o t h e f l i g h t crew.

( b ) Low-pressure s u i t loop: The chestpack operated on a semi-open-


loop p r i n c i p l e i n which s u f f i c i e n t f r e s h oxygen w a s added and s u f f i c i e n t
v e n t i l a t i o n gas w a s dumped overboard during r e c i r c u l a t i o n t o maintain t h e
carbon d i o x i d e p a r t i a l p r e s s u r e of t h e c i r c u l a t e d gas a t an a c c e p t a b l e
l e v e l . The f r e s h oxygen e n t e r e d t h e s u i t loop a t t h e e j e c t o r where i t s
p r e s s u r e energy w a s converted i n t o v e l o c i t y , t h u s c i r c u l a t i n g t h e v e n t i -
l a t i o n gas around t h e s u i t loop. The primary oxygen w a s mixed with re-
c i r c u l a t e d secondary oxygen, and t h e mixed gas t h e n flowed t o t h e space
s u i t i n l e t a t a nominal temperature of 55' F. The vent gas e x i t e d t h e
s u i t a t a nominal temperature of 8 5 O F and r e l a t i v e humidity of 85 per-
cent and flowed through t h e s u i t o u t l e t valve t o r e e n t e r t h e chestpack.
The s u i t outflow valve w a s l o c a t e d near t h e s u i t loop e n t r a n c e t o t h e
chestpack, d i r e c t l y upstream of t h e h e a t exchanger. The s u i t outflow
valve served two f u n c t i o n s : f i r s t , t o c o n t r o l s u i t p r e s s u r e a t a nominal
3.7 p s i d i f f e r e n t i a l t o t h e ambient p r e s s u r e , and second, t o dump gas
overboard. The overboard flow w a s e q u i v a l e n t t o primary oxygen flow,
and it removed a p o r t i o n of t h e carbon dioxide as w e l l as a p o r t i o n of
t h e moisture and t h e h e a t l o a d . The remainder of t h e secondary gas
flowed i n t o t h e e v a p o r a t i v e h e a t exchanger t o be cooled. Cooling w a s
accomplished by t r a n s f e r r i n g h e a t t o t h e water s t o r e d i n t h e i n t e g r a l
metal wicks of t h e h e a t exchanger. To a c t i v a t e t h e h e a t exchanger, t h e
evaporant c o n t r o l valve l o c a t e d on t h e s i d e of t h e chestpack w a s opened
manually. The h e a t exchanger functioned only when exposed t o an ambient
p r e s s u r e le s s t h a n 0.08 p s i a . A back-pressure c o n t r o l valve maintained
a s m a l l back p r e s s u r e t o c o n t r o l t h e b o i l i n g p o i n t of t h e l i q u i d . The
water r e c e i v e d i t s l a t e n t h e a t of v a p o r i z a t i o n from t h e r e c i r c u l a t i n g
vent g a s , t h u s cooling t h e gas flow, and b o i l e d o f f through t h e evaporant
flow c o n t r o l valve. A s t h e moisture-laden r e c i r c u l a t i n g gas w a s cooled
t o 45' F (100-percent r e l a t i v e h u m i d i t y ) , t h e water vapor w a s condensed
on wicking i n t h e condenser s i d e of t h e h e a t exchanger. The condensed
water was t r a n s p o r t e d by c a p i l l a r y a c t i o n through t h i s wicking t o an a r e a

4-31
where it w a s driven through a porous p l a t e by t h e p r e s s u r e d i f f e r e n t i a l
between t h e s u i t loop and t h e e x t e r n a l vacuum. The downstream s i d e of
t h e porous p l a t e contained a sponge-storage r e s e r v o i r and wicking which
t r a n s p o r t e d t h e condensed and s t o r e d water t o t h e b o i l o f f a r e a . The
condensed w a t e r w a s , t h e r e f o r e , used i n a boot-strap o p e r a t i o n , which
decreased t h e r e q u i r e d amount of cooling water t h a t had t o be s t o r e d .
The cooled secondary gas t h e n passed through t h e e j e c t o r t o complete t h e
checkpack s u i t loop.

( c ) High-pressure emergency oxygen supply: I n t h e event t h e i n l e t


oxygen p r e s s u r e f e l l t o a nominal 67 p s i d , t h e chestpack emergency sup-
p l y would be automatically i n i t i a t e d . The emergency oxygen w a s r e g u l a t e d
t o 67 * 10 p s i d ; and, i f t h e i n l e t oxygen p r e s s u r e dropped below t h i s lev-
e l , t h e emergency oxygen r e g u l a t o r would admit r e g u l a t e d oxygen from t h e
supply b o t t l e . An emergency oxygen flow sensor would energize t h e EMER-
GENCY O2 warning lamp ( f i g . 4.2-5) on t h e chestpark c o n t r o l panel and
would i n i t i a t e an audio warning tone t o t h e f l i g h t crew. Since t h e emer-
gency oxygen temperature would c o n t i n u a l l y decrease as t h e s t o r e d oxygen
expanded t o a lower p r e s s u r e , t h e emergency oxygen w a s heated before it
e n t e r e d t h e low-pressure loop. This w a s accomplished by a lige h e a t e r
and temperature sensor t h a t automatically c o n t r o l l e d t h e temperature of
t h e r e g u l a t e d emergency oxygen t o a nominal 45' F. The duration of t h e
emergency oxygen supply w a s dependent on t h e amount of oxygen supplied
through t h e umbilical. With a decreased umbilical supply, t h e emergency
oxygen supply would make up t h e deficiency. With no umbilical oxygen
supply, t h e emergency system would supply oxygen f o r up t o 20 minutes on
high flow or 33 minutes on medium flow. A s m a l l d e c a l , l o c a t e d across
t h e lower p o r t i o n of t h e H202 QUANTITY d i a l ( f i g . 4.2-5), i n d i c a t e d t h e
mission time remaining as a function of emergency oxygen b o t t l e p r e s s u r e
and t h e flow s e l e c t o r s e t t i n g .

4.2.2.1.3 E l e c t r i c a l subsystem operation: The ELSS e l e c t r i c a l sub-


system c o n s i s t e d of an umbilical cable, t h e e l e c t r i c a l jumper, t h e chest-
pack modularized c o n t r o l and monitoring c i r c u i t , t h e sensing c i r c u i t s ,
t h e e l e c t r i c a l harness, and a 28-volt-dc wet-cell b a t t e r y . The major
e l e c t r i c a l components of t h e ELSS a r e depicted i n t h e block diagram i n
f i g u r e 4.2-6.

( a ) Chestpack e l e c t r i c a l harness assembly - A l : This assembly


provided a l l e l e c t r i c a l interconnection among t h e chestpack subassem-
b l i e s A2 t o A9 and t h e e l e c t r i c a l jumper A l O .

( b ) Control panel assembly - A2: This assembly, shown i n f i g -


u r e 4.2-5 , contained:

(1) Control panel background lamps which l i g h t e d t o i n d i c a t e


t h a t t h e chestpack w a s a c t i v a t e d and t o i l l u m i n a t e t h e chestpack c o n t r o l s
and d i s p l a y s

4- 32
( 2 ) A t e s t / d i m / b r i g h t switch which w a s used t o s e l e c t t h e
i l l u m i n a t i o n l e v e l of t h e background lamps and t o check operation of t h e
warning lamps and audio warning c i r c u i t s

( 3 ) An audio switch t h a t r e s e t t h e f l i p - f l o p c i r c u i t i n sub-


assembly A 8 t o s t o p t h e audio warning tone generated by t h e o s c i l l a t o r
c i r c u i t i n subassembly

( 4 ) S i x warning lamps, a hydrogen peroxide q u a n t i t y meter,


and an emergency oxygen pressure gage which provided v i s u a l i n d i c a t i o n s
of chestpack and backpack operating conditions. Four of t h e warning
lamps (H202, FUEL PRESSURE, O2 PRESSURE, and RCS) were ground-seeking
i n d i c a t o r s , and received t h e i r i n p u t s from t h e AMU through subassem-
b l i e s Al and e l e c t r i c a l jumper A10. The other two warning lamps (SUIT
PRESSURE and EMERGENCY 0 ) were power-seeking i n d i c a t o r s , and received
2
t h e i r i n p u t s from subassembly A9 v i a subassembly A8.

( e ) Oxygen temperature sensor -


A3: This component sensed t h e
temperature of oxygen from t h e chestpack emergency oxygen supply tank
and provided an input t o t h e temperature c o n t r o l c i r c u i t i n subassem-
b l y A5 t o c o n t r o l operation o f h e a t e r , subassembly Ab.

( d ) Oxygen h e a t e r -
Ab: This component heated t h e oxygen from t h e
chestpack emergency oxygen supply tank t o a nominal 45' F, as sensed by
t h e temperature sensor subassembly A 3 and c o n t r o l l e d by subassembly A5.

( e ) Oxygen temperature c o n t r o l and o s c i l l a t o r -A5: This module


contained two c i r c u i t s : a temperature c o n t r o l c i r c u i t and an o s c i l l a -
t o r c i r c u i t . The temperature c o n t r o l c i r c u i t energized t h e h e a t e r sub-
assembly Ah, as d i c t a t e d by t h e temperature sensor subassembly A3. The
o s c i l l a t o r c i r c u i t i n i t i a t e d t h e audio warning tone t o t h e crew when
t r i g g e r e d by t h e f l i p - f l o p c i r c u i t i n subassembly A8.

( f ) Pressure transducer - A6: The pressure transducer sensed s u i t -


loop p r e s s u r e as a d i f f e r e n t i a l with r e s p e c t t o ambient pressure and pro-
vided a s i g n a l t o t h e s p a c e c r a f t telemetry f o r ground monitoring. This
function was not used a f t e r t h e Gemini IX-A mission.

( g ) Battery - AT: The b a t t e r y w a s t h e secondary power source f o r


t h e chestpack. When t h e b a t t e r y switch w a s placed i n t h e ON p o s i t i o n ,
a nominal 28 v o l t s dc was-applied t o subassemblies A2, A5, A6, A 8 , and t o
t h e e j e c t o r h e a t e r . When primary spacecraft power was used, lamp DS1
w a s illuminated t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e s p a c e c r a f t power w a s being used and
t h a t r e l a y K1 had disconnected t h e b a t t e r y .

( h ) O s c i l l a t o r and l i g h t c o n t r o l l e r voltage r e g u l a t o r - A8. This


module contained a three-input OR g a t e , a f l i p - f l o p c i r c u i t , and a

4-33
v o l t a g e r e g u l a t o r c i r c u i t . The f l i p - f l o p c i r c u i t generated a v o l t a g e t o
t r i g g e r t h e o s c i l l a t o r c i r c u i t i n subhssembly A5 when an input s i g n a l
from t h e OR g a t e w a s received. The OR g a t e supplied an output t o t h e
f l i p - f l o p c i r c u i t i f an i n p u t w a s received from e i t h e r t h e demand o r t h e
emergency flow sensor i n subassembly A9 c)r from t h e AMU backpack through
subassemblies Al and A l O . The v o l t a g e r e g u l a t o r c o n t r o l l e d t h e l i g h t
i n t e n s i t y of t h e c o n t r o l panel lamps i n subassembly A2.

( i ) Demand flow sensor and emergency oxygen flow sensor Ag: -


This module contained t h e demand flow sensor and t h e emergency flow sen-
s o r . Both flow sensors were of t h e p r e s s u r e - d i f f e r e n t i a l diaphragm-
switch t y p e with a single-pole double-throw c o n t a c t . The c o n t a c t closed
i n t h e demand flow sensor i f oxygen flow w a s i n i t i a t e d through t h e s u i t
p r e s s u r e r e g u l a t o r valve. The contact closed i n t h e emergency flow sen-
s o r i f emergency oxygen flow w a s i n i t i a t e d . E i t h e r flow sensor contact
c l o s u r e provided an input t o t h e OR g a t e i n subassembly A8, causing t h e
a p p r o p r i a t e warning lamp i n subassembly A2 t o l i g h t and t h e o s c i l l a t o r
c i r c u i t i n subassembly A5 t o i n i t i a t e an audio warning tone.

( j ) Spacecraft power s t a t u s i n d i c a t o r lamp - D S 1 : This lamp i n d i -


c a t e d t h a t t h e chestpack w a s being supplied w i t h s p a c e c r a f t power. The
lamp w a s o f f when t h e chestpack b a t t e r y (subassembly A7) w a s being used.

( k ) Relay - K1: This r e l a y disconnected t h e chestpack b a t t e r y


(subassembly A") whenever s p a c e c r a f t power w a s applied and reconnected
t h e chestpack b a t t e r y i n case of l o s s of s p a c e c r a f t power.

(1) E j e c t o r h e a t e r : A 20-watt h e a t e r which operated continuously


w a s used t o prevent e j e c t o r i c i n g with p o s s i b l e blockage of t h e s u i t
v e n t i l a t i o n gas flow.

( m ) E l e c t r i c a l jumper cable - A10: This assembly provided an elec-


t r i c a l interconnection between t h e chestpack, t h e space s u i t , and t h e
umbilical.

( n ) Umbilical cable -
A l l : This assembly provided an e l e c t r i c a l
interconnection between t h e s p a c e c r a f t and t h e e l e c t r i c a l jumper (sub-
assembly A10).

4.2.2.2 ELSS t e s t i n g . - The ELSS chestpack f o r f l i g h t use during


t h e Gemini e x t r a v e h i c u l a r program w a s q u a l i f i e d i n both unmanned and
manned systems t e s t i n g . To d e f i n e t h e environmental extremes necessary
f o r t h i s ELSS q u a l i f i c a t i o n , Gemini s p a c e c r a f t s p e c i f i c a t i o n s were u t i -
l i z e d . Because of t h e comparatively s h o r t t i m e a v a i l a b l e f o r system
design, development, and q u a l i f i c a t i o n , and because many of t h e system
components were similar t o previously q u a l i f i e d hardware, chestpack
q u a l i f i c a t i o n w a s accomplished on a system b a s i s . Component t e s t i n g w a s
l i m i t e d t o development t e s t i n g only, and it w a s performed on a minimum

4-34
test basis. In retrospect, if the component development testing had
been expanded to include specific tests of major components and exten-
sive tests of all new components, many problems occurring later in the
ELSS program might have been discovered and averted in the initial devel-
opment.

4.2.2.2.1 Unmanned testing: The unmanned testing of the ELSS con-


sisted of thermal and dynamic load testing by the ELSS contractor, sys-
tem testing at the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC), and thermal vacuum
simulation by a separate thermal study contractor.

(a) Unmanned thermal and dynamic systems testing: The principal


unmanned system qualification testing of the ELSS chestpack and its
ancillary equipment was performed at the ELSS contractor's test facility.
This testing was performed utilizing two chestpack systems, one for ther-
mal environment testing and the other for dynamic loads testing. In
addition to the chestpack, each of these systems included an electrical
jumper, an umbilical, and a pair of multiple gas connectors. Upon com-
pletion of dynamic loads testing, this chestpack and associated hardware
were subjected to burst tests. The thermal environment testing included
both functional and nonfunctional systems tests, while the dynamic loads
testing was nonfunctional. Before qualification testing, each chestpack
and the related components were subjected to Performance Record Tests.
These tests were performed to the requirements of the ELSS contractor's
Acceptance Test Procedures (ATP's). The ATP's had been previously re-
viewed and approved by NASA and were later utilized as the basis for
NASA test documents f o r system testing conducted at MSC, at the space-
craft contractor's facility, and at the launch site.

(1) Thermal environment testing :

Humidity testing was performed with the chestpack and components


nonoperational, using a 24-hour test cycle repeated four times as fol-
lows :

Temperature, O F Humidity, percent Time, hr

68 to 100 Uncontrolled Start

Led I 2 I

4-35
Temperature t e s t i n g w a s performed i n a flight-ready standby condi-
t i o n f o r 9 days, t h e f i r s t 7 days a t sea-level pressure and atmosphere,
and t h e l a s t 2 days a t 5 p s i a oxygen. The temperature p r o f i l e repeated
on a 10-hour cycle consisted of 4 hours a t 32O F and 4 hours a t 120° F,
with 1 hour t o a t t a i n s t e a d y - s t a t e conditions a t t h e upper or lower tem-
peratures.

Pressure temperature t e s t i n g w a s performed with t h e operating sys-


t e m subjected t o t h r e e mission p r o f i l e s t y p i c a l of t h e one shown i n f i g -
u r e 4.2-7. Each mission w a s composed of f i v e phases:

Phase 1 - System turned on and cycled i n oxygen atmosphere

Phase 2 - Normal chestpack operation with umbilical oxygen supply

Phase 3 - Continuation of normal chestpack operation, but simula-


t i o n of s u i t leakage

Phase 4 - Emergency operation with umbilical oxygen turned o f f

Phase 5 - Continuation of phases 2 and 4 , u n t i l t h e ELSS emergency


oxygen and h e a t e r exchanger, or b a t t e r y , r e s p e c t i v e l y ,
were depleted

Explosive decompression t e s t i n g was performed i n a flight-ready,


standby condition. The system w a s exposed t o a "-psi decompression of
0.40-second duration.

(2) Dynainic system t e s t i n g :

Electromagnetic i n t e r f e r e n c e (EMI) t e s t i n g w a s performed on t h e sys-


t e m i n accordance with t h e Class I A requirements of M i l i t a r y Specifica-
t i o n M I L - I - ~ ~ ~ O O . The system was operated i n emergency and normal modes
using b a t t e r y power where required; otherwise, e x t e r n a l laboratory power
w a s used.

Random v i b r a t i o n t e s t i n g was performed with t h e system i n a f l i g h t -


serviced, standby condition. The system was subjected t o t h e random
v i b r a t i o n t e s t p r o f i l e shown i n f i g u r e 4.2-8. The t e s t was performed
f o r 1 0 minutes along each of t h e t h r e e p r i n c i p a l mutually perpendicular
axes. This t e s t i n g w a s repeated each time t h e r e was a major modifica-
t i o n t o t h e system, such as i n s t a l l a t i o n of e j e c t o r h e a t e r s or r e r o u t -
ing of t h e bypass valve.

Acceleration t e s t i n g w a s performed with t h e system i n a f l i g h t -


serviced, standby condition. The system w a s subjected t o t h e accelera-
t i o n loads shown i n f i g u r e 4.2-9. The a c c e l e r a t i o n loads were applied

4- 36
simultaneously for both the lateral and longitudinal axes of the space-
craft.

Shock testing was performed with the system in a flight-serviced,


standby condition, with the exception of the emergency oxygen bottle
which was not pressurized. The system was subjected to two half-sine-
wave shocks of 11-millisecond duration of 30g and 40g, for a total
of four shock tests. Acceptance of shock testing with the emergency
oxygen bottle depressurized was based on the assumption that, if the
EVA mission were not conducted, the flight crew would vent the high-
pressure oxygen from the chestpack. However, during the Gemini VI11
mission when it was decided to reenter prior to the scheduled EVA, the
emergency oxygen was not vented from the chestpack because a high landing
shock was not expected.

Burst testing was performed at the conclusion of tile dynamic loads


testing, after NASA verification that all objectives of this phase of
qualification had been fulfilled. A l l major components of the ELSS and
major pressure loops of the chestpack were subjected to burst pressure
tests, except the emergency oxygen bottle. The burst pressure of a
specific loop was determined as that pressure at which the first compo-
nent in that loop failed. Burst pressure of the low pressure loop was
43.3 psig, when a rubber oxygen hose inlet failed at the chestpack. The
medium-pressure loop was increased to 960 psig with no failure before
the test was terminated. The major components of the high-pressure sys-
tem were burst individually as follows: pressure gage at 17 800 psig;
pressure regulator at 24 400 psig; and emergency oxygen bottle at
18 800 psig.
(b) Unmanned system testing at MSC: Utilizing the 8-foot chamber
facility, the ELSS was subjected to the simulated thermal load versus
time profiles of three expected mission durations of 35, 65, and 95 min-
utes. During certain profiles, failures were simulated for loss of
umbilical oxygen supply and for penetration of the suit.

During the short and long mission profiles, data were taken on suit
inlet temperature and dew point, system flow rate, suit pressure, and
gas composition. The data were all within the nominal ranges. On the
65-minute profile, suit pressure was approximately 4.0 psi above chamber
pressure, instead of the 3.7 0.2 psi specification. This resulted in
f

replacement of the chestpack outflow valve. During the umbilical failure


simulation, the audio warning tone became weak and irregular. However,
this problem was due to low voltage caused by an insufficient battery
charge cycle before testing.

When the system was subjected to a simulated suit leak which would
cause a flow of 13.6 lb/hr at 3.7 psia (based on maximum flow of the

4-37
(I
outflow valve when f a i l e d open or on a l/h-inch-diameter p e n e t r a t i o n ) ,
t h e s u i t p r e s s u r e decayed almost i n s t a n t a n e o u s l y from 3.75 t o 3.1 p s i a ;
and t h e s u i t p r e s s u r e warning l i g h t and audio t o n e came on. This con-
d i t i o n w a s maintained f o r 15 minutes w i t h no f u r t h e r p r e s s u r e decay.

The system w a s t h e n s u b j e c t e d t o a simulated l e a k which would cause


a flow of 27.7 l b / h r a t 3.7 p s i a ; and again, decay t o 3.1 p s i a w a s al-
most instantaneous. The s u i t p r e s s u r e warning l i g h t , t h e emergency oxy-
gen flow warning l i g h t , and t h e audio t o n e a l l operated as designed.
These c o n d i t i o n s were maintained f o r 1 5 minutes with no f u r t h e r p r e s s u r e
decay.

Medical opinion i n d i c a t e d t h a t 3.0 p s i a i s t h e minimum acceptable


s u i t p r e s s u r e f o r a 15-minute exposure. Therefore, t h e ELSS w a s capa-
b l e of compensation f o r t h e condition of a failed-open outflow valve.

( c ) Unmanned thermal vacuum t e s t i n g : This t e s t i n g w a s performed


i n t h e Space Environmental Simulator of t h e thermal study c o n t r a c t o r .
Two f l i g h t c o n f i g u r a t i o n chestpacks, one u m b i l i c a l , one e l e c t r i c a l
jumper, one p a i r of m u l t i p l e gas connectors, and one p a i r of hoses t o
connect t h e chestpack t o t h e space s u i t comprised t h e ELSS assembly.
These packs were not t h e same as t h o s e used f o r t h e ELSS c o n t r a c t o r ' s
q u a l i f i c a t i o n t e s t i n g , but were t h e two packs o r i g i n a l l y scheduled f o r
use on t h e Gemini V I mission. For metabolic r a t e simulation, two Gemini
Crewman Simulators (CMS's) were connected i n s e r i e s and used t o produce
t h e s e n s i b l e and l a t e n t heat loads f o r ELSS performance e v a l u a t i o n .
Figure 4.2-10 shows t h e t e s t schematic. Because each CMS w a s r a t e d a t
1150 Btu/hr, t h e s e r i e s hookup w a s r e q u i r e d t o provide s u f f i c i e n t heat
load simulation c a p a b i l i t y . The t e s t a r t i c l e and t h e CMS's were sus-
pended i n t h e t e s t chamber from an i n s u l a t e d overhead support. During
chamber pumpdown , cold-wall s t a b i l i z a t i o n , and chamber recompression, it
w a s necessary t o prevent t h e ELSS from cold soaking t o lower than speci-
f i c a t i o n temperatures caused by prolonged exposu.re t o cold-wall temper-
a t u r e s . This w a s accomplished by use of i n f r a r e d h e a t e r s l o c a t e d around
t h e ELSS which were t u r n e d on during t h e s e n o n t e s t periods. The t e s t
environment used t o simulate t h e Gemini day-night o r b i t a l conditions w a s
a 55-minute day and 40-minute n i g h t c y c l e , a maximum average cold-wall
temperature of -290° I?, and a solar f l u x constant during d a y l i g h t simu-
2
l a t i o n of 443 Btu/hr-ft (one sun e q u i v a l e n t ) a t t h e t e s t a r t i c l e .

Each pack w a s h e a v i l y instrumented on i n n e r and o u t e r s u r f a c e s of


t h e component and t h e case. This instrumentation provided a r e c o r d of
temperature extremes during day and night simulations as w e l l as of t h e
e f f e c t s on t h e s e temperatures of t h e a d d i t i o n of s m a l l patches of Velcro.
A t o t a l of f o u r systems t e s t s were scheduled, which included varying
mission p r o f i l e s from 65 t o 270 minutes a t normal o p e r a t i o n , p l u s an
a d d i t i o n a l 15-minute p e r i o d a t t h e end of each t e s t f o r emergency

4-38
simulations. The metabolic rates programmed for t h e s e t e s t p r o f i l e s were
1000, 1400, and 2000 Btu/hr. To maintain t h e r e q u i r e d t e s t environment
during ELSS operation, it w a s necessary t o cap t h e outflow valve and t o
duct t h e e f f l u e n t gas t o a vacuum exhaust pump. This gas w a s removed
from t h e s u i t loop immediately upstream of t h e i n l e t t o t h e chestpack
with s u i t loop pressure and e f f l u e n t withdrawal rate manually c o n t r o l l e d
by a valve l o c a t e d o u t s i d e t h e t e s t chamber. This t e s t condition shield-
ed t h e outflow valve poppet from t h e t e s t environment and prevented eval-
uation of outflow valve performance and of p o s s i b l e i c i n g conditions.

Because of instrumentation problems and extensive CMS performance


and c o n t r o l problems, t h e f i r s t t h r e e t e s t s of t h i s s e r i e s were only par-
t i a l l y completed. The mass flowmeters used during t h i s t e s t i n g pre-
sented many problems i n t h a t they were q u i t e s e n s i t i v e t o changes i n
f l u i d d e n s i t y , f l u i d moisture content, f l u i d temperature, and ambient
temperature. Therefore, a g r e a t d e a l of t h e m a s s flow d a t a w a s i n v a l i d .
Since good ELSS inlet-to-outlet-port d i f f e r e n t i a l pressure d a t a had been
c o l l e c t e d , both chestpacks were t e s t e d t o determine s u i t loop flow r a t e s
as a function of pack d i f f e r e n t i a l pressure while t h e flow s e l e c t o r
p o s i t i o n and umbilical supply pressure were v a r i e d . The r e s u l t a n t d a t a
( f i g s . 4.2-11 and 4.2-12) were used t o determine t h e heat loads imposed
upon t h e ELSS. When t h e f o u r t h system t e s t was begun, t h e CMS's had
been reworked t o t h e extent t h a t a f a i r degree of t h e mission metabolic
load could be generated and c o n t r o l l e d ( f i g . 4.2-13). This t e s t was,
t h e r e f o r e , extended u n t i l heat exchanger dry-cut occurred. All normal
and emergency sequences o r i g i n a l l y scheduled f o r t h e t e s t s e r i e s were
accomplished during t h i s f o u r t h t e s t period.

From t h e experience gained during t h i s t e s t i n g , t h e need f o r a re-


l i a b l e , compact, and p o r t a b l e crewman simulator t o support in-house and
contract l i f e support systems t e s t i n g was apparent. The l a c k of a r e l i -
able simulation device caused repeated delays and cenpromised a su'cstan-
t i a l p o r t i o n of t h e t e s t d a t a obtained.

This simulated o r b i t a l environment w a s considered t o be more severe


than t r u e e a r t h o r b i t a l conditions. During t e s t i n g , surface temperatures
of t h e pack v a r i e d within acceptable l i m i t s from 165' t o - 5 6 " . ~ , and
component temperatures v a r i e d from 20° t o 85' F. The maximum oxygen
temperature d i f f e r e n t i a l through t h e 25-foot umbilical during exposure
t o day and night temperature extremes w a s 35' F. The umbilical s u r f a c e
temperature ranged from 130' t o -70' F, which w a s within s p e c i f i e d l i m -
i t s . Although t h e outflow valve w a s capped t o prevent gas f l o w through
t h e valve, a s i g n i f i c a n t p o r t i o n of t h e valve body adjacent t o t h e valve
poppet w a s exposed t o t h e Space Environmental Simulator t e s t environment.
This s u r f a c e w a s instrumented f o r temperatures, and from t h e d a t a (mini-
mum temperature recorded was 60' F ) , it w a s concluded t h a t t h e valve would
not i c e during a c t u a l operation i n an o r b i t a l environment. During

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t e s t i n g , it w a s p o s s i b l e t o observe t h e evaporator steam pressure con-
t r o l valve poppet. From t h e s e observations, from temperatures recorded
f o r t h e poppet valve s e a t , and from t h e e x t e r n a l chamber s u r f a c e temper-
a t u r e s (minimum temperature recorded w a s 50' F ) , t h e r e w a s no evidence
of i c i n g or improper evaporator steam pressure control.

The chestpack heat exchanger evaporator c o n t r o l l e d t h e s u i t i n l e t


dew p o i n t and dry-bulb temperatures within s p e c i f i e d l i m i t s except
(1)when an excessively high s e n s i b l e heat load was delivered t o t h e
pack caused by malfunction of t h e crewman simulator, ( 2 ) during and im-
mediately following simulated heat exchanger f a i l u r e , and ( 3 ) a f t e r de-
p l e t i o n of heat exchanger evaporator w a t e r . The t e s t d a t a i n d i c a t e d
t h a t t h e heat exchanger had a t o t a l s e n s i b l e heat r e j e c t i o n c a p a b i l i t y
between 400 t o 600 B t u . The balance of t h e system heat load must be
r e j e c t e d by gas dumped from t h e s u i t loop outflow valve and by t h e l a t e n t
heat r e j e c t e d through t h e evaporator.

This phase of t e s t i n g completed t h e unmanned q u a l i f i c a t i o n of t h e


ELSS assembly. Five chestpacks were used for t h i s t e s t i n g and f o r t h e
subsequent manned t e s t program conducted a t MSC.

4.2.2.2.2 Manned q u a l i f i c a t i o n t e s t summary:

( a ) Tests a t ambient temperature with programmed metabolic load:


The t e s t s i n t h i s program were (1)medium mission p r o f i l e , f a i l i n g
t h e heat exchanger f o r t h e l a s t 15 minutes; ( 2 ) normal long mission pro-
f i l e ; ( 3 ) long mission p r o f i l e , f a i l i n g t h e umbilical oxygen supply f o r
t h e l a s t 15 minutes; ( 4 ) normal medium mission p r o f i l e ; and ( 5 ) medium
mission, f a i l i n g t h e umbilical oxygen supply f o r t h e l a s t 1 5 minutes.

For a l l f i v e t e s t s , t h e t e s t s u b j e c t w a s connected t o t h e ELSS a t


5.0 p s i a and began e x e r c i s i n g as t h e chamber w a s depressurized below
4 mm Hg. Exercise r a t e s and metabolic r a t e were determined f o r each
t e s t s u b j e c t . The e x e r c i s e consisted of stepping up and down using a
9-inch-high s t e p .

During t h e f i r s t t e s t , t h e s u b j e c t did not a l t e r t h e flow mode a f t e r


closing t h e heat exchanger shutoff valve, even though t h e s u i t i n l e t dew
point and dry-bulb temperatures increased ' 9 and 14' F, r e s p e c t i v e l y .
The s u b j e c t reported t h a t he d i d not f e e l excessively w a r m or sweaty. I n
t h e f i r s t t h r e e t e s t s , s u i t o u t l e t pressure v a r i e d e r r a t i c a l l y from
3.85 t o 4.10 p s i d . The f a u l t w a s t r a c e d t o t h e outflow valve. A modi-
f i e d valve w a s incorporated i n t h e t e s t item before t h e f i n a l t e s t s .
I n t h e l a s t two t e s t s , s u i t o u t l e t pressures were maintained at 4.0 and
3.9 p s i d , r e s p e c t i v e l y , with l i t t l e or no v a r i a t i o n during t h e t e s t . N o
o t h e r problems were encountered.

4-40
( b ) T e s t s i n Gemini B o i l e r p l a t e 2: To demonstrate c o m p a t i b i l i t y
between t h e ELSS and t h e Gemini Environmental Control System (ECS) , and
t o v e r i f y t h a t t h e ELSS could be donned i n t h e confines of t h e space-
c r a f t , two t e s t s were conducted i n Gemini B o i l e r p l a t e 2.

During t h e f i r s t t e s t , t h e right-hand crewman donned t h e ELSS with


t h e B o i l e r p l a t e 2 cabin p r e s s u r e at 5.0 p s i a and w i t h p r e s s u r e i n t h e
20-foot chamber a t less t h a n 4 mm Hg. Both crewmen were i n i t i a l l y con-
nected t o t h e ECS. The cabin w a s depressurized t o 3.0 p s i a t o check
s u i t , ELSS, and ECS i n t e g r i t y , and t h e n w a s f u l l y depressurized. No
undue d i f f i c u l t i e s w e r e encountered i n t h i s procedure. The right-hand
crewman placed t h e ELSS i n various flow modes and t h e n reconnected t o
t h e ECS while t h e cabin w a s s t i l l depressurized. During t h i s procedure,
l i m i t e d s u i t mobility and r e s t r i c t e d v i s i b i l i t y made t h e reconnection
more d i f f i c u l t t h a n had been a n t i c i p a t e d . However , t h e reconnection
w a s accomplished, and t h e t e s t w a s completed s u c c e s s f u l l y .

The second t e s t w a s terminated before any s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s were


obtained. The cause w a s a t e s t equipment malfunction which w a s u n r e l a t -
ed t o t h e ELSS operation. No f u r t h e r t e s t s were run with B o i l e r p l a t e 2
s i n c e a n a l y s i s of t h e t e s t d a t a showed t h a t a l l of t h e primary q u a l i f i -
c a t i o n t e s t requirements had been met i n t h e f i r s t t e s t run.

( c ) Tests a t o r b i t a l n i g h t temperature: Three t e s t s were complet-


ed out of four attempts. The unsuccessful t e s t w a s caused by a f a c i l i t y
malfunction which w a s not r e l a t e d t o t h e ELSS. O r b i t a l n i g h t tempera-
t u r e t e s t s were run a t a p r e s s u r e of l e s s t h a n 4 mm Hg i n an enclosure
which had l i q u i d n i t r o g e n c i r c u l a t i n g through t h e roof and t h r e e w a l l s .
The t e s t s were: (1)medium mission p r o f i l e , f a i l i n g t h e umbilical f o r
t h e l a s t 1 5 minutes; ( 2 ) normal medium mission p r o f i l e p l u s an e x t r a
1 0 0 minutes at 1000 Btu/hr; ( 3 ) long mission p r o f i l e , switching from t h e
s p a c e c r a f t umbilical t o a simulated AMU umbilical and back t o t h e space-
c r a f t umbilical; and ( 4 ) 120 minutes a t lOOO-Btu/hr metabolic r a t e with
t h e oxygen flow s e l e c t o r on HIGH, t h e n connecting t o t h e ESP oxygen sup-
p l y and running f o r 20 minutes. The l a s t p o r t i o n of t h e t e s t w a s a de-
velopment t e s t f o r t h e ESP and w a s not r e q u i r e d f o r q u a l i f y i n g t h e ELSS.

During t h e second t e s t , s u i t i n l e t temperature dropped t o 30' F.


Subsequent a n a l y s i s of t h e t e s t d a t a i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e e n t i r e t e s t set-
up had been b i a s e d by exposure of t h e u m b i l i c a l hose assembly and the
ELSS s u i t hoses t o t h e cold w a l l s . I n a d d i t i o n , excessive moisture had
condensed on a l l exposed s u r f a c e s i n t h e t e s t chambers when t h e cold
w a l l s were a c t i v a t e d b e f o r e t h e proper vacuum conditions w e r e reached.
Consequently, t h e temperature d a t a obtained i n t h i s t e s t were i n v a l i d .

I n t h e t h i r d t e s t , 20 minutes operating from t h e ESP oxygen supply


w a s planned. However, 5 minutes after connecting t o t h e ESP, a tear i n

4-41
t h e l e f t glove r e s t r a i n t l a y e r w a s found, and t h e t e s t ended. Analysis
of t h e t e s t d a t a showed t h a t t h e ELSS performance had been w i t h i n t h e
required l i m i t s . The glove f a i l u r e r e s u l t e d from excessive wear on
equipment which had been used f o r t e s t i n g as w e l l as f o r t r a i n i n g . Since
t h i s anomaly d i d not r e f l e c t on t h e ELSS performance, t h e t e s t w a s con-
s i d e r e d acceptable. This completed t h e ELSS q u a l i f i c a t i o n t e s t program.

I n s p i t e of t h e numerous problems, t h e ELSS q u a l i f i c a t i o n program


demonstrated t h e b a s i c adequacy of t h e system. Subsequent mission
changes and component f a i l u r e s showed t h a t i n i t i a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n r e q u i r e -
ments were not e x t e n s i v e o r s t r i n g e n t enough t o uncover a l l of t h e under-
l y i n g weaknesses i n t h e system components. The s p l i t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n
t h e q u a l i f i c a t i o n program, i n which t h e c o n t r a c t o r performed only t h e
unmanned dynamic t e s t s and MSC performed t h e manned systems t e s t s , com-
pounded t h e problem. This arrangement hindered t h e feedback of perform-
ance r e s u l t s t o t h e c o n t r a c t o r , and it tended t o r e l i e v e t h e c o n t r a c t o r
of t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s , except when major f a i l u r e s
occurred.

A more e f f e c t i v e q u a l i f i c a t i o n program would have r e s u l t e d i f a l l


q u a l i f i c a t i o n t e s t r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s had been placed on t h e c o n t r a c t o r
including t h e manned t e s t i n g and d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s of t h e r e s u l t s . U s e
of government t e s t f a c i l i t i e s with MSC coordination of e x t e r n a l i n t e r -
f a c e s would have f a c i l i t a t e d such an operation. I n summary, p r o j e c t
r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e ELSS q u a l i f i c a t i o n program should have been cen-
t e r e d with t h e ELSS c o n t r a c t o r .

(d) Testing with t h e Gemini s p a c e c r a f t : I n t e g r a t e d t e s t i n g of t h e


ELSS with t h e Gemini s p a c e c r a f t w a s performed a t t h e s p a c e c r a f t contrac-
t o r ' s p l a n t and a t t h e launch s i t e . The t e s t i n g a t t h e s p a c e c r a f t con-
t r a c t o r ' s p l a n t w a s intended t o v e r i f y t h e c o m p a t i b i l i t y of o p e r a t i o n
with t h e ELSS p r i o r t o d e l i v e r y of t h e s p a c e c r a f t . The t e s t i n g a t t h e
launch s i t e w a s t h e normal prelaunch v e r i f i c a t i o n of a l l systems on a n
end-to-end b a s i s .

(1) Testing a t t h e s p a c e c r a f t c o n t r a c t o r ' s p l a n t : I n prepa-


r a t i o n f o r t h e i n t e g r a t e d t e s t s with t h e s p a c e c r a f t , t h e ELSS and a l l
a s s o c i a t e d components were s u b j e c t e d t o d e t a i l e d P r e - I n s t a l l a t i o n Accep-
t a n c e (PIA) t e s t s . These acceptance t e s t s repeated a l l t h e e s s e n t i a l
p o r t i o n s of t h e Pre-Delivery Acceptance t e s t s , and v e r i f i e d t h a t t h e
ELSS w a s ready t o be t e s t e d with t h e s p a c e c r a f t . For t h e PIA t e s t i n g ,
a complete s e t of ELSS ground support equipment w a s provided and main-
t a i n e d a t t h e s p a c e c r a f t c o n t r a c t o r ' s p l a n t . Also, f u l l - t i m e support
w a s r e q u i r e d from experienced t e s t and s e r v i c e t e c h n i c i a n s i n t h e ELSS
c o n t r a c t o r ' s organization. Because of t h e c r i t i c a l n a t u r e of disassem-
b l y and reassembly of t h e ELSS r e s u l t i n g from i t s high package d e n s i t y ,
a11 work i n s i d e t h e chestpack w a s performed by ELSS c o n t r a c t o r t e c h n i -
c i a n s . I n i t i a l l y , a l l PIA t e s t i n g w a s performed by MSC engineers and by

4-42
ELSS contractor technicians; subsequently, the spacecraft contractor was
assigned the responsibility. MSC engineering support and ELSS contractor
support were continued on a near-full-time basis to insure uniformity of
testing among the various ELSS test locations. System disassembly, re-
pair, and reassembly remained a function of ELSS contractor personnel.
Under normal work schedules the PIA testing of the prime and backup
flight ELSS's required about 5 days per unit.

Following PIA testing, the ELSS was tested with the spacecraft in
several major systems tests. The first of these was the ECS Validation.
This test was a sea-level test of the spacecraft ECS and served to test
the compatibility between the spacecraft oxygen supply system and the
ELSS .
The second major test was a Simulated Flight Test which served to
test the compatibility of the electrical, communication, and instrumenta-
tion systems of the spacecraft and the ELSS. The flight crews partici-
pated in the Simulated Flight Tests and verified the compatibility of the
ELSS and of the space suit communication and bioinstrumentation systems.

The final major test was the Altitude Chamber Test. This test was
an overall validation of the spacecraft systems under vacuum conditions
and was the final end-to-end systems verification before spacecraft de-
livery. The test was conducted in five parts: one unmanned run at a
simulated altitude of 150 000 feet; two sea-level practice runs in which
the prime and backup flight crews checked out all cockpit equipment and
procedures; and two manned altitude runs with the prime and backup crews,
respectively. The manned altitude runs included a simulation of the
planned EVA mission for each spacecraft. The ELSS was checked out and
donned, the cabin was depressurized, and the hatch was opened under
vacuum conditions; however, safety considerations precluded actual egress
during these runs. As a result, these test verified the vacuum compati-
bility between the spacecraft and the ELSS, but they did not test the
ELSS under critical thermal or metabolic conditions. Upon completion of
the Altitude Chamber Test, the ELSS was shipped to the launch site with
the spacecraft.

( 2 ) Testing at the launch site: The ELSS was tested with the
spacecraft for all major prelaunch tests which involved ELSS compati-
bility. The first of these was the Spacecraft/Gemini Agena Target Vehi-
cle (GATV) Radio-Frequency and Functional Compatibility Test, which was
designated the Plan X Test. Since EVA was planned to be conducted in the
vicinity of the target vehicle for all missions starting with Gemini VIII,
the ELSS radio-frequency compatibility with both the spacecraft and the
target vehicle was verified. The tests were conducted on a 50-foot tim-
ber tower at the Kennedy Space Center, and the ELSS electrical and elec-
tronic systems were checked in both the docked and the undocked configur-
ation.

4-43
The second major t e s t w a s t h e Systems Assurance T e s t , which r e v e r i -
f i e d t h e ELSS c o m p a t i b i l i t y with t h e s p a c e c r a f t systems on t h e launch
pad. The t h i r d major t e s t w a s t h e Simulated F l i g h t Test which w a s s i m i -
l a r t o t h e t e s t conducted p r i o r t o d e l i v e r y and r e v e r i f i e d t h e e l e c t r i -
c a l and e l e c t r o n i c systems c o m p a t i b i l i t y .

The f i n a l major ELSS t e s t s w e r e a d e t a i l e d shakedown i n s p e c t i o n


and a f i n a l PIA t e s t . Every t i m e t h e chestpack w a s used i n a manned t e s t ,
t h e low-pressure loop w a s exposed t o p e r s p i r a t i o n , and s a l t d e p o s i t s re-
s u l t e d . A d e t a i l e d f l u s h i n g and cleaning procedure w a s r e q u i r e d , and
t h e chestpacks were s u b j e c t e d t o a s u b s t a n t i a l amount of s e r v i c i n g and
handling f o r each manned t e s t . Also, t h e ELSS w a s exposed t o a much more
v a r i e d environment than most s p a c e c r a f t systems because it w a s p o r t a b l e .
For t h e s e reasons and because modifications were made b e f o r e t h e e a r l y
EVA missions, t h e d e t a i l e d shakedown i n s p e c t i o n of t h e i n t e r n a l chest-
pack assemblies and of t h e complete PIA were conducted on each ELSS. These
t e s t s c o n s t i t u t e d t h e f i n a l i n s p e c t i o n s and ELSS systems v e r i f i c a t i o n s
b e f o r e launch. The results of t h e s e t e s t s provided t h e high confidence
i n r e l i a b l e system o p e r a t i o n necessary f o r f i n a l f l i g h t r e a d i n e s s .

( e ) P r e f l i g h t a l t i t u d e chamber t e s t s : To provide a f i n a l end-to-


end system t e s t of t h e e x t r a v e h i c u l a r equipment i n a vacuum environment,
a l t i t u d e chamber t e s t s were conducted with t h e a c t u a l f l i g h t equipment
during t h e l a s t few weeks b e f o r e launch. These t e s t s were conducted
with t h e prime and backup p i l o t s wearing t h e i r f l i g h t space s u i t s . Also,
t h e s e t e s t s provided t h e necessary f l i g h t crew f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n with t h e
equipment under o p e r a t i n g conditions which simulated t h e o r b i t a l environ-
ment. For t h e Gemini V I I I , IX-A, and X missions, t h e f i n a l a l t i t u d e
chamber t e s t s served t o v a l i d a t e t h e chestpack and r e l a t e d equipment f o r
vacuum o p e r a t i o n a f t e r completion of s i g n i f i c a n t modifications,

The t e s t s p r i o r t o t h e Gemini V I 1 1 mission were conducted a t t h e


MSC 20-foot a l t i t u d e chamber using l i q u i d n i t r o g e n c o l d w a l l s t o
simulate t h e o r b i t a l thermal conditions. The planned EVA mission se-
quence w a s followed c l o s e l y , including t h e connection and use of t h e
ESP. S e v e r a l ELSS problems were found. Corrective modifications were
made and f u r t h e r vacuum t e s t s were conducted. These problems and t h e
subsequent s o l u t i o n s a r e described i n d e t a i l i n paragraphs 4.2.2.3.2 and
4.2.2.3.3. A f t e r i n c o r p o r a t i o n of t h e modifications, both t h e f l i g h t
and t h e backup ELSS w e r e t e s t e d again i n t h e a l t i t u d e chamber, follow-
i n g a simulated mission p r o f i l e . These f i n a l t e s t s were s u c c e s s f u l ,
and v a l i d a t e d t h e f l i g h t equipment under vacuum conditions.

4-44

. * - a .
The t e s t s p r i o r t o t h e Gemini IX-A mission were a l s o conducted i n
t h e 20-foot a l t i t u d e chamber. The prime p i l o t used t h e f l i g h t ELSS and
a f l i g h t - c o n f i g u r a t i o n Astronaut Maneuvering Unit (AMU) t o follow the
planned Gemini IX-A EVA sequence. The backup ELSS w a s a l s o t e s t e d .
ELSS operation w a s s a t i s f a c t o r y .

A s p a r t of .the e a r l y preparations f o r t h e Gemini X mission, both


t h e prime and backup f l i g h t crews p a r t i c i p a t e d i n altitude t r a i n i n g runs
i n t h e 20-foot chamber using t h e B o i l e r p l a t e 2 t e s t v e h i c l e f o r space-
c r a f t f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n . The crews p r a c t i c e d t h e e n t i r e sequence of ELSS
operating procedures i n vacuum conditions before t h e spacecraft a l t i t u d e
chamber t e s t s a t t h e spacecraft c o n t r a c t o r ' s p l a n t . Subsequently, two
thermal-vacuum simulation t e s t s were conducted i n Chamber B of t h e Space
Environmental Simulation Laboratory a t t h e MSC. The prime and backup
p i l o t s used t h e f l i g h t and backup ELSS, respectively. These t e s t s were
conducted a t a pressure below 1 x 1 0
-4 mm H g , and s o l a r simulation w a s
used during t h e daylight period of t h e simulated mission. Liquid n i -
trogen cold w a l l s were used throughout t h e t e s t s . This t e s t f a c i l i t y
provided a more authentic thermal environment then had been obtainable
i n t h e 20-foot chamber. I n addition, the p i l o t s exercised at measured
r a t e s similar t o t h e work r a t e s a n t i c i p a t e d during t h e Gemini X mission.
The ELSS performed s a t i s f a c t o r i l y i n both t e s t s and t h e thermal perform-
ance of €he ELSS system with t h e 50-foot dual umbilical w a s validated.
Representative r e s u l t s from t h e t e s t i n MSC chamber with t h e Gemini X I
p i l o t a r e shown i n f i g u r e 4.2-14.

I n preparation f o r t h e Gemini X I mission, athermal-vacuum simula-


t i o n i n Chamber B w a s conducted with t h e prime p i l o t and t h e f l i g h t ELSS.
The r e s u l t s of t h i s t e s t were s a t i s f a c t o r y and were s i m i l a r t o those
conducted f o r Gemini X. The backup ELSS was v a l i d a t e d by t h e backup p i -
l o t i n an a l t i t u d e t e s t i n t h e 20-foot chamber. By t h i s time, s u f f i c i e n t
confidence had been gained i n t h e ELSS operation, p a r t i c u l a r l y from t h e
standpoint of thermal performance, t h a t emphasis on complete thermal s i m -
u l a t i o n was reduced. A t t h e same t i m e , other high p r i o r i t y t e s t i n g i n
Chamber B precluded continued use of t h i s f a c i l i t y f o r Gemini p r e f l i g h t
v a l i d a t i o n t e s t s . The t e s t r e s u l t s obtained i n t h e 20-foot chamber were
normal.

I n preparation f o r t h e Gemini X I 1 mission, t h e f l i g h t ELSS was used


by t h e prime p i l o t f o r an a l t i t u d e t e s t i n t h e 20-foot chamber. A qual-
i f i c a t i o n u n i t of t h e AMU was a l s o used i n t h i s t e s t , although t h e AMU
was subsequently d e l e t e d from t h e Gemini X I 1 mission. The ELSS opera-
t i o n w a s s a t i s f a c t o r y i n a l l flow modes. A l t i t u d e t e s t i n g of t h e backup
ELSS was not repeated s i n c e it had been t e s t e d f o r t h e previous mission.

The general consensus concerning a l t i t u d e t e s t i n g of t h e extra-


vehicular f l i g h t equipment with t h e f l i g h t crews w a s t h a t it was a neces-
sary p a r t of t h e f l i g h t preparation a c t i v i t i e s . I n a sense, t h e s e t e s t s

4-45
were t h e only end-to-end v e r i f i c a t i o n of t h a t system which included t h e
extravehicular p i l o t and h i s l i f e support devices. The value of t h i s
type of t e s t i n g w a s p a r t i c u l a r l y important when l i t t l e f l i g h t experience
w a s a v a i l a b l e on t h e equipment. The t e s t i n g was a l s o important f o r
thermal e f f e c t s , since t h e ELSS heat exchanger and much of t h e system
i n s u l a t i o n d i d not function except under vacuum conditions. Another sig-
n i f i c a n t b e n e f i t w a s t h e d e t a i l e d crew f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n with t h e i r f l i g h t
equipment. The f i r s t h a n d f a m i l i a r i t y with vacuum operation of t h e f l i g h t
equipment gave t h e extravehicular p i l o t s an understanding and a confi-
dence l e v e l which could not be duplicated by any other means.

4.2.2.3 System design problems and modifications.- During t h e ELSS


program, several problem areas were encountered which r e s u l t e d i n s i g -
n i f i c a n t modifications t o t h e system design and hardware. Many o f these
problems were discovered during manned t e s t i n g , which took place near
t h e end o f , or subsequent t o , t h e planned q u a l i f i c a t i o n t e s t program.
Therefore, t h e development and q u a l i f i c a t i o n phase of t h e program was
completed only a short time before t h e f i r s t f l i g h t , Some problems were
not f u l l y understood or recognized u n t i l a f t e r t h e i n i t i a l f l i g h t expe-
rience w a s obtained. The solutions t o a l l t h e known problems were
achieved p r i o r t o t h e Gemini X I 1 mission. The s i g n i f i c a n t problems and
modifications follow:

4.2.2.3.1 The f i r s t ELSS b a t t e r y consisted of


Chestpack b a t t e r y :
18 s i l v e r oxidelzinc c e l l s i n a s e r i e s arrangement.
This b a t t e r y f a i l e d
t o provide the energy storage capacity necessary t o f u l f i l l t h e 38.8-watt-
hour power requirements predicted f o r a t y p i c a l ELSS EVA mission.

I n t h e second b a t t e r y design, t h e ELSS contractor attempted t o pro-


vide t h e maximum energy storage i n t h e a v a i l a b l e space without giving
adequate consideration t o b a t t e r y l i f e , service and handling, materials
compatibility, and manufacturing techniques. Although t h e same b a s i c
b a t t e r y was u t i l i z e d through t h e remainder of t h e Gemini E$SS program,
i t s r e l i a b i l i t y was poor, l o s s of u n i t s during servicing w a s high, much
time w a s spent nursing b a t t e r i e s through a c t i v a t i o n f o r each f l i g h t , and
many minor changes t o t h e b a t t e r y were required. This b a t t e r y contained
twenty-four 1.5-am ere-hour s i l v e r oxide/zinc c e l l s i n a s e r i e s - p a r a l l e l
arrangement with 11 c e l l s i n s e r i e s with 2 p a r a l l e l groups of 5 c e l l s each.
The problems encountered with t h i s b a t t e r y included complex and lengthy
a c t i v a t i o n and service procedures, e l e c t r o l y t e s p i l l a g e from f i l l p o r t s
of t h e c e l l s , inadequate battery-servicing procedures and equipment,
e l e c t r o l y t e leakage through individual c e l l seams, poor adhesion of pot-
t i n g t o t h e c e l l s , and t h e use o f m a t e r i a l s incompatible with c e l l s and
c e l l cements. The p r i n c i p a l design objective w a s t o provide maximum
energy by use of t h e maximum number of c e l l s i n t h e space a l l o t e d . Tests
indicated t h a t a b a t t e r y i n good condition would produce 65 t o 70 w a t t -
hours.

4-46
4.2.2.3.2 Outflow valve: During t h e manned ELSS t e s t i n g before
t h e Gemini V I 1 1 mission, suit pressures varied i n s e v e r a l instances w e l l
above t h e normal l i m i t s of 3.7 -t 0.2 p s i a . These f l u c t u a t i o n s charac-
t e r i s t i c a l l y followed operation a t low temperature with t h e heat ex-
changer shut o f f , or followed s e v e r a l successive chestpack operations
without intervening cleaning and flushing. The low temperature problems
indicated i c i n g , and t h e problems a f t e r successive operations indicated
p e r s p i r a t i o n s a l t deposits. Detailed a n a l y s i s of t h e ELSS t e s t h i s t o r y
indicated t h a t t h e outflow valve was susceptible t o hanging up, p a r t i c -
u l a r l y under t h e conditions described. A modified outflow valve was
designed t o c o r r e c t t h i s malfunction. I n addition, operation of t h e
ELSS with t h e heat exchanger shut o f f w a s prohibited, and more elaborate
flushing and cleaning procedures were established f o r use after each
manned operation. A f t e r i n s t a l l a t i o n of t h e new outflow valves and i m -
plementation of t h e s e procedures, no f'urther space suit pressure anom-
a l i e s were encountered.

4.2.2.3.3 Ejector icing: The r e s u l t s of t h e manned low-


temperature a l t i t u d e chamber t e s t s conducted i n preparation f o r Gem-
i n i VI11 indicated t h a t t h e chestpack e j e c t o r was s u s c e p t i b l e t o i c i n g
under conditions of low temperature and excessive water.

A series of e j e c t o r i c i n g t e s t s was conducted by t h e ELSS contrac-


t o r with an e j e c t o r t h a t had been modified t o allow observation and t o
provide instrumentation f o r detection of i c i n g . The r e s u l t s of t h i s
t e s t i n g indicated t h a t i c e formation on t h e e j e c t o r primary i n j e c t i o n
nozzle and on t h e inner w a l l s of t h e d i f f u s e r tube would occur with a
primary oxygen supply temperature of -20" F with secondary gas dry-bulb
and dew point temperatures varying from 46" t o 56" F, and 41" t o 48" F,
respectively. Based on t h e s e data, a minimum allowable oxygen supply
temperature of 0" F was established. I n addition, e l e c t r i c a l h e a t e r s
were added t o t h e ELSS e j e c t o r subassembly and t o t h e oxygen supply l i n e
t o t h e e j e c t o r . Power f o r t h e e j e c t o r h e a t e r i n s t a l l a t i o n was provided
from t h e spacecraft through t h e umbilical. The ELSS b a t t e r y was only
required then f o r independent operation with a backpack o r i n t h e event
t h a t e x t e r n a l power was l o s t . The w i r e s i n t h e 25-foot umbilical pre-
viously a l l o c a t e d f o r s u i t i n l e t gas temperature measurement were
r e a l l o c a t e d f o r ELSS e x t e r n a l power. T h i s modification required minor
wiring changes i n t h e spacecraft, rewiring of t h e chestpacks, and re-
placement of t h e e l e c t r i c a l jumper cables.

The need f o r t h e e j e c t o r h e a t e r modifications was i d e n t i f i e d l e s s


than a month before t h e Gemini V I 1 1 mission. To expedite t h e ELSS
wiring modifications, t h e t a s k was assigned t o t h e spacecraft contractor.
This method of modification permitted a rapid response t o the immediate
problem, but it tended t o remove t h e ELSS contractor from a c t i v e p a r t i c -
i p a t i o n i n t h e ELSS design analysis and v e r i f i c a t i o n a t a t i m e When other
problems were being discovered. A s a result of d e t a i l e d coordination

4-47

I .
e f f o r t s between MSC and t h e two contractors, a prototype and two f l i g h t
ELSS u n i t s were configured and t e s t e d i n time t o support t h e Gemini V I 1 1
mission. The modification of t h e ELSS u n i t s f o r Gemini IX and subse-
quent missions w a s assigned t o t h e ELSS contractor. This arrangement
consolidated ELSS modification a c t i v i t i e s a t t h e same l o c a t i o n , and f a c i l -
i t a t e d t h e o v e r a l l design a n a l y s i s and v e r i f i c a t i o n by t h e ELSS contrac-
tor.

4.2.2.3.4 Ejector bypass modification: The concern over e j e c t o r


i c i n g and possible blockage l e d t o a r e l o c a t i o n of t h e bypass l i n e down-
stream from t h e e j e c t o r . I n t h e o r i g i n a l design, t h e bypass i n l e t t o
t h e suit loop w a s located upstream of t h e e j e c t o r assembly as an i n t e -
g r a l p o r t i o n of a complex valve group housing. The reason f o r t h i s l o -
c a t i o n was concern t h a t t h e nominal bypass flow r a t e of 7.4 l b / h r i n t o
t h e e j e c t o r d i f f u s e r duct would cause a b u f f e t i n g condition t h a t would
reduce the e j e c t o r pumping e f f i c i e n c y severely. Subsequent t e s t i n g
conducted with t h e developmental ELSS u n i t indicated t h a t t h i s buffeting
was not as severe as had been a n t i c i p a t e d and t h a t it had no noticeable
e f f e c t on e j e c t o r performance. The bypass modification was accomplished
by plugging t h e o r i g i n a l bypass p o r t i n t h e valve group housing, d r i l l -
i n g a new p o r t i n t o t h e bypass valve subassembly, and i n s t a l l i n g a tube
from t h i s p o r t t o t h e lower extreme of t h e e j e c t o r d i f f u s e r tube. After
requalifying a modified chestpack f o r random v i b r a t i o n , t h i s modifica-
t i o n was incorporated i n a l l chestpacks f o r Gemini IX and subsequent
missions.

4.2.2.3.5 High-pressure-oxygen f i l l - p o r t check-valve modification:


The chestpack emergency oxygen b o t t l e s had been serviced with oxygen t o
7500 p s i g numerous times during q u a l i f i c a t i o n t e s t i n g , Pre-Delivery
Acceptance t e s t i n g , PIA t e s t i n g , preparation f o r manned a l t i t u d e chamber
runs, and f l i g h t servicing f o r Gemini V I I I . During oxygen servicing of
t h e chestpacks f o r t h e Gemini X a l t i t u d e chamber runs, however, a f i l l
check valve began leaking when t h e i n l e t pressure was relieved. The
check valve w a s removed, photographed under magnification, and sent t o
a chemical a n a l y s i s laboratory. Review of t h e photographs indicated
combustion of t h e check valve, and t h e laboratory analysis reported car-
bon and RTV s i l i c o n rubber present on t h e burned areas. The Viton-A
poppet seat w a s completely burned away. A l i t e r a t u r e survey on Viton-A
categorized it as a compound t h a t should not be used i n high-pressure
oxygen systems. The Viton-A used on t h e poppet s e a t was produced by t h e
ELSS contractor using a company formula. Each batch of t h e m a t e r i a l so
produced was thoroughly t e s t e d f o r s u i t a b i l i t y i n high-pressure oxygen
systems. Material tests conducted a t t h e MSC showed t h a t Loctite-C,
which was used as a check valve thread s e a l a n t , was impact-sensitive i n
l i q u i d oxygen. The t e s t s a l s o showed t h a t t h e Dow Corning-510 l u b r i c a n t
used on t h e o u t e r surface of t h e O-rings w a s f a i r l y i n s e n s i t i v e t o s i m -
i l a r t e s t s . Although t h e s e problems were r e l a t e d only t o servicing
operations, Loctite-C was immediately eliminated from a l l p a r t s of
t h e oxygen system i n t h e chestpack.

4-48
A f e w weeks l a t e r , while t h e problem w a s s t i l l being analyzed, a
similar f a i l u r e occurred on a Gemini IX chestpack during p r e f l i g h t t e s t -
ing a t t h e Kennedy Space Center. The check valve w a s removed and sent
t o t h e Malfunction Analysis Laboratory a t t h e Kennedy Space Center f o r
f a i l u r e analysis. This a n a l y s i s included v i s u a l inspection, photogra-
phy, X-ray, disassembly, sectioning of p a r t s of t h e check valve, and a
d e t a i l e d chemical analysis of a l l contaminants removed from t h e p a r t s .
The contaminants were confirmed t o be decomposed Viton-A seat and
corrosionlerosion products of t h e s t a i n l e s s s t e e l components. It was
concluded t h a t a contained explosion had occurred within t h e valve body.
High-pressure oxygen flow with concurrent heating r e s u l t i n g from t h i s
explosion d i s i n t e g r a t e d and p a r t i a l l y consumed t h e Viton-A on t h e pop-
p e t . It a l s o attacked and eroded t h e poppet, t h e poppet drive p i n
(mounted through t h e poppet stem, holding it t o t h e valve body), and t h e
valve housing. The exact cause of t h e explosion i g n i t i o n w a s not deter-
mined, b u t a combination of p o s s i b i l i t i e s e x i s t e d t h a t :ras formulated
i n t o a general conclusion. It w a s f a i r l y c e r t a i n t h a t some s o r t of
contamination w a s present i n t h e check valve body. To prevent t h i s type
of f a i l u r e , a l l high-pressure oxygen-servicing systems used f o r t h e
chestpack were sampled f o r contamination. Cleaning and contamination
c o n t r o l procedures were Yeviewed f o r adequacy, Loctite-C was eliminated,
Dow Corning-510 l u b r i c a n t was used sparingly on t h e O-rings, t h e allow-
a b l e f i l l r a t e w a s lowered t o a m a x i m u m of 250 psi/min, and t h e check
valve w a s redesigned t o eliminate t h e d r i v e p i n and replace t h e Viton-A
s e a t with a ball-type, metal-to-metal s e a t . The valve design and t h e
redesign concepts a r e shown i n f i g u r e 4.2-15. The f i r s t f e w check
valves f a b r i c a t e d t o t h e new design d i d not seat properly and allowed
leakage. A burnishing technique was u t i l i z e d t o produce a p r e c i s i o n
s e a t which eliminated t h e problem by using a p o s i t i v e metal-to-metal
s e a l of t h e b a l l and s e a t . The redesigned check valves performed with-
out f a i l u r e during t h e remainder of t h e Gemini Program.

4.2.2.3.6 Heat exchanger water f i l l : During t h e chestpack quali-


f i c a t i o n t e s t i n g , t h e h e a t exchanger water f i l l loads were normally be-
tween 0.6 and 0.7 pound. After a chestpack had been operated frequently
with a man i n t h e loop, however, t h e h e a t exchanger water capacity began
t o decrease. This was f i r s t observed when only 0.55 pound of water
could be loaded i n t h e Gemini V I 1 1 chestpack f o r f l i g h t . Before t h e
Gemini M - A launch, the maximum water loading of t h e chestpack h e a t ex-
changer was 0.596 pound. The Gemini IX-A EVA mission p r o f i l e was
lengthy, and moderately high metabolic loads were anticipated. This
s i t u a t i o n emphasized t h e need for an adequate heat exchanger f i l l , pref-
erably a minimum of 0.722 pound.

A t t h e Gemini M-A F l i g h t Readiness Review, it was decided t h a t a


manned a l t i t u d e chamber t e s t should be performed t o operate t h e chest-
pack u n t i l t h e h e a t exchanger d r i e d out and t o observe t h e cooling
c a p a b i l i t y and t h e e f f e c t on t h e subject f o r a period a € t e r t h e heat

4-49
,

exchanger had d r i e d out. W i t h an i t i t i a l w a t e r loading of 0.47 pound,


t h e heat exchanger began t o dry out a f t e r 42 minutes of t h e t e s t , and
reduced h e a t r e j e c t i o n r e s u l t e d . The heat exchanger continued r e j e c t i n g
some h e a t u n t i l t h e end of t h e t e s t (60 minutes after t h e h e a t exchanger
dried o u t ) . A t t h e completion of t h e t e s t , t h e subject was exercising
with a metabolic heat load of approximately 1200 Btu/hr, and he indica-
t e d t h a t he could have continued a t t h a t a c t i v i t y level without d i f f i -
c u l t y . It w a s , therefore, concluded t h a t t h e EVA p i l o t would not b e i n
danger i f t h e heat exchanger d r i e d out.

The ELSS contractor a l s o investigated t h e problem of inadequate


heat exchanger water capacity. A s e r i e s of servicing tests was per-
formed by t h e contractor, and a vacuum f i l l procedure with de-aerated
w a t e r was recommended. P r i o r t o Gemini X mission, t h e vacuum f i l l pro-
cedure w a s used with de-aerated water, and t h e heat exchanger f i l l loads
improved s i g n i f i c a n t l y . Subsequently, it was established t h a t a new or
refurbished heat exchanger could be f i l l e d with up t o 0.8 pound of water
using normal service techniques. This f a c t indicated t h a t t h e heat ex-
changer capacity was decreasing with use , presumably because of t h e
deposits from p e r s p i r a t i o n which accumulated i n t h e h e a t exchanger.
The contractor developed a method f o r disassembling and ref'urbishing t h e
heat exchangers. The refurbishing technique w a s u t i l i z e d on t h e Gem-
i n i X I and t h e Gemini X I 1 chestpacks. A s a r e s u l t , t h e heat exchanger
water loads were approximately 0.8 pound. The heat exchanger refur-
bishing technique and t h e vacuum f i l l technique e f f e c t i v e l y eliminated
t h e problem with h e a t exchanger water capacity.

4.2.2.4 Minor design problems.- I n the course of f l i g h t crew eval-


uations and t r a i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s f o r t h e EVA missions, many minor prob-
lems were discovered i n t h e equipment design. Many of t h e s e problems
were recognized only a f t e r an increased understanding of t h e operating
requirements f o r extravehicular equipment had been obtained through crew
t r a i n i n g exercises and a c t u a l f l i g h t experience. During t h e prepara-
t i o n s f o r t h e i n i t i a l EVA missions, an almost continual s e r i e s of minor
equipment changes occurred as these minor problems were discovered.
This change a c t i v i t y diminished s u b s t a n t i a l l y with t h e preparations f o r
t h e l a t e r EVA missions. These s m a l l problems and t h e r e s u l t i n g correc-
t i v e a c t i o n s represented t h e growing pains of t h e f i r s t attempts t o
operate i n a new environment with l i t t l e previous experience. A f e w exam-
p l e s of these problems follow.

4.2.2.4.1 E l e c t r i c a l connector design: The e l e c t r i c a l connector


selected f o r operation with t h e pressurized space s u i t was chosen be-
cause it could be connected without damage t o t h e p i n s , even if it were
not v i s i b l e t o t h e p i l o t . I n i t i a l experience with t h i s connector i n d i -
cated t h a t t h e b a r r e l of t h e connector w a s too s m a l l i n diameter t o be
gripped r e a d i l y with a pressurized glove. Also t h e connector was rela-
t i v e l y f r a g i l e , and t h e rough treatment it received from crewmen

4-50
operating i n pressurized space suits caused s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t types of
f a i l u r e s . The c o r r e c t i v e measures were t o add l a r g e cloverleaf g r i p -
rings t o t h e connectors t o f a c i l i t a t e handling and t o modify t h e con-
nectors, as required, t o eliminate t h e s e v e r a l possible f a i l u r e modes.
A f t e r t h e s e changes, t h e e l e c t r i c a l connectors were durable and r e a d i l y
operable with a pressurized space s u i t . No i n f l i g h t f a i l u r e of t h e s e
connectors was experienced.

4.2.2.4.2 Guard p l a t e s f o r t h e oxygen-connections: The ELSS had


two oxygen connections on t h e l e f t s i d e f o r primary oxygen supply. One
connection was f o r t h e umbilical, and t h e o t h e r was f o r t h e backpack
oxygen hose. I n t h e Gemini V I 1 1 t r a i n i n g exercises, connecting t h e s e
oxygen connectors w a s very d i f f i c u l t i n t h e pressurized space suit, b u t
releasing them was so easy as t o be hazardous. A guard p l a t e was f i -
n a l l y designed which protected against inadvertent r e l e a s e of t h e s e
connections. The guard p l a t e had a recessed guide i n t h e o u t e r surface
t o assist t h e EVA p i l o t i n l o c a t i n g t h e mating connector. Thereafter,
t h e operation of t h e oxygen connections was routine.

4.2.2.4.3 Oxygen quantity s c a l e : An oxygen quantity and duration


s c a l e w a s added t o t h e display panel of t h e ELSS chestpack. This scale
indicated t h e usable duration of emergency oxygen versus t h e remaining
oxygen pressure. This information would have been needed i n case a
requirement ever developed t o ingress on emergency oxygen.

4.2.2.4.4 Test/dim/bright switch guard: A guard was added t o t h e


switch on t h e chestpack display panel because t h e crews found they were
h i t t i n g and damaging t h e switch with t h e helmet neck r i n g during normal
operation.

4.2.2.4.5 Addition of Velcro: Velcro hook was added t o t h e s i d e s


and top of t h e chestpack f o r attachment of r e s t r a i n t s t r a p s and f o r re-
t e n t i o n of miscellaneous equipment during EVA. Velcro p i l e was added
t o nearly every s m a l l item which might be attached (such as multiple
connectors, t h e jumper cable, and umbilical connectors) for zero-g
stowage purposes. The amount of Velcro used w a s increased with each ais-
sion, and every usable surface of t h e Gemini XI1 chestpack was covered.

4.2.2.5 Mission r e s u l t s and equipment performance.-

4.2.2.5.1 Gemini V I I I : Because of problems encountered i n t h e


spacecraft c o n t r o l system, t h i s mission was terminated prematurely, and
t h e EVA equipment was not used. However, t h e ELSS and i t s r e l a t e d com-
ponents were recovered from t h e spacecraft. Following p o s t f l i g h t i n -
spection and r e t e s t , t h e components were returned t o t h e spacecraft
contractor f o r reuse on a l a t e r spacecraft.

4-51
4.2.2.3.2 Gemini IX-A: An EVA period of 1-67 minutes was scheduled
i n t h e f l i g h t plan. Because of t h e EVA p i l o t ' s v i s o r fogging, t h e EVA
was terminated after 128 minutes without evaluating the AMU. The ELSS
performed normally during the EVA preparation period, and continued t o
perform normally i n the medium flow rate from the t i m e of hatch opening
u n t i l a f t e r t h e end of t h e f i r s t daylight period. The pressure i n t h e
space s u i t remained steady a t 3.7 p s i a , and t h e p i l o t reported being
comfortable. A t 63 minutes after hatch opening, t h e p i l o t ' s v i s o r began
t o fog. This time w a s about 8 minutes after l o c a l sunset, and t h e fog-
ging followed a period of p a r t i c u l a r l y high work load r e s u l t i n g from
t h e p i l o t ' s attempts t o connect t h e AMCT t e t h e r hooks and lower t h e ANu
c o n t r o l l e r arms. Throughout t h e remainder of the night period, t h e
ELSS was operated on high flow i n an attempt t o c l e a r t h e v i s o r . Be-
cause of t h e v i s o r fogging, t h e crew e l e c t e d t o terminate t h e AMU eval-
u a t i o n soon a f t e r t h e beginning of t h e second daylight period.

The p i l o t reported t h a t he w a s n e i t h e r cool nor hot and t h a t h i s


only problem w a s v i s o r fogging. A f t e r r e s t i n g , t h e v i s o r fogging began
t o c l e a r gradually during t h e second daylight period. After returning
t o t h e cockpit, t h e p i l o t reported t h a t h i s v i s o r was 60 percent c l e a r .
A t t h i s t i m e , he r e t r i e v e d t h e docking b a r mirror, and t h e added work
load caused t h e v i s o r fogging t o increase. Ingress t o t h e cabin pro-
duced heavy fogging. When t h e hatch was closed, t h e p i l o t ' s v i s o r w a s
completely fogged over again. A f t e r locking t h e hatch and repressurizing
t h e cabin, t h e p i l o t w a s p e r s p i r i n g profusely and w a s noticeably over-
heated. The i n t e r i o r of h i s space suit was soaking w e t , and portions
of t h e ELSS s u i t loop had become s a t u r a t e d with water.

Two EVA anomalies d i r e c t l y involved t h e ELSS and r e s u l t e d i n t h e


early termination of t h e Gemini TX-A EVA: v i s o r fogging and apparent
h e a t exchanger dry-out. Higher work loads than expected were evident
throughout t h e EVA. The h e a t exchanger w a s designed f o r a nominal met-
abolic r a t e of 1400 Btu/hr and maximum of 2000 Btu/hr f o r periods of
short duration. The h e a r t r a t e data recorded by t h e bioinstrumentation
i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e s e r a t e s may have been exceeded, which, i n e f f e c t ,
would overpower t h e c a p a b i l i t i e s of t h e ELSS h e a t exchanger.

The cooling c a p a b i l i t y was adequate, even on medium flow, but a t


excessive metabolic r a t e s , t h e h e a t exchanger was not a b l e t o keep up
with t h e high l a t e n t thermal load and maintain t h e s u i t environment a t
a low enough humidity t o preclude fogging. During t h e high work loads,
fogging was probably i n t e n s i f i e d by t h e high r e s p i r a t i o n rates observed
during t h e EVA. This r e s p i r a t i o n rate would humidify 55 t o 75 percent
of t h e t o t a l oxygen flow t o t h e helmet, r a i s i n g the dew point around
t h e v i s o r s u f f i c i e n t l y t o cause fogging a t normal v i s o r operating tem-
peratures, and a l s o t o i n h i b i t c l e a r i n g of t h e v i s o r . The high work
load and r e s p i r a t i o n r a t e apparently exceeded t h e combined c a p a b i l i t i e s
of t h e ELSS and t h e space suit v e n t i l a t i o n system.
A f t e r t h e mission an attempt was made t o repeat the observed fog-
ging phenomenon i n an a l t i t u d e chamber t e s t with t h e Gemini M-A f l i g h t
ELSS and space suit equipment. The t e s t was successful i n duplicating
t h e observed results, and fogging occurred over about 80 percent of t h e
v i s o r a t a c a l i b r a t e d metabolic rate of about 2430 Btu/hr. Anti-fog
solution applied t o a small s e c t i o n of the v i s o r kept t h a t section f r e e
of fog. Visor c l e a r i n g occurred when the subject stopped exercising,
and t h i s r e s u l t was i n f a i r agreement with the f a c t t h a t some c l e a r i n g
of t h e v i s o r had occurred during t h e periods when t h e Gemini IX-A p i l o t
was resting.

The f l i g h t and t e s t results indicated t h a t t h e b a s i c ELSS design


c a p a b i l i t i e s of 1000 Btu/hr f o r 71 minutes, 1400 Btu/hr f o r 86 minutes,
and 2000 Btu/hr f o r 10 minutes were s u b s t a n t i a l l y exceeded by t h e a c t i v -
i t y l e v e l s encountered during t h e Gemini IX-A EVA. For future EVA m i s -
sions with t h e ELSS, it was apparent t h a t t h e EVA work load would have
t o be reduced t o be within t h e system c a p a b i l i t i e s . (See s e c t i o n 5.1
f o r a discussion of work load and body r e s t r a i n t s . ) A s a f'urther pre-
caution against v i s o r fogging, provision was made f o r f u t u r e crews t o
carry anti-fog solution t o be applied immediately before EVA.

The ELSS h e a t exchanger contained 0.596 pound of water a t l i f t - o f f .


The r e s i d u a l amount of water a f t e r f l i g h t was 0.246 pound. The p i l o t
s t a t e d t h a t during ingress, he became uncomfortably warm. Heat ex-
changer performance was beginning t o decrease because it was drying out
near t h e t i m e of ingress. Depletion of t h e h e a t exchanger water w a s
a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e higher-than-anticipated metabolic load.

4.2.2.5.3 Gemini X: The Gemini X ELSS chestpack performed satis-


f a c t o r i l y and without incident during t h e 38-minute umbilical EVA. Wet
wiping pads soaked i n a v i s o r anti-fog s o l u t i o n were used during EVA
preparation. Although work loads experienced may have been higher than
design s p e c i f i c a t i o n , no v i s o r fogging occurred.

The p i l o t had d i f f i c u l t y removing t h e ELSS from t h e center stowage


frame. I n i t i a l l y , some r e s i s t a n c e was experienced i n attempting t o
slide t h e ELSS forward. The f o r c e s exerted by t h e p i l o t caused t h e ELSS
t o s l i d e forward r a p i d l y i n t h e storage frame and s t r i k e t h e c e n t e r
cabin l i g h t . The remainder of ELSS donning was accomplished without
incident.

No f r e e water was observed i n t h e chestpack p o r t s a t any t i m e , i n -


d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e i n i t i a l ELSS h e a t exchanger charge of 0.626 pound of
water w a s held i n t h e storage wicks.

The ELSS emergency oxygen supply pressure was 6300 p s i g a t egress,


since some oxygen depletion occurred during and a f t e r checkout of t h e ELSS.
The l a r g e s t depletion occurred when t h e p i l o t opened h i s space s u i t v i s o r
b r i e f l y while waiting f o r t h e designated time f o r cabin depressurization.

4-53
A t t h e t i m e of hatch opening and egress t h e ELSS was set on medium
flow. A f t e r moderate sustained e x e r t i o n i n conjunction with t h e extra-
vehicular t r a n s f e r t o t h e Gemini VI11 GATV:, the p i l o t noticed t h a t he
w a s warm and s e l e c t e d ELSS high flow, which r e s t o r e d h i s comfort. Be-
cause of a shortage of spacecraft p r o p e l l a n t , t h e Gemini X EVA was t e r -
minated e a r l y . The ELSS cooling was adequate during i n g r e s s , and
although t h e p i l o t ' s work load was moderate t o high, he reported t h a t
he was cooler than he had been during ground simulations i n t h e vacuum
chamber. The p i l o t reported t h a t , a f t e r advancing t o high flow, he f e l t
n e i t h e r hot nor cold u n t i l i n g r e s s , a t which t i m e he was warm:, though
not overheated.

A q u a l i t a t i v e assessment of t h e heat l o a d t o t h e ELSS indicated


t h a t t h e p i l o t ' s h e a t output before i n g r e s s was s i g n i f i c a n t l y less than
t h a t experienced during Gemini IX-A. Total time on t h e ELSS i n t h e
vacuum environment was about 40 minutes. The ELSS chestpack, hoses,
and r e s t r a i n t s t r a p s were j e t t i s o n e d during t h e next revolution a f t e r
ingress.

4.2.2.5.4 Gemini XI: EVA preparations were i n i t i a t e d 4 hours


p r i o r t o scheduled cabin depressurization. Because t h e crew was con-
siderably ahead of schedule a f t e r nearly 1 hour of work, EVA prepara-
t i o n s were temporarily stopped, and t h e crew r e s t e d for nearly one
revolution.

The EVA preparations continued t o proceed more r a p i d l y than a n t i c -


ipated; consequently, t h e ELSS donning and checkout were completed more
than 2 hours before t h e scheduled hatch opening. The p i l o t remained on
t h e ELSS f o r approximately 1 0 minutes and then returned t o tEe space-
c r a f t ECS because of t h e l a c k of cooling and because of t h e higher rate
of spacecraft oxygen consumption when on t h e ELSS. During t h i s period,
t h e cabin w a s a t 5 p s i a , and t h e ELSS heat exchanger w a s not providing
cooling, since a vacuum environment w a s required for water evaporation.
After t h e mission, t h e p i l o t reported t h a t he w a s becoming uncomfortably
warm during t h i s 10-minute period of operation on t h e ELSS.

ELSS operation w a s resumed approximately 30 minutes before t h e


scheduled hatch opening. The p i l o t began t o g e t warm again, and t h i s
heat condition was aggravated by d i f f i c u l t y i n i n s t a l l i n g t h e sun v i s o r
on h i s helmet. It i s apparent from h i s d e s c r i p t i o n t h a t t h e p i l o t be-
came q u i t e warm and perspired s i g n i f i c a n t l y during t h i s period.

The cabin was depressurized t o l e s s than 0.2 p s i a 5 minutes before


t h e hatch was opened, and t h e ELSS h e a t exchanger began normal operation
a t t h i s t i m e . A t t h e t i m e of hatch opening, t h e ELSS flow c o n t r o l w a s
set on t h e medium p o s i t i o n , and t h e p i l o t subsequently reported t h a t t h e
ELSS cooling was s a t i s f a c t o r y with t h e medium flow.

4-54
Attaching t h e spacecraft/GATV tether involved an unusually high
expenditure of energy, and t h e p i l o t became very fatigued and began
breathing very heavily. A s a result, t h e EVA was terminated e a r l y after
t h e hatch had been open only 33 minutes. Ingress w a s normal, and hatch
closure presented no problems. The air-to-ground transmissions imme-
d i a t e l y after EVA termination indicated t h a t the p i l o t ' s v i s i o n was im-
paired by heavy p e r s p i r a t i o n . More d e t a i l e d discussions, a f t e r t h e
mission, revealed t h a t t h e p i l o t ' s f a t i g u e and t h e concern f o r h i s a b i l -
i t y t o complete a d d i t i o n a l high-effort t a s k s w e r e t h e p r i n c i p a l f a c t o r s
i n t h e decision t o terminate t h e EVA. The p i l o t reported t h a t he had
used high flow on t h e ELSS during t h e attachment of t h e GATV t e t h e r and
t h a t t h e cooling was adequate f o r comfort and w a s comparable t o ground
simulations. He a l s o reported t h a t h i s f a c e w a s w e t with p e r s p i r a t i o n
and t h a t p e r s p i r a t i o n i n h i s l e f t eye had caused i r r i t a t i o n , b u t
it had been t o l e r a b l e . Although t h e EVA termination may not have been
caused by v i s i o n impairment from p e r s p i r a t i o n , t h e results of t h i s EVA
emphasized t h e l i m i t a t i o n s of a gaseous-flow cooling system. A t high
work l e v e l s , heavy p e r s p i r a t i o n ensued, and t h e gaseous flow d i d not
evaporate a l l t h e moisture t h a t w a s produced. Results from ground t e s t -
i n g indicated t h a t s a t i s f a c t o r y cooling and moisture c o n t r o l could be
maintained when t h e work l e v e l s and t h e metabolic rates were less than
2000 Btu/hr. The overheat condition encountered before hatch opening
and t h e high energy expenditure i n t h e e a r l y p a r t of t h e Gemini X I EVA
apparently exceeded t h e system capacity f o r moisture removal.

4.2.2.5.5 Gemini X I I : The ELSS performed normally during t h e EVA


preparations. The p i l o t used medium flow on t h e ELSS during t h e period
before hatch opening. A t t h a t t i m e , he selected high flow, which was
continued f o r t h e duration of ELSS operation. The ELSS maintained a
comfortable suit environment f o r t h e e n t i r e 126-minute ZVA period.

The p i l o t reported t h a t he w a s cool and t h a t h i s f e e t were cold.


After t h e mission, t h e p i l o t commented t h a t h i s f e e t had been cold, but
not t o t h e extent of any discomfort. This i s i n c o n t r a s t with p i l o t
reports on Gemini IX-A, X, and X I , a f t e r which t h e p i l o t s reported
t h a t they were n e i t h e r w a r m nor cool during EVA.

The oxygen allotment f o r umbilical EVA w a s 23 pounds, with


2.9 pounds scheduled f o r egress preparation and 22.1 pounds f o r a pro-
j e c t e d 2-hour and 10-minute EVA time l i n e . From t h e experience of t h e
Gemini X I p i l o t a t t h e Target Docking Adapter (TDA) of t h e GATV, t h e
use of t h e medium-plus-bypass flow mode was planned f o r a l l TDA work.
This mode increased dry makeup oxygen flow t o t h e ELSS chestpack and
increased t h e c a p a b i l i t y of t h e v e n t i l a t i o n gas t o remove l a t e n t heat
and t o purge carbon dioxide from t h e helmet. If work loads exceeded
t h e design l i m i t s , medium-plus-bypass flow w o u l d provide g r e a t e r protec-
t i o n against v i s o r fogging than t h a t obtained i n t h e normal high flow
mode. The p i l o t e l e c t e d t o remain i n t h e high flow mode f o r t h e e n t i r e

4-55
hatch-open p e r i o d because of t h e s a t i s f a c t o r y cooling and t h e absence of
v i s o r fogging. The p i l o t s t a t e d t h a t h e f e l t t h a t h i s work rate had
not taxed t h e c a p a b i l i t y of t h e system i n the high flow mode and t h a t
he could have worked somewhat harder without discomfort.

T o t a l ELSS oxygen usage f o r t h e 126-minute EVA period was


18.9 pounds, which i n d i c a t e d a usage rate of 8.9 l b / h r , as compared t o
t h e measured value of 8.5 l b / h r obtained during p r e f l i g h t t e s t i n g .

The EVA p i l o t performed s e v e r a l t a s k s intended t o evaluate any


f o r c e s a c t i n g on him from e i t h e r t h r u s t o r p r e s s u r e f o r c e s from t h e
ELSS outflow. He reported t h a t he was unable t o d e t e c t any f o r c e s which
might b e a t t r i b u t a b l e t o t h e ELSS. There was no noticeable f l o a t - o u t
o r f l o a t - u p tendency when he was standing i n t h e cockpit with t h e hatch
open.

Ingress was accomplished on t i m e and without i n c i d e n t . The hatch


was closed, and r e p r e s s u r i z a t i o n of t h e cabin was performed using t h e
ELSS self-contained emergency oxygen supply. High-plus-bypass flow was
s e l e c t e d t o i n c r e a s e t h e r a t e of cabin p r e s s u r i z a t i o n , and flow from
t h i s source w a s v e r i f i e d by t h e ELSS emergency alarm tone, which w a s
actuated by flow through t h e emergency oxygen supply l i n e .

4.2.2.6 Assessment of chestpack c a p a b i l i t y . -

4.2.2.6.1 P i l o t encumbrance: A s previously s t a t e d , t h e ELSS was


chest mounted. I n order t h a t t h e EVA p i l o t could see a l l of t h e d i s -
p l a y s and warning l i g h t s over t h e lower l i p of t h e Gemini s u i t helmet,
t h e chestpack had t o be c a r r i e d as high as p o s s i b l e under t h e helmet
neck r i n g and c l o s e t o t h e body. This pack l o c a t i o n r e s t r i c t e d two-
hand t a s k performance i n t h e most n a t u r a l work a r e a and caused some com-
p l i c a t i o n t o t h e p i l o t when he worked c l o s e to a f i x e d o b j e c t .

4 * 2.2.6.2 Metabolic h e a t r e j e c t i o n : Although t h e system was de-


signed t o operate with average metabolic loads of 1400 Btu/hr and with
peaks of 2000 Btu/hr f o r f a i r l y s h o r t durations, t h e average sustained in-
f l i g h t h e a t loads appeared t o have exceeded t h e peak operating c a p a b i l i t y
of t h e ELSS i n t h e Gemini IX-A and G e m i n i X I missions. The EVA p i l o t s
i n d i c a t e d t h a t they were never uncomfortably h o t , b u t t h a t they gen-
e r a l l y became q u i t e damp from t h e p e r s p i r a t i o n . The l a t e n t metabolic
heat load had exceeded t h e heat r e j e c t i o n c a p a b i l i t y of t h e ELSS; t h e
h e a t exchanger w a s continuing t o r e j e c t h e a t and provide some cooling
t o the pilot.

4.2.2.6.3 Carbon dioxide removal: The g e n e r a l l y accepted standard


f o r maximum carbon dioxide p a r t i a l p r e s s u r e i s 7.6 mm Hg (1percent)
f o r i n d e f i n i t e operation and f o r short-time o r emergency operation not
more than 15 mm Hg. From t e s t d a t a gathered during manned q u a l i f i c a t i o n

4-56
t e s t and crew t r a i n i n g runs with t h e chestpack, t h e p a r t i a l pressure of
t h e carbon dioxide i n t h e i n s p i r e d gas ranged from 7 t o 13 mm Hg f o r
work r a t e s up t o approximately 2400 Btu/hr. This range was, of course,
subject t o considerable v a r i a t i o n , depending on t h e ELSS flow mode (me-
dium, high, medium-plus-bypass, or high-plus-bypass) and t h e associated
work l e v e l s . Although carbon dioxide c o n t r o l was accomplished by dump-
ing gas from t h e suit loap, i t s washout w a s dependent upon t h e amount
of gas being dumped; t h a t i s , i f t h e prima= gas flow rate was increased,
t h e v e n t i l a t i o n flow rate would increase proportionally, and t h e over-
board flow would increase by t h e same amount as t h e primary. Carbon
dioxide c o n t r o l was a l s o dependent upon flow rate of f r e s h gas t o t h e
helmet oro-nasal area, o r upon t h e s u i t v e n t i l a t i o n efficiency. Modifica-
t i o n s i n one or both of t h e s e areas would have been required t o reduce
t h e l e v e l of i n s p i r e d carbon dioxide, but s i n c e normal desigr, workloads
d i d not produce c r i t i c a l concentrations of carbon dioxide, these modi-
f i c a t i o n s were apparently not needed. A t workloads w e l l beyond t h e
design l i m i t s , carbon dioxide concentrations may be objectionably high.
A high carbon dioxide concentration may have contributed t o t h e sudden
f a t i g u e and heavy r e s p i r a t i o n o f t h e p i l o t during t h e Gemini X I umbil-
i c a l EVA.

4.2.2.6.4 Mechanical and e l e c t r i c a l operation: Despite t h e prob-


lems discussed h e r e i n and many o t h e r minor problems, t h e o v e r a l l opera-
t i o n o f t h e ELSS e l e c t r i c a l and mechanical subsystems during
extravehicular use as compared t o design requirements m u s t be considered
excellent, and i n most instances, i n excess of a n t i c i p a t e d c a p a b i l i t y .

4-57
4.2.3 Extravehicular Support Package

The ESP backpack was furnished f o r t h e Gemini VI11 mission and was
designed t o provide primary oxygen t o t h e ELSS and Freon-14 p r o p e l l a n t
t o t h e HHMU s o t h a t an e x t r a v e h i c u l a r crewman might maneuver i n space
without s p a c e c r a f t supplies. The only t i e t o t h e s p a c e c r a f t while oper-
a t i n g with t h e ESP was t o be a 75-foot t e t h e r . The ESP configuration
was t h e same as t h a t of t h e AMU and i t s mounting provisions were l i k e
t h e AMlJ t o f a c i l i t a t e i n t e g r a t i o n with t h e s p a c e c r a f t .

4.2.3.1 ESP backpack.- The ESP backpack ( f i g . 4.2-17) supplied


oxygen t o t h e ELSS chestpack a t 97 k 10 p s i g f o r p r e s s u r i z a t i o n , v e n t i -
l a t i o n , and metabolic use. The ESP oxygen flow t o t h e ELSS was 5.1 or
7.8 l b / h r f o r normal modes of operation and up t o 16.2 l b / h r under
emergency conditions or i f bypass-plus-high flow were s e l e c t e d . How-
ever, i f bypass flow were i n i t i a t e d , flow sharing between t h e ESP and
ELSS emergency supply might occur because of t h e increased pressure drop
across t h e ESP oxygen pressure r e g u l a t o r under t h e high-flow conditions.

Freon-14 p r o p e l l a n t was supplied t o t h e HHMlT a t 100 f 13 p s i g . The


obtainable t h r u s t was 2 k 0.25 pounds over a time span of about 200 sec-
onds, with a t o t a l v e l o c i t y increment of 72.5 k 2.5 f t / s e c .

A s seen i n f i g u r e 4.2-16, t h e l i f e support oxygen and Freon-14 for


propulsion were s t o r e d i n a gaseous s t a t e i n two pressure v e s s e l s a t
5000 p s i g . Gemini ECS secondary oxygen p r e s s u r e v e s s e l s were used t o
minimize development and q u a l i f i c a t i o n t e s t i n g requirements. The ESP
oxygen supply system supporting t h e ELSS chestpack w a s a complete
Gemini ECS secondary oxygen subsystem, with t h e pressure s e t t i n g modi-
f i e d from 75 +_ 10 p s i g t o 97 k 10 p s i g t o assure compatibility with t h e
ELSS chestpack. The Freon-14 subsystem included a P r o j e c t Mercury oxy-
gen r e g u l a t o r f o r a l a r g e r flow c a p a b i l i t y f o r t h e HHMlT.

The ESP had a self-contained power supply, an ELSS-type b a t t e r y .


The power requirement of t h e ESP w a s 28 w a t t s a t 28 f 4 V dc. The bat-
t e r y supplied power f o r t h e UHF t r a n s c e i v e r , t h e p r e s s u r e transducers,
t h e voltage r e g u l a t o r / s i g n a l conditioner, and t h e oxygen l i n e h e a t e r .
The voltage r e g u l a t o r / s i g n a l conditioner provided regulated 1 2 V dc
power t o t h e oxygen and Freon-14 subassembly p r e s s u r e transducers. The
pressure-transducer outputs were conditioned by t h e s i g n a l conditioner
before going t o t h e ELSS chestpack hydrogen peroxide q u a n t i t y gage f o r
d i s p l a y of e i t h e r oxygen or Freon-14 q u a n t i t y remaining. A switch l o -
cated on t h e lower left-hand s i d e of t h e ESP enabled t h e p i l o t t o s e l e c t
e i t h e r oyygen or Freon-14 q u a n t i t y f o r d i s p l a y . Figure 4.2-17 shows t h e
o p e r a t i o n a l time a v a i l a b l e on t h e ESP i n terms of t h e quantity of
oxygen remaining and t h e chestpack flow mode.

4-58
The ESP had two modes of voice communication between t h e EVA p i l o t
and t h e command p i l o t i n t h e spacecraft. One mode u t i l i z e d t h e UHF
voice t r a n s c e i v e r developed f o r t h e Air Force AMU, and t h e o t h e r was
hard-line by means of t h e 7 5 - f O O t t e t h e r . The hard-line mode provided
t h e EVA p i l o t d i r e c t communication with t h e spacecraft. However, i n t h e
RF ( t r a n s c e i v e r ) mode, t h e p i l o t had a push-to-talk c o n t r o l t o key t h e
t r a n s c e i v e r . He could s e l e c t t h e d e s i r e d mode of communication by a
switch l o c a t e d on t h e lower right-hand s i d e of t h e ESP.
A 20-watt r e s i s t a n c e h e a t e r w a s wrapped around t h e ESP o u t l e t oxy-
gen l i n e t o maintain t h e o u t l e t oxygen temperature above 0' F t o be
compatible with ELSS chestpack i n l e t requirements. The h e a t e r w a s
manually actuated by t h e EVA p i l o t with a switch located below t h e com-
munication switch on t h e lower r i g h t s i d e of t h e ESP. The heater opera-
t i n g cycle during ESP operation w a s dependent upon mission length and
upon chestpack flow mode.

4.2.3.2 Seventy-five-foot t e t h e r . - The 75-foot t e t h e r was devel-


oped to provide mechanical and e l e c t r i c a l attachment between t h e EVA
p i l o t and t h e s p a c e c r a f t , when u t i l i z i n g t h e ESP backpack. I n use, t h e
7 5 - f O O t t e t h e r was connected between t h e 25-foot ELSS umbilical and t h e
p i l o t t o allow a t o t a l of 100 feet f o r t r a n s l a t i o n from t h e spacecraft.
The 7 5 - f O O - b t e t h e r provided t h e following e l e c t r i c a l connections t o t h e
spacecraft :

Electrocardiogram

Impedance pneumograph

The r e s t r a i n t p o r t i o n of t h e t e t h e r consisted of r o l l e d €IT-1 nylon


w i t h an ultimate breaking s t r e n g t h g r e a t e r than 1000 pounds.

4.2.3.3 Mechanical i n t e r f a c e requirements.- The mechanical i n t e r -


f a c e between t h e spacecraft and ESP included ESP stowage and operational
provisions required f o r EVA support. The ESP was stowed i n t h e adapter
equipment s e c t i o n of t h e spacecraft. The ESP o v e r a l l dimensions, mating
spacecraft hardpoints, and t h e i r l o c a t i n g dimensions were t h e same as
those defined f o r t h e AMU flown on Gemini IX-A.

4-59
4.2.3.4 Development and qualification.-

4.2.3.4.1 Development t e s t i n g : One manned development t e s t was


performed with t h e development ESP. This t e s t w a s performed i n conjunc-
t i o n with t h e l a s t manned vacuum q u a l i f i c a t i o n t e s t of t h e ELSS. The
ESP was cold soaked i n a cold room with t h r e e walls and t h e c e i l i n g
maintained a t t h e temperature of l i q u i d nitrogen (-320" F) f o r approxi-
mately one hour. The ESP functioned t o specification f o r 5 minutes when
t h e t e s t was terminated because of a t o r n glove. The design of t h e ESP
subsystems w a s considered acceptable and q u a l i f i c a t i o n hardware was fab-
r i c a t e d f o r t h e t e s t s described i n t h e following paragraphs.

4.2.3.4.2 Qualification t e s t i n g :

(a) Manned a l t i t u d e q u a l i f i c a t i o n t e s t s m a r y : Three manned


t e s t s were conducted i n t h e MSC 20-foot a l t i t u d e qhamber t o determine
high propellant usage by t h e HHMU and high oxygen usage by t h e ELSS.
To qualify t h e ESP f o r f l i g h t a s an oxygen source f o r t h e ELSS and a
propellant source f o r the HHMU, t h r e e w a l l s and the c e i l i n g of t h e cold
room were maintained a t l i q u i d nitrogen temperatures f o r simulation of
o r b i t a l night.

During t h e t e s t s , the ESP oxygen system provided s u f f i c i e n t flow


and pressure f o r nominal chestpack operation. The temperature of oxy-
gen supplied from t h e ESP declined t o -52', -TO0, and -48' F i n Tests 1,
2, and 3, respectively.

(1) Manned high propellant usage (Test 1): U t i l i z i n g Boiler-


p l a t e 2 as a spacecraft oxygen supply t o t h e ELSS, t h e chamber pressure
w a s reduced t o 4 mm Hg, t h e oxygen l i n e from t h e ESP was connected t o
t h e ELSS, and t h e 25-foot umbilical was disconnected. The ELSS was
operated on medium flow f o r 45 minutes with t h e subject working a t a
nominal r a t e of 1000 Btu/hr. Following t h i s operation with t h e chest-
pack, cyclic operation of t h e HHMU was i n i t i a t e d with a duty cycle of
30 seconds on and 30 seconds off, t o simulate a high usage r a t e , u n t i l
t h e supply of Freon-14 was depleted. The only d i f f i c u l t y with t h i s
sequence was t h e f a i l u r e of t h e HHMlT propellant valves t o close quickly
a f t e r each duty cycle. Operation was continued using t h e ESP oxygen
system u n t i l depletion, and ELSS emergency oxygen was i n i t i a t e d . The
ELSS was then reconnected t o the 25-foot umbilical and the chamber w a s
returned t o sea-level pressure.

(2) Manned high oxygen usage (Test 2): The t e s t subject used
t h e ELSS with a simulated spacecraft oxygen supply i n t h e 20-foot cham-
b e r , which was decompressed t o a pressure of 4 mm Hg. The oxygen l i n e
from t h e ESP was connected and t h e ELSS operated a t high flow. However,
t h e run was unsuccessful because of t h e f a i l u r e of an aluminum l i n e t h a t
w a s used t o lengthen t h e ESP oxygen hose i n t h e t e s t setup. The f a i l u r e

4- 60
r e s u l t e d i n l o s s of t h e remaining ESP oxygen and i n actuation of t h e ELSS
emergency oxygen and warning systems. The ELSS functioned normally when
t h e primary oxygen supply from t h e ESP stopped.

(3) Manned high-oxygen usage (Test 3): The run described i n


t h e preceding paragraph was repeated. The chestpack w a s operated on
high flow u n t i l , a f t e r 55 minutes, t h e ESP oxygen supply w a s depleted,
and t h e ELSS emergency flow began. The subject worked a t a nominal
1400-Btu/hr rate during t h e t e s t . Upon depletion of t h e ESP oxygen
supply, t h e 25-foot umbilical was reconnected, and t h e HHMU was cycled
30 seconds on and 30 seconds o f f f o r 5 b u r s t s ; then 5 seconds on and
17 seconds o f f . To v e r i f y operation of t h e disconnect, t h e HHMU was
disconnected from t h e supply l i n e a f t e r every 5 b u r s t s . The HHMCT dis-
connect w a s hard t o disconnect and it leaked. The propellant valves
f a i l e d t o seal properly, as i n Test 1. Therefore, the disconnect was
changed t o a threaded connector, and two shutoff valves were added t o
t h e Freon l i n e (one adjacent t o t h e HHMlT and one on Che bottom of t h e
ESP). To r e c t i f y t h e propellant valves s t i c k i n g open, t h e O-ring mate-
r i a l was changed t o Teflon. Also, t h e Freon-14 servicing procedures
were changed t o verif'y less than 10 ppm moisture content. The FMMlT
q u a l i f i c a t i o n was completed by separate t e s t , as described i n para-
graph 6.1.2.

(b) Vibration tests:

(1) Normal vibration: The ESP w a s placed i n a Gemini space-


c r a f t adapter a t t h e spacecraft c o n t r a c t o r ' s p l a n t , mounted against t h e
spacecraft b l a s t s h i e l d i n t h e launch-mounting configuration. The oxy-
gen subsystem was pressurized t o 5000 p s i g nitrogen and t h e Freon sub-
system t o 5000 p s i g Freon-14. The adapter w a s subjected t o a random
v i b r a t i o n spectrum along t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l axis comparable t o t h e launch
environment. Upon completion of t h e t e s t , a l l systems functioned
normally.

( 2 ) Overstress vibration: Later, a t t h e Manned Spacecraft


Center, t h e ESP with subsystems unpressurized w a s mounted on a shaker
i n t h e launch a t t i t u d e , and an o v e r s t r e s s random v i b r a t i o n t e s t w a s per-
formed. A f t e r t h i s t e s t , t h e ESP functioned c o r r e c t l y .

( e ) Acceleration tests: The ESP was subjected t o two separate


acceleration p r o f i l e s during q u a l i f i c a t i o n . The ESP oxygen and Freon
subsystems were each pressurized with 5000 p s i g nitrogen and Freon-14.
The first p r o f i l e consisted of an increasing acceleration along t h e
longitudinal spacecraft axis from lg t o 7.25g l i n e a r l y over a period
of 165 seconds. This p r o f i l e was performed twice i n t h e MSC Acceleration
Laboratory centrifuge. The second p r o f i l e (shock) was a 4-g load f o r
0.25 second along t h e spacecraft longitudinal a x i s and along each of t h e
mutually perpendicular axes. Visual inspection revealed that one of

4-61
bulkheads supporting t h e b o t t l e s w a s s l i g h t l y warped. However, t h e
s t r u c t u r a l i n t e g r i t y was not compromised, t h e ESP w a s subjected t o
functional t e s t i n g , and t h e ESP was considered q u a l i f i e d f o r the a n t i c -
i p a t e d acceleration loading.

( d ) Acoustic noise: The ESP with t h e oxygen and Freon subsystems


serviced with 5000 p s i g oxygen and Freon-14 was subjected t o t h e launch
environment acoustic noise spectrum which was applied t o t h e t h r e e most
s e n s i t i v e , mutually perpendicular axes w i t h a duration of 1 0 minutes i n
each a x i s ( f i g . 4.2-18). The ESP .successfully completed functional
t e s t s after being subjected t o t h i s environment.

( e ) Explosive atmosphere: With pad pressure i n t h e omgen and


Freon-14 subsystems of t h e ESP, explosive atmosphere t e s t i n g w a s con-
ducted as follows. The ESP was placed i n an atmosphere of butane gas
and a i r and operated with power t o a l l e l e c t r i c a l components without
causing an explosion.

( f ) Humidity t e s t : The ESP s t r u c t u r a l and pneumatic components


were considered q u a l i f i e d by previous t e s t f o r t h i s environment. The
wiring harness and voltage regulator/signal conditioner were subjected
t o a 97.5 f. 2.5 percent r e l a t i v e humidity environment while temperature
w a s cycled a t 120" F f o r 8 hours, and from 68" t o 100" F f o r 16 hours.
This w a s repeated f o r f i v e cycles, o r f o r a t o t a l of 120 hours. The har-
ness and voltage regulator/signal conditioner were operationally checked,
and no degradation i n performance w a s detected.

( g ) Oxygen and Freon supply-hose cold-bearing tests: The oxygen


supply hose w a s subjected t o 25 cycles of 90-degree bending i n a l l
d i r e c t i o n s about t h e same point of f l e x u r e while i n an ambient tempera-
t u r e of -60"F. The hose was pressurized t o 110 p s i g and exhibited no
s t r u c t u r a l degradation o r leakage a t t h e end of t h e t e s t .

( h ) Thermal t e s t : The ESP and extension umbilical were subjected


t o t h e expected thermal environment f o r t h e Gemini V I 1 1 EVA i n a thermal
vacuum t e s t i n g f a c i l i t y . The environmental t e s t conditions included:
-4
(1) The t e s t chamber pressure was less than 5 X 10 m Hg.

(2) The chamber cyrogenic w a l l temperature average was less


than -290" F.

( 3 ) A simulated s o l a r flux of one s o l a r constant was provided


a t t h e t e s t plane.

The ESP, serviced t o 5000 p s i g oxygen i n t h e oxygen subsystem, and


with nitrogen and Freon-14 i n t h e propellent subsystem, w a s attached t o a
thermal dummy wearing a Gemini extravehicular s u i t with t h e AMU t h e m a l

4-62
c o v e r a l l f o r more complete simulation of a c t u a l conditions. The s u i t e d
dummy, t h e 75-foot t e t h e r , and t h e ESP were suspended from a r o t a t i o n
mechanism i n t h e Space Environment Simulator ahd operated through two
simulated EVA missions. Each mission simulated egress 5 minutes before
sunrise and l a s t e d t o a minimum of 40 minutes after sundown. The second
t e s t sequence w a s l i m i t e d because of a l e a k which developed a t t h e Freon
regulator i n l e t (refer t o paragraph 4.2.3.5.4). The only equipment m a l -
function during t h e tests was t h e aforementioned leak.

Temperature v a r i a t i o n s were monitored during each t e s t i n c r i t i c a l


areas: b a t t e r y , t r a n s c e i v e r , ELSS oxygen supply system, HHMU Freon
supply system, and ESP s t r u c t u r e . The important v a r i a t i o n s were as
follows .
(1) The temperature of t h e dormant b a t t e r y ranged between
33" and 73" F with t h e lower temperature experienced a f t e r 79 minutes
of simulated night o r b i t .

(2) The t r a n s c e i v e r temperature varied between 62" and 108" F.

(3) The low p o i n t of t h e delivered gas temperature measured


during blowdown of t h e propellent supply subsystem was -13" F when
serviced with nitrogen, and -110" F when serviced with Freon-14.

(4) The low point of t h e delivered gas temperature of t h e


oxygen supply subsystem w a s -21" F a f t e r depletion a t a flow rate of
6.8 l b s / h r f o r 30 minutes and 12.7 l b s / h r f o r 17 minutes.
A v i s u a l inspection of the ESP and extension umbilical after com-
p l e t i o n of t e s t i n g revealed no evidence o f damage o r d e t e r i o r a t i o n .

(i) Radio-frequency i n t e r f e r e n c e (IIFI) : The FPI compatibility


t e s t i n g of t h e ESP assembly was checked with t h e Gemini V I 1 1 spacecraft
during a radio-frequency compatibility and communication t e s t a t t h e
launch s i t e . A s a result, a push-to-talk switch w a s i n s t a l l e d i n t h e
ESP e l e c t r i c a l system, and t h e t r a n s c e i v e r VOX c i r c u i t r y w a s disabled.
This modification proved s a t i s f a c t o r y during J o i n t Combined Systems
Test and F i n a l Systems Test w i t h t h e ESP and t h e spacecraft at Launch
Complex 19 p r i o r t o f l i g h t .

( j ) Seventy-five-foot t e t h e r : The 75-foot t e t h e r was q u a l i f i e d


with t h e ESP i n a l l t e s t s except humidity and explosive atmosphere. I n
addition, t h e umbilical w a s t e s t e d separately for humidity.

4-63
4.2.3.3 Significant problem areas.-

4.2.3.5.1 Transceiver VOX: The transceiver was designed as a


voice-operated system, that is, each time the EVA pilot spoke, the
transceiver was automatically keyed to the transmit mode. At any other
time, the system was in the receiving mode.

During preliminary compatibility tests, the VOX system stayed keyed


continuously (transmit mode). This problem was corrected by modifying
the ESP wire harness to eliminate a cross-talk condition between the
headset and the microphone leads. This corrective action appeared to
be satisfactory during subsequent communications checks; however, during
the electrical verification test for Gemini VIII, the transceiver was
keyed repeatedly by the noise level of the ventilation gas flow through
the EVA pilot's suit helmet. Consequently, a push-to-talk switch was
incorporated into the ESP electrical system, and the VOX control was
disabled. Tnis switch was located on the right front of the ESP.

4.2.3.5.2 Alarm system limitations: While the transceiver was in


use, a limitation was imposed on the chestpack alarm.system. With hard-
line communication, the alarm tone emanating from the chestpack was
transmitted simultaneously to the pilot and the command pilot. When
the transceiver was in use, however, and the alarm signal (audio tone)
was activated, this signal was transmitted via hard-line only to the
command pilot who, in turn, alerted the pilot of the emergency condition
via RF transmission. The pilot would verify the condition by observing
the chestpack control panel lights. When this limitation was discovered,
it was not rectified. To redesign and modify the system was deemed im-
practical at the time because the transceiver was being carried as a
backup system.

4.2.3.3.3 ESP oxygen quick disconnect: During the final manned


ESP qualification test, the test subject experienced difficulty attach-
ing the ESP oxygen quick disconnect (0) to the mating QD on the ELSS.
Cyclic connect-disconnect tests were satisfactorily performed at temper-
ature extremes of -30° to 250' F. Testing performed by MSC personnel
and the QD manufacturer showed, that at temperatures below -30" F, the
Q D ' s were hard to mate and did not shut off rapidly when disconnected.
The problem was attributed to improper QD cleaning and drying procedures.

4.2.3.5.4 High-pressure Freon leak: Leakage from the storage


bottle into the Freon regulator occurred twice in the propellant sub-
system at the high-pressure fitting. Failure analysis revealed two
contributing factors:

(a) Inadequate clearance between the O-ring seal and the first
thread of the fitting

4-64
(b) The Teflon backup d i s c t o t h e O-ring i n the f i t t i n g was cold
flowing t o an i n i t i a l s e t a f t e r torque was applied -bo t h e nut, thus re-
ducing t h e a c t u a l torque on t h e f i t t i n g

The c o r r e c t i v e a c t i o n taken was t o increase t h e assembly torque t o


300 inch-pounds t o obtain a metal-to-metal contact and maximum cold flow
of t h e Teflon. Also each f i t t i n g was X-rayed t o insure proper clearance
a f t e r assembly.

4.2.3.3.5 Chestpack oxygen supply temperature: During i n i t i a l


manned chamber t e s t i n g , it was found t h a t t h e oxygen d e l i v e r y tempera-
t u r e from t h e ESP t o t h e chestpack might drop t o a value as low as
-70" F, depending upon t h e ELSS flow mode and duration of ESP operation.
A 20-watt r e s i s t a n c e h e a t e r was i n s t a l l e d on t h e ESP o u t l e t oxygen l i n e
t o prevent t h e chestpack i n l e t temperature from f a l l i n g below 0" F
during ESP operation.

4.2.3.6 Mission r e s u l t s . - The ESP was flown on t h e Gemini VI11


mission; however, because of a malf'unction of t h e spacecraft O r b i t a l
A t t i t u d e and Maneuver System, t h e f l i g h t was terminated early, and t h e
ESP ms not u t i l i z e d . Figures 4.2-19 and 4.2-20 show some p a r t s of
t h e ESP.

4-65
4-66
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NASA- S-67-256

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Figure 4.2-11. - Gas Flow rate calibration for E L S S chestpack 105.

4-76
NASA- S-6 7-2 57

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Figure 4.2-12. - Gas flow rate calibration for ELSS chestpack 107.

4-77
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4-83
NASA-S-67-238

Figure 4.2-19. - Front view of ESP with 75- foot tether stored.
4- 84
NASA-S-67-239

Figure 4.2-20 .- ESP internal components e

4-85
4.3 UMBILICAL AND TETHER COMBINATIONS

Several types of umbilical and tether combinations were designed,


fabricated, and used in accomplishing the extravehicular activities of
the Gemini Program to provide structural, fluid, and electrical linkage
with the spacecraft and to limit the distance between the extravehicular
crewman and the spacecraft. Body positioning tethers are discussed in
section 5.0 of this report.

The basic function of the umbilicals was to provide a structural


attachment, electrical leads for voice communications and biomedical
data, and an oxygen supply line. In one case, the 75-foot tether for
the Extravehicular Support Package (ESP) supplied only a s-bructural
member and electrical leads. And, the 5O-foot and 30-foot umbilicals
flown on GeminiX and Gemini XI, respectively, included a nitrogen sup-
ply line for the HXMU. A 25-foot umbilical was flown on Gemini IV,
VIII, IX-A, and XII. The 50-foot and 30-foot umbilicals were flown on
GeminiX and XI, respectively. The 75-foot tether was to have been
used during the ESP evaluation planned for Gemini V I I I .

4.3.1 Umbilical Development


The 25-foot umbilical was the original umbilical designed for Gemini
EVA. Development of the 30-foot and 50-foot umbilicals was based, in a
large part, on work accomplished on the 25-foot umbilical.

4.3.1.1 Twenty-five-foot umbilical.- The initial umbilical con-


figuration was an integral coaxial assembly which incorporated a gold-
plated outer sheath that enclosed the hose, tether, and electrical leads.
The configuration is shown in cross section in figure 4.3-1. The oxygen
hose was used as a core with the electrical conductors spiral wrapped
around the outside. A tubular nylon braid was selected as the load-
carrying tether. The nylon braid was pressed as a flat strap and was
placed between the conductors and the outer sheath. The overall flexi-
bility was almost the same as that of the 3/16-inch (inside diameter)
oxygen hose alone.
The electrical wiring consisted of four shielded twisted pairs, two
twisted shielded triads, one single shielded conductor, and one single
wire conductor. All wire was number 22 gage, 19-strand, nickel-plated
copper wire per m~-w-16878, Type ET, insulated with double-wrapped
WE Teflon.

The tether strap was standard tubular nylon webbing, one-half inch
wide (when flattened), fabricated to MIL-W-5625DY and with a minimum

4-86
tensile strength of 1000 pounds. The tether was designed shorter than
the oxygen and electrical portion of the umbilical to allow for elonga-
tion under load. The unstressed length was designed so that a 240-pound
man (including man, suit, and ELSS) with an initial velocity of 10 ft/sec
could be damped without applying a load on the oxygen line or electrical
leads. A 24-foot tether stretched to 27 feet with a 375-pound pull.
Oxygen and electrical lines were 27 feet long, based on this design load.

The insulation material initially applied to the outer sheath was


Armalon 9 7 - O O l G . The material consisted of a O.OO5-inch FEP film lami-
nated to Teflon fabric and metalized with gold. The material had a
nominal thickness of 0.001 inch and an emissivity of 0.1.

A method was later developed to provide a more flexible and durable


gold coating. The process involved a transfer of 24-carat gold from an
acetate film directly onto the nylon outer sheath by use of a thermo-
plastic adhesive system. This eliminated the gold-plated Teflon tape.

Thermal analysis of the coaxial umbilical design resulted in the


performance envelope shown in figure 4.3-2. Temperature extremes of
the oxygen delivered t o the chestpack (cooling in Case I and heating
in Case 111) were obtained at the end of the proposed 45-minute EVA.
A conservative value of 0.2 was assumed for the emissivity of the gold-
plated outer covering.

Performance and qualification tests were conducted with flight-


configuration umbilical systems. The insulation resistance was found
to be insufficient between some of the wires and shields. This failure
was due to wires protruding through insulation at kinked areas of the
conductor. The kinks were caused during the temperature curing cycle
of the umbilical assembly gold coating at 320° F. Short sections of
nylon cord used as spacers of the wire around the umbilical assembly
shrank because the nylon had not been temperature stabilized. Subse-
quent units were fabricated using temperature stabilized nylon cord.

As a result of insulation failures noted during qualification test-


ing, the wire type in the umbilical was changed from MTL-W-16878D,
Type ET, to MIL-W-l6878D, Type E. The difference between the two types
is the insulation wall thickness. Type ET has a nominal insulation wall
thickness of 0.006 inch, whereas Type E has a nominal insulation wall
thickness of 0.010 inch.

Production problems were encountered in applying the gold coating.


Also ground thermal tests at MSC indicated that the gold coating was
not as effective during nightside operations as had first been expected.

4-87
After the Gemini IV mission, several layers of aluminized Mylar
superinsulation under a Nomex (HT nylon) sheath were used instead of the
gold coating to provide thermal control during both dayside and darkside
operation. The superinsulation was made af layers of 0.25-mil aluminized
Eylar with 3.2-mil layers of Dacron scrim spacer.

Evaluations of stowage and attachment were conducted. The outlet


to the spacecraft cabin repressurization valve was modified to include
a quick disconnect half to mate with the umbilical. The controls for
this valve were already located on the center console in the cockpit.
In this location, the oxygen line attachment point was easily accessible
to either crewman. The existing shut-off valve, with minor modifications,
was utilized, .thereby avoiding significant spacecraft modifications.

On the Gemini IV mission, the inboard elbow restraint of the right-


hand seat was used as the tether attach point. In the raised position,
the restraint formed an easily accessible and structurally sound point
of attachment. For Gemini VI11 and subsequent missions, an eyebolt-type
attachment point was provided at the pilot's egress handle. This location
eliminated the need for hoses and cables in the center of the cabin.

The umbilical was first coiled in a bag and then the bag stowed in
the aft food box. The coil configuration was in the form of a figure 8
as shown in figure 4.3-3. Figure 4.3-4 shows the umbilical within the
bag in the stowed configuration.

4.3.1.2 Seventy-five-foot electrical tether.- A 75-foot electrical


tether assembly was developed for use during the ESP evaluation planned
for Gemini VTII. No oxygen supply line was required because the ESP
carried its own supply. Therefore, a structuralmeinber and electrical
leads were the only requirements. The 75-foot tether consisted of com-
munications and bioinstrumentation leads encased in nylon cloth, together
with a rolled high-temperature nylon strength member. The leads and the
structural member were encased in a tubular, high-temperature nylon
sheath for abrasion protection.

4.3.1.3 Fifty-foot and thirty-foot umbilicals.- A 50-foot umbilical


was developed for Gemini X which provided an oxygen supply line, comu-
nication and biomedical leads , a tether, and a propuls-ion gas supply
line. The inclusion of a propulsion gas line in the umbilical enabled
the extravehicular crewman to evaluate the HHMU without the encumbere-ice
of a backpack, such as the ESP, and eliminated the complex donning re-
quirements of a back-mounted system. This concept also permitted attach-
ment of a11 oxygen connections within the cabin before opening the hatch.
The design and interface requirements with the ELSS and spacecraft were
established as shown in figure 4.3-5.

4-88
The 50-foot umbilical design was patterned after the existing
25-foot umbilical design. One major difference, in addition to the
propulsion gas hose, was the elimination of the ELSS electrical jumper
cable. The 50-foot umbilical connected directly to the E U S chestpack
and to the suit (fig. 4.3-6).

The 30-foot umbilical, which was flown on Gemini XI, was identical
to the 50-foot umbilical, except that the length was reduced to ease
stowage and handling problems.

4.3.2 Umbilical Testing


The umbilical assemblies were subjected to the sa-e level of devel-
opment, prototype, and qualification testing as had been accomplished on
the other components of the ELSS. The qualification program of the
25-foot umbilical assembly was accelerated to meet the Gemini IV flight
schedule. The 50-foot and 30-foot umbilicals were qualified, in large
part, by similarity to the 25-foot umbilicals. In addition to the devel-
opment, prototype, and qualification tests noted above, various special
tests were performed to verify certain umbilical functions. The umbil-
icals were subjected to a system-level qualification program rather than
to a component-level program.

4.3.2.1 Twenty-five-foot umbilical.- The 25-foot umbilical, as a


component of the ELSS, was subjected to the unmanned and manned test pro-
gram described in section 4.2.2.2. The only problem encountered during
the qualification of the 25-foot umbilical was the electrical insulation
failure noted in section 4.3.1.1.

For Gemini VlII and later missions the gold thermal insulation was
replaced by an aluminized Mylar superinsulation. Better thermal control
and more flexibility was attained with Mylar than with a gold coating.

Thermal-vacuum performance tests were conducted on an umbilical


wrapped with 10 to 12 layers of aluminized Mylar at pressures approach-
ing mm Hg and in a cold environment (less than -280° F). The um-
bilicalwas exposed to the cold walls for the duration of each test,
while solar simulation was employed on an earth orbital time cycle of
50 minutes dayside and 40 minutes darkside. Figure 4.3-7 presents data
from this test. Note that after 100 minutes elapsed time, the umbilical
outlet gas temperature was approximately 1 3 O F colder than the inlet
gas and that this gas differential temperature AT remained relatively
constant, even though umbilical skin temperatures dropped as low as
-210' F.

4-89
A production 25-foot umbilical, w i t h 12 layers of Mylar i n s u l a t i o n ,
w a s subjected t o t h e unmanned thermal-vacuum q u a l i f i c a t i o n t e s t s con-
ducted on t h e ELSS equipment, as presented i n s e c t i o n 4.2.2.2.1, para-
graph ( c ) . These t e s t s w e r e performed i n a space environment simulator
chamber under conditions of 5 x 10
-4 mm Hg maximum, 1 s o l a r constant,
and approximately -300' F. Umbilical gas supply pressure w a s maintained
a t 92 f 10 p s i a throughout t h e t e s t . The o p e r a t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n c r i -
t e r i a f o r t h e umbilical w e r e umbilical gas AT ( i n l e t t o o u t l e t ) less
than 40' F and umbilical s k i n temperatures w i t h i n t h e range of -200' t o
160' F. Umbilical s u r f a c e temperatures were measured i n each quadrant
around t h e periphery at a p o i n t where t h e umbilical w a s normal t o t h e
sun's r a y s . Representative d a t a from t h e s e t e s t s a r e shown i n f i g -
u r e 4.3-8. The maximum umbilical s u r f a c e temperature during t h e t e s t s
w a s 130' F on areas d i r e c t l y facing t h e simulated s o l a r r a d i a t i o n . The
m a x i m u m umbilical s u r f a c e temperatures measured were higher than a c t u a l
o r b i t a l values because t h e a b s o r p t i v i t y of s y n t h e t i c f a b r i c s , such as
t h e nylon cover, w a s t y p i c a l l y lower i n t h e spectrum of t h e e x t r a t e r r e s -
t r i a l sun. Lowest umbilical s u r f a c e temperatures occurred during t h e
n i g h t portions of simulated o r b i t s . The lowest temperature measured was
-170' F. The cold t e s t conditions were a l s o somewhat lower than a c t u a l
o r b i t a l values, s i n c e t h e e a r t h h e a t emission during dark p o r t i o n s of an
o r b i t w a s not simulated. Gas temperatures a t the umbilical e x i t a r e
lower than at t h e i n l e t because a gas temperature drop occurred, even
when t h e umbilical w a s exposed t o t h e sun and because t h e average tem-
p e r a t u r e around t h e umbilical was always lower than t h e gas temperature.

The umbilical gas i n l e t and o u t l e t temperature d a t a showed t h a t t h e


m a x i m u m gas AT was approximately 35' F during cold ( d a r k s i d e ) t e s t con-
d i t i o n s ( f i g . 4.3-9). Typical umbilical gas AT during conditions Of
exposure t o s o l a r r a d i a t i o n w a s 15O F. During simulated umbilical f a i l -
ures, when t h e umbilical flow w a s stopped, t h e o u t l e t gas thermocouple
showed sudden i n c r e a s i n g temperature, and t h e i n l e t gas thermocouple
showed a decrease i n temperature. The i n c r e a s e i n o u t l e t temperature
during no-flow w a s b e l i e v e d t o b e due t o h e a t soakback from t h e ELSS
connection t o t h e measurement p o i n t . The decrease i n i n l e t temperature
showed t h e sudden l o s s of thermal energy t r a n s p o r t by t h e umbilical gas
flow. The i n l e t measurement was a t a p o i n t t h a t received no s o l a r energy.
Recovery t o normal flow temperatures occurred about 1 0 minutes a f t e r
umbilical flow w a s r e s t o r e d .

The s p a c e c r a f t umbilical met q u a l i f i c a t i o n c r i t e r i a temperature


requirements.

4.3.2.2 Fifty-foot and t h i r t y - f o o t umbilicals.- The nitrogen quick


disconnect, t h e nitrogen umbilical hose, and t h e oxygen umbilical hose

4-90
were qualified by similarity to equipment furnished by the same vendor
for other Gemini applications. The oxygen umbilical quick disconnects,
the HHMU coupling valve, and the tether hook were qualified by their
use for other Gemini applications.

The umbilical assembly was subjected to a therinal qualification


test to insure that the umbilical would deliver oxygen at a temperature
compatible with the ELSS. A differential temperature qualification
test was performed in the MSC Chamber E facility. The test setup is
shown in figure 4.3-10. This test was conducted at a pressure of less
than 1 x mm Hg with cold walls at -260' F and with intermittent
solar simulation.

The umbilical thermal qualification requirement was that the oxygen


' F during
umbilical hose outlet gas temperature must not drop below 0
a ??-minute simulated day cycle with the following initial and operating
conditions:

(a) 125 k 5 psia nitrogen hose inlet pressure


(b) 96 k 5 lb/hr intermittent nitrogen flow through nitrogen hose
(e) 25O +- 5 O F nitrogen hose inlet temperature
(d) 110 * 10 psia oxygen hose inlet pressure
(e) 4.78 5 0.38 lb/hr nitrogen flow through oxygen hose
(f) 55" k 5' F oxygen hose inlet temperature
The oxygen umbilical hose outlet gas temperature must not drop
below Oo F at the specified flow rate during a 30-minute night cycle.
Initial conditions for the night cycle were those existing at the ter-
mination of the 55-minute day cycle, except that solar simulation and
flow through the nitrogen umbilical were terminated.

The first two attempts were terminated prematurely because of an


increase in chamber pressure at 40 and 45 minutes into the day cycle.
Leakage tests were subsequently performed at low temperature conditions.
After a cold soak of about 30 minutes, the umbilical end fitting leaked.
The leaks were not detectable at ambient conditions or before the cold
soak, which pointed out the importance of low-temperature leakage tests.

In the Chamber E test, an umbilical outlet oxygen temperature of


-11"F was recorded at the end of the 30-minute night cycle. In sub-
sequent performance testing, temperatures between 0" and 5" F could be

4-91
expected after the 55-minute day cycle and between 0" and -15" F after
a 30-minute night cycle. Because the test conditions were more severe
than actual conditions, and because the umbilical was shortened to
30 feet for the Gemini XI mission, it was determined that the 30-foot
umbilical would supply oxygen to the ELSS at acceptable temperatures.
This result was borne out in a comparison of the data shown in fig-
ure 4.3-11. This is a composite plot of Chamber E data and of data
taken during a crew training run conducted in the Chamber €3 facility.

An ultimate load test was accomplished on a 50-foot umbilical


tether sample to insure a minimum breaking strength of 1000 pounds.
Failure occurred at the tether hook at 1970 pounds. A dynamic load-
ing test verified that the umbilical assembly was capable of with-
standing any dynamic loads induced by use of the HEMU.

4.3.2.3 Seventy-five-foot electrical tether.- The components of


the 75-foot tether were qualified by similarity to the previously qual-
ified components of the 25-foot umbilical. The complete assembly, as
a component of the ESP, was subjected to the test series covered in sec-
tion 4.2.3.4.2 and to the following additional tests.

4.3.2.3.1 Mechanical strength test: A load was applied to the


tether in 100-pound increments up to 1000 pounds. Electrical continuity
was maintained at a 400-pound load, and the tether mechanical integrity
was maintained at a 1000-pound load.

4.3.2.3.2 Cold bending test: A segment of the umbilical assembly


was subjected to an environment of -60" k 10" F for 90 minutes. The
segment was flexed through an angle of 80" k 5O around a 2-inch-diameter
mandrel 100 times. Electrical continuity was maintained throughout the
test.

4.3.2.3.3 Flexibility test: Two test points on the umbilical


were Located at 6 inches from the end of the ELSS and at the approxi-
mate midpoint. Each test point was flexed 50 times around a 1.5-inch-
diameter rod through an angle of 180". Electrical continuity was main-
tained throughout the testing.

4.3.2.3.4 Potting reliability test: A torque of 50 inch-ounces


was applied clockwise and counterclockwise 25 times each to the back
of the potting about the axis of each connector. The force was applied
in a plane perpendicular to the pins in the connector. The potting
retained mechanical integrity throughout the test and showed no signs
of separation from the wires, sheath, or connector.

4.3.2.4 One-hundred-twenty-five-footAMU tether.- The components


of the Q5-foot AMlT tether were qualified by similarity to the webbing

4-92
and hooks of the tether assembly of the +foot umbilical. The tether
assembly was subjected to a static load test and a dynamic load test to
complete the qualification. Both tests were performed on a 25-foot
tether and on a l25-foot tether. The tests were designed to verify
adequacy of the tether design for the following conditions:

(a) Limit load: 20p lb (maximum)

(b) Proof load: 400 lb (minimum)

(e) Ultimate load (complete assembly) : 800 lb (minimum)

(d) Ultimate load (webbing material): 1000 lb (minimum)

(e) Connection and splices: 800 lb (minimum)

(f) Tether assembly capable of withstanding dynamic loads at a


rate 1.5 times the maximum anticipated AMU velocity

The tether assembly successfully completed the static load testing


except for the ultimate load test. The E5-foot assembly broke at
604.8 pounds (required 800-pound minimum). Inspection of the tether
revealed that stitching at one of the hooks was incorrectly accomplished;
one row of stitching had not secured the two layers of tether material.
The tether was resewn according to the design requirements and met the
800-pound test requirement.

The dynamic load testing was successfully completed on both the


25-foot and 125-foot tethers. Velocities of 3 and 4 ft/sec resulted
in tensile loads of l5O to 201 pounds to the 25-foot tether. Velocities
of 4 and 6 ft/sec resulted in the tensile loads of 80 to 110 pounds to
the E5-foot tether. Maximum elongation and rebound velocities were
within the established limits.

4.3.3 Flight Equipment Design


4.3.3.1 Twenty-five-foot umbilical.- As noted previously, the
25-foot umbilical was carried on the Gemini IV, VIII, IX-A, and X I 1
missions.

4.3.3.1.1 Gemini IV umbilical assembly: The Gemini IV umbilical


assembly is shown in figure 4.3-12. An electrical schematic is shown
in figure 4.3-13. A hose nozzle was installed at the suit end of the
umbilical assembly and provided for umbilical connection to the dual
connector installed in the suit inlet fitting. A quick disconnect was
installed on the spacecraft end of the umbilical and connected to a

4-93
mating auick disconnect i n s t a l l e d on t h e cabin repressurization valve
( f i g . 4.3-14). The quick disconnect incorporated a flow-limiting Ven-
t u r i , which l i m i t e d t h e oxygen flow from t h e spacecraft.

(a) Normal flow: 7.15 l b / h r oxygen a t 60" F, with an i n l e t pres-


sure of $ p s i a and an o u t l e t pressure of 8 1 p s i a

( b ) Maximum flow: 10.2 lb/hr oxygen a t 40" F with an i n l e t pres-


sure of 1 1 1 p s i a and an o u t l e t pressure of 40 p s i a

4.3.3.1.2 Gemini VIII umbilical assembly: A 25-foot umbilical and


a 75-foot t e t h e r were planned f o r t h e Gemini V I 1 1 EVA. The Gemini V I 1 1
25-foot umbilical assembly i s shown i n f i g u r e 4.3-15. Mylar superinsu-
l a t i o n w a s used i n s t e a d of gold sheath. The e l e c t r i c a l p i g t a i l s and
t e t h e r breakouts were configured f o r more appropriate connecting and
i n t e r f a c e with t h e spacecraft, chestpack, and crewman. I n addition,
a s l i p r i n g (with hook) w a s provided t o permit attachment of t h e umbil-
i c a l t o an eyebolt i n s t a l l e d a t t h e nose of t h e spacecraft. The elec-
t r i c a l schematic f o r Gemini VIII, IX-A, and X I 1 umbilicals i s shown
i n f i g u r e 4.3-16.

4.3.3.1.3 Gemini M - A umbilical assembly: The 25-foot umbilical


u t i l i z e d on Gemini M-A w a s similar t o t h e one provided f o r Gemini VI11
except t h a t metal-sheath i n s u l a t i o n w a s incorporated f o r p r o t e c t i o n
against AMU t h r u s t e r impingement ( f i g . 4.3-17).

4.3.3.1.4 Gemini X I 1 umbilical assembly: The 25-foot umbilical


shown i n f i g u r e 4.3-18, w a s i d e n t i c a l t o t h e Gemini IX-A umbilical
except f o r t h e following:

(a) The t e t h e r was shortened, and t h e s h o r t t e t h e r jumper w a s


removed .
( b ) The t e t h e r breakout point on t h e s u i t end of t h e umbilical
w a s relocated t o a point approximately 17 inches nearer t h e end of t h e
umbilical.

( e ) The t e t h e r hook f o r attachment t o t h e D-ring of t h e parachute


harness w a s replaced with a l a r g e r flanged hook. This hook w a s more
r e a d i l y manipulated i n a pressurized glove.

(d) The t e t h e r hook a t t h e spacecraft end of t h e umbilical w a s


replaced with a flanged hook s i m i l a r t o t h e one used on t h e other end.

4.3.3.2 Gemini VI11 77-foot t e t h e r . - The 75-foot t e t h e r , shown


i n f i g u r e 4.3-19, w a s t o be used during t h e ESP evaluation. The elec-
t r i c a l schematic i s shown i n f i g u r e 4.3-20.

4-94
4.3.3.3 Gemini X 50-foot u m b i l i c a l assembly.- The Gemini X umbil-
i c a l assembly i s shown i n f i g u r e 4.3-21. To minimize t h e entanglement
of various end connections, t h e t e t h e r o f t h e 50-foot umbilical w a s
a t t a c h e d a t t h e "X" formed by t h e parachute harness a t t h e p i l o t ' s l e f t
h i p r a t h e r t h a n a t t h e D-ring. An e l e c t r i c a l schematic of t h e 50-foot
umbilical i s shown i n f i g u r e 4.3-22.

4.3.3.4 Gemini X I 30-foot umbilical assembly.- The 30-foot umbil-


i c a l assembly, shown i n f i g u r e 4.3-23, w a s similar t o t h e 50-foot umbil-
i c a l assembly of Gemini X , except i n l e n g t h and i n t h e nitrogen valve
and quick disconnect assembly which mated w i t h t h e HHMU. The nitrogen
valve and quick disconnect assembly w a s an improved design which per-
m i t t e d t h e p i l o t t o connect and disconnect t h e HHMU more r e a d i l y with
a p r e s s u r i z e d glove.

4.3.4 Results and Discussion

The f e a s i b i l i t y of using umbilicals f o r EVA i n t h e v i c i n i t y of t h e


s p a c e c r a f t w a s e s t a b l i s h e d . The umbilicals produced no unfavorable
torques or f o r c e s on t h e EVA p i l o t s . However, some d i f f i c u l t y w a s
experienced during i n g r e s s w i t h t h e bulk of t h e 50-foot umbilical used
f o r t h e Gemini X EVA. The donning of t h e umbilicals w a s easy, and a
complete system checkout could be made before opening t h e hatch. The
incorporation of a supply l i n e f o r t h e propulsion system of t h e HHMU
proved s a t i s f a c t o r y , and t h i s concept has p o s s i b l e f u t u r e a p p l i c a t i o n
f o r power t o o l s as w e l l as f o r maneuvering u n i t s .

The u m b i l i c a l concept w a s p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p l i c a b l e t o near-vehicle


operations, or operations i n c l o s e q u a r t e r s where t h e bulk of a l i f e
support pack would have been undesirable.

4-95
NA SA-S-6 7-2 5 8

Nylon c o v e r 7
"Armalon" go Id sheath \ ,-Tether

3/16 in. inside diameter

Oxygen hose -.-/ E lectrIical leads

Figure 4.3-1. - Cross section o f integral coaxial umbilical.

4-96
NASA-S-67-259

Umbilical outlet temperature shown as a function of inlet temper-


ature at end of 45-minute mission. Initial soak temperature 80" F,
uninsulated oxygen hose; electrical wires coaxially wrapped
120

110

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30
20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 io0 110
Umbilical inlet temperature, " F

Figure 4.3-2. - Temperature performance envelope of


coaxial umbilical with gold outer sheath.

4-97
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NASA- S-67-2 7 5

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1- 0 Michael Collins, Chamber B data
A C. C.Williams, Chamber B data
0 Qualification, Chamber E data

-6 0
-20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
Time, min

Figure 4.3-11. - Fifty-foot umbilical test.

4-106
i
m

4-107
NASA-S-67-277
-
2

{
3
Electrical spares 6
21
22
12
13
9
19
'Not used 26
Not used 27
31
32
38
to
Case wound 61
8
7

25
11
23
24
10
16
5
15
30
28
29
18
37 37
20 20
35 35
36
J. c 1
4

.
4 Impedance pneumograph
14 -4 14
17
Electrocardiogram no. 2 33

,uit
-
34
Spacecraft
connector connector

Figure 4.3-13. - Electrical schematic of Gemini E u m b i l i c a l .

4-108
Umbilical

Quick disconnect

-Cabin repressurization
valve hand le

View A-A
(With umbilical quick disconnect attached)

Figure 4.3-14. - ELSS umbilical-spacecraft oxygen attachment point.


5
m
U'
E
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LL

Q
N
h

.
n
h

2
v)
a
z

4-110
NA SA-S-67-2 80

i
19 2
6 3
2 Electrical spares
6
7 21

I
3 AMU only 2;
12 1;
9 12
26 9
13 Not used 15
27 26
2i
31
8 Case ground L 32
Suit pressure I. 8
31 4
7
Y Y
32 I
10
21 25
22 11
23 23
24 24
25 10
11
16 * f 1 0 Vdc return PI 16
N $ 1 0 Vdc gq
5
15 - 10 Vdc 5
15
30 30
28 A p 28
29 XI Spacecraft power XI 29
w b.#
18 18
37 37
20 20
35 35
36 36
1 A A 1
1 XI Impedance pneumograph IX 1
14 U w 14
17 A A 17
33 Electrocardiogram no. 2 33
34 34
C ;tpz :ec
connector connector
(mates electrical jumper 1

Figure 4.3-16. - Electrical schematic for Gemini SZJJI, E - A , a n d X I I umbilicals.

4-111
Y
8
8

4
m
N
h
.n
m
k
v)
a
z

4-112
g s zP
&<
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*::
.:..::?:.?:?: ........._,
....
li .....;....._..

I-
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1
I
0
L
I
f
I

d
E=I
.-
U
cn

4-114
NASA- 5-67-2 83
Electrical connector (mates ESP)

Electrical connector Electrical connector


(mates electrical jumper) (mates spacecraft)

Figure 4.3-20. - E l e c t r h l schematic of 75-foot electrical tether.

4-115
S
U

V
S
0

c
E
U
al

K
m

4-116
NA SA-S-67-262
Chestpack connector

--
Pins not used
\
2
3
5
21
22
12
13
3 P Pins not used
19
26
!7
31
32
3
7

25 25
11 11
23 23
24 24
10 10

16
5
15
30
28
29
1E
18
37 37
20 2c
35 3:
3t
36
1 1
lmpe ance pneumograp

33 3:
34 -
Spacecraft Suit
connector connector

Figure 4.3-22. - Electrical schematic for Gemini X a n d XI umbilicals.


4-118
5.0 BODY POSITIONING AND RESTRAINTS

David C. S c h u l t z , F l i g h t Crew Support Division


Hilary A. Ray, J r . , Gemini Program Office
5.0 BODY POSITIONING AND RESTRAINTS

The requirement f o r body r e s t r a i n t s during extravehicular a c t i v i t y


(EVA) w a s i n d i c a t e d on Gemini I V . After depletion of t h e p r o p e l l a n t i n
t h e Hand Held Maneuvering Unit (HHMU), t h e p i l o t evaluated t h e umbilical
as an a i d f o r body p o s i t i o n i n g and f o r moving through space. It w a s con-
cluded t h a t t h e umbilical w a s usable only a s an a i d i n moving t o i t s
o r i g i n , and t h a t handholds would be required f o r o t h e r movements on t h e
o u t s i d e of t h e s p a c e c r a f t . The s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h e requirement w a s em-
phasized when body r e s t r a i n t problems contributed t o t h e premature ter-
mination of t h e Gemini IX-A and Gemini X I EVA missions. During t h e
Gemini X I 1 mission, with adequate restraint provisions, a g r e a t v a r i e t y
of EVA t a s k s were performed. For t h e Gemini X I 1 EVA, 44 pieces of equip-
ment were provided f o r extravehicular body r e s t r a i n t i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e
9 pieces provided f o r Gemini IX-A EVA.

5.1 CONTROL OF BODY POSITION

5.1.1 Foot R e s t r a i n t s

The f i r s t major EVA work t a s k attempted during t h e Gemini Program


w a s t h e checkout and donning of t h e Astronaut Maneuvering Unit (AMU) on
Gemini IX-A. The o r i g i n a l r e s t r a i n t provisions f o r t h i s t a s k w e r e two
handbars and a h o r i z o n t a l footbar. Velcro p i l e on t h e footbar was in-
tended t o mate with Velcro hook on t h e p i l o t ' s boots; however, before
t h e mission, t h e need f o r a d d i t i o n a l body r e s t r a i n t f o r t h i s t a s k w a s
demonstrated during t e s t s i n t h e zero-g a i r c r a f t ( f i g . 5.1-1). A pair
of f o o t s t i r r u p s w a s added t o t h e h o r i z o n t a l f o o t b a r , and on subsequent
t e s t s i n t h e zero-g a i r c r a f t ( f i g . 5.l-2), t h e checkout of t h e AMU w a s
e a s i l y accomplished. The p i l o t forced h i s feet i n t o t h e s t i r r u p s . The
f r i c t i o n a l f o r c e r e s t r a i n e d h i s f e e t and allowed both hands t o be f r e e
f o r working.

During t h e Gemini IX-A EVA, t h e p i l o t was unable t o maintain body


p o s i t i o n using only t h e f o o t s t i r r u p s . The t a s k s t h a t required t h e use
of both hands, such as t e t h e r connections, were exceedingly d i f f i c u l t
because t h e p i l o t had t o s t o p working every f e w seconds and use h i s
hands t o regain proper body p o s i t i o n . The f o o t s t i r r u p s were unsatis-
f a c t o r y when t h e p i l o t w a s unstowing t h e AMU c o n t r o l l e r a r m s . When he
bent forward and applied a downward f o r c e t o t h e c o n t r o l l e r arm, he
c r e a t e d a moment which caused h i s f e e t t o come out of t h e s t i r r u p s . I n
a d d i t i o n t o t h e work involved i n performing t h e t a s k s , t h e inadequacy of
t h e foot r e s t r a i n t s caused t h e p i l o t t o e x e r t a continuously high work-
load t o maintain c o n t r o l of h i s body p o s i t i o n . Heat and p e r s p i r a t i o n
were produced at a rate that exceeded the removal capability of the life
support system, and fog began to form on the space suit visor. This
fogging increased until the pilot's vision was severely restricted,
forcing him to discontinue his attempts to don and use the AMU.

As a result, new requirements for foot restraints were developed,


and the investigation of underwater simulation of zero g was initiated.
Equipment modifications were also incorporated to simplify the EVA tasks
on subsequent missions.

Analysis of the Gemini IX-A body-restraint problem resulted in the


following criteria for design of new foot restraints: motion must be
restrained in all six degrees of freedom; the foot restraints must posi-
tion the EVA crewman for convenient access to the intended work task; and
release of the feet must not depend on the action of any moving mecha-
nism. Molded fiberglas foot restraints incorporating these features were
designed for the Gemini XI and X I 1 spacecraft. These restraints were
custom-fitted to the pilot for each flight and were mounted on a plat-
form attached to the inside surface of the spacecraft adapter equipment
section (fig. 3.5-2). During the zero-g aircraft training, the Gemini XI
and XI1 flight crews evaluated the foot restraints and found them to be
satisfactory for all applicable tasks. The Gemini XI1 flight crew also
evaluated the restraints in underwater zero-g simulation tests with the
same results.

5.1.2 Underwater Zero-G Simulation

The initial evaluation of the underwater zero-g simulation was con-


ducted by the Gemini IX-A pilot shortly after the mission. The under-
water mockup equipment was similar to the Gemini IX-A spacecraft, and
the pilot completed the AMU donning procedures previously attempted in
flight. The pilot concluded that the underwater zero-g simulation very
nearly duplicated the actual weightless condition and the accompanying
problems experienced in the actual flight. The extravehicular tasks
planned for Gemini X, XI, and XI1 were performed in the underwater
zero-g simulation, and recommendations were made concerning the required
restraints and the feasibility of proposed tasks. The simulations for
Gemini X and XI were performed using contractor test subjects. For
Gemini XII, the prime and hackup pilots both participated in underwater
simulations for procedures development and training. Underwater simu-
lation of zero g was particularly applicable to the problems of body
positioning and restraints.

5.1.3 Handholds and Tether Devices


Minor restraint problems were encountered 8uring the Gemini X EVA,
but performance of the planned tasks was not seriously affected. The
pilot had difficulty controlling his body position while using the outer

5-2
edge of t h e t a r g e t v e h i c l e docking cone as a h a n d r a i l . Attachment of
t h e u m b i l i c a l n i t r o g e n f i t t i n g a l s o involved minor d i f f i c u l t y because
one of t h e a d a p t e r s e c t i o n h a n d r a i l s had n o t f u l l y deployed. The t a s k s
were accomplished w i t h one hand, w h i l e t h e o t h e r hand w a s used f o r
restraint.

For t h e Gemini X I m i s s i o n , t h e t e t h e r f o r t h e spacecraft/Gemini


Agena Target Vehicle (GATV) t e t h e r e v a l u a t i o n w a s assembled and stowed
so t h a t t h e p i l o t could a t t a c h t h e t e t h e r t o t h e s p a c e c r a f t docking b a r
w i t h one hand. With t h e o t h e r hand, he could u s e one of t h r e e handholds
on t h e back s u r f a c e of t h e docking cone t o m a i n t a i n p o s i t i o n . However,
t h e p i l o t had been t r a i n e d t o have b o t h hands f r e e , and he had been a b l e
t o wrap h i s l e g s around t h e s p a c e c r a f t nose and t o wedge h i s l e g s i n t o
t h e docking cone. The p i l o t w a s a b l e t o p l a c e himself i n t h e p o s i t i o n
by a r m f o r c e using t h e handholds provided. I n t h e zero-g a i r c r a f t simu-
l a t i o n s , t h e p i l o t w a s a b l e t o move from t h e h a t c h , t o f o r c e himself
i n t o t h e r e s t r a i n e d p o s i t i o n , and t o make t h e complete t e t h e r hookup i n
about 30 seconds. I n o r b i t , however, t h i s p o s i t i o n i n g t e c h n i q u e proved
extremely d i f f i c u l t , and t h e p i l o t expended a g r e a t d e a l of energy dur-
i n g t h e 6 minutes t h a t were r e q u i r e d t o move from t h e h a t c h and t o make
t h e t e t h e r hookup. The r e s u l t i n g f a t i g u e w a s t h e major f a c t o r i n h i s
i n a b i l i t y t o continue t h e f l i g h t p l a n f o r t h e EVA. S i m i l a r t o t h e Gem-
i n i IX-A p i l o t , t h e p r i n c i p a l e x p e n d i t u r e of energy by t h e Gemini X I
p i l o t w a s t h e e f f o r t r e q u i r e d t o overcome t h e f o r c e s of t h e space s u i t
t o m a i n t a i n t h e d e s i r e d body p o s i t i o n . The f r i c t i o n a l f o r c e s induced
by t h e p i l o t i n wedging h i s l e g s i n t o t h e docking cone were not s u f f i -
c i e n t t o overcome t h e tendency of t h e p r e s s u r i z e d s u i t t o s t r a i g h t e n
i t s e l f o u t and push him o u t of t h e docking cone.

A s a r e s u l t of t h i s e x p e r i e n c e , t h e e x t r a v e h i c u l a r o b j e c t i v e f o r
Gemini X I 1 w a s r e d i r e c t e d from an e v a l u a t i o n of t h e AMU t o an e v a l u a t i o n
of body r e s t r a i n t s r e q u i r e d f o r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e e x t r a v e h i c u l a r t a s k s .
Also, underwater zero-g s i m u l a t i o n w a s i n c l u d e d as p a r t of t h e f l i g h t
crew t r a i n i n g program f o r t h e Gemini X I 1 m i s s i o n .

5-3
.

U
0
0
re

3
5
5
I

ri

a,
L
3
0 .-m
0 LL
cI o ’
b

5-4
igure 5.1-2 e - AMU donning with foot stirrups in zero-g aircraft.

5-5
5.2 RESTRAINT EQUIPMENT

The use of r e s t r a i n t devices f o r EVA i n t h e Gemini Program i s sum-


marized i n t a b l e 5.2-1. Descriptions of t h e s e devices and t h e r e s u l t s
of t h e i r use follow.

5.2.1 Rectangular Handrails

Two h a n d r a i l s ( f i g . 5.2-1) were i n s t a l l e d along t h e s p a c e c r a f t


a d a p t e r t o assist t h e p i l o t i n moving from t h e cockpit t o t h e a d a p t e r
equipment s e c t i o n where v a r i o u s t a s k s , such as donning t h e AMU, were t o
be performed. The p a i n t e d metal h a n d r a i l s were 0.55 by 1.25 inches i n
c r o s s s e c t i o n . The forward h a n d r a i l w a s 2 1 inches long and w a s mounted
on t h e r e t r o g r a d e s e c t i o n of t h e a d a p t e r . The a f t h a n d r a i l w a s 46 inches
long and w a s mounted on t h e adapter equipment s e c t i o n . There w a s a
9-inch gap between t h e two s e c t i o n s . Both h a n d r a i l s were f l u s h w i t h
t h e s p a c e c r a f t s u r f a c e a t launch, but were 1 . 5 inches above t h e space-
c r a f t s u r f a c e when deployed. The a f t h a n d r a i l w a s deployed automati-
c a l l y when t h e s p a c e c r a f t s e p a r a t e d from t h e launch v e h i c l e . Improper
r i g g i n g r e s u l t e d i n failure of t h i s h a n d r a i l t o deploy f u l l y on t h e
Gemini X mission; however, it deployed p r o p e r l y on Gemini IX-A, X I ,
and X I I . The forward h a n d r a i l w a s deployed manually by t h e e x t r a -
v e h i c u l a r p i l o t , and it functioned p r o p e r l y on a l l missions.

The Gemini IX-A and X I 1 p i l o t s used t h e h a n d r a i l s t o t r a v e r s e t h e


8 f e e t from t h e cockpit t o t h e a f t end of t h e s p a c e c r a f t . Limited s u i t
m o b i l i t y and i n t e r f e r e n c e of t h e Extravehicular L i f e Support System
(ELSS) chestpack r e q u i r e d t h e p i l o t s t o move t h e i r hands one a f t e r t h e
o t h e r i n a sideways motion along t h e h a n d r a i l , r a t h e r t h a n hand-over-
hand. The Gemini X p i l o t used t h e h a n d r a i l f o r t r a n s i t and f o r a hand-
hold while making and breaking t h e n i t r o g e n connection on t h e 50-foot
umbilical. Comments by t h e p i l o t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h i s h a n d r a i l w a s a
s a t i s f a c t o r y device f o r t r a n s i t between two p o i n t s on t h e s p a c e c r a f t
surface. A rectangular, r a t h e r than a c y l i n d r i c a l , cross s e c t i o n w a s
p r e f e r r e d by t h e p i l o t s because t h e r e c t a n g u l a r shape o f f e r e d more re-
s i s t a n c e t o r o t a t i o n f o r a given hand f o r c e and allowed b e t t e r c o n t r o l
of body a t t i t u d e . I n a p r e s s u r i z e d Gemini s u i t , t h e width of t h e r e c -
t a n g u l a r h a n d r a i l (1.25 i n c h e s ) w a s a good s i z e f o r gripping.

5.2.2 Large C y l i n d r i c a l Handbars

A p a i r of l a r g e , c y l i n d r i c a l , p a i n t e d metal handbars w a s i n s t a l l e d
i n t h e adapter equipment s e c t i o n ( f i g . 5.2-2) t o permit t h e p i l o t t o
move from t h e r e c t a n g u l a r h a n d r a i l s t o t h e work a r e a and t o provide

5- 6
r e s t r a i n t while p o s i t i o n i n g h i s f e e t i n f o o t r e s t r a i n t s or while working.
The two handbars were l o c a t e d symmetrically on each s i d e of t h e work
s t a t i o n . The handbars were r e t r a c t e d a t launch so t h a t t h e y would c l e a r
t h e launch v e h i c l e t a n k dome. A f t e r s e p a r a t i o n of t h e s p a c e c r a f t from
t h e launch v e h i c l e second s t a g e , t h e handbars were p y r o t e c h n i c a l l y de-
ployed on command from t h e crew. The deployment procedure w a s satis-
f a c t o r y on each mission. The method of t r a v e l , when using t h e l a r g e
c y l i n d r i c a l handbars, w a s a l s o t o t h e s i d e . Although t h e p i l o t s i n d i -
c a t e d a preference f o r r e c t a n g u l a r c r o s s s e c t i o n , t h e y were a b l e t o
introduce t h e s i g n i f i c a n t body t o r q u e s r e q u i r e d t o p o s i t i o n t h e i r f e e t
i n t h e f o o t r e s t r a i n t s w i t h t h e s e c y l i n d r i c a l handbars. The 1.38-inch
diameter of t h e c y l i n d r i c a l handbars w a s t h e most f a v o r a b l e s i z e .

5.2.3 Small C y l i n d r i c a l Handrails

Small c y l i n d r i c a l h a n d r a i l s were mounted on t h e r i g h t and l e f t


s i d e s of t h e Gemini X I 1 GATV ( f i g s . 5.2-3 and 5.2-4). They were made
of unpainted metal 0.317 inch i n diameter, and t h e two segments were
10.5 and 31.5 inches i n l e n g t h . The h a n d r a i l s were s m a l l enough t o be
used as w a i s t t e t h e r a t t a c h p o i n t s and as handholds.

5.2.4 Telescoping C y l i n d r i c a l Handrail

The Gemini IX-A and X I p'ilots used t h e Reentry Control System


t h r u s t e r s as han'dholds f o r t r a n s i t from t h e s p a c e c r a f t hatch t o t h e
s p a c e c r a f t nose, but t h e s e handholds were inadequate. When t h e Gem-
i n i X I p i l o t attempted t o move from t h e h a t c h t o t h e nose area, he
missed t h e docking b a r and d r i f t e d a t t h e end of t h e u m b i l i c a l i n a
curved path u n t i l he made contact with t h e s p a c e c r a f t adapter s e c t i o n
behind t h e hatch. On a second a t t e m p t , t h e p i l o t managed t o push from
t h e hatch t o t h e docking b a r .

The t e l e s c o p i n g h a n d r a i l ( f i g s . 5.2-5 and 5.2-6) w a s i n s t a l l e d t o


f a c i l i t a t e t r a n s i t from t h e s p a c e c r a f t hatch t o t h e s p a c e c r a f t nose on
t h e Gemini X I 1 EVA. The t e l e s c o p i n g h a n d r a i l w a s stowed i n t h e com-
pressed c o n d i t i o n above t h e p i l o t ' s r i g h t shoulder and near t h e hinge
of t h e r i g h t hatch. I n t h e stowed c o n f i g u r a t i o n , t h e h a n d r a i l w a s
37 inches long and 1-3/8 inches i n diameter and w a s c o n s t r u c t e d o f an-
odized aluminum. A f t e r t h e cabin was decompressed and t h e hatch w a s
opened f o r t h e standup EVA, t h e p i l o t unstowed and manually extended t h e
four-section h a n d r a i l t o a maximum l e n g t h of 99 inches. The p i l o t t h e n
i n s t a l l e d t h e s m a l l end (0.625-inch diameter) of t h e h a n d r a i l i n a spe-
c i a l r e c e p t a c l e i n t h e docking cone and t h e l a r g e end on a mounting
b o l t l o c a t e d i n t h e s p a c e c r a f t c e n t e r beam between t h e hatches. During

5-7
t h e umbilical EVA, the p i l o t used t h i s h a n d r a i l f o r t r a n s i t between t h e
spacecraft hatch and t h e s p a c e c r a f t nose and as a handhold f o r s e v e r a l
changes i n body a t t i t u d e . The f l e x i b i l i t y of t h e h a n d r a i l w a s reported
by t h e p i l o t t o be undesirable. When t h e h a n d r a i l flexed, t h e p i l o t had
less c o n t r o l of h i s body p o s i t i o n and a t t i t u d e . The p i l o t a l s o attached
a w a i s t t e t h e r i n t o t h e r i n g on t h e t e l e s c o p i n g h a n d r a i l . A t t h e conclu-
s i o n of t h e Gemini X I 1 umbilical EVA, t h e p i l o t j e t t i s o n e d t h e handrail.

5.2.5 Fixed Handholds

Three f i x e d handholds were provided on t h e back of t h e docking cone


on t h e Gemini X I GAW t o provide r e s t r a i n t during t h e spacecraft/GATV
t e t h e r attachment. Two similar handholds ( f i g . 3.6-2) were provided on
t h e back of t h e docking cone on t h e Gemini X I 1 G A T . The handholds were
6.5 inches i n l e n g t h and 1 inch i n diameter, with a 1.5-inch clearance
from t h e s u r f a c e . These handholds were coated with a r e s i l i e n t f r i c t i o n
m a t e r i a l which w a s h e l p f u l . The handholds proved very u s e f u l i n f l i g h t ;
however, t h e p i l o t favored a metal handhold of rectangular c r o s s s e c t i o n
r a t h e r than t h e coated c y l i n d e r .

5.2.6 F l e x i b l e Velcro-Backed Portable Handholds

F l e x i b l e Velcro-backed p o r t a b l e handholds ( f i g . 5.2-7) w e r e evalu-


a t e d as r e s t r a i n t s and as maneuvering a i d s during t h e Gemini IX-A m i s -
s i o n . Two fabric-backed nylon Yelcro-pile pads were c a r r i e d i n t h e
s p a c e c r a f t . The p i l o t attached t h e pads t o h i s gloves with an e l a s t i c
s t r a p wrapped around t h e palms of h i s hands. There w e r e 80 patches of
nylon Velcro hook on t h e surface of t h e s p a c e c r a f t t o engage t h e p i l e
handholds. The s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s were:

( a ) The e l a s t i c attachment w a s inadequate, and one of t h e handholds


w a s p u l l e d o f f t h e p i l o t ' s hand.

( b ) The contact f o r c e s were i n s u f f i c i e n t t o accommodate c o n t r o l l e d


maneuvering or body a t t i t u d e , but w e r e adequate f o r holding a s t a t i o n a r y
position.

( c ) The unprotected nylon Velcro hook on t h e spacecraft nose w a s


damaged by launch heating .
5.2.7 Rigid Velcro-Backed P o r t a b l e Handholds

For Gemini X I I , four trowel-shaped, r i g i d , Velcro-backed, p o r t a b l e


handholds ( f i g . 5.2-8) were i n s t a l l e d i n t h e EVA work a r e a s . The hand-
holds were 6.5 inches i n l e n g t h and 1 inch i n diameter, and t h e y were

5- 8
coated w i t h r e s i l i e n t material. Each handhold a l s o had a t e t h e r a t t a c h -
ment r i n g (1.5 inches i n diameter) a t one end of t h e handle. Two of t h e
handholds had about 9 square i n c h e s of nylon Velcro p i l e , and t h e o t h e r
two had about 16 square inches of p o l y e s t e r Velcro p i l e . The handholds
w e r e stowed f o r launch on s u r f a c e s of nylon Velcro hook and secured by
pip-pin devices. P o l y e s t e r Velcro hook w a s l o c a t e d on built-up f l a t
s u r f a c e s i n f o u r p l a c e s on t h e t a r g e t v e h i c l e t o engage t h e Velcro p i l e
on t h e handholds .
D e t a i l e d e v a l u a t i o n of t h e r i g i d handholds w a s not included i n t h e
f l i g h t p l a n f o r t h e Gemini X I 1 EVA because of t h e l i m i t e d t i m e a v a i l a -
b l e f o r EVA. Analyses and simulations i n d i c a t e d a number of l i m i t a t i o n s
t o t h e usefulness of t h e devices. For example, b e s t u t i l i z a t i o n of t h e
devices r e q u i r e d t h a t t h e Velcro be used i n shear r a t h e r t h a n i n t e n s i o n ,
and t h i s complicated t h e usage. Also, t o s e r v e as r e s t r a i n t s , t h e re-
i e n t i o n f o r c e should be s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r t h a n t h e a p p l i c a t i o n f o r c e .
P o l y e s t e r Velcro had a higher r e t e n t i o n f o r c e t h a n t h e nylon Velcro, but
it had not been evaluated as thoroughly. The use of s t e e l Velcro ap-
peared t o make t h e use o f t h e s e devices f e a s i b l e ; but because of t h e po-
t e n t i a l hazard t o t h e space s u i t gloves, s t e e l Velcro could not be used
under t h e s e conditions. The consensus w a s t h a t f i x e d handholds were
s u p e r i o r t o p o r t a b l e devices and t h a t t h e p o r t a b l e handholds should be
used only when f i x e d h a n d r a i l s or handholds could not be provided.

5.2.8 Waist Tethers

The Gemini X I 1 w a i s t t e t h e r s ( f i g . 5.2-9) were made of s t i f f nylon


webbing with a l e n g t h adjustment buckle and a l a r g e hook f o r attachment
t o t h e v a r i o u s t e t h e r attachment r i n g s . The w a i s t t e t h e r s were looped
around t h e p i l o t ' s parachute harness and were f a s t e n e d t o g e t h e r with two
l a r g e snaps. A l a r g e f a b r i c t a b w a s provided t o f a c i l i t a t e opening t h e
snaps i n a p r e s s u r i z e d s u i t . A D-shaped r i n g w a s provided f o r making
l e n g t h adjustments, and it w a s used s e v e r a l t i m e s by t h e p i l o t . The ad-
justment buckle, a conventional single-loop buckle, allowed l e n g t h ad-
justment approximately from 2 1 t o 32 inches. The l a r g e f l a n g e hooks,
used f o r most e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a p p l i c a t i o n s a f t e r Gemini IX-A, were used
on t h e w a i s t t e t h e r s .

The w a i s t t e t h e r s w e r e i n s t a l l e d on t h e parachute harness by t h e


p i l o t during p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e u m b i l i c a l EVA. The l o c a t i o n s of t h e
t e t h e r attachments at p o i n t s s l i g h t l y below w a i s t level were optimum. A
t h i n m e t a l p l a t e w i t h a r i n g on each end w a s provided t o hold t h e w a i s t
t e t h e r hooks when t h e y were not being used by t h e EVA p i l o t . The device
w a s s l i g h t l y longer t h a n t h e f r o n t width of t h e ELSS chestpack and w a s
a t t a c h e d w i t h Velcro. The p i l o t used a v a r i e t y of devices f o r a t t a c h i n g
t h e t e t h e r s i n t h e s p a c e c r a f t adapter s e c t i o n and on t h e t a r g e t v e h i c l e .

5-9
Once, because of t h e l a c k of body a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l , t h e p i l o t experienced
a s l i g h t d i f f i c u l t y i n moving a t e t h e r t o a new attachment p o i n t . With
one hand occupied i n making a w a i s t t e t h e r attachment, t h e p i l o t had t o
use t h e o t h e r hand t o c o n t r o l h i s body a t t i t u d e . Therefore, a p a i r of
handholds, or o t h e r r e s t r a i n t , near each p a i r of t e t h e r attachment p o i n t s
would be d e s i r a b l e . Also, it w a s determined t h a t t h e w a i s t t e t h e r at-
tachment p o i n t s should be as f a r a p a r t as p o s s i b l e ( 4 2 t o 48 i n c h e s ) ,
c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e p i l o t ' s reach i n t h e p r e s s u r i z e d suit. The a t t a c h -
ments were e a s i e r t o make i f t h e attachment p o i n t s were l o c a t e d a t the'
p i l o t ' s s i d e s r a t h e r than d i r e c t l y i n f r o n t of him; and torques w e r e
minimized w i t h t h e widespread t e t h e r attachment p o i n t s . The p i l o t ob-
served t h a t f e w adjustments t o t h e t e t h e r l e n g t h were r e q u i r e d ; conse-
q u e n t l y , p r o v i s i o n s f o r adjustments could b e e l i m i n a t e d from f u t u r e
body t e t h e r s .

I n t h e s p a c e c r a f t adapter s e c t i o n and with only t h e w a i s t t e t h e r s


f o r r e s t r a i n t , t h e p i l o t w a s a b l e t o i n s t a l l and t i g h t e n a b o l t - t o about
250 inch-pounds, u s i n g a conventional d i a l - i n d i c a t o r t o r q u e wrench. The
wrench handle w a s 9 inches long; hence, t h e f o r c e a p p l i e d w a s approxi-
mately 28 pounds. Also, w i t h only t h e w a i s t - t e t h e r s f o r r e s t r a i n t , t h e
p i l o t w a s a b l e t o p u l l nylon Velcro p i l e s t r i p s 4 inches long and 5 inches
wide from both nylon and s t e e l Velcro hooks and t o disconnect and recon-
n e c t t h r e e e l e c t r i c a l connectors. The p i l o t made a v a r i e t y of hook and
r i n g connections, i n c l u d i n g t h e use of hooks and r i n g s of t h e same s i z e s
which had proved impossible for t h e Gemini IX-A p i l o t .

The w a i s t t e t h e r s , when a t t a c h e d t o t h e t e t h e r attachment p o i n t s on


t h e t a r g e t v e h i c l e , provided t h e r e q u i r e d r e s t r a i n t f o r t h e Gemini X I 1
p i l o t t o a t t a c h t h e spacecraft/GATV t e t h e r , t o a c t i v a t e t h e Experi-
ment SO10 (Agena Micrometeorite C o l l e c t i o n ) package, and t o disconnect
and connect a f l u i d connector and an e l e c t r i c a l connector. The p i l o t
a l s o used t h e 5-inch Apollo t o r q u e wrench ( f i g . 5.2-10) and w a s a b l e t o
exert g r e a t e r t h a n 100 inch-pounds of torque. H e r e p o r t e d t h a t h i s work
c a p a b i l i t y w a s not t a x e d a t t h e s e torque l e v e l s , and he concluded t h a t
h i s work e f f o r t s i n performing t h e s e t a s k s were similar t o underwater
zero-g s i m u l a t i o n s . The p i l o t w a s a b l e t o perform t h e s e t a s k s w i t h one
w a i s t t e t h e r a t t a c h e d and with one hand on a handhold and t o r e p e a t t h e
t a s k s without using w a i s t t e t h e r s . He s t r o n g l y recommended, however,
t h a t body t e t h e r s be included i n t h e r e s t r a i n t systems f o r f u t u r e EVA
involving t o r q u i n g t a s k s . Body t e t h e r s provided a g r e a t e r c a p a b i l i t y f o r
applying torque, minimized t h e e f f o r t r e q u i r e d i n c o n t r o l l i n g body posi-
t i o n , and e l i m i n a t e d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f d r i f t i n g away i f a t o o l s l i p p e d .
e
One of t h e b e s t f e a t u r e s of body t e t h e r s w a s t h e e l i m i n a t i o n of t h e
constant problem of d r i f t i n g while working or while r e s t i n g . The w a i s t
t e t h e r s permitted t h e Gemini X I 1 p i l o t t o r e l a x during t h e . designated
r e s t p e r i o d s or a t any o t h e r t i m e . During previous u m b i l i c a l EVA'S, t h i s

5-10
w a s not p o s s i b l e because t h e p i l o t s had t o hold on t o t h e s p a c e c r a f t
with one or both hands during r e s t periods. O f course, work r e q u i r e d
t o c o n t r o l body p o s i t i o n eliminated t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of complete r e s t .

’ The Gemini X I 1 p i l o t j e t t i s o n e d t h e w a i s t t e t h e r s near t h e end of


t h e umbilical EVA. He detached by shortening t h e t e t h e r s , by p u l l i n g up
a g a i n s t t h e s u r f a c e of t h e t a r g e t v e h i c l e , and by opening the-snaps which
fastened t h e t e t h e r s t o t h e parachute harness. By pushing a g a i n s t t h e
t a r g e t v e h i c l e with h i s a r m s , he forced t h e w a i s t t e t h e r s out from under
t h e parachute harness; t h e n , t h e p i l o t detached t h e w a i s t t e t h e r s from
t h e t a r g e t v e h i c l e and j e t t i s o n e d them.

5.2.9 Pip-Pin Handhold/Tether Attachment Devices

Seven pip-pin handhold/tether attachment devices ( f i g . 5.2-11) were


used on Gemini X I I . These anodized aluminum devices used a conventional
pip-pin mechanism with b a l l l e t e n t s f o r attachment t o t h e s p a c e c r a f t . A
spring-loaded pushbutton a c t u a t o r w a s depressed t o r e t r a c t t h e b a l l s be-
f o r e t h e device could be i n s t a l l e d or removed. The T-shaped pip-pins
were 3 inches wide t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e i r use as handholds; a loop with an
i n s i d e diameter of 1.75 inches w a s i n s t a l l e d f o r t e t h e r attachment. The
p i l o t used t h e s e devices as handholds during changes i n body p o s i t i o n
and as w a i s t t e t h e r attachment p o i n t s during some of t h e work t a s k s on
the t a r g e t vehicle.

The T-shaped pip-pins were a convenient shape and s i z e f o r hand


gripping. When t h e r o t a t i o n a l freedom of t h e devices w a s removed, they
were e x c e l l e n t handholds, helped t o c o n t r o l body a t t i t u d e , and were use-
f u l as w a i s t t e t h e r attachment p o i n t s because w a i s t t e t h e r attachment
w a s simplified.

5.2.10 Pip-Pin A n t i r o t a t i o n Devices

Pip-pin a n t i r o t a t i o n devices were i n s t a l l e d over 11 of t h e pip-pin


attachment h o l e s ( f i g . 5.2-12). Without t h e a n t i r o t a t i o n devices, t h e
pip-pins w e r e f r e e t o r o t a t e and would do s o when any s m a l l torque w a s
applied. Experience during Gemini X I 1 simulations showed t h a t t h e a n t i -
r o t a t i o n devices were valuable when t h e p i l o t w a s applying torque t o t h e
pip-pins. However, with t h e a n t i r o t a t i o n devices i n p l a c e , t h e pip-pins
had t o be i n one of e i g h t s p e c i f i c o r i e n t a t i o n s , and t h i s requirement
complicated t h e i n s t a l l a t i o n . Therefore, i f pip-pin devices a r e used,
a n t i r o t a t i o n devices are d e s i r a b l e ; but t h e requirement for such p r e c i s e
alignment i s undesirable.

5-11
5.2.11 U-Bolt Handhold/Tether Attachment Devices

Nine U-bolt handhold/tether attachment devices were i n s t a l l e d i n


t h e EVA work areas on Gemini X I 1 ( f i g s . 3.6-2 and 5.2-10). The devices
were bare metal, 0.250 inch i n cross-sectional diameter, and 1 . 5 and
2 inches i n i n s i d e diameter. These dimensions provided ease of hook
attachment and a convenient handhold. The p i l o t used two of t h e U-bolts
i n s t a l l e d i n t h e s p a c e c r a f t adapter as w a i s t t e t h e r attachment p o i n t s
during t h e work without f o o t r e s t r a i n t s , but t h e c l o s e proximity t o t h e
b o l t platform (about 4 i n c h e s ) caused some inconvenience during t h e b o l t
torquing. The p i l o t found t h e U-bolts on t h e t a r g e t v e h i c l e u s e f u l f o r
w a i s t t e t h e r attachment and as handholds during work t a s k s and p o s i t i o n
changes.

5.2.12 Foot R e s t r a i n t s

The Gemini IX-A f o o t s t i r r u p s were inadequate f o r body r e s t r a i n t ,


even i n t h e absence of e x t e r n a l f o r c e s . The molded f o o t r e s t r a i n t s used
on t h e Gemini X I and X I 1 s p a c e c r a f t were far s u p e r i o r t o a l l o t h e r re-
s t r a i n t devices evaluated. With h i s f e e t i n t h e s e r e s t r a i n t s , t h e p i l o t
was a b l e t o d u p l i c a t e very n e a r l y h i s one-g p r o f i c i e n c y i n performing
t a s k s . He applied f o r c e s i n excess of 25 pounds and performed elec-
t r i c a l connector alignment t a s k s and c u t t i n g t a s k s . I n a d d i t i o n t o per-
forming t h e work t a s k s , t h e Gemini X I 1 p i l o t evaluated t h e body a t t i t u d e
c o n s t r a i n t s imposed by t h e f o o t r e s t r a i n t s . The p i l o t w a s a b l e t o l e a n
backward ( p i t c h up) about 90 degrees , although a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f o r t w a s
required t o maintain t h a t p o s i t i o n . He w a s a l s o able t o roll about
545 degrees and h i s yaw c a p a b i l i t y w a s almost *gO degrees. The volume
of t h e p a i r of foot r e s t r a i n t s used f o r Gemini X I 1 w a s 21 by 1 3 by
4 inches.

5.2.13 Standup Tether

To prevent s t r e s s i n g t h e p i l o t ' s oxygen and e l e c t r i c a l connections


with t h e s p a c e c r a f t , a s h o r t t e t h e r ( f i g . 5.2-13) was used during t h e
standup EVA on Gemini X, X I , and X I I . The standup t e t h e r w a s attached
t o t h e p i l o t ' s parachute harness and t o t h e l e f t s i d e of t h e p i l o t ' s
s e a t . The t e t h e r w a s made of t h i n nylon webbing and had a conventional
single-loop adjustment buckle. A s h o r t t a b on t h e adjustment buckle
was incorporated i n t h e Gemini X I 1 standup t e t h e r t o f a c i l i t a t e use i n
a p r e s s u r i z e d space s u i t . The command p i l o t h e l d t h e f r e e end of t h e
t e t h e r and u s u a l l y d i d t h e r e q u i r e d a d j u s t i n g , although t h e Gemini X I 1
p i l o t a l s o made adjustments.

5-12
5.2.14 S t r a p on Space S u i t Leg

For Gemini X I , a s t r a p about 9 inches i n l e n g t h w a s sewed on t h e


l e f t l e g of t h e p i l o t ' s space s u i t ( f i g . 5.2-14). When not i n use, t h e
s t r a p w a s folded up i n s i d e a Velcro pocket on t h e space s u i t . During
umbilical EVA, with t h e p i l o t standing i n t h e seat, t h e command p i l o t
opened t h e Velcro pocket and p u l l e d out t h e s t r a p . The s t r a p w a s pro-
vided as a handhold f o r t h e command p i l o t t o keep t h e p i l o t from f l o a t -
i n g out of t h e cockpit.

On t h e Gemini X I 1 mission, i d e n t i c a l s t r a p s were sewed on both l e g s


of t h e p i l o t ' s space s u i t . However, t h e s t r a p s w e r e not used because
t h e command p i l o t found it e a s i e r t o hold t h e p i l o t ' s f o o t .

5-13
TABLE 5.2-1.- RESTRAINT DEVICES USED DURING
GEMINI EXTRAVEHICULAR ACTIVITIES

Configuration of r e s t r a i n t device -Gemini


- n-i s s ion
-
- ---
1x4 X XI XI1

Rectangular h a n d r a i l X X X X

Large c y l i n d r i c a l handbars (1.38-in. dia-


meter 1 X X
Small c y l i n d r i c a l h a n d r a i l s (0.317-in. dia-
meter) X

Telescoping c y l i n d r i c a l h a n d r a i l X

Fixed handhold X X

F l e x i b l e Velcro-backed p o r t a b l e handhold X

Rigid Velcro-backed p o r t a b l e handhold X

Waist t e t h e r s X

Pip-pin handhold/tether attachment device X

Pip-pin a n t i r o t a t i o n device X

U-bolt handhold/t e t h e r at t a c h device x


Foot s t i r r u p s X

Foot r e s t r a i n t s X

Standup t e t h e r X X X

S t r a p s on space s u i t l e g X X
-

5-14
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5-15
NASA-S-67-802

5-16
NASA-S-67-804

Figure 5.2-4. - Handrail on Gemini X I I GATV - left side.

5-18
NASA-S-67-803

igure 5.2-3. - Handrail on Gemini GATV - right side.

5-17
NASA-S-67-805

Figure 5.2-5. - Telescoping handrail used on Gemini X I I .


5-19
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5-25
NASA-S-67-812

Figure 5.2-12. - EVA restraint provisions on Gemini X I I GATV.


5-26
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a
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5-27
A- S-6 7-816

igure 5.2-14. - Strap on space suit leg.

5-2%
5.3 CONCLUDING REMARKS

The use of proper body r e s t r a i n t s i s necessary t o assure t h e success


of an EVA mission. The extravehicular experience accumulated i n t h e Gem-
i n i Program indicated t h a t thorough analysis and accurate simulation f o r
EVA must be conducted and t h a t body r e s t r a i n t requirements indicated by
t h e analysis and t h e simulations must be s a t i s f i e d . During EVA, re-
s t r a i n t s must be provided both f o r r e s t and f o r work tasks.

The following r e s t r a i n t s were found t o be most s a t i s f a c t o r y i n t h e


Gemini Program:

( a ) Foot r e s t r a i n t s as used on Gemini XI1 f o r rest and l o c a l i z e d


work

( b ) Waist tethers as used on Gemini XI1 f o r rest and l o c a l i z e d


work ( s l i g h t l y g r e a t e r freedom of movement w a s possible with waist t e t h e r s
than with foot r e s t r a i n t s )

(c) Rectangular handrail f o r t r a n s i t across a spacecraft surface

( d ) Pip-pin devices f o r combination t e t h e r attachment p o i n t s and


handholds where flush-surface i n s t a l l a t i o n s were required

( e ) U-bolts f o r simple attachment points where flush-surface in-


s t a l l a t i o n s were not required

5-29
6.0 MANEUVERING EQUIPMENT

Harold I. Johnson, Flight Crew Support Division


David C. Schultz, Flight Crew Support Division
William C. Huber, Engineering Division

c
6.0 MANEUVERING EQUIPMENT

The o r i g i n a l p l a n f o r t h e use of t h e extravehicular maneuvering


equipment w a s t o evaluate t h e Hand Held Maneuvering Unit (HHMTJ) during
t h e Gemini I V Y V I I I , X, and X I missions, and t h e A i r Force Astronaut
Maneuvering Unit (AMU) during t h e Gemini IX-A and X I 1 missions. The
HHMU w a s t h e only maneuvering device a c t u a l l y evaluated i n orbit.

The evaluations of maneuvering equipment planned f o r Gemini V I I I ,


X, and X I were not completed because of problems with o t h e r systems. The
AMU w a s not c a r r i e d on Gemini X I 1 because of t h e increased emphasis on
t h e evaluation of body r e s t r a i n t s .

6.1 HAND HELD MANEUVERING SYSTEMS DEVELOPED FOR GEMINI

P r i o r t o t h e development of t h e HHMU u t i l i z e d on t h e Gemini I V


mission, s e v e r a l experimental hand-held gas-expulsion devices were eval-
uated a t t h e air-bearing f a c i l i t y of t h e MSC. The following conclusions
were derived from e a r l y i n v e s t i g a t i o n s .

( a ) For t r a n s l a t i o n , t h e t r a c t o r mode w a s i n h e r e n t l y s t a b l e and


easiest t o control.

( b ) P a r a l l e l t r a c t o r nozzles placed f a r a p a r t produced much lower


t h r u s t l o s s e s from gas-impingement than nozzles placed s i d e by s i d e and
canted outward.

( c ) Because of t h e l a c k of f i n g e r d e x e r i t y i n pressurized space


s u i t gloves, t h e t r i g g e r which operated t h e pusher and t r a c t o r valves
should be c o n t r o l l e d by gross movements of t h e hand.

( d ) Because a r m and hand movements were constrained by t h e pressur-


i z e d space s u i t , t h e handle of t h e HHMU w a s placed on top.

( e ) Because of t h e n e c e s s i t y t o e a s i l y a l i g n t h e t h r u s t with t h e
center of g r a v i t y of t h e opercitor, t h e t h r u s t e r s were o r i e n t e d a t
s p e c i f i c angles t o i n s u r e easy aiming.

(f) A t t i t u d e c o n t r o l was improved by u t i l i z i n g a p r o p o r t i o n a l t h r u s t


system, r a t h e r than an off-on system, f o r c o n t r o l l i n g t h r u s t l e v e l .

6-1
6.1.1 Gemini I V Self-contained HHMU

The configuration of t h e Gemini I V HHMU ( f i g s . 6.1-1 and 6.1-2)


evolved from e a r l y concepts, mission requirements, and a v a i l a b l e q u a l i f i e d
components. The 4000-psi s t o r a g e tanks w e r e t h e same as t h e emergency
oxygen b o t t l e s used i n t h e e a r l y Gemini e j e c t i o n seats. The pressure reg-
u l a t o r w a s used i n t h e P r o j e c t Mercury Environmental Control System. A
summary of t h e operating c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e Gemini I V H W i s provided
i n t h e following t a b l e .

1 I
GESIINI I V HAND HELD MANEWERING UNIT CHARACTERISTICS

Thrust, t r a c t o r or pusher, l b ............ Oto2


T o t a l impulse, lb-sec ................ 40
.....
T o t a l a v a i l a b l e v e l o c i t y increment, f t / s e c 6
Trigger preload, l b ......... . . ...... 15
.........
Trigger f o r c e a t maximum t h r u s t , l b 20
Storage tank p r e s s u r e , p s i............. 4000
Regulated p r e s s u r e , p s i ............... 120
Nozzle a r e a r a t i o . ................. 50:l
Empty weight, l b . ................. 6.8
Oxygen weight, l b . ................. 0.7
HHMU weight, l b .. ................. 7.5
L 1

Mission requirements d i c t a t e d t h a t t h e HHMU be stowed i n s i d e t h e


s p a c e c r a f t cabin. This i n t u r n required a p r o p e l l a n t gas which would
not be hazardous i f leakage occurred; gaseous oxygen w a s chosen. Since
s t o r a g e space w a s very l i m i t e d , t h e HHMU w a s stowed i n two s e c t i o n s ;
t h e hand assembly s e c t i o n and t h e high p r e s s u r e s e c t i o n . The two assem-
b l i e s were joined by connecting a coupling a t t h e r e g u l a t o r and i n s e r t i n g
a p i n adjacent t o t h e pusher nozzle ( f i g . 6.1-1).

Operation of t h e HKMU r e s u l t e d from gas flow through t h e system.


After gaseous oxygen l e f t t h e 4000-psi s t o r a g e tanks ( f i g . 6.1-2), it
passed through a manifold t o a s h u t o f f and f i l l valve. When t h i s valve
was opened, t h e oxygen entered a p r e s s u r e r e g u l a t o r which reduced t h e
p r e s s u r e t o 120 p s i . The low pressure oxygen entered t h e handle of t h e
HHMU and passed through a f i l t e r t o two valves. The valve l o c a t e d a t
t h e rear of t h e handle permitted t h e gas t o flow through t h e t r i g g e r
guard t o t h e pusher nozzle. The valve l o c a t e d a t t h e forward end of t h e
u n i t p o r t e d gas through a swivel j o i n t t o two arms and t o t h e t r a c t o r
nozzles. The arms o f t h e t r a c t o r nozzles could be folded back f o r com-
pact s t o r a g e . The pusher and t r a c t o r valves were actuated by t h e t r i g g e r .

6-2
The amount of force applied t o t h e pusher or t r a c t o r valve determined t h e
t h r u s t l e v e l . A f o r c e of 1 5 pounds applied t o t h e valve poppet i n i t i a t e d
gas flow t o t h e nozzle; as t h e f o r c e w a s increased t o 20 pounds, t h e
t h r u s t l e v e l increased proportionately from 0 t o 2 pounds.

The gas s t o r a g e tanks held 0.7 pound of oxygen. This provided a


t o t a l impulse of 40 lb-sec, or a v e l o c i t y increment of 6 f t / s e c .

6.1.2 Gemini V I 1 1 Backpack-Supplied HHMU

I n t h e Gemini VI11 HHMU system, t h e t o t a l impulse w a s increased t o


600 lb-sec. A summary of t h e Gemini V I 1 1 maneuvering system character-
i s t i c s i s given i n t h e following t a b l e .

GEMINI V I 1 1 HAND HELD MANEUVERING UNIT CHAMCTERISTICS

...........
.
or pusher, lb
. ........
S p e c i f i c impulse ( c a l c u l a t e d ) s e c
T o t a l impulse lb-sec ...............
0 to 2
33.4
600
....
T o t a l a v a i l a b l e v e l o c i t y increment, f t / s e c 54
Trigger preload, lb ................ 15
........
Trigger f o r c e a t maximum t h r u s t , l b 20
............
Storage tank p r e s s u r e , p s i 5000
Regulated p r e s s u r e , p s i.............. 110 15
Nozzle a r e a r a t i o ................. 51:l
Weight of p r o p e l l a n t , lb............. 18
HHMU weight, l b .................. 3

The Freon-14 p r o p e l l a n t w a s s t o r e d a t 5000 p s i i n a 439-cubic-inch tank.


The tank w a s mounted i n t h e Extravehicular Support Package ( f i g 3.2-1)
which a l s o housed a second tank f i l l e d with 7 pounds of l i f e support
oxygen. Freon-14 w a s chosen as a p r o p e l l a n t because, even though i t s
s p e c i f i c impulse (33.4 seconds) was lower than oxygen (59 seconds) or
nitrogen ( 6 3 seconds), i t s d e n s i t y w a s almost t h r e e times as g r e a t ;
t h e r e f o r e , t h e t o t a l impulse w a s increased s u b s t a n t i a l l y with only an
11-pound i n c r e a s e i n t o t a l m a s s . The t o t a l impulse w a s c a l c u l a t e d as
follows :

(a) Oxygen: 7 lb x 59 Ib-sec/lb = 413 lb-sec


(b) Freon-14: 18 l b x 33.4 lb-sec/lb = 600 lb-sec

6- 3
The c a l c u l a t i o n s i n d i c a t e a 45-percent i n c r e a s e i n t o t a l impulse f o r
Freon-14 over oxygen a t t h e same maximum tank p r e s s u r e (5000 p s i ) .

The expansion of t h e Freon-14 from 5000 p s i t o 110 p s i r e s u l t e d i n


temperatures of approximately -150' F i n t h e HHMU handle assembly. With
t h e i n i t i a l u n i t design, t h e poppet valves s t u c k open a t t h i s temperature
when actuated. To make t h e valves operable at -150' F, Teflon cryogenic
s e a l s were incorporated i n place of t h e elastomer seals. Although qual-
i f i c a t i o n t e s t i n g demonstrated t h a t t h e redesigned valves operated satis-
f a c t o r i l y a t low temperatures, two s h u t o f f valves were incorporated i n
t h e system ( f i g . 6.1-3). One of t h e valves was l o c a t e d immediately up-
stream of t h e coupling and w a s designed t o shut o f f t h e gas flow i f t h e
poppet valves f a i l e d t o c l o s e . The o t h e r s h u t o f f valve w a s l o c a t e d i n
t h e backpack upstream of t h e f l e x i b l e f e e d l i n e , and was designed t o
shut o f f gas flow i n t h e event of a l e a k i n t h e f l e x i b l e hose. These
e x t r a precautions were taken t o preclude t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of uncontrolled
t h r u s t i n g of t h e system which might cause tumbling and loss of c o n t r o l
during EVA. The handle of t h e HHNLT w a s a l s o modified t o provide t h e
p i l o t with a b e t t e r g r i p .

6.1.3 Gemini X Umbilical-Supplied HHMU

For t h e Gemini X mission, t h e HHMU ( f i g . 6.1-4) w a s modified by


sloping t h e handle t o provide e a s i e r movement of t h e p i l o t ' s hand from
pusher t o t r a c t o r a c t u a t i o n . Grooves were c u t i n t h e handle t o accomo-
d a t e t h e contour of t h e palm of t h e space s u i t glove. The s i n g l e rock-
ing t r i g g e r was replaced with two s h o r t e r t r i g g e r s pivoted at t h e end.
An i n v e r t e d view of t h e HHMU ( f i g . 6.1-5) shows t h e dual t r i g g e r con-
f i g u r a t i o n . This modification reduced t h e t r i g g e r - a c t u a t i o n forces from
between 15 and 20 pounds t o between 5 and 8 pounds, and a l s o reduced
t h e d i s t a n c e r e q u i r e d f o r movement of t h e hand between t h e pusher and
the t r a c t o r positions.

On t h e Gemini X mission, t h e p r o p e l l a n t w a s s t o r e d i n two 439-cubic-


inch tanks i n t h e s p a c e c r a f t adapter s e c t i o n and w a s f e d t o t h e HHMU
through t h e 50-foot d u a l umbilical ( f i g . 4.3-5). One hose i n t h e umbil-
i c a l provided l i f e support oxygen and t h e o t h e r hose provided nitrogen
gas t o t h e HHMU. Nitrogen w a s s e l e c t e d as a p r o p e l l a n t because t h e lower
temperatures r e s u l t i n g from t h e use of Freon-14 would have required
f u r t h e r development of t h e s p a c e c r a f t components, which were already
q u a l i f i e d f o r oxygen and nitrogen. A l i s t of Gemini X HHMU characteris-
t i c s i s provided i n t h e following t a b l e .
GEMINI X HAND HELD MANEUVERING UNIT CHARACTERISTICS

P r o p e l l a n t , gas .................. Nitrogen


...........
Thrust, t r a c t o r or pusher, l b 0 to 2
S p e c i f i c impulse, s e c............... 63
T o t a l impulse, lb-sec ............... 677
....
T o t a l a v a i l a b l e v e l o c i t y increment, f t / s e c 84
Trigger p r e l o a d , l b ................ 5
........
Trigger f o r c e at maximum t h r u s t , l b 8
............
Storage tank p r e s s u r e , p s i 5000
..............
Regulated p r e s s u r e , p s i 125 5 *
Nozzle a r e a r a t i o ................. 51: 1
..........
Weight of usable p r o p e l l a n t , l b 10.75
KHMU weight, l b .................. 3
.....
Gross weight of e x t r a v e h i c u l a r p i l o t , l b 260

The n i t r o g e n w a s routed through t h e aluminum t u b i n g from t h e tank


i n s t a l l a t i o n i n t h e s p a c e c r a f t a d a p t e r s e c t i o n t o a r e c e s s e d p a n e l behind
t h e hatch. The t u b i n g w a s clamped t o t h e s p a c e c r a f t a t numerous p o i n t s
t o provide h e a t s h o r t s f o r warming t h e cooled gas (due t o a d i a b a t i c ex-
pansion during u s e ) . A quick disconnect connector and a s h u t o f f valve
were provided on t h e recessed p a n e l f o r connecting t h e n i t r o g e n l i n e i n
t h e u m b i l i c a l t o t h e n i t r o g e n supply.

6.1.4 Gemini X I Umbilical-Supplied HHMU

For t h e Gemini X I mission, t h e HHMU w a s stowed i n t h e s p a c e c r a f t


adapter s e c t i o n r a t h e r t h a n i n t h e cabin. The screw-on coupling w a s
changed t o a quick disconnect coupling ( f i g . 6.1-5) t o s i m p l i m con-
n e c t i n g t h e HHMU t o t h e u m b i l i c a l , s i n c e t h i s a c t i o n w a s t o b e accom-
p l i s h e d with one hand i n a l i m i t e d access area and i n a p r e s s u r i z e d
space suit.

The p r o p e l l a n t gas storage-tank i n s t a l l a t i o n f o r Gemini X I w a s


i d e n t i c a l t o t h e Gemini X c o n f i g u r a t i o n and provided t h e same o p e r a t i o n a l
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , except a 30-foot d u a l u m b i l i c a l w a s used i n s t e a d of t h e
50- f o o t d u a l umb ilic a1 .
6.1.5 Ground Training f o r HHMU Maneuvering

6.1.5.1 Control l o g i c f o r maneuvering w i t h t h e HHMU.- A number of


d i f f e r e n t procedures could be used s u c c e s s f u l l y t o move from one p o i n t
t o another i n space with an HHMU. Figure 6.1-6 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e proce-
dures s e l e c t e d f o r use with t h e Gemini systems. The f i g u r e i l l u s t r a t e s
t r a c t o r t h r u s t i n g f o r e i t h e r forward o r backward t r a n s l a t i o n , as w e l l
as pusher t h r u s t i n g , and a p p l i e s t o any of t h e t h r e e p o s s i b l e r o t a t i o n a l
c o n t r o l axes: yaw, p i t c h , or roll. For example, assume t h a t t h e f i g u r e
r e f e r s t o t h e yaw axis s o t h a t our view of t h e man i s from d i r e c t l y above;
t h a t i s , t h e l a b e l Man would refer t o t-he end of a l i n e running from
head t o f o o t . The HHMU i s h e l d i n f r o n t of t h e c e n t e r of g r a v i t y of t h e
operator a t t h e p o s i t i o n of t h e l a b e l FORCE. I n t h i s case, t h e f o r c e
i s pointed forward and considered t o be t h e t r a c t o r mode. Assume t h a t a
disturbance occurs and causes a r o t a t i o n t o t h e r i g h t , i n d i c a t e d on t h e
f i g u r e by t h e curved v e l o c i t y arrow l a b e l e d Yw. To e l i m i n a t e t h i s dis-
turbance, t h e HHMU must be moved l a t e r a l l y toward t h e r i g h t s i d e of t h e
f i g u r e , but t h e t h r u s t l i n e of t h e HHMU must be pointed d i r e c t l y a t t h e
t a r g e t . By p o i n t i n g d i r e c t l y a t t h e t a r g e t a t a l l t i m e s t h e operator
(1)i n s u r e s t h a t he w i l l eventually a r r i v e e x a c t l y a t t h e t a r g e t ,
( 2 ) maximizes t h e d e s i r e d c o n t r o l moment, and ( 3 ) minimizes t h e amount
of f u e l r e q u i r e d f o r a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l . The c o n t r o l motions should l e a d
t h e disturbances i f t h e r o t a t i o n a l motions a r e t o be damped out complete-
l y . If t h e c o n t r o l motions remain e x a c t l y i n phase with t h e r o t a t i o n a l
motions, t h e r e s u l t i s a constant-amplitude snaking o s c i l l a t i o n as t h e
operator t r a n s l a t e s toward o r away from t h e t a r g e t .

The procedures may appear complicated and overly s o p h i s t i c a t e d .


However, t h e p i l o t never consciously thought of procedures while using
t h e HHMU. Application of t h e procedure can be compared t o t h e automatic
a c t i o n s and r e a c t i o n s required t o r i d e a b i c y c l e . The s k i l l e d operator
of t h e HHMU can look d i r e c t l y a t t h e t a r g e t he wants t o approach and
t a k e t h e necessary c o r r e c t i v e a c t i o n s through coordination of muscular
commands without consciously s e e i n g t h e WHMU. The c o n t r o l system of t h e
HHMU i s an adaptive c o n t r o l system. The accuracy of t h i s system i n space,
with a l l 6 degrees of freedom a c t i v e i s not y e t known, s i n c e t h e planned
Gemini f l i g h t evaluation w a s incomplete. I n any one of t h e t h r e e r o t a -
t i o n a l axes and two t r a n s l a t i o n axes on t h e 3-degree-of-freedom a i r bear-
ing, a s k i l l e d operator can be w i t h i n less than 1 inch of h i s intended
t a r g e t from d i s t a n c e s of approximately 25 f e e t . A t longer ranges, t h e
same degree of accuracy could be maintained because c o n t r o l i s a t e r m i n a l
guidance type of l o g i c . The o p e r a t o r ' s a x i s does not have t o be aligned
with t h e d i r e c t i o n of t r a n s l a t i o n while using t h e HHMU. The operator
must b e p h y s i c a l l y capable of seeing t h e t a r g e t and p o i n t i n g at t h e tar-
g e t while maintaining t h e t h r u s t f o r c e through h i s c e n t e r of graviey.
The HHMU has been designed so t h a t when held i n t h e o p e r a t o r ' s r i g h t hand
with t h e t h r u s t l i n e along t h e o p e r a t o r ' s X - a x i s , t h e space s u i t i s essen-
t i a l l y i n t h e neutral position.

6-6
6.1.5.2 Air-bearing t r a i n i n g equipment.- The most important re-
quirement f o r an air-bearing f a c i l i t y , and t h e most d i f f i c u l t t o achieve
and maintain, i s a f l a t , hard, smooth f l o o r . The f l o o r of t h e MSC air-
bearing t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t y c o n s i s t s of 21 c a s t - s t e e l machinist's layout
t a b l e s each 3 feet wide by 8 feet long. Each t a b l e weighs about
2200 pounds and i s f l a t t o w i t h i n approximately 0.0002 inch. An area,
seven t a b l e s wide and t h r e e t a b l e s long, provides a t o t a l f l o o r area of
21 by 24 feet. A f t e r l e v e l i n g , t h e j o i n t s between adjacent t a b l e s a r e
accurate t o 0.0004 inch, and t h e o v e r a l l f l o o r i s estimated t o be f l a t
within 0.002 inch. The l e v e l i n g procedure must be repeated every
6 months because of s e t t l i n g of t h e b u i l d i n g foundation. This degree of
f l o o r accuracy i s highly d e s i r a b l e because it allows f r e e movement of
simulators with a i r cushions approximately 0.001 inch t h i c k . Such low-
thickness a i r cushions are d e s i r a b l e because t h e required a i r f l o w i s
q u i t e low, and t h e a t t e n d a n t p o s s i b l e turbine-blade e f f e c t r e s u l t i n g
from uneven exhaust of t h e a i r from t h e air bearings i s n e g l i g i b l e . The
turbine-blade e f f e c t i s extremely undesirable because it confuses t h e
r e s u l t s produced by low-thrust j e t s such as t h o s e of t h e HHMU.

Air-bearing simulators u t i l i z e d f o r t r a i n i n g during t h e Gemini Pro-


gram a r e shown i n f i g u r e s 6.1-7 t o 6.1-10. Figure 6.1-7 shows t h e Gem-
i n i X p i l o t on a yaw-training simulator. Compressed a i r f o r t h e HHMU, . .
f o r t h e p r e s s u r i z e d s u i t , and f o r f l o a t i n g t h e air-bearing equipment
flowed from a 130-psi s e r v i c e a i r supply through a dual umbilical i d e n t i -
c a l t o t h e one used i n t h e Gemini X mission. A s k i l l e d t e c h n i c i a n w a s
employed t o minimize umbilical i n t e r f e r e n c e during t r a i n i n g .

Figure 6.1-8 shows t h e Gemini VI11 p i l o t during a yaw-training


session p r i o r t o t h e mission. The Extravehicular Support Package (ESP)
was supported by metal l e g s ; t h r e e supporting a i r pads were u t i l i z e d
f o r t h e necessary added s t a b i l i t y because of t h e l a r g e combined m a s s
and volume of both t h e ESP and t h e ELSS. I n t h e simulator, compressed
a i r f o r f l o a t i n g t h e platform w a s c a r r i e d i n a s u r p l u s oxygen b o t t l e
mounted on t h e platform, and compressed a i r f o r t h e €IHMU w a s c a r r i e d i n
a high p r e s s u r e b o t t l e l o c a t e d i n s i d e t h e ESP t r a i n i n g u n i t . No umbilical
or t e t h e r w a s u t i l i z e d . This simulator was a l s o used i n t r a i n i n g f o r t h e
AMTJ.

Figure 6.1-9 shows t h e Gemini X p i l o t i n pitch-axis t r a i n i n g on a


d i f f e r e n t type of simulator. The cot, on which he l a y w a s made of l i g h t -
weight aluminum tubing which d i d not appreciably change h i s i n e r t i a i n
p i t c h . Three pads a r e used t o provide s a t i s f a c t o r y t i p p i n g s t a b i l i t y .
The compressed air, needed t o power t h e €IHMU, t o p r e s s u r i z e t h e s u i t , and
t o f l o a t t h e air-bearing equipment w a s furnished by t h e s e r v i c e a i r supply
through t h e 3/8-inch-inside-diameter umbilical. The umbilical contained
small coffee-can air-bearing supporters which allowed more accurate simu-
l a t i o n of t h e in-space e f f e c t of a s i m i l a r umbilical.
Figure 6.1-10 shows t h e Gemini X p i l o t on t h e same simulator, i n
r o l l - a x i s t r a i n i n g . Roll-axis t r a i n i n g w a s p r a c t i c e d by looking at t h e
t a r g e t while t r a n s l a t i n g t o t h e t a r g e t , and by looking a t t h e c e i l i n g
while t r a n s l a t i n g t o t h e s i d e . The l a t t e r case w a s important because i n
normal use, t h e HHMU r o l l i n g v e l o c i t y should b e zero while t r a n s l a t i n g
forward

6.1.5.3 Representative t r a i n i n g runs. - The following i s a repre-


s e n t a t i v e l i s t of t h e types of t r a i n i n g runs made on t h e air-bearing
equipment i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r EVA maneuvering. The runs w e r e made i n t h e
yaw and p i t c h modes, and most runs were a l s o made i n t h e r o l l mode.
Points A and B a r e any two s p e c i f i c p o i n t s i n t h e t r a i n i n g area.

( a ) F a m i l i a r i z a t i o n with a i r bearing

(b) U s e of muscle power t o c o n t r o l a t t i t u d e

(c) Control a t t i t u d e while being towed t o t a r g e t with J33M.U i n hand

( d ) T r a n s l a t e from p o i n t A t o a c o l l i s i o n with p o i n t B with hip-kit


compressed-air b o t t l e and no umbilical

(e.) Repeat preceding s t e p , b u t s t o p completely 1 foot i n f r o n t of


point B

( f ) With i n i t i a l r o t a t i o n a l v e l o c i t y at p o i n t A, s t o p r o t a t i o n ,
proceed t o p o i n t B , and s t o p completely 1 foot i n f r o n t of p o i n t B

( g ) With both f - n i t i a l random r o t a t i o n and t r a n s l a t i o n i n v i c i n i t y


of p o i n t A, s t o p both i n i t i a l r o t a t i o n and t r a n s l a t i o n , proceed t o
p o i n t B, and s t o p completely 1 f o o t i n f r o n t of point B

( h ) S t a r t i n g from r e s t a t p o i n t A, i n t e r c e p t a t a r g e t moving a t
constant v e l o c i t y a t r i g h t angles t o t h e l i n e of s i g h t

( i ) Make p r e c i s i o n a t t i t u d e changes of 45 t o 90 degrees, stopping


any t r a n s l a t i o n e x i s t i n g at end of run

(j) Without HHMU, p r a c t i c e pushing o f f from simulated s p a c e c r a f t


and stopping completely by g e n t l y snubbing t h e umbilical

( k ) P r a c t i c e hand walking the umbilical back t o t h e simulated


s p a c e c r a f t , being c a r e f u l not t o generate excessive t r a n s l a t i o n a l veloc-
ity

(1) I n v e s t i g a t e e l a s t i c i t y and wrap-up tendencies of umbilical by


t r a n s l a t i n g t o t h e end of umbilical with various i n i t i a l t r a n s l a t i o n a l
and r o t a t i o n a l v e l o c i t i e s

6- 8

?’ .
The t r a i n i n g t i m e on t h e air-bearing t a b l e v a r i e d between 1 2 and
20 hours f o r t h e p i l o t s scheduled t o evaluate t h e HHMU i n o r b i t .

6.1.5.4 I n e r t i a coupling t r a i n i n g - a i d model.- I n connection with


t h e e x t r a v e h i c u l a r t r a i n i n g f o r Gemini V I I I , t h e question arose as t o
whether c o n t r o l l e d r o t a t i o n s about one a x i s of an extravehicular p i l o t
might l e a d t o uncontrolled r o t a t i o n s about t h e o t h e r two axes due t o
i n e r t i a coupling or product-of-inertia e f f e c t s . To g a i n a q u a l i t a t i v e
i d e a of t h e s e v e r i t y of t h e s e e f f e c t s , a 1:4.5-scale model of t h e
Gemini V I 1 1 p i l o t w a s constructed and mounted i n a s e t of very l i g h t
gimbals. The model ( f i g . 6.1-11) w a s carved from wood and was based
upon three-view s c a l e photographs of a p r e s s u r i z e d space s u i t . The
s c a l e weight and center-of-gravity p o s i t i o n of t h e p i l o t , t h e ESP, and
t h e ELSS w e r e c l o s e l y duplicated i n t h e model, although no attempt w a s
made t o measure and d u p l i c a t e t h e moments of i n e r t i a of t h e s e i t e m s .
The gimbal arrangement i s shown i n f i g u r e 6.1-12. The yaw a x i s i s a t
t h e t o p ; t h e half-pitch gimbal i s n e x t , followed by t h e roll gimbal,
which c o n s i s t e d of two b a l l bearings i n s i d e t h e body of t h e model. The
yaw and p i t c h gimbals were a l s o mounted on b a l l bearings. The gimbal
weight w a s approximately 0.2 percent of t h e model weight.

I n v e s t i g a t i o n s of i n e r t i a coupling e f f e c t s w e r e conducted by rota-


t i n g t h e model about one of i t s major axes while holding t h e o t h e r two
axes f i x e d , and then r e l e a s i n g t h e two f i x e d gimbals. The observed
r e s u l t s follow:

( a ) Following a pure yaw r o t a t i o n a l i n p u t , i f t h e p i t c h and roll


gimbals were r e l e a s e d first , slow up-and-down changes i n p i t c h a t t i t u d e
- r e s u l t e d . A s t h e motion slowed from gimbal bearing f r i c t i o n , t h e model
r o t a t e d 90 degrees i n roll s o t h a t t h e o r i g i n a l yawing motion became a
pure p i t c h i n g motion. This a t t i t u d e was s t a b l e because no coupling w a s
noted i f t h e model w a s again spun up about t h e o r i g i n a l axis of r o t a t i o n .

( b ) Following a pure p i t c h r o t a t i o n a l i n p u t , t h e model merely


slowed t o zero r o t a t i o n a l v e l o c i t y (because of gimbal bearing f r i c t i o n )
without e x h i b i t i n g i n e r t i a coupling tendencies of any kind.

( c ) Release of t h e p i t c h and yaw gimbals a f t e r a pure roll rota-


t i o n a l input immediately r e s u l t e d i n a confused p i t c h i n g , yawing, and
r o l l i n g tumbling motion.

The behavior of t h e model c o r r e l a t e d with t h e observed shape of t h e


model. For example, t h e mass d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h e model, and a l s o of an
EVA p i l o t , w a s almost symmetrical about t h e X-Z plane; t h e r e f o r e , prac-
t i c a l l y no r o l l i n g or yawing moments were generated when t h e model w a s
r o t a t e d i n p i t c h . However, t h e model with backpack and chestpack w a s
asymmetrical about t h e Y-Z plane, and l a r g e p i t c h i n g and yawing moments
r e s u l t e d from r o t a t i o n s i n roll.

6-9
The tests with t h e model r e s u l t e d i n t h e following simple maneuver-
i n g rules f o r t h e EVA p i l o t . The rules are designed t o e l i m i n a t e or
reduce g r e a t l y t h e chance of encountering i n e r t i a coupling e f f e c t s :

( a ) Never roll i n t e n t i o n a l l y . Always e s t a b l i s h t h e a t t i t u d e toward


t h e t a r g e t by yawing, t h e n p i t c h i n g . Avoid roll motions while t r a n s l a t i n g .

( b ) I f i n e r t i a coupling e f f e c t s a r e encountered, always s t o p t h e


r o l l i n g v e l o c i t y f i r s t , t h e yawing v e l o c i t y second, and t h e p i t c h i n g
velocity last.

6.1.6 HHMU F l i g h t Maneuvering Performance

6.1.6.1 Gemini 1 V . - The Gemini I V p i l o t accomplished t h e f i r s t


propulsive EVA maneuvering i n h i s t o r y . Figure 3.1-1 i s one of t h e
many p i c t u r e s t h e command p i l o t took during t h e EVA. I n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r
p i c t u r e , t h e p i l o t e x h i b i t s t h e p e r f e c t p o s t u r e f o r maneuvering w i t h an
HHMU. I n t h e p o s t f l i g h t d e b r i e f i n g , t h e p i l o t described h i s experiences
with t h e HHMU and with t h e umbilical as follows:

"I l e f t ( t h e s p a c e c r a f t ) e n t i r e l y under t h e influence of


t h e gun ( t h e HHMU), and it c a r r i e d me r i g h t s t r a i g h t o u t , a
l i t t l e h i g h e r than I wanted t o go. I wanted t o maneuver over
t o your (command p i l o t ' s ) s i d e , b u t I maneuvered out of t h e
s p a c e c r a f t and forward and perhaps a l i t t l e higher than I
wanted t o be. When I got out t o what I estimate as probably
one-half or two-thirds t h e way out on t h e t e t h e r , I w a s out
p a s t t h e nose of t h e s p a c e c r a f t . I s t a r t e d a yaw t o t h e l e f t
with t h e gun and t h a t ' s when I r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e gun r e a l l y
worked q u i t e w e l l . I b e l i e v e d t h a t I stopped t h a t yaw, and
I s t a r t e d t r a n s l a t i n g back toward t h e s p a c e c r a f t . It w a s
e i t h e r on t h i s t r a n s l a t i o n or t h e one following t h i s t h a t I
got i n t o a b i t of combination of p i t c h , roll and yaw t o g e t h e r .
I f e l t t h a t I could have c o r r e c t e d i t , b u t I knew t h a t it
would have taken more f u e l than I had wanted t o expend w i t h
t h e gun, s o I gave a l i t t l e t u g on t h e t e t h e r and came back
i n . This i s t h e f i r s t experience I had with t e t h e r dynamics
and it brough m e r i g h t back t o where I d i d not want t o be.
It brought m e r i g h t back on t o p of t h e s p a c e c r a f t , by t h e
adapter s e c t i o n .

"This i s t h e f i r s t t i m e it had happened. I s a i d ( t o


t h e command p i l o t ) , ' A l l r i g h t , I ' m coming back out ( t o
f r o n t of s p a c e c r a f t ) again.' This i s one of t h e most im-
p r e s s i v e uses of t h e gun t h a t I had. I s t a r t e d back out
with t h a t gun, and I decided t h a t I would f i r e a p r e t t y good
b u r s t t o o . I s t a r t e d back out with t h e gun, and I l i t e r a l l y
.-

6-10
f l e w with t h e gun r i g h t down along t h e edge of t h e space-
c r a f t , r i g h t out t o t h e f r o n t of t h e nose, and out p a s t
t h e end of t h e nose. I then a c t u a l l y stopped myself
with t h e gun. That w a s e a s i e r than I thought. I must
have been f a i r l y f o r t u n a t e , because I must have f i r e d it
r i g h t through my c.g. I stopped out t h e r e and, i f my memory
serves m e r i g h t , t h i s i s where I t r i e d a couple of yaw ma-
neuvers. I t r i e d a couple of yaw and a couple of p i t c h ma-
neuvers, and then I s t a r t e d f i r i n g t h e gun t o come back i n
( t o t h e s p a c e c r a f t ) . I t h i n k t h i s w a s t h e time t h a t t h e gun
r a n o u t . And I w a s a c t u a l l y able t o s t o p myself with it
out t h e r e t h a t second time too. The longest f i r i n g time t h a t
I put on t h e gun w a s t h e one t h a t I used t o s t a r t over t h e
doors up by t h e adapter s e c t i o n . I s t a r t e d back out then.
I probably f i r e d it f o r a 1-second b u r s t o r something l i k e
t h a t . I used s m a l l bursts a l l t h e t i m e . You could put a
l i t t l e burst i n and t h e response w a s tremendous. You could
s t a r t a slow yaw o r a slow p i t c h . It seemed t o be a r a t h e r
e f f i c i e n t way t o operate. I would have l i k e d t o have had a
3-foot b o t t l e out there-the bigger t h e b e t t e r . It w a s
q u i t e easy t o control.

"The technique t h a t I used with t h e gun w a s t h e tech-


nique t h a t w e developed on t h e air-bearing platform. I
kept my l e f t hand out t o t h e s i d e ( f i g . 3.1-1) and t h e
gun as close t o my c e n t e r of g r a v i t y as I could. I t h i n k
t h a t t h e t r a i n i n g I had on t h e air-bearing t a b l e s was very
r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , e s p e c i a l l y i n yaw and p i t c h . I f e l t q u i t e
confident with t h e gun i n yaw and p i t c h , but I f e l t a l i t t l e
l e s s confident i n roll. I f e l t t h a t I would have t o use t o o
much of my f u e l . I f e l t t h a t it would be a l i t t l e more
d i f f i c u l t t o c o n t r o l and I d i d n ' t want t o use my f u e l t o t a k e
out my roll combination with t h e yaw.

"As soon as my gun ran out (of f u e l ) I wasn't a b l e t o


c o n t r o l myself t h e way I could with t h e gun. With t h a t gun,
I could decide t o go t o a p a r t of a spacecraft and very con-
f i d e n t l y go."

6.1.6.2 Gemini X.- The Gemini X p i l o t w a s t o perform an extensive


evaluation of t h e HHMU, including p r e c i s e angular a t t i t u d e changes and
t r a n s l a t i o n s . However, t h e f l i g h t plan f o r t h e EVA required t h a t a
number of o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s be accomplished before t h i s evaluation. One
of t h e s e planned a c t i v i t i e s w a s t o t r a n s f e r t o t h e t a r g e t v e h i c l e a t
very s h o r t range and t o r e t r i e v e t h e Experiment SO10 Agena Micrometeorite

6-11
Package attached near t h e docking cone. During t h i s a c t i v i t y , t h e p i l o t
used t h e HHMU which he described during t h e p o s t f l i g h t debriefing as
follows :

"Okay, w e ' r e i n t h i s EVA. I got back and stood up i n


t h e hatch and checked out t h e gun and made sure it w a s
s q u i r t i n g nitrogen. That's t h e only gun checkout I d i d .
I n t h e meantime, .. . ( t h e command p i l o t ) maneuvered t h e space-
c r a f t over toward t h e end of t h e TDA, j u s t as w e had planned.
H e got i n such a p o s i t i o n t h a t my head w a s 4 t o 5 f e e t from
t h e docking cone. It w a s upward a t about a 45-degree angle,
j u s t as we planned. I b e l i e v e a t one t i m e t h e r e you s a i d
you had t r o u b l e seeing i t , and I gave you ( t h e command p i l o t )
some i n s t r u c t i o n s about 'forward', 'forward', ' s t o p , s t o p . '
So I a c t u a l l y s o r t of t a l k e d . . .(him) i n t o p o s i t i o n . (See
f i g . 3.4-4.)

1' I t r a n s l a t e d over by pushing o f f from t h e s p a c e c r a f t .

I f l o a t e d forward and upward f a i r l y slowly and contacted t h e


Agena. I grabbed hold o f t h e docking cone, a s near as I can
r e c a l l , a t about t h e 2 o'clock p o s i t i o n . If you c a l l t h e
l o c a t i o n of t h e notch i n it, t h e 1 2 o'clock, I w a s t o t h e
r i g h t of t h a t - a t about t h e 2 o'clock p o s i t i o n and I s t a r t e d
crawling around. N o , I must have been more about t h e
4 o'clock p o s i t i o n because I s t a r t e d crawling around a t t h e
docking cone counterclockwise, and t h e docking cone i t s e l f ,
t h e leading edge of t h e docking cone, which i s very b l u n t ,
makes a very poor handhold i n t h o s e p r e s s u r e gloves. I had
g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y i n holding on t o t h e ...
t h i n g . And, as a
matter of f a c t , when I got over by t h e SO10 package and
t r i e d t o s t o p my motion, my i n e r t i a , ( t h e i n e r t i a o f ) my
lower body kept me r i g h t on moving and my hand s l i p p e d and
I f e l l o f f t h e Agena.

" A t any rate, when I f e l l o f f , I f i g u r e d I had e i t h e r


one of two t h i n g s t o do. I could e i t h e r p u l l i n on t h e
umbilical and g e t back t o t h e s p a c e c r a f t , or I could use
t h e gun ( t h e HHMU) And I chose t o use t h e gun. It w a s
f l o a t i n g f r e e a t t h i s t i m e . It had come loose from t h e
chestpack. So I reached down t o my l e f t h i p and found t h e
nitrogen l i n e and s t a r t e d p u l l i n g i n on it and found t h e
gun, and unfolded t h e arms of t h e gun and s t a r t e d looking
around. I picked up t h e s p a c e c r a f t i n view. I was pointed
roughly toward t h e s p a c e c r a f t . The s p a c e c r a f t w a s forward
and below me on my l e f t . The Agena w a s j u s t about over
my l e f t shoulder and below m e , or down on my l e f t s i d e and
below me. I used t h e gun t o t r a n s l a t e back t o t h e cockpit
area. Now, I was t r y i n g t o t h r u s t i n a s t r a i g h t l i n e

6-12
from where I w a s back t o t h e cockpit, b u t i n l e a v i n g t h e Agena
I had developed some t a n g e n t i a l v e l o c i t y , which w a s bringing
m e out around t h e s i d e and t h e rear of t h e Gemini. So what
happened w a s , it w a s almost as i f I w a s i n an a i r p l a n e on
downwind f o r a landing, and i n making a left-hand p a t t e r n I
f l e w around and made a 180-degree l e f t descending t u r n , and
flew r i g h t i n t o t h e cockpit. It w a s a combination of j u s t
l u c k , I t h i n k , being a b l e t o use t h e gun. A t any r a t e , I
d i d r e t u r n t o t h e cockpit i n t h a t manner, and t h e command
p i l o t again maneuvered t h e s p a c e c r a f t . When I got t o t h e
cockpit, I stood up i n t h e hatch and held on t o t h e hatch.
The command p i l o t maneuvered t h e s p a c e c r a f t again up next
t o t h e Agena. This time w e were, I t h i n k , s l i g h t l y f a r t h e r
away because I f e l t t h a t r a t h e r t h a n t r y i n g t o j u s t push o f f
I would use t h e gun and t r a n s l a t e over. And I d i d , i n f a c t ,
s q u i r t t h e gun up, depart t h e cockpit and translate over t o
t h e docking cone using t h e gun as a c o n t r o l device. The gun
got me t h e r e . It wasn't extremely accurate. What happened
w a s , as I w a s going over, I guess i n l e a v i n g t h e cockpit, I
somehow developed an inadvertent pitch-down moment, and when
I c o r r e c t e d t h i s out with t h e gun, I developed an upward
t r a n s l a t i o n as w e l l as an upward p i t c h i n g moment. So I d i d
damp out t h e p i t c h . I converted t h a t downward p i t c h moment
i n t o an upward p i t c h i n g moment, and then I w a s a b l e t o s t o p
my p i t c h e n t i r e l y . But i n t h e process of doing t h a t , I de-
veloped an inadvertent up t r a n s l a t i o n , which n e a r l y caused
me t o m i s s t h e Agena. A s a matter of f a c t , I came very c l o s e
t o passing over t h e t o p of t h e Agena, and I w a s j u s t b a r e l y
a b l e t o p i t c h down with t h e gun and snag a hold of t h e dock-
ing cone as I went by t h e second time."

During f u r t h e r t e c h n i c a l d e b r i e f i n g s , t h e Gemini X p i l o t made sev-


e r a l o t h e r comments. Concerning t h e response c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e
HHMU, t h e p i l o t s t a t e d t h a t t h r u s t l e v e l s from 0 t o 2 pounds were satis-
f a c t o r y . These l e v e l s provided adequate t r a n s l a t i o n a l and r o t a t i o n a l
c o n t r o l without an overly s e n s i t i v e response. The Gemini I V p i l o t had
made t h e same comment.

With r e s p e c t t o a b i l i t y t o t r a n s f e r t h e c o n t r o l s k i l l s acquired
on t h e %degrees-of-freedom air-bearing simulators t o t h e 6-degrees-of-
freedom t h a t a c t u a l l y e x i s t e d i n space, t h e Gemini X p i l o t s t a t e d t h a t
t h e t r a n s f e r w a s made e a s i l y and n a t u r a l l y . This p i l o t w a s , perhaps,
a l i t t l e s u r p r i s e d t o f i n d t h a t t h e p i t c h c o n t r o l w a s more d i f f i c u l t
than yaw c o n t r o l . Because of t h e very low body i n e r t i a about t h e yaw
a x i s , yawing motions could be generated more r a p i d l y w i t h t h e HHMU t h a n
e i t h e r p i t c h or roll motions.

6-13
The Gemini X p i l o t stated t h a t during h i s b r i e f periods of maneuver-
ing with t h e HHMU no r o l l i n g motions had been experienced. This w a s
s i g n i f i c a n t because: (1)based upon i n d i c a t i o n s of t h e i n e r t i a coupling
model, and upon t h e experience obtained during t h e Gemini I V EVA, t h e
p i l o t had t r a i n e d s p e c i f i c a l l y t o avoid r o l l i n g motions, and t o stop
them immediately i f they should occur, and ( 2 ) i n t h e absence of r o l l i n g
motions, c o n t r o l with t h e HHMU w a s reduced t o a simpler problem involving
yawing r o t a t i o n s , pitching r o t a t i o n s , and l i n e a r t r a n s l a t i o n s .

6-14
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6-16
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6-17
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6-18
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6- 19
NASA-S-67-84 1

Velocity
Target

Tractor mode
1. Always point at target
2. Displace device in same
direction as rotation
(+d for +o)
3. Lead the rotations by the
control displacements in
order to eliminate the rotations

Pusher mode
1. Always point at target
2. Displace device in opposite
direction as rotation
(-d for +O)
3. Lead the rotation by the
control displacements in
order to eliminate the rotations

Figure 6.1-6. - Rules for attitude control using HHMU during straight -I ine travel.

6-20
1 NASA-S-67-793

igure 6 1-7 ~ - HHMU air-bearing simulation yaw-axis training

6-21
NASA-S-67-794

igure 6 1-8.
e - HHMU/ESP air-bearing simulation yaw-axis training

6-22
n

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13,

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fa
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9

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6-23
6-24
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rl
rl
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9

9
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6-25
NASA-S-67-798

Figure 6.1-12. - Gimbal arrangement for inertia coupling model. ,

6-26
6.2 ASTRONAUT MANEUVERING UNIT

The Astronaut Maneuvering Unit (AMU) w a s a backpack device which


contained t h e necessary systems t o permit an extravehicular crewman t o
maneuver i n space independent of s p a c e c r a f t systems. The AMU w a s c a r r i e d
on Gemini IX-A under A i r Force Experiment DO12 and w a s o r i g i n a l l y planned
t o be c a r r i e d on Gemini X I I . However, t h e Gemini X I 1 f l i g h t plan w a s
subsequently r e v i s e d , and t h e AMU w a s not included. Although a maneuver-
ing evaluation w a s not accomplished i n o r b i t , a l a r g e e f f o r t w a s expended
i n preparing f o r t h e evaluation. The planning f o r t h e AMU dominated t h e
EVA f l i g h t plan f o r Gemini IX-A.

6.2.1 Equipment Description

The AMU was a compact u n i t c o n s i s t i n g of a b a s i c s t r u c t u r e and s i x


major systems: propulsion, f l i g h t c o n t r o l , oxygen supply, power supply,
alarm, and communications. A weight breakdown follows:

Weight,
System
lb

Structure 34.4
Propulsion 62.6
Flight control 12.7
Oxygen supply 26.9
Power supply 21.9
Alarm 0.7
Communications 9.7
I Total 168.3

6.2.1.1 Structure.- The s t r u c t u r e consisted of t h e backpack s h e l l ,


two folding sidearm c o n t r o l l e r s , and folding nozzle extensions. The
s h e l l w a s a box-like s t r u c t u r e c o n s i s t i n g of t h r e e main beams and sup-
porting shelves on which t h e components w e r e mounted. The s i z e of t h e
backpack w a s determined by t h e hydrogen peroxide, oxygen, and nitrogen
tanks. The t h r u s t e r s were l o c a t e d i n t h e corners of t h e s t r u c t u r e t o
provide c o n t r o l l i n g f o r c e s and moments about t h e c e n t e r of g r a v i t y of t h e
e n t i r e AMU. The remainder of t h e components were l o c a t e d i n a v a i l a b l e
spaces i n s i d e t h e pack. The t o t a l volume and shape w e r e constrained by

6-27
.

t h e stowage l o c a t i o n i n t h e Gemini equipment adapter s e c t i o n , which


r e q u i r e d t h e f o l d i n g features of t h e nozzle extensions and f l i g h t -
c o n t r o l l e r arms. A removable thermal c u r t a i n covered t h e stowage c a v i t y
t o provide passive temperature c o n t r o l f o r t h e backpack. A s p a r t of t h e
donning e x e r c i s e , t h e extravehicular p i l o t unfolded t h e nozzle extensions
and c o n t r o l l e r a r m s i n t o p o s i t i o n . The c o n t r o l handles by which t h e
p i l o t could introduce t r a n s l a t i o n and a t t i t u d e commands were i n a r e a d i l y
a c c e s s i b l e p o s i t i o n on t h e f r o n t of t h e c o n t r o l l e r arms. The nozzle
extensions d i r e c t e d t h e exhaust plumes from t h e upper forward-firing
t h r u s t e r s away from t h e helmet and shoulders of t h e s u i t .

6.2.1.2 Propulsion system.- The propulsion system w a s t h e h e a v i e s t ,


l a r g e s t , and most complex system i n t h e AMLT. About 24 pounds of hydrogen
peroxide were provided t o supply a t o t a l impulse of 3000 t o 3500 l b / s e c .
P o s i t i v e expulsion of t h e hydrogen peroxide w a s provided, with t h e nitrogen
s t o r e d a t 3500 p s i . The nitrogen tank supplied high-pressure gaseous ni-
trogen t o a r e g u l a t o r when t h e nitrogen shutoff valve w a s opened manually.
Nitrogen r e g u l a t e d t o 455 p s i w a s then supplied t o t h e hydrogen peroxide
tank. A bladder i n t h e hydrogen peroxide tank separated t h e p r o p e l l a n t
from t h e nitrogen. The flow of p r o p e l l a n t from t h e tank t o t h e t h r u s t
chamber as’semblies w a s c o n t r o l l e d with t h e manual valves, which a l s o
c o n t r o l l e d t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of e l e c t r i c a l power t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l t h r u s t e r
valves. Two manual valves were provided, one f o r t h e primary c o n t r o l
system and one f o r t h e a l t e r n a t e system. There were 12 t h r u s t chambers
of nominal 2.3-pound t h r u s t and 16 solenoid-actuated c o n t r o l valves.
Each c o n t r o l system u t i l i z e d e i g h t t h r u s t e r s ; two forward, two a f t ,
two up, and two down. The forward-firing and a f t - f i r i n g t h r u s t e r s were
operated as balanced p a i r s f o r t r a n s l a t i o n forward and a f t and f o r p i t c h
and yaw c o n t r o l . The up-firing and down-firing t h r u s t e r s were used f o r
t r a n s l a t i o n v e r t i c a l l y and for roll c o n t r o l . The a l t e r n a t e system used
e n t i r e l y s e p a r a t e forward-firing and a f t - f i r i n g t h r u s t e r s but used t h e
same t h r u s t chambers f o r up and down t h r u s t i n g . However, separate c o n t r o l
valves were used i n t h e a l t e r n a t e system f o r t h e up, down, and roll com-
mands. Safety f e a t u r e s were provided i n t h e r e l i e f valves l o c a t e d i n
both t h e nitrogen and hydrogen peroxide l i n e s . The valves vented i n t o
t h r u s t - n e u t r a l i z i n g overboard vents.

6.2.1.3 F l i g h t c o n t r o l system.- The f l i g h t c o n t r o l system provided


manual and automatic three-axis a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l and s t a b i l i z a t i o n and
manual t r a n s l a t i o n i n two axes. Two redundant systems were a v a i l a b l e .
Control commands were made manually through t h e c o n t r o l handles l o c a t e d
on t h e c o n t r o l l e r arms. The left-hand c o n t r o l l e r provided t r a n s l a t i o n
commands; t h e right-hand c o n t r o l l e r provided a t t i t u d e control. Also,
on t h e left-hand c o n t r o l l e r assembly were t h e mode s e l e c t i o n switch, a
voice communication volume c o n t r o l , and a VOX d i s a b l e switch. The mode
s e l e c t i o n switch w a s used t o s e l e c t e i t h e r automatic or manual a t t i t u d e
c o n t r o l and s t a b i l i z a t i o n . The volume c o n t r o l permitted t h e p i l o t t o

6-28
c o n t r o l t h e headset volume. The VOX d i s a b l e switch prevented keying of
t h e voice-operated switches. Also, on each c o n t r o l l e r arm t h e r e w a s a
thermal s h i e l d f o r p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e p i l o t ' s gloves from t h e t h r u s t e r
plume heat. These s h i e l d s were added before t h e f l i g h t o f Gemini IX-A
when an a n a l y s i s showed t h e need f o r a d d i t i o n a l p r o t e c t i o n . The bulk
of t h e pressure-;thermal gloves w a s g r e a t e r than d e s i r e d , so t h e a d d i t i o n
of i n s u l a t i o n t o t h e gloves w a s not an acceptable s o l u t i o n t o t h e problem.
Therefore, t h e thermal s h i e l d s were incorporated as p a r t of t h e AMU.

I n t h e manual c o n t r o l mode, t r a n s l a t i o n a l i n p u t s r e s u l t e d i n accel-


e r a t i o n s of about 0.35 f t / s e c 2 f o r t h e duration of t h e input. However,
pure t r a n s l a t i o n would not r e s u l t because of t h e o f f s e t of t h e c e n t e r
of mass from t h e c e n t e r of t h r u s t and because of t h e t o l e r a n c e i n t h r u s t
values. I n t h e automatic ( s t a b i l i z e d ) mode, pure t r a n s l a t i o n s could be
obtained from t r a n s l a t i o n a l i n p u t s , but t h e a c c e l e r a t i o n l e v e l w a s ap-
proximately halved due t o a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l requirements on t h e t h r u s t e r s
A p r i o r i t y was incorporated i n t h e j e t - s e l e c t l o g i c f o r t h e forward-
f i r i n g and a f t - f i r i n g t h r u s t e r s which gave yaw f i r s t p r i o r i t y , p i t c h
second, and t r a n s l a t i o n t h i r d . Pulse width modulation was u t i l i z e d ,
with thruster-on time d i r e c t l y proportional t o t h e input s i g n a l .

Rotational i n p u t s i n t h e manual mode r e s u l t e d i n angular accelera-


P

t i o n s o f 11, 13, and 25 deglsec' i n roll, p i t c h , and yaw, r e s p e c t i v e l y ,


f o r t h e duration of t h e input. Pure r o t a t i o n would not r e s u l t f o r t h e
same reasons t h a t pure t r a n s l a t i o n could not be a t t a i n e d i n t h e manual
mode. Pure single-axis r o t a t i o n s could be a t t a i n e d by use o f t h e auto-
matic mode. Acceleration would occur on command a t t h e l e v e l s already
s p e c i f i e d , u n t i l an angular r a t e of about 18 deg/sec i n p i t c h or yaw, or
26 deg/sec i n roll w a s present. Angular a c c e l e r a t i o n would then s t o p ,
and a continued input t o t h e a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l l e r would r e s u l t i n t h i s
r a t e being maintained. If t h e p i l o t r e l e a s e d t h e c o n t r o l l e r head, it
would r e t u r n t o t h e n e u t r a l p o s i t i o n , and d e c e l e r a t i o n would begin.
When t h e r o t a t i o n had been stopped, t h e c o n t r o l system would go i n t o an
a t t i t u d e - h o l d mode, maintaining a t t i t u d e within about '2.4 degrees i n
each a x i s . I n t h e absence of e x t e r n a l torques, t h e period of limit-cycle
operation within t h i s dead band w a s g r e a t e r than 20 seconds.

6.2.1.4 Oxygen supply system. - The oxygen supply system supplied


expendable oxygen t o t h e ELSS chestpack a t c l o s e l y regulated values of
temperature and pressure. A t o t a l of 7 . 3 pounds of gaseous oxygen w a s
s t o r e d i n - t h e supply t a n k a t a pressure of 75OO'psi. When t h e oxygen
manual shutoff valve w a s opened, t h e high-pressure oxygen flowed through
a heat exchanger f o r i n i t i a l heating, then t o a pressure r e g u l a t o r and
t o a t h e r m o s t a t i c a l l y c o n t r o l l e d h e a t e r . A minimum of 5.1 pounds of
oxygen w a s a v a i l a b l e f o r d e l i v e r y t o t h e ELSS at 97 f 1 0 p s i and

6-29
65O loo F, at a design flow rate of 5.0
f 0.2 l b / h r and a peak of
f

8.4 l b / h r .The thermostatic h e a t e r switch w a s replaced with a manual


switch f o r t h e Gemini X I 1 u n i t .

6.2.1.5 Power supply system.- The power supply system provided


e l e c t r i c a l power t o t h e o t h e r AMU systems f o r t h e mission duration with
a 100-percent reserve capacity. The e l e c t r i c a l power w a s from b a t t e r i e s
of s i l v e r - z i n c c e l l s enclosed i n a s e a l e d metal can. Two of t h e cans
were mounted on t h e backpack for system redundancy. Each can contained
two separate b a t t e r i e s , a +28.5-v01t b a t t e r y and a '16.5-volt b a t t e r y .
The '16.5-vo1t b a t t e r y w a s composed of 22 1.5-volt s i l v e r - z i n c c e l l s ,
each with 1.38-ampere-hour capacity. One s e t of t a p s on t h e s e c e l l s
provided '16.5 v o l t s t o t h e c o n t r o l system e l e c t r o n i c s , telemetry s i g n a l
conditioners, and t h r u s t e r valves. Another s e t of t a p s provided
'15 v o l t s for powering t h e gyros. The d i s t r i b u t i o n systems for t h e
'16.5-volt b a t t e r y i n each can were completely independent.

The 28.5-volt b a t t e r y w a s composed of 19 1.5-volt s i l v e r - z i n c c e l l s ,


each with 2.48-ampere-hour capacity. This b a t t e r y supplied power t o
t h e voice and telemetry t r a n s m i t t e r s , telemetry multiplexer encoder,
telemetry s i g n a l conditioner, warning l i g h t s , tone generator, oxygen
h e a t e r , and p o s i t i o n l i g h t s . The 28-voit power s u p p l i e s i n each can fed
t o a common bus, but were e l e c t r i c a l l y i s o l a t e d by diodes t o prevent a
s h o r t c i r c u i t of one b a t t e r y from draining t h e o t h e r . The b a t t e r y cans
were i n s t a l l e d as one of t h e l a s t operations p r i o r t o mating t h e space-
c r a f t adapter t o t h e launch vehicle second s t a g e , s i n c e access a f t e r t h a t
t i m e was impossible without demating t h e s p a c e c r a f t . The b a t t e r i e s were
i s o l a t e d from t h e AMU systems by t h e main power switch, which t h e p i l o t
closed as p a r t of t h e predonning procedure.

6.2.1.6 Alarm system.- The alarm system gave both crewmembers an


audible warning when c e r t a i n c r i t i c a l out-of-tolerance conditions were
present. The warning was given both as a beeping 1700-cps tone i n t h e
headset and a warning l i g h t on t h e ELSS chestpack d i s p l a y panel. Four
i n d i v i d u a l alarm l i g h t s l o c a t e d on t h e chestpack display panel i d e n t i f i e d

6- 30
which system w a s out of t o l e r a n c e . The four warning l i g h t s and t h e con-
d i t i o n s which t r i g g e r e d them were t h e following:

I Warning l i g h t Triggering conditions

o2 PRESS :1) Depletion of oxygen supply pressure t o


800 p s i ( i n d i c a t e d when a 10-minute
oxygen supply remained)

:2) Reduction i n temperature af oxygen


supply l i n e below 5' f. 5 O F ( i n d i -
cated f a i l u r e of t h e oxygen h e a t e r ) "

Propulsion system nitrogen tank pres-


H2°2
s u r e b i a s e d with temperature ( i n d i -
cated 30 percent of hydrogen peroxide
remained)

FUELPRESS Depletion of propulsion system nitroger


Oank pressure t o 650 p s i , o r hydro-
gen peroxide tank pressure t o 395 p s j
( i n d i c a t e d leakage of .nitrogen or
hydrogen peroxide)

(1) Excessive duty cycle (7.5 percent) on


any t h r u s t e r while operating i n t h e
aut omat i c mode ( i n d i c a t e d runaway
jet,)

(2) Decrease of any 16.5-volt supply below


1 4 v o l t s ( i n d i c a t e d imminent l o s s of
control authority)

'%odd have applied t o t h e Gemini XI1 mission only.

6.2.1.7 Communications system.- The communications system included


a telemetry system and a voice system. The telemetry system t r a n s m i t t e d
1 "

c e r t a i n backpack parameters and biomedical parameters t o t h e s p a c e c r a f t


on 433.0 Mc. On t h e Gemini s p a c e c r a f t , t h e information w a s t o have been
s t o r e d on t h e B t r a c k of t h e b a s i c Gemini data a c q u i s i t i o n system re-
corder. There w e r e 23 analog channels, of which 21 were used, and
48 b i l e v e l channels, of which 25 were used. The data w e r e a v a i l a b l e f o r
p o s t f l i g h t a n a l y s i s only. The voice communications t r a n s c e i v e r w a s a

6-31
UHF t r a n s m i t t e r - r e c e i v e r which w a s c o n t r o l l e d by redundant voice-
operated switches. Transmissions were a t 296.8 Mc. The t r a n s c e i v e r w a s
designed t o be compatible with t h e b a s i c Gemini system and u t i l i z e d t h e
microphone and earphones i n t h e space s u i t . The s i g n a l s from both t h e
telemetry t r a n s m i t t e r and t h e t r a n s c e i v e r were diplexed, and they u t i l i z e d
a comon folded monopole antenna mounted on t o p of t h e backpack. While
t h e AMU w a s s t o r e d i n t h e Gemini adapter s e c t i o n , c e r t a i n parameters were
t r a n s m i t t e d t o t h e ground by t h e s p a c e c r a f t telemetry system, and t h e hy-
drogen peroxide pressure and temperature were displayed on a panel i n t h e
.
s p a c e c r a f t cabin

6.2.1.8 AMLJ t e t h e r . - The AMU t e t h e r consisted of a 125-foot length


of 3/8-inch nylon webbing, two hooks, a s i n g l e r i n g , and a bag f o r stow-
age. A t one end, a hook was provided f o r attachment t o t h e s t r u c t u r a l
member of t h e ELSS umbilical. This hook permitted t r a v e l out t o a d i s -
tance of 1 2 5 f e e t from t h e umbilical. The second hook w a s l o c a t e d
100 f e e t from t h e f i r s t hook. When it w a s attached t o t h e umbilical
t e t h e r , it l i m i t e d t h e AMU t e t h e r l e n g t h t o 25 f e e t . A r i n g on t h e
opposite end of t h e t e t h e r attached t o a hook on t h e space s u i t harness.

6.2.2 AMU I n t e r f a c e s

6.2.2.1 Gemini spacecraft.- The AMU backpack was i n s t a l l e d i n t h e


Gemini equipment adapter s e c t i o n before mating t h e s p a c e c r a f t t o t h e
launch v e h i c l e ( f i g s . 6.2-1 and 6.2-2). Mechanical mating t o t h e space-
c r a f t w a s accomplished by mounting a four-legged s t r u c t u r e o r claw assem-
b l y t o t h e backpack and by using a t e n s i o n b o l t t o p u l l t h e claw down
firmly a g a i n s t a s h e e t metal s t r u c t u r e ( t o r q u e box assembly). The torque
box w a s then mounted on t h e b l a s t s h i e l d door. The b o l t w a s t o have been
severed by an e l e c t r i c a l l y detonated, pyrotechnically operated g u i l l o t i n e
a c t u a t e d from t h e cabin a f t e r t h e AMU had been donned during t h e extra-
vehicular mission. A pull-away e l e c t r i c a l connector provided instrumen-
t a t i o n and power leads f o r cabin monitoring and f o r ground s e r v i c i n g and
testing .
6.2.2.1.1 Servicing provisions: To permit s e r v i c i n g of t h e AMU
with hydrogen peroxide a f t e r mating t h e s p a c e c r a f t t o t h e launch v e h i c l e ,
a s e r v i c e l i n e was i n s t a l l e d from t h e e x t e r n a l s u r f a c e of t h e adapter
assembly t o t h e AMLT hydrogen peroxide f i l l p o r t . A second p a r a l l e l l i n e
t o t h e AMU-regulated nitrogen p o r t allowed r e s e r v i c i n g of t h e system i n
t h e event t h a t r e s e r v i c i n g had been required. I f , f o r some reason, t h e
hydrogen peroxide had become unstable and t h e pressure of t h e system had
r i s e n above 575 p s i a , t h e AMU r e l i e f valve would have opened and vented
t h e hydrogen peroxide through a t h i r d l i n e t o t h e adapter s k i n . The f i l l
and r e s e r v i c i n g l i n e s would have been severed by t h e same g u i l l o t i n e pro-
vided t o r e l e a s e t h e AMU. The vent l i n e was routed through a spring-
loaded pull-off housing t h a t would have s e p a r a t e d when t h e AMU was
released.

6-32
6.2.2.1.2 Thermal i n t e r f a c e : Because of t h e temperature l i m i t a -
t i o n s of 40' t o 100' F f o r various AMU components, a thermal cover assem-
b l y w a s placed oyer t h e AMU i n t h e adapter s e c t i o n t o provide passive
thermal c o n t r o l under o r b i t a l conditions. The cover r e s t e d a g a i n s t
attachment p o i n t s on t h e f r o n t of t h e AMU and w a s j e t t i s o n e d by manual
operation of a cockpit switch ( f i g . 6.2-3).

6.2.2.1.3 Donning hardware: Equipment w a s provided i n t h e adapter


s e c t i o n t o assist t h e EVA p i l o t i n donning t h e AMU. The hardware in-
cluded a f o o t r a i l , two handbars, an umbilical guide, and two f l o o d l i g h t s
f o r darkside operation. The equipment w a s deployed and p o s i t i o n e d f o r
AMU donning a t t h e same t i m e t h e thermal cover w a s released.

6.2.2.1.4 Instrumentation and communications: To o b t a i n AMU per-


formance d a t a , a telemetry r e c e i v e r w a s i n s t a l l e d on t h e e l e c t r o n i c s
module i n t h e s p a c e c r a f t adapter. This r e c e i v e r w a s capable of accepting
t h e diphase p u l s e code modulation ( P C M ) format t r a n s m i t t e d from t h e AMU.
It demodulated t h e 433-Mc received s i g n a l and provided a 5120-bits-per-
second diphase s i g n a l t o t h e s p a c e c r a f t PCM recorder. The d a t a were t o
have been recorded and s t o r e d f o r p o s t f l i g h t a n a l y s i s .

Two whip antennas w e r e mounted on t h e adapter s u r f a c e t o r e c e i v e


t h e AMU telemetry transmissions. Only one antenna would have been u t i -
l i z e d a t any time. The proper antenna would have been s e l e c t e d by co-
axial switching from a s i g n a l provided by t h e telemetry r e c e i v e r . The
r e c e i v e r would have provided automatic c o n t r o l of t h e coaxial switch t o
change antennas when t h e RF s i g n a l on t h e antenna i n use dropped below
the preset level.

Although p r o p e l l a n t s t a t u s was monitored i n t h e cockpit, t h e same


pressures and temperatures were a l s o monitored on t h e ground through
s p a c e c r a f t telemetry. A 0-to-715-psia transducer and a thermistor i n
t h e AMU p r o p e l l a n t tank were powered by t h e s p a c e c r a f t f o r telemetry
channel RAOl (hydrogen peroxide p r e s s u r e ) and f o r channel RA02 (hydrogen
peroxide temperature) . Readings of hydrogen peroxide p r e s s u r e were a v a i l -
able u n t i l t h e AMU telemetry switch w a s placed i n t h e BACKPACK p o s i t i o n
during t h e donning phase of t h e e x t r a v e h i c u l a r mission. Temperatures of
hydrogen peroxide were read u n t i l AMU s e p a r a t i o n from t h e s p a c e c r a f t .

6.2.2.1.5 Crew s t a t i o n displays: Spacecraft crew s t a t i o n displays


and c o n t r o l s were as follows:

( a ) The p r o p e l l a n t temperature and p r e s s u r e i n d i c a t o r gage indi-


cated p r e s s u r e and temperature of t h e hydrogen peroxide p r o p e l l a n t stowed
i n t h e AMU.

( b ) The warning l i g h t f o r hydrogen peroxide pressure would have


illuminated i f t h e pressure had reached 575 * 20 p s i a .

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( c ) The BUS ARM switch, l o c a t e d on t h e Agena c o n t r o l panel, was
placed i n t h e EXP p o s i t i o n t o energize experiment squib c i r c u i t s b e f o r e
AMU cover release, f o o t r a i l extension, telemetry antenna deployment, and
AMU r e l e a s e .

(d) The W switch provided s e v e r a l functions. With t h e switch


i n t h e spring-loaded DEPLOY p o s i t i o n , t h e AMU would have been r e l e a s e d
by g u i l l o t i n e c u t t i n g of t h e hollow r e t e n t i o n b o l t and s e r v i c i n g l i n e s .
I n t h e t e l e m e t r y switch ON p o s i t i o n , t h e t e l e m e t r y r e c e i v e r and i t s
a s s o c i a t e d antenna c o a x i a l switch were powered, and t h e t a p e r e c o r d e r w a s
activated.

( e ) The INDEX EXT/EVA BARS EXT switch, when placed i n t h e EVA


BARS EXT p o s i t i o n , r e l e a s e d t h e AMU thermal cover, t h e f o o t r a i l , and t h e
handbars and deployed t h e AMU telemetry antennas.

6.2.2.2 Extravehicular L i f e Support System.- The ELSS provided


e l e c t r i c a l , mechanical, and l i f e support connections between t h e extra-
v e h i c u l a r p i l o t and t h e AMU. A quick disconnect on t h e umbilical w a s
a t t a c h e d t o a mating connector on t h e ELSS. The AMU oxygen supply system
i n t e r f a c e i s d i s c u s s e d i n paragraph 6.2.1.4. Other AMU/ELSS i n t e r f a c e s
a r e presented i n t h e following paragraphs.

6.2.2.2.1 AMU r e s t r a i n t harness i n t e r f a c e : A r e s t r a i n t harness w a s


provided as p a r t of t h e backpack t o s e c u r e t h e backpack i n p l a c e .

6.2.2.2.2 Malfunction d e t e c t i o n system i n t e r f a c e : A switch w a s


provided on t h e ELSS t o t e s t t h e operation of t h e alarm l i g h t s and of
p o r t i o n s of t h e backpack alarm system. The t e s t s i g n a l t o t h e backpack
w a s provided through t h e e l e c t r i c a l u m b i l i c a l . The ELSS supplied a 1700-
cycles-per-second audio t o n e s i g n a l t o t h e backpack r a d i o receiver-
t r a n s m i t t e r upon r e c e i p t of a s i g n a l from t h e AMU alarm system through
t h e e l e c t r i c a 1 , u m b i l i c a l . The s i g n a l t o t h e backpack continued u n t i l t h e
r e s e t switch, l o c a t e d on t h e t o p of t h e ELSS, w a s actuated. This a c t i o n
generated a s i g n a l t o t h e backpack, v i a t h e e l e c t r i c a l u m b i l i c a l , t o re-
s e t t h e alarm t r i g g e r i n t h e backpack.

6.2.2.2.3 Telemetry i n t e r f a c e : The backpack telemetered t h e f o l -


lowing parameters r e c e i v e d from t h e space s u i t and ELSS through t h e AMU
e l e c t r i c a l umbilical:

(a) Electrocardiogram

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(b) Respiration r a t e

(c) Space s u i t pressure (Gemini IX-A only)

6.2.2.2.4 Hydrogen peroxide q u a n t i t y i n d i c a t i o n i n t e r f a c e : A meter


w a s provided on t h e ELSS d i s p l a y panel t o i n d i c a t e t h e q u a n t i t y of hydro-
gen peroxide remaining i n t h e backpack. Signals were supplied t o t h e
meter from t h e backpack through t h e AMU e l e c t r i c a l umbilical.

6.2.2.3 Gemini s u i t . - An exhaust-plume heating a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d


t h a t t h e Gemini thermal c o v e r a l l materials would be heated beyond accept-
able l i m i t s during an AMU mission. A s a r e s u l t , extensions were added t o
t h e upper forward-firing t h r u s t e r s , and t h e l e g portions of t h e b a s i c
Gemini space s u i t coverlayer were modified. Eleven l a y e r s of superinsu-
l a t i o n ( a woven f a b r i c , a s u p e r i n s u l a t i o n spacer m a t e r i a l of f i b e r g l a s ,
and an aluminized r e f l e c t i v e m a t e r i a l ) were used. The nozzle extensions
were evaluated t o determine t h e i r effect' on performance systems design
and predonning a c t i v i t i e s . Performance t e s t s on extension configurations
i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e extensions d i d not markedly a f f e c t t h r u s t e r perform-
ance. Thermal a n a l y s i s of t h e s e l e c t e d design v e r i f i e d t h i s s o l u t i o n
of t h e h e a t i n g problem a s s o c i a t e d with t h e upper forward-firing t h r u s t e r s

P r o t e c t i v e thermal s h i e l d s were i n s t a l l e d on t h e AMU c o n t r o l l e r s .


The s h i e l d s u t i l i z e d t h e same m a t e r i a l s and layup a s t h e modified extra-
vehicular coverlayer. The s h i e l d s a r e v i s i b l e i n f i g u r e 6.2-4, which
shows t h e AMU i n s t a l l e d f o r launch on Gemini IX-A.

6.2.3 Training

The AMU experience on Gemini IX-A i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e t r a i n i n g re-


quirements f o r a f l i g h t of t h i s type of device were q u i t e extensive. The
Gemini IX-A EVA p i l o t spent 140 hours i n t h e various AMU t r a i n i n g activ-
i t i e s . Training f o r t h e AMU f l i g h t s t a r t e d with introductory b r i e f i n g s
about 7 months before t h e scheduled f l i g h t o f Gemini IX-A.

Proficiency i n t h e AMTJ donning techniques w a s achieved by numerous


r e p e t i t i o n s of t h e donning, using a flight-configured t r a i n i n g AMU. A
v a r i e t y of s t r u c t u r e s were used t o represent t h e Gemini adapter s o t h a t
i n t e r f a c e s could be s t u d i e d and r e s t r a i n t systems analyzed. The zero-g
a i r c r a f t w a s employed f o r e a r l y study of AMU donning, and requests for
s e v e r a l s p a c e c r a f t modifications followed. The donning was repeated
frequently i n one g , where time w a s a v a i l a b l e t o work out procedural
d i f f i c u l t i e s discovered i n zero g.

Donning was performed s e v e r a l t i m e s i n one g with t h e Gemini IX-A


f l i g h t a r t i c l e ( S e r i a l Number 17) and with another f l i g h t - t y p e AMU

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( S e r i a l Number 1 5 ) . The Gemini IX-A p i l o t performed a donning followed
by h o t - f i r i n g s of t h e propulsion system on t h e S e r i a l Number 1 5 u n i t at
sea-level ambient conditions. H e a l s o performed a donning of t h e S e r i a l
Number 15 u n i t a t a l t i t u d e conditions i n Chamber B of t h e MSC Space
Environmental Simulation Laboratory. This chamber t e s t w a s p a r t of t h e
AMUIELSS i n t e g r a t i o n t e s t i n g and w a s intended t o i n c l u d e b r e a t h i n g from
t h e AMU oxygen supply and f i r i n g t h e AMU t h r u s t e r s . However, t h e t e s t
w a s terminated after t h e AMU e l e c t r i c a l connector malfunctioned. K e
again donned AMU S e r i a l Number 1 5 a t a l t i t u d e conditions i n t h e MSC
20-foot a l t i t u d e chamber. AMU communications and propulsion systems
were not e x e r c i s e d i n t h i s t e s t . However, a c t u a l Gemini IX-A l i f e sup-
p o r t equipment w a s used, and t h e p i l o t became thoroughly familiar with
t h e o p e r a t i o n of t h e s e i t e m s a t a l t i t u d e c o n d i t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g a l l ELSS
flow modes and v e r i f i c a t i o n of t h e low p r e s s u r e warning from t h e AMU
oxygen supply.

AMU t r a i n i n g a l s o r e s u l t e d from s p a c e c r a f t systems t e s t s a t t h e


s p a c e c r a f t c o n t r a c t o r ' s p l a n t . AMU communications and telemetry were
checked i n conjunction with simulated f l i g h t , and t h e oxygen supply sys-
tem w a s checked during s p a c e c r a f t a l t i t u d e chamber t e s t i n g . AMU donning
w a s performed, and closed-loop m / E L S S o p e r a t i o n w a s achieved during t h e
s e a - l e v e l ambient t e s t s . During t h e a l t i t u d e t e s t s , e l e c t r i c a l and
oxygen connections from t h e AMU t o t h e ELSS w e r e made, u t i l i z i n g exten-
s i o n u m b i l i c a l s from t h e AMU t o t h e s p a c e c r a f t h a t c h area, and closed-
loop operation w a s achieved. Crew p a r t i c i p a t i o n w a s a l s o included i n t h e
RF and Functional Compatibility T e s t between t h e s p a c e c r a f t and t a r g e t
v e h i c l e , F i n a l Systems T e s t s , J o i n t Combined Systems Tests, and Simulated
F l i g h t a t t h e launch s i t e , which provided some AMU t r a i n i n g i n conjunc-
t i o n with t h e primary o b j e c t i v e of i n t e g r a t e d t e s t i n g .

AMU f l i g h t simulations were a major p a r t of crew t r a i n i n g f o r AMU


f l i g h t . Three-degree-of-freedom f l i g h t simulations were conducted on
t h e MSC air-bearing f a c i l i t y using a s p e c i a l AMU. This u n i t had most of
t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e f l i g h t a r t i c l e s , but had a cold-gas propulsion
system with n i t r o g e n i n s t e a d of t h e hydrogen peroxide system of t h e
f l i g h t AMU. Six-degree-of-freedom AMU f l i g h t simulations were conducted
a t Edwards A i r Force Base and at t h e AMLT c o n t r a c t o r ' s p l a n t . Fixed-base
simulations were conducted i n t h e T-27 F l i g h t Simulator at Edwards A i r
Force Base. This s i m u l a t o r u t i l i z e d a Farrand o p t i c a l system, which pre-
s e n t e d an image of a scale-model t a r g e t v e h i c l e i n t h e T-27 cockpit. A
p a i r of AMU c o n t r o l l e r knobs were l o c a t e d i n approximately t h e i r c o r r e c t
l o c a t i o n relative t o t h e seat, and a breadboard AMU c o n t r o l system w a s
used. A n i g h t sky w i t h or without s t a r f i e l d w a s available f o r background,
with t h e horizon provided by an o c c u l t a t i o n d i s k . The s i m u l a t o r provided
a high-quality v i s u a l p r e s e n t a t i o n , b u t it had a much narrower f i e l d of
view t h a n t h e s u i t e d e x t r a v e h i c u l a r p i l o t , which presented a severe l i m i -
t a t i o n i n t h e u s e f u l n e s s of t h e simulation.

6-36
Moving-base simulations were conducted a t t h e AMU c o n t r a c t o r ' s fa-
c i l i t y ( f i g . 6.2-5). An AMU s t r u c t u r e w a s used t o d u p l i c a t e t h e p i l o t /
AMU i n t e r f a c e , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e areas of body contour and hand-controller
l o c a t i o n . An AMU c o n t r o l e l e c t r o n i c s package w a s used, and t h e t h r u s t
values f o r , t h e Gemini IX-A f l i g h t a r t i c l e ( S e r i a l Number 17) were dupli-
cated. The crew s t a t i o n i n t h e simulator w a s i n t h e middle of a 20-foot
sphere, t h e i n s i d e of which was used as a p r o j e c t i o n s u r f a c e f o r t h e
v i s u a l p r e s e n t a t i o n . This o f f e r e d t h e advantage of a wide f i e l d of view,
but t h e t a r g e t p r o j e c t i o n w a s u n r e a l i s t i c . The t a r g e t w a s represented
by two c i r c l e s of d i f f e r e n t c o l o r s , with t h e c i r c l e s representing t h e
ends of t a r g e t . The s i z e of t h e c i r c l e s and t h e included angle changed
t o i n d i c a t e changes i n AMU-to-target range and a t t i t u d e . Background
p r e s e n t a t i o n s a v a i l a b l e w e r e a black e a r t h with a random s t a r f i e l d , and
a f e a t u r e l e s s l i g h t e d e a r t h without a s t a r f i e l d . Since AMU f l i g h t was
planned f o r o r b i t a l day, t h e l a t t e r w a s used exclusively.

A s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t of t h e simulations w a s t h e development of an
AMU f l i g h t technique by t h e NASA f l i g h t crew which d i f f e r e d g r e a t l y from
t h e f l i g h t technique devised by t h e c o n t r a c t o r . The technique developed
by t h e c o n t r a c t o r f o r a rendezvous followed t h e s e l i n e s :

( a ) Facing t h e t a r g e t , introduce a closing v e l o c i t y with t h e a f t -


firing thrusters

(b) When line-of-sight d r i f t i s observed a g a i n s t t h e background,


roll u n t i l t h e v e r t i c a l t h r u s t e r s a r e aligned with t h e d i r e c t i o n of d r i f t
and f i r e t h e up-firing or down-firing t h r u s t e r s as required t o s t o p t h e
drift

(c) Repeat as required u n t i l c l o s e t o t h e t a r g e t

(a) Take out t h e c l o s i n g v e l o c i t y and contact t h e t a r g e t

The technique developed by t h e f l i g h t crew w a s as follows:

( a ) Facing t h e t a r g e t , introduce a c l o s i n g v e l o c i t y with t h e aft-


firing thrusters

( b ) A f t e r t h e c l o s i n g v e l o c i t y i s e s t a b l i s h e d , yaw r i g h t or l e f t
up t o 90 degrees. When line-of-sight d r i f t i s detected, c o r r e c t by
f i r i n g forward, a f t , up, or down t h r u s t e r s as required t o s t o p t h e d r i f t

(c) Repeat as required u n t i l rendezvous i s imminent

( d ) Yaw back t o a facing-the-spacecraft a t t i t u d e , t a k e out t h e


c l o s i n g v e l o c i t y , and contact t h e t a r g e t

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I n simulations, t h i s "over-the-shoulder" rendezvous technique provided
faster response f o r less fuel and w a s much easier t o l e a r n t h a n t h e
e a r l i e r method of roll and v e r t i c a l f i r i n g . I n some c a s e s , t h e technique
a l s o permitted t h e p i l o t t o see t h e t a r g e t and t h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t without
s p e c i a l maneuvers.

The crew demonstrated t h e a b i l i t y t o p e r f o m b a s i c maneuvers of t h e


type which w e r e planned f o r Gemini I X during t h e simulations. The maneu-
v e r s were p r i m a r i l y rendezvous w i t h a s t a b i l i z e d t a r g e t v e h i c l e , u t i l i z -
i n g t h e t a r g e t v e h i c l e f o r a l l r e f e r e n c e . The horizon w a s a secondary
cue, r e q u i r e d t o determine r e l a t i v e a l t i t u d e , b u t not an e s s e n t i a l ref-
erence f o r rendezvous. Rendezvous maneuvers were simpler i n t h e s t a b i -
l i z e d mode of AMU f l i g h t . However, t h i s mode used p r o p e l l a n t a t a much
g r e a t e r r a t e t h a n t h e u n s t a b i l i z e d mode because of continuous l i m i t cy-
c l i n g . The crew w a s a b l e t o perform t h e maneuvers i n t h e u n s t a b i l i z e d
mode with much l e s s f u e l expended, but with t h e r e q u i r e d burden of con-
tinuous c o n t r o l .

The optimum c o n t r o l mode u t i l i z a t i o n w a s a combination of s t a b i l i z e d


and u n s t a b i l i z e d modes. The s t a b i l i z a t i o n f e a t u r e w a s u t i l i z e d during
periods of t h r u s t i n p u t , and c o a s t i n g w a s done u n s t a b i l i z e d . This method
provided t h e b e s t combination of c o n t r o l , p i l o t work l o a d , and f u e l con-
sumption. The moving base simulations provided t h e most r e a l i s t i c p i l o t
c o n t r o l t r a i n i n g f o r AMU f l i g h t , and t h e AMU f l i g h t p l a n w a s based on
t h e r e s u l t s obtained i n t h e s e simulation e x e r c i s e s .

The simulations a l s o provided t r a i n i n g i n t h e d e t e c t i o n and correc-


t i o n of AMU malfunctions. All t h r u s t e r and gyro f a i l u r e s were simulated,
both i n t h e o f f and t h e on condition. The f a i l e d - o f f conditions w e r e
r e a d i l y d e t e c t e d and c o r r e c t e d i n both t h e s t a b i l i z e d and t h e unstabi-
l i z e d modes. A l l failed-on conditions were a l s o d e t e c t e d , b u t complete
c o r r e c t i o n w a s not always p o s s i b l e w i t h i n t h e l i m i t s of t h e t e t h e r e d re-
gime. I n t h e case of a failed-on t h r u s t e r while i n t h e s t a b i l i z e d mode,
t h e a t t i t u d e - h o l d f e a t u r e of t h e AMU caused t h r u s t e r f i r i n g s t o occur
such t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t t r a n s l a t i o n a l v e l o c i t i e s (up t o 2.5 f t / s e c ) could
b u i l d up b e f o r e t h e f a i l u r e w a s detected. Before t h i s v e l o c i t y could be
d e t e c t e d and canceled o u t , t r a n s l a t i o n beyond t h e end of t h e t e t h e r
(125 f e e t ) would have occurred. This would have r e s u l t e d i n a bounce
o f f t h e end of t h e t e t h e r , which w a s a problem of undefined s i g n i f i c a n c e .

It w a s a l s o discovered during t h e f a i l u r e simulations t h a t c e r t a i n


failed-on forward-firing or a f t - f i r i n g t h r u s t e r s could cause a t t i t u d e
divergence, even i n t h e s t a b i l i z e d mode of operation. A failed-on
t h r u s t e r i n t h e f o r e and a f t a x i s generated p i t c h , yaw, and t r a n s l a t i o n .
When t h e p i t c h and yaw o r i e n t a t i o n s exceeded t h e dead bands (2.4') , oppos-
i n g t h r u s t e r s began f i r i n g i n p a i r s t o damp t h e s e movements. Since one
t h r u s t e r would be p a r t of both t h e yaw and p i t c h c o r r e c t i n g t h r u s t e r

6-38
p a i r s , t h e demand on t h i s t h r u s t e r could exceed 100-percent duty cycle.
When t h i s happened, p i t c h c o n t r o l w a s l o s t because c o n t r o l of yaw w a s
given h i g h e r p r i o r i t y by t h e j e t s e l e c t i o n l o g i c .

The Gemini IX-A EVA p i l o t t r a i n e d f o r 32 hours i n AMU f l i g h t simu-


l a t i o n s f o r t h e mission.

6.2.4 Mission Results

The AMU w a s s e r v i c e d f o r f l i g h t p r i o r t o t h e scheduled launch d a t e


of May 17, 1966. Monitoring of t h e p r o p e l l a n t s t a t u s (hydrogen peroxide)
a f t e r launch c a n c e l l a t i o n i n d i c a t e d a s t a b l e p r e s s u r e r i s e of 0.2 p s i a
p e r hour due t o normal active-oxygen l o s s , which w a s w e l l below t h e
allowable of 0.6 p s i a p e r hour. The p r o p e l l a n t w a s not r e s e r v i c e d .

The oxygen and n i t r o g e n systems, which w e r e monitored through ground


support equipment, showed no leakage. Fresh b a t t e r i e s were i n s t a l l e d i n
t h e f l i g h t u n i t on May 21, 1966. A subsequent t e l e m e t r y check of t h e AMU
i n d i c a t e d t h a t a l l systems were operating normally.

A t launch on June 3, 1966, t h e hydrogen peroxide p r e s s u r e had in-


creased t o approximately 87 p s i a , which w a s s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r launch.
Immediately a f t e r launch, t h e p r o p e l l a n t tank p r e s s u r e i n c r e a s e d t o
90.7 p s i a , where it remained u n t i l donning checkout. The p r o p e l l a n t
temperatures were normal a t 72O t o 77' F.

When t h e EVA p i l o t e n t e r e d t h e s p a c e c r a f t a d a p t e r s e c t i o n , t h e l e f t
handbar and t h e u m b i l i c a l guide were not f u l l y extended, and t h e AMU
adapter thermal cover w a s not completely r e l e a s e d . Also, t h e l e f t adapt-
e r EVA l i g h t w a s i n o p e r a t i v e . When t h e p i l o t p u l l e d on t h e handbar, t h e
handbar moved t o t h e f u l l y deployed p o s i t i o n and r e l e a s e d t h e thermal
cover and t h e u m b i l i c a l guide. Donning a c t i v i t i e s and AMU i n s p e c t i o n
were completed through t h e p o i n t of connecting t h e AMU e l e c t r i c a l umbil-
i c a l . These a c t i v i t i e s included a t t a c h i n g p o r t a b l e p e n l i g h t s , opening
t h e n i t r o g e n and oxygen s h u t o f f v a l v e s , readout of oxygen and n i t r o g e n
p r e s s u r e s , p o s i t i o n i n g t h e sidegrm c o n t r o l l e r s , p o s i t i o n i n g t h e umbili-
c a l s and t h e AMU r e s t r a i n t h a r n e s s , a t t a c h i n g t h e AMU t e t h e r , t u r n i n g
on t h e AMU e l e c t r i c a l power, and changeover t o t h e AMU e l e c t r i c a l umbil-
i c a l . The oxygen p r e s s u r e w a s a normal 7500 p s i a , and n i t r o g e n p r e s s u r e
a f t e r nitrogen-valve opening w a s 2800 p s i a (normal f o r AMU o p e r a t i o n ) .
Because of t h e d i f f i c u l t y i n maintaining p o s i t i o n i n t h e a d a p t e r , don-
ning a c t i v i t i e s r e q u i r e d a much longer time t o complete than expected.
The p i l o t tended t o d r i f t away from t h e work area i n t h e adapter. Posi-
t i o n could n o t be maintained, because both hands were r e q u i r e d t o extend
t h e sidearm c o n t r o l l e r s and t o a t t a c h t h e AMU t e t h e r . AMU communica-
t i o n s t o t h e command p i l o t were g a r b l e d , but were usable by both p i l o t s .

6-39
Because of t h e severe v i s o r fogging which occurred during t h e AMU
preparation a c t i v i t i e s , t h e crew discontinued t h e AMU experiment. A t
s u n r i s e , t h e EVA p i l o t disconnected t h e AMU e l e c t r i c a l connection, con-
nected t h e ELSS umbilical, and returned t o t h e cabin, leaving t h e AMU
power on. The AMU remained i n t h e adapter with t h e systems a c t i v a t e d f o r
flight until retrofire.

Termination of t h e EVA precluded an evaluation of most of t h e AMU


performance c a p a b i l i t i e s . However, t h e backpack s u c c e s s f u l l y withstood
a Gemini launch and a 2-day exposure t o t h e space environment. Most of
t h e functions of checkout and donning were performed p r i o r t o t h e termi-
nation of AMU a c t i v i t i e s . Although t h e AMU w a s t r a n s m i t t i n g telemetry
d a t a following power-up during t h e predonning a c t i v i t y , f a i l u r e of t h e
Gemini d a t a recorder precluded t h e recovery of q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s of
AMU d a t a performance. Analysis of t h e AMU systems, t h e r e f o r e , w a s based
p r i m a r i l y on t h e debriefing comments by t h e f l i g h t crew.

During t h e 2-day pre-EVA period, hydrogen peroxide pressure and


temperature were monitored by telemetry a t l e a s t once p e r o r b i t . Low
a c t i v i t y of both parameters r e s u l t e d i n few cabin readouts. During t h e
pre-EVA period, t h e p r e d i c t e d active-oxygen l o s s (AOL) buildup was con-
tinuously computed and p l o t t e d against t h e recorded AOL buildup.

Actual AOL pressure buildup w a s much lower than predicted. (A rise


of 8.5 p s i a had been p r e d i c t e d . ) During t h e 50 hours 37 minutes before
t h e backpack telemetry switch w a s changed t o BACKPACK during AMU don-
ning, t h e t o t a l pressure r i s e was l e s s than 3 p s i . A decrease was pre-
d i c t e d i n t h e hydrogen peroxide temperature. During t h e pre-EVA period,
t h e temperature v a r i e d from 6 9 O t o 7 8 O F. Readings on t h e cabin gages
during t h i s period were 69O F f o r temperature and 90 p s i a for pressure.

6.2.5 Concluding Remarks

A l l AMU systems exercised during t h e mission were i n an acceptable


condition f o r f l i g h t when t h e AMU evaluation w a s terminated. Some d i f -
f i c u l t y w a s experienced with t h e reception of t h e AMU voice s i g n a l by
t h e command p i l o t . Subsequent i n v e s t i g a t i o n s f a i l e d t o pinpoint t h e
exact cause of t h e problem. However, f o r t h e expected Gemini X I 1 AMU
mission, a t h i r d antenna f o r reception of AMU transmissions was added i n
t h e adapter s e c t i o n . Since one of t h e adapter f l o o d l i g h t s d i d not func-
t i o n on Gemini IX-A, a design change w a s made t o shock-mount t h e flood-
l i g h t s f o r Gemini X I and X I I . One of t h e p e n l i g h t s provided f o r backup
f a i l e d t o operate. A p a i r of t h e s e p e n l i g h t s was subjected t o a simula-
t e d launch environment mounted on t h e AMU t e t h e r bag as t h e y were on Gem-
i n i IX-A. Both functioned properly a f t e r t h e t e s t , and no f u r t h e r a c t i o n
w a s taken. The preparation and donning of t h e AMU w a s a complex pro-
cedure involving s e r i a l operations. The primary cause of AMU donning

6-40
problems on Gemini IX-A w a s t h e lack of adequate body r e s t r a i n t s . This
problem i s discussed i n d e t a i l i n s e c t i o n 5.0. A new foot r e s t r a i n t
system f o r AMU donning w a s designed f o r Gemini X I 1 before t h e AMU was
deleted from t h e mission. Several changes w e r e made t o t h e AMU a f t e r
Gemini IX-A t o simplify t h e donning, and changes w e r e made t o other
EVA equipment t o simplify a l l EVA t a s k s .

Training f o r f l i g h t of t h e AMU w a s very demanding on t h e crew's


t i m e , and t h i s should be considered i n planning future EVA maneuvering
missions. .
I

6-41
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6-42
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6-43
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6-44
NASA-S-67-252

Figure 6.2-4. - AMU with thermal protective cover removed.

6-45
NASA-S-67-3058

Figure 6.2-5 .-AMU moving-base simulator.


6-46
7.0 EXTRAVEHICULAR TRAINING AND SIMULATIOW

David C. Schultz, Flight Crew Support Division


John H. Covington, Flight Crew Support Division
Martin Debrovner, Crew Systems Division
Donald L. Jacobs, Gemini Program Office
7.0 EXTRAVEHICULAR TRAINING AND SIMULATION

7 . 1 ONE-G TRAINING

Some phases of crew t r a i n i n g f o r EVA can be conducted i n a one-g


environment w i t h l i t t l e compromise i n t h e value of t h e t r a i n i n g . From
t h e standpoint of a v a i l a b l e f a c i l i t i e s , t h i s t r a i n i n g i s more convenient
than zero-g or underwater simulations. The p a r t i c u l a r forms of one-g
t r a i n i n g were d i c t a t e d by t h e f l i g h t p l a n requirements and by t h e f a c i l i -
t i e s a v a i l a b l e . One-g walk throughs, a l t i t u d e chamber t e s t s , and air-
bearing platform t r a i n i n g w e r e t h e p r i n c i p a l forms o f one-g EVA t r a i n i n g
used by t h e Gemini crews.

7.1.1 Training Objectives

The o b j e c t i v e s of a l l one-g EVA t r a i n i n g were t o f a m i l i a r i z e t h e


f l i g h t crews with t h e procedures t h e hardware and t h e s p a c e c r a f t stow-
age r e l a t e d t o EVA and t o develop a coordinated work e f f o r t between t h e
crewmembers.

7.1.2 Training Methods

7.1.2.1 One-g walk throughs.- The one-g walk through w a s a t r a i n i n g


e x e r c i s e i n which a crew walked through a d e t a i l e d c h e c k l i s t of EVA pro-
cedures f o r p r a c t i c e o r t r a i n i n g . This form of t r a i n i n g w a s conducted
with mockups of t h e s p a c e c r a f t r e e n t r y module, t h e Gemini Agena Target
Vehicle (GATV), and t h e s p a c e c r a f t adapter s e c t i o n . Crew s t a t i o n walk
throughs were conducted i n a mockup of t h e crew s t a t i o n which very close-
l y simulated a l l t h e d e t a i l of t h e a c t u a l Gemini s p a c e c r a f t and i n which
w a s stowed a l l t h e planned onboard equipment. The crew, wearing space
suits and f u l l f l i g h t equipment, would go through a step-by-step se-
quence of each phase of t h e EVA p o r t i o n of t h e f l i g h t plan: p r e p a r a t i o n
f o r EVA, e g r e s s , EVA phase, i n g r e s s , and post-EVA a c t i v i t i e s ( f i g . 7.1-1).
During t h e crew s t a t i o n walk throughs, t h e crews became familiar with t h e
procedures f o r performing t h e EVA, t h e r e l a t e d equipment, and t h e space-
c r a f t stowage.

EVA equipment w a s c a r r i e d i n t h e s p a c e c r a f t adapter s e c t i o n on four


missions. Mockups of t h e s p a c e c r a f t adapter s e c t i o n were used f o r adapt-
e r walk throughs i n which t h e crews would p r a c t i c e operations with t h e
EVA equipment i n s t a l l e d i n t h e adapter ( f i g . 7.1-2).

S i m i l a r walk throughs were h e l d w i t h mockups of t h e GATV. These


c o n s i s t e d of t h e crew going through t h e procedures f o r e i t h e r t h e attach-
ment of t h e GATV t e t h e r t o t h e s p a c e c r a f t docking b a r (for Gemini X I
and X I I ) , or f o r t h e t a s k s t o be performed a t t h e TDA work s t a t i o n f o r
Gemini X I I . I n each case, t h e crews became familiar with t h e hardware
involved and t h e procedure f o r performing t h e various t a s k s .

7.1.2.2 A l t i t u d e chamber t e s t s . - A l t i t u d e chamber t e s t s provided


f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n and t r a i n i n g f o r t h e G m i n i crews i n a simulated space
~

environment. Each crew performed a simulated EVA mission i n a vacuum


chamber using t h e a c t u a l s p a c e c r a f t . A l t i t u d e chamber t r a i n i n g exer-
c i s e s included checkout and donning of t h e Extravehicular L i f e Support
System (ELSS), t h e ESP, and t h e AMU ( f i g . 7.1-3). These tests familiar-
i z e d t h e crews with t h e EVA systems o p e r a t i o n under vacuum conditions
and provided increased confidence i n t h e equipment t o be used i n f l i g h t .
A more d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n of t h e a l t i t u d e chamber t e s t i n g i s presented
i n s e c t i o n 4.2.2.2.2(e).

7.1.2.3 Air-bearing platform.- Training e x e r c i s e s with t h e AMU and


t h e Hand Held Maneuvering Unit (HHMU) were conducted on an air-bearing
platform ( f i g . 6.1-7). This simulation of t h r e e of t h e s i x degrees of
freedom experienced i n t h e weightless environment f a m i l i a r i z e d t h e crews
with t h e handling c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of each u n i t and w i t h t h e procedures
f o r o p e r a t i n g each u n i t . However, only one angular degree of freedom
could be simulated a t one time. (See s e c t i o n s 6.1-5 and 6.2-3 f o r
d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n s of t h e HHMU and AMU t r a i n i n g . )

7.1.2.4 Body harnesses.- S l i n g s and body harnesses were used f o r


occasional simulation e x e r c i s e s i n which t h e p i l o t w a s suspended above
a mockup of t h e s p a c e c r a f t adapter f o r p a r t i c u l a r t a s k evaluations. This
type of simulation introduced t h e p i l o t t o some of t h e problems i n per-
forming t a s k s i n a weightless condition by simulating four degrees of
freedom, b u t it had very l i m i t e d use.

7.1.3 Equipment and Procedures F a m i l i a r i z a t i o n

7.1.3.1 Spacecraft stowage.- The value of one-g t r a i n i n g i n space-


c r a f t stowage operations w a s important because of t h e stowage problems
i n t h e crowded cockpit of t h e Gemini s p a c e c r a f t . The numerous experi-
ments and i n f l i g h t t a s k s performed on t h e Gemini missions d i c t a t e d a
d e t a i l e d and complex stowage p l a n ( f i g . 7.1-4 and t a b l e 7.1-1). Most
equipment w a s stowed i n c o n t a i n e r s with one p i e c e on t o p of another. The
d e s i r e d stowage c o n f i g u r a t i o n f o r EVA was w i t h t h e necessary EVA equip-
ment a t t h e t o p of t h e stowage c o n t a i n e r s or a t least r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e .
The restowage l o c a t i o n s depended on t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of i t s reuse. Some
EVA equipment w a s stowed w i t h o t h e r non-EVA equipment which w a s needed
b e f o r e and/or a f t e r t h e EVA. On t h e Gemini XI1 mission, over h a l f of t h e
207 i n d i v i d u a l p i e c e s of stowed equipment were handled i n one way or
another during EVA preparation. Hence, t h e r e w a s a major s p a c e c r a f t
stowage a c t i v i t y during EVA p r e p a r a t i o n . This stowage a c t i v i t y w a s re-
corded i n a d e t a i l e d c h e c k l i s t which gave t h e crew t h e step-by-step

7-2
procedures f o r t h e e n t i r e t a s k . The crew s t a t i o n walk throughs famil-
i a r i z e d t h e crews w i t h t h e o v e r a l l stowage arrangement.

7.1.3.2 Equipment f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n . - One-g t r a i n i n g e x e r c i s e s f a m i l -


i a r i z e d t h e crews w i t h t h e equipment a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r
mission. The walk throughs were a l s o an e x c e l l e n t opportunity f o r t h e
crew t o e v a l u a t e t h e s u i t a b i l i t y of t h e EVA equipment f o r i n f l i g h t use.
The crew handled t h e equipment i n t h e context of t h e f l i g h t p l a n , unstow-
ing and using t h e equipment as it would b e used i n f l i g h t ( f i g . 7.1-5).
I n many cases t h e need f o r minor modifications w a s i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e
course of t h e s e walk throughs. The r e s u l t i n g modifications were incor-
porated f o r subsequent walk throughs f o r f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g and evaluation.

7.1.3.3 Procedures f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n . - The procedures contained i n


t h e EVA c h e c k l i s t were a t o t a l sequence of every a c t i o n necessary t o
complete t h e EVA. The c h e c k l i s t w a s t h e documentation i n t e r f a c e f o r EVA
s p a c e c r a f t stowage, f o r hardware, and f o r t h e crew. The c h e c k l i s t pro-
vided information about equipment l o c a t i o n , removal from stowage, opera-
t i o n , and restowage, as w e l l as about t h e crew f u n c t i o n and about o t h e r
i n t e r f a c e s w i t h t h e equipment. The c h e c k l i s t s were divided i n t o two
p a r t s : t h e s o f t - s u i t c h e c k l i s t and t h e hard-suit c h e c k l i s t . I n g e n e r a l ,
t h e s o f t - s u i t c h e c k l i s t included a l l t h o s e procedures performed i n t h e
p r e s s u r i z e d s p a c e c r a f t and t h e h a r d - s u i t c h e c k l i s t included a l l t h e pro-
cedures performed a f t e r s p a c e c r a f t d e p r e s s u r i z a t i o n .

I n preparing t h e i n t r a v e h i c u l a r procedures, c o n s i d e r a t i o n w a s given


t o t h e following f a c t o r s :

( a ) Provide adequate time f o r EVA p r e p a r a t i o n

( b ) Stow a l l equipment i n one l o c a t i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h an EVA or


an i n f l i g h t t a s k

( c ) Minimize t h e number of t r i p s from normal crew p o s i t i o n s t o


equipment stowage a r e a s

( d ) R e s t r i c t t h e number of items unstowed i n t h e s p a c e c r a f t a t any


one time t o only t h o s e being used, or t o t h o s e t h a t could b e temporarily
stowed s o as not t o i n t e r f e r e with crew operations

(e) Prevent l o o s e items from f l o a t i n g

( f ) Minimize t h e EVA p i l o t ' s work p r i o r t o e g r e s s

( g ) Complete a l l equipment unstowage and p r e p a r a t i o n b e f o r e t h e


crew went t o a hard-suit c o n f i g u r a t i o n

7-3

I ) .
(h) Complete spacecraft configuration for EVA before going to a
hard suit configuration

(i) Prepare the cockpit for the EVA pilot's ingress

(j) Optimize the pilot's entry cross-sectional area relative to


the hatch opening area

(k) Determine the equipment restowage requirements

Crew familiarization with intravehicular procedures, EVA prepara-


tion, and ingress from EVA was accomplished primarily in crew station
walk throughs. The flight crews indicated that the inflight experience
was very similar to the crew station walk through. They also indicated
that many tasks, such as the handling of heavy equipment, were easier
to perform in flight,

The following factors were taken into consideration in preparing


the extravehicular procedures:

(a) Detail of procedure commensurate with the complexity of the


task to be performed

(b) Programmed rest periods as determined from training

(c) Spacecraft control during the EVA

(d) Significance of reaction forces in the EVA environment

( e) Workload control

(f) Environment familiarization

(g) Pace of the activities

(h) Documentation of the EVA

One-g training provided the basic familiarization with extravehic-


ular procedures as well as the basis for refining and updating the
checklist procedures. The crews walked through the procedures at one-g
before proceeding to other forms of training. Several walk throughs of
the GATV tether attachment were necessary to familiarize the crew with
this procedure and the hardware as used in the normal sequence of the
flight plan. For more complex tasks, such as the checkout and donning
of the AMU (fig. 7.1-21, many more walk throughs were required.

7- 4
7.1.4 Developing Coordinated Work E f f o r t

A coordinated e f f o r t during EVA p r e p a r a t i o n tended t o minimize t h e


e f f o r t r e q u i r e d of t h e p i l o t . This approach w a s taken t o conserve t h e
p i l o t ' s energy f o r t h e a c t i v i t i e s o u t s i d e t h e s p a c e c r a f t . While i n g r e s s
after t h e EVA w a s not as complex as t h e EVA p r e p a r a t i o n , it a l s o r e q u i r e d
t h e cooperative e f f o r t of both crewmembers. C r e w s t a t i o n walk throughs
provided t h e proper f l i g h t plan sequences i n which t h i s coordinated work
e f f o r t could be developed. The command p i l o t ' s participa.tion during t h e
EVA phase w a s somewhat d i f f e r e n t from t h a t of EVA p r e p a r a t i o n and i n g r e s s .
Although he w a s performing some independent t a s k s , such as changing f i l m
magazines or voice t a p e s , h i s p r i n c i p a l a c t i v i t y w a s t a l k i n g t h e p i l o t
through t h e EVA f l i g h t plan using t h e c h e c k l i s t . The command p i l o t w a s
required t o be completely familiar with each t a s k performed by t h e p i l o t
i n order t o judge t h e progress of t h e EVA f l i g h t plan and t o assess t h e
work pace. One-g walk throughs i n t h e s p a c e c r a f t adapter or on t h e GATV,
with t h e command p i l o t reading t h e procedures t o t h e p i l o t and observing
t h e t a s k being performed, prepared both crewmembers f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n
t h e EVA ( f i g . 7.1-2).

7.1.5 Concluding Remarks

One-g t r a i n i n g f a m i l i a r i z e d t h e crews with EVA hardware, s p a c e c r a f t


stowage , and procedures; provided t h e b a s i s f o r developing a coordinated
work e f f o r t ; prepared t h e crews f o r o t h e r forms of t r a i n i n g w i t h g r e a t e r
f i d e l i t y of zero-g simulation; and contributed t o t h e preparation of
both crewmembers f o r EVA.

The following f a c t o r s should be r o u t i n e l y considered i n f u t u r e


one-g t r a i n i n g :

( a ) Any planned modifications t o EVA equipment and procedures


should be accomplished before t r a i n i n g begins.

( b ) A l l EVA equipment involved i n t h e t r a i n i n g (mockups of space-


c r a f t , i n d i v i d u a l EVA hardware i t e m s ) should have t h e same configuration
as t h e f l i g h t i t e m s .

( c ) A l l EVA equipment intended f o r i n f l i g h t use should be included


i n t h e t r a i n i n g exercises.

(a) Detailed procedures should be provided.


( e > The l i m i t a t i o n s of one-g t r a i n i n g techniques must be
recognized.

7-5

I .
TABLE 7.1-1.-SPACECRAFT 12 LAUNCH STOWAGE

Stowage
a Item Quantity
area

(1) L e f t fore- Tissae dispenser 1


ward side- Personal hygiene towel 1
w a l l pouch Frog egg experiment cover 1

( 2 ) Left a f t F l i g h t p l a n book
sidewall Hard-suit c h e c k l i s t
pouch Soft-suit checklist
Systerns book
Transparent r e t i c l e
Polaroid shade
R e f l e c t i v e shade
Eclipse sunshade

( 3 ) Right fore- Tissue dispenser 1


ward side- Personal hygiene towel 1

Rendezvous book
si d e w d l Hard-suit c h e c k l i s t
pouch Sort-suit checklist
Celestial display -Mercator
Orbital path display
Polaroid shade 1
R e f l e c t i v e shade 1

( 5 ) Left Optical s i g h t 1
instrument
panel

(6) Right Hatch closing devices 2


instrument Experiment SO13 bracket 1
panel Right-hand camera bracket 1
Standup t e t h e r 1
Wrist mirror 1
EVA camera bracket 1

(7) Right Telescoping h a n d r a i l 1


hatch

%umbers i n parentheses r e f e r t o f i g u r e 7.1-4 f o r stowage l o c a t i o n


TABLE 7.1-1.-SPACECRAFT I 2 LAUNCH STOWAGE - Continued

S t owage
a Item
area

(8) L e f t Urine c o l l e c t i o n device clamp


c i r c u i t breaker Latex c u f f s
panel Splash c u r t a i n c l i p s
Glare s h i e l d
Tape, 1 / 2 i n . by 10 f t
Clothesline
~ ~~

(9) Right Urine c o l l e c t i o n device clamp 1


c i r c u i t breaker Urine r e c e i v e r , removable cuff 1
panel Latex c u f f s 4
Splash c u r t a i n c l i p s 3
Tape, 112 i n . by 1 0 f t 1
Rubber bands 15 I
Screwdriver 1

(10)L e f t Food, one-man meal 6


pedestal i n
f ootwell

(11)Right Experiment TO02 s e x t a n t bracket 1


pedestal i n
f ootwell

(12) L e f t Personal hygiene towel 1


side Waste container 1
box Defecation device 1
Voice t a p e c a r t r i d g e 5
Velcro p i l e , 2 by 6 i n . 1
Velcro hook, 2 by 6 i n . 1
Penlight 1
P l a s t i c zipper bags, 6 by 1 0 i n . 3
Visor a n t i - f o g pads 4
Food, one-man meal 2
Tether stowage r i n g 1

(13) Right Personal hygiene towel 1


s i d e box Waste c o n t a i n e r 1
Defecation device 1

%umbers i n parentheses r e f e r t o f i g u r e 7.1-4 f o r stowage l o c a t i o n .

7-7
TABLE 7.1-1.- SPACECRAFT 12 LAUNCH STOWAGE - Continued

Voice t a p e c a r t r i d g e 5
Velcro p i l e , 2 by 6 i n . 1
Velcro hook, 2 by 6 i n . 1
Penlight 1
Sungoggles 2
P l a s t i c zipper bags, 6 by 1 0 i n . 3
O r a l hygiene k i t 1
Spot meter and d i a l 1
Light bulbs 6
Glass contamination s t r i p s 3
P l a s t i c zipper bags, 3 by 4 i n . 7
(14) Left Urine hose and f i l t e r 1
sidewall Experiment S012 1anyard 1
pouch

(15) Right Sextant eyepiece


sidewall Sextant b a t t e r y
pouch 25-IIII~l e n s ( e c l i p s e )
S h u t t e r r e l e a s e cable

(16) L e f t Lightweight he ads e t


pedest al Velcro s t r a p s
pouch

(17) Right Lightweight headset 1


pedestal Velcro s t r a p s 3
pouch Spacer p l a t e 1

(18) L e f t H e l m e t stowage bag 1


f ootwell

(19) Right Helmet stowage bag 1


f ootwell Visor cover 1
pouch Celestial display - polar 1

a
Numbers i n parentheses refer t o f i g u r e 7.1-4 f o r stowage l o c a t i o n .

7- 8
TABLE 7.1-1.- SPACECRAFT I 2 LAUNCH STOWAGE - Continued

Stowage
a It em
area

( 2 0 ) Right hatch Swizzle s t i c k


sill

(a)
Water Urine r e c e i v e r 1
management
Q anel

(22) Voice Voice t a p e recorder c a r t r i d g e 1


t a p e recorder

(23) Right I n f 1ight medic al k i t 1


sidewall
bracket
...
(24) L e f t 16-IIEIIsequence camera
sidewall window bracket 1
bracket
~~

(25) L e f t P i l o t ' s preference k i t 1


sidewall

(26) Right P i l o t ' s preference k i t 1


sidewall

(27) L e f t Food, one-man meal 7


hatch pouch

(28) Right Food, one-man meal 7


hatch pouch

(29) L e f t a f t ELSS umbilical assembly


box ELSS hose, s h o r t
ELSS hose, long
Hose nozzle interconnectors
E l e c t r i c al jumper
Dual connectors
ELSS r e s t r a i n t s t r a p s
Waist t e t h e r s

%umbers i n parentheses refer t o f i g u r e 7.1-4 f o r stowage l o c a t i o n .

7-9
TABLE 7.1-1.-SPACECRAFT 12 LAUNCH STOWAGE - Continued

Stowage
a Item Quant it;
area

:29) L e f t a f t EVA gloves 1pr.


box Visor a n t i - f o g pads 6
-continued Food, one-man meal 2
EVA camera b r a c k e t 1
Remote camera c o n t r o l cable 2

: 3 0 ) Right 16-mm sequence camera


a f t box with magazine and 5-mm l e n s 1
16-mm f i l m magazine 9
70-mm f i l m magazine (Maurer) 3
70-mm camera body (Maurer) 1
70-mm f i l m magazine (Hasselblad) 2
U l t r a v i o l e t l e n s , SO13 1
Grating, SO13 1
Objective prism, SO13 1
F i l t e r , green, SO11 1
F i l t e r , yellow, SO11 1
F i l t e r , r e d , SO11 1
Filter, eclipse 1
Window b r a c k e t , SO11 1
Pos t l a n d i n g k i t 1
I n f l a t o r , manual, blood p r e s s u r e 1
Defecation device 6
Waste container 2-
~~

[ 31) C e n t e r l i n e Experiment TO02 s e x t a n t 1


container
door

( 3 2 ) Lower Mirror mounting bracket 2


centerline 18-mm l e n s for 16-m camera 2
container 75-mm l e n s f o r 1 6 - camera
~ 1
3-mm l e n s f o r 16-mm camera 1
16-1t~ncamera with magazine 2
16-1~1mf i l m magazine 8
Ring viewfinder 1
70-mm Maurer camera with
magazine and f/2.8 l e n s 1

%umbers i n parentheses r e f e r t o f i g u r e 7.1-4 f o r stowage l o c a t i o n .

7-10
TABLE 7.1-1.- SPACECRAFT 12 LAUNCH STOWAGE - Concluded

Stowage
a Item Quantity
area

(32) Lower 70-mm f i l m magazine 1


centerline S i g h t i n g device, SO11 1
container 50-mm l e n s , SO11
-cont inued 70-mm superwide-angle Hasselblad
camera with magazine 1
Camera handle (Hasselblad) 1
Lanyard, camera 2

( 3 3 ) Upper ELSS chestpack 1


centerline Port locking c l i p s 2

%umbers i n parentheses r e f e r t o f i g u r e 7.1-4 for stowage l o c a t i o n .

7-11
P
.
3
Y
0
Eo

s
W

a,
L
3
.-m
LL

7-12

I .
7-13
*
=>
5
a

L
a,
-P
E
(d
s
0

7-14
NASA-S-67-839
B 151 (61 U

B
~1 Ccl

29

1. Left sidewall pouch (Fwd) 12. Left side box 23. Right sidewall bracket
2. Left sidewall pouch (Aft) 13. Right side box 24. Left sidewall bracket
3. Right sidewall pouch (Fwd) 14. Left sidewall pouch 25. Left sidewall
4. Right sidewall pouch (Aft) 15. Right sidewall pouch 26. Right sidewall
5. Left instrument panel 16. Left pedestal pouch 27. Left hatch pouch
6. Right instrument panel 17. Right pedestal pouch 28. Right hatch pouch
7. Right hatch 18. Left footwell pouch 29. Left aft box
8. Left circuit breaker panel 19. Right footwell pouch 30. Right aft box
9. Right circuit breaker panel 20. Right hatch sill 31. Centerline container door
10. Left pedestal in footwell 21. Water management panel 32. Lower centerline container
11. Right pedestal in footwell 22. Voice tape recorder 33. Upper centerline container

Figure 7.1-4. - Crew station stowage areas.

7-15
NASA- S-6 7-206

Figure 7.1-5.-

7-16
7.2 ZERO-G TRAINING

7.2.1 Training Methods and Objectives

I n support of each Gemini e x t r a v e h i c u l a r mission, weightless simu-


l a t i o n f l i g h t s w e r e conducted i n an A i r Force KC-135 zero-g t e s t air-
c r a f t . I n t h e s e f l i g h t s , t h e a i r c r a f t followed a b a l l i s t i c t r a j e c t o r y
so t h a t o b j e c t s i n s i d e t h e a i r c r a f t were i n a s t a t e of f r e e f a l l , thus
being e f f e c t i v e l y weightless. The period of weightlessness produced
was nominally 25 seconds. The degree of accuracy w a s '0.01g and depended
primarily upon p i l o t proficiency and p r e v a i l i n g weather conditions.

The i n t e r i o r of t h e a i r c r a f t w a s modified t o provide a working


volume of approximately 7 by 10 by 60 f e e t . Depending upon t h e mission,
t h e i n t e r i o r configuration of t h e a i r c r a f t included any of t h e following
t r a i n i n g mockups:

( a ) A r e e n t r y module

( b ) A p a r t i a l s p a c e c r a f t nose s e c t i o n docked with a Target Docking


Adapter (TDA)

( e ) A q u a r t e r s e c t i o n of an adapter s e c t i o n incorporating Experi-


ment ~ 0 1 6(Power Tool Evaluation)

( d ) A p o r t i o n of an adapter s e c t i o n incorporating a nitrogen


connection f o r t h e 50-foot umbilical

(e) An adapter s e c t i o n incorporating a l l i n t e r i o r provisions f o r


EVA

The Configuration of t h e mockups and t h e associated crew equipment was


maintained as c l o s e t o f l i g h t configuration a s p o s s i b l e t o i n s u r e a v a l i d
and r e a l i s t i c simulation.

The purpose of t h e zero-g f l i g h t s w a s t o v a l i d a t e system designs and


f l i g h t procedures, and t o provide crew t r a i n i n g f o r t h o s e phases of t h e
e x t r a v e h i c u l a r mission t h a t could be simulated adequately. Ty-pical t a s k s
conducted were e g r e s s / i n g r e s s , t r a n s i t , e n t r y i n t o t h e adapter equipment
s e c t i o n , umbilical management, ESP or AMU equipment donning and doffing,
attachment of t h e spacecraft/GATV t e t h e r , experiments operation, adapter
work s t a t i o n t a s k s , and TDA work s t a t i o n t a s k s . Most t r a i n i n g sessions
were conducted with t h e crews wearing t h e i r t r a i n i n g space s u i t s ; however,
on t h e f i n a l t r a i n i n g f l i g h t s before a mission, t h e prime p i l o t s u s u a l l y
wore t h e i r f l i g h t space s u i t s . Proper f i t and configuration of t h e space
suits w a s e s s e n t i a l f o r v a l i d r e s u l t s .

7-17
For a t y p i c a l Gemini mission, t h e prime and backup crews each par-
t i c i p a t e d i n f i v e t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s with an average of 40 parabolas p e r
session. During these s e s s i o n s , t h e crews became p r o f i c i e n t i n t h e use
and operation of equipment i n t h e zero-g environment. I n a d d i t i o n t o
t h e t r a i n i n g b e n e f i t s , t h e s e f l i g h t s provided an opportunity f o r eval-
uation of f l i g h t configuration equipment i n t h e zero-g f l i g h t s . Numerous
equipment d e f i c i e n c i e s were discovered i n t h e s e simulations, and correc-
t i v e modifications were developed and evaluated i n t h e zero-g f l i g h t s .

7.2.2 Mission Results

7.2.2.1 Gemini I V . - The configuration of t h e zero-g a i r c r a f t f o r


Gemini I V crew t r a i n i n g c o n s i s t e d of t h e r e e n t r y module only. C r e w
t r a i n i n g was r e s t r i c t e d t o removal of V e n t i l a t i o n Control Module (VCM)
from t h e footwell, egress and umbilical guide placement, umbilical manage-
ment, and i n g r e s s and hatch closure. During t h e i n i t i a l phase of t r a i n -
i n g , t h e l i m i t e d clearance between t h e hatch and t h e space s u i t helmet
made i n g r e s s and hatch c l o s u r e d i f f i c u l t . The proper technique f o r in-
g r e s s w a s t o f o r c e t h e knees under t h e instrument panel while keeping
t h e body c l o s e t o t h e panel and away from t h e seat, then push t h e r e l a -
t i v e l y immobile t o r s o down towards t h e f o o t w e l l ( f i g s . 7.2-1 and 7.2-2).
Since t h e clearance f o r closing t h e hatch w a s i n i t i a l l y marginal, t h e
following modifications were made p r i o r t o t h e Gemini I V mission:

( a ) The egress k i t contour thickness w a s reduced and t h e e j e c t i o n


seat D-ring housing w a s lowered t o be f l u s h with t h e egress k i t .

(b) A hatch closing lanyard w a s incorporated t o a i d i n t h e l a s t


4 t o 6 inches of hatch t r a v e l .
This device w a s designed f o r e i t h e r crew-
member t o operate i n a pressurized space s u i t ( f i g . 7.2-1).

( c ) The s i z e of t h e c o n t r o l l e v e r f o r t h e hatch a c t u a t i o n mechanism


was reduced t o prevent damage t o t h e p i l o t ' s v i s o r during i n g r e s s .

( d ) The procedure w a s e s t a b l i s h e d t o r o t a t e t h e VCM 90 degrees down-


ward before operating t h e hatch handle. This procedure r e q u i r e d t h a t t h e
VCM r e s t r a i n t system be removable and t h a t it be operated e a s i l y i n a
pressurized space s u i t .

The implementation of t h e s e design changes made t h e t a s k of i n g r e s s and


of locking t h e hatch s u i t a b l e f o r accomplishing i n o r b i t .

7.2.2.2 Gemini V I I 1 . - The configuration of t h e zero-g a i r c r a f t f o r


t h e Gemini V I 1 1 EVA t r a i n i n g included t h e following mockups:

( a ) The r e e n t r y module

7-18
( b ) A s e c t i o n of t h e TDA i n c o r p o r a t i n g t h e Experiment S O l O (Agena
Micrometeorite C o l l e c t i o n ) package

( c ) A p a r t i a l adapter s e c t i o n i n c o r p o r a t i n g Experiment ~016(Power


Tool Evaluation)

(d) The adapter s e c t i o n

The crew t r a i n i n g included s p a c e c r a f t egress and i n g r e s s , Experiment S O l O


operation, Experiment ~ 0 1 6 o p e r a t i o n , t r a n s i t around t h e edge of t h e
adapter t o t h e Extravehicular Support Package (ESP) donning s t a t i o n , and
ESP checkout and donning.

Although t h e Gemini I V crew had standardized t h e i n g r e s s o p e r a t i o n ,


hardware d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e Gemini I V and Gemini V I 1 1 missions re-
quired t h e following o p e r a t i o n a l changes:

( a ) The Extravehicular L i f e Support System (ELSS) had t o be r e l e a s e d


and handed t o t h e command p i l o t i n order f o r t h e p i l o t t o complete t h e
i n g r e s s maneuver ( f i g . 7.2-3).

( b ) Accordingly a quick-release r e s t r a i n t system f o r t h e ELSS s i m i -


l a r t o t h a t used w i t h t h e Gemini I V VCM w a s incorporated.

( c ) The ELSS could not be stowed i n t h e c e n t e r stowage l o c a t i o n i f


t h e space s u i t w a s p r e s s u r i z e d .

If t h e s p a c e c r a f t could not b e r e p r e s s u r i z e d a f t e r t h e EVA it w a s planned


t h a t t h e ELSS would b e j e t t i s o n e d .

Training with Experiment S O l O (Agena Micrometeorite C o l l e c t i o n ) in-


d i c a t e d t h e following problems for which c o r r e c t i v e modifications were
incorporated :

( a ) The f a i r i n g cover could not be grasped f o r removal. A 2-inch-


diameter h o l e w a s c u t i n t h e t o p p o r t i o n t o allow t h e e x t r a v e h i c u l a r
crewman t o i n s e r t two f i n g e r s t o remove t h e f a i r i n g from i t s holder
( f i g . 7.2-4).

(b) S e v e r a l design discrepancies i n t h e Experiment S O l O b r a c k e t


made it impossible t o open t h e mechanism and t o p o s i t i o n t h e experiment
package i n i t s b r a c k e t c o r r e c t l y . The procedure w a s e s t a b l i s h e d t o re-
move t h e experiment package e n t i r e l y from i t s b r a c k e t and t o a t t a c h it
t o t h e TDA with a patch of Velcro.

Training w i t h t h e Experiment ~ 0 1 6(Power Tool Evaluation) w a s accom-


p l i s h e d r e a d i l y because p r i o r design work and zero-g v a l i d a t i o n had al-
ready been performed. The only change was t o reduce t h e number of

7-19
operations t o t h e minimum number compatible w i t h t h e experiment r e q u i r e -
ments ( f i g . 7.2-5).

With t h e ESP, crew t r a i n i n g involved some simultaneous developmental


a c t i v i t y . "he crew t r a i n i n g included t r a n s i t around t h e edge of t h e
adapter and t o t h e ESP, checkout and p r e p a r a t i o n of t h e ESP f o r donning,
donning t h e ESP, e g r e s s from t h e a d a p t e r , and d o f f i n g t h e ESP. Through-
o u t t h e t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s , equipment design and procedural changes were
made as necessary t o o b t a i n an e f f i c i e n t and p r a c t i c a l operation. Design
c r i t e r i a w e r e determined f o r use i n t h e f i n a l ESP design. Changes or
equipment a d d i t i o n s t h a t r e s u l t e d from t h e zero-g f l i g h t s included t h e
following:

( a ) An u m b i l i c a l guide w a s added a t t h e edge of t h e s p a c e c r a f t


adapter s e c t i o n t o p r o t e c t t h e u m b i l i c a l from chafing.

( b ) Mirrors were i n s t a l l e d on t h e handbars i n t h e adapter s e c t i o n


t o a i d i n ESP donning.

( c ) A Velcro s t r a p w a s i n s t a l l e d on one handbar t o hold t h e umbil-


i c a l i n place.

( d ) E l e c t r i c a l and oxygen connectors were properly p o s i t i o n e d f o r


ESP donning.

( e ) The proper stowage l o c a t i o n f o r t h e 75-foot t e t h e r bag during


t h e ESP e v a l u a t i o n w a s e s t a b l i s h e d t o be on t h e t o p of t h e ESP.

(f) Donning procedures w e r e developed f o r t h e ESP.

(g) A design w a s e s t a b l i s h e d f o r t h e ESP r e s t r a i n t system.

During t h e p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e Gemini I V and Gemini V I 1 1 EVA missions,


t h e work performed i n t h e zero-g a i r c r a f t could not be s e p a r a t e d from t h a t
conducted during one-g walk throughs. Both were i n t e g r a l p a r t s of t h e
equipment development and crew t r a i n i n g . Close coordination w a s main-
t a i n e d between equipment development and e v a l u a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s .

Additional s i m u l a t i o n f l i g h t s l e d t o t h e establishment of proper pro-


cedures f o r d o f f i n g t h e ESP and i t s t e t h e r and f o r reconnecting t h e space-
c r a f t oxygen u m b i l i c a l . Doffing t h e ESP w a s t o b e performed near t h e
docking b a r of t h e s p a c e c r a f t , s i n c e t h i s l o c a t i o n provided t h e p i l o t a
p l a c e t o t e t h e r himself and provided good v i s u a l contact f o r t h e command
pilot.

7.2.2.3 Gemini IX-A.- The Gemini IX-A zero-g t r a i n i n g w a s o r i e n t e d


toward e g r e s s and i n g r e s s , t r a n s i t around t h e adapter edge and t o t h e AMU,
p r e p a r a t i o n of t h e AMU, and donning and doffing t h e W . Extensive e g r e s s

7-20
and i n g r e s s t r a i n i n g was conducted t o f a m i l i a r i z e t h e p i l o t s w i t h both
normal and emergency s i t u a t i o n s . Since equipment designs and procedures
were w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d , t r a i n i n g progressed e f f i c i e n t l y . Although each
crewman had h i s own l e a r n i n g curve f o r performing t h e i n g r e s s maneuver,
t h e p i l o t s became p r o f i c i e n t w i t h i n several f l i g h t s .

I n i t i a l t r a i n i n g e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t t h e p r e p a r a t i o n of t h e AMIJ f o r
donning r e q u i r e d t h e use of both hands, and because of t h e l a c k of proper
f o o t r e s t r a i n t s i n t h e adapter s e c t i o n , t h i s t a s k w a s extremely d i f f i c u l t .
A design change w a s made t o provide s t i r r u p s on t h e footbar. F u r t h e r
zero-g f l i g h t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h i s design w a s adequate; however, t h e sub-
sequent experience i n o r b i t proved t h a t t h i s design w a s u n s a t i s f a c t o r y
and t h a t more p o s i t i v e f o o t r e s t r a i n t s were required.

During t h e t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s , t h e handling of t h e l25-foot t e t h e r


bag i n d i c a t e d t h a t it might f l o a t away i f it became disengaged. There-
f o r e , t h e bag w a s modified t o permit t e t h e r i n g it t o e i t h e r t h e AMU or
t o t h e p i l o t a t a l l times.

7.2.2.4 Gemini X.- The c o n f i g u r a t i o n of t h e a i r c r a f t f o r Gemini X


t r a i n i n g included t h e r e e n t r y module and t h e TDA s e c t i o n i n c o r p o r a t i n g
t h e Experiment SOlO package.

Training f o r t h i s mission included s p a c e c r a f t e g r e s s and i n g r e s s ,


Experiment SOlO r e t r i e v a l , and n i t r o g e n hookup f o r t h e HHMU. I n g r e s s
t r a i n i n g requirements f o r t h e u m b i l i c a l EVA and t h e standup EVA periods
were q u i t e s i m i l a r . For t h e u m b i l i c a l EVA t h e p i l o t removed t h e ELSS
and handed it t o t h e command p i l o t during i n g r e s s . The Environmental
Control System (ECS) extension hoses and t h e e l e c t r i c a l extension c a b l e
were s i z e d f o r performing t h e Experiment SO13 ( U l t r a v i o l e t Astronomical
Camera) o p e r a t i o n during t h e standup EVA. The crew a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d t h e
proper body p o s i t i o n f o r t a k i n g p i c t u r e s ( f i g . 7.2-6).

The zero-g a i r c r a f t a c t i v i t i e s i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e Gemini X EVA


mission were o r i e n t e d towards t r a i n i n g , s i n c e t h e majority of t h e design
development work had been completed during zero-g p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r pre-
vious missions. During t r a i n i n g , only two problem a r e a s developed:

( a ) Umbilical management w a s d i f f i c u l t w i t h t h e 50-foot u m b i l i c a l ,


and entanglement w a s frequent ( f i g . 7.2-7).

( b ) The hookup of t h e n i t r o g e n l i n e quick disconnect and t h e body


p o s i t i o n i n g r e q u i r e d t o perform t h i s t a s k were occasionally d i f f i c u l t
( f i g . 7.2-8).

Both of t h e s e a r e a s w e r e examined c a r e f u l l y during t r a i n i n g t o expose t h e


crew t o a l l p o s s i b l e problems t h a t might occur during t h e mission.

7-21
7.2.2.5 Gemini X I . - The Gemini X I EVA equipment w a s similar t o
Gemini X equipment; t h e d i f f e r e n c e w a s a reduction of t h e umbilical
length t o 30 f e e t . The number of t a s k s t o be performed, however, w a s
increased and included t h e following:

(a) Experiment ~ 0 1 6operation

( b ) R e t r i e v a l of t h e HHMU and a s e t of experiment cameras from t h e


adapter s e c t i o n

(c) The spacecraft/GATV t e t h e r attachment

The zero-g a i r c r a f t contained the r e e n t r y module, t h e s e c t i o n of t h e


adapter incorporating Experiment ~ 0 1 6 ,an updaked adapter s e c t i c n , and a
sectior, of t h e s p a c e c r a f t nose and t h e TDA f o r t h e t e t h e r hookup opera-
tion.

Training f o r t h i s f l i g h t w a s concentrated on t h e adapter s e c t i o n and


on t h e GATV t e t h e r attachment because t r a i n i n g on t h e o t h e r required ac-
t i v i t i e s had been accomplished previously. Refresher t r a i n i n g on egress,
i n g r e s s , and Experiment ~ 0 1 6operation w a s performed t o i n s u r e crew pro-
f i c i e n c y . Work i n t h e adapter s e c t i o n was concentrated on t h e attachment
of t h e umbilical t o t h e HHMU, and t h e removal of t h e HHMU and experiment
cameras. Training i n t h i s a r e a w a s emphasized because of t h e problems
encountered by t h e Gemini IX-A p i l o t while working i n t h e adapter. The
i n i t i a l t r a i n i n g i n d i c a t e d d i f f i c u l t y i n g e t t i n g t h e f e e t i n t o t h e new
f o o t r e s t r a i n t s because of v i s i b i l i t y problems. Once t h e f e e t w e r e i n
t h e r e s t r a i n t s , t h e p i l o t w a s a b l e t o perform a l l t h e body and arm move-
ments which were necessary t o accomplish t h e t a s k s i n t h e adapter s e c t i o n

Training f o r t h e spacecraft/GATV t e t h e r hookup required t h e p i l o t


t o move t o t h e nose s e c t i o n of t h e s p a c e c r a f t from t h e hatch, p o s i t i o n
h i s body, remove t h e t e t h e r and i t s clamp from a pouch on t h e TDA, place
t h e t e t h e r and clamp over t h e docking b a r , and t h e n lock t h e clamp i n
place. Body s t a b i l i t y was maintained by s t r a d d l i n g t h e nose s e c t i o n of
t h e s p a c e c r a f t and wedging t h e knees between t h e conical s e c t i o n of t h e
TDA and t h e s p a c e c r a f t . This p o s i t i o n allowed t h e p i l o t t o use both
hands i n performing t h e t e t h e r hookup operation. The f l i g h t crews a l s o
p r a c t i c e d an a l t e r n a t e procedure i n which t h e handhold on t h e TDA w a s
grasped with one hand and t h e body p o s i t i o n w a s maintained free of t h e
s p a c e c r a f t . The t e t h e r w a s then attached with t h e o t h e r hand. The crews
p r e f e r r e d t o s t r a d d l e t h e nose s e c t i o n because t h i s method l e f t both hands
free; however, t h e f l i g h t results showed t h a t t h i s method w a s impractical.
under a c t u a l o r b i t conditions.

7-22
7.2.2.6 Gemini XI1.- The a i r c r a f t c o n f i g u r a t i o o f o r G e m i n i XI1 EVA
t r a i n i n g included a r e e n t r y module, an a d a p t e r s e c t i o n , and a p a r t i a l
nose s e c t i o n of t h e s p a c e c r a f t docked t o a TDA. The t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s
included t h e following:

(a) Egress and i n g r e s s f o r t h e standup EVA and u m b i l i c a l EVA

(b) Spacecraft/GATV t e t h e r hookup

( c ) Adapter work s t a t i o n e v a l u a t i o n w i t h f o o t r e s t r a i n t s and w i t h


w a i s t tethers

(d) TDA work s t a t f o n e v a l u a t i o n w i t h and without w a i s t t e t h e r s

Throughout t h e t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s , t h e f l i g h t crews t r a i n e d i n a l l
phases of t h e mission, concentrating on t h e t a s k s performed on t h e TDA
and i n t h e adapter s e c t i o n . Training i n t h e adapter s e c t i o n w a s concen-
t r a t e d on t r a n s i t around t h e adapter edge and on e n t r y i n t o t h e f o o t re-
s t r a i n t s ( f i g . 7.2-9). The f l i g h t crews p r a c t i c e d e x t e n s i v e l y on t h e
work s t a t i o n using t h e f o o t r e s t r a i n t s and w a i s t t e t h e r s . Training f o r
t h e TDA t a s k s emphasized t r a n s l a t i o n t o t h e TDA from t h e s p a c e c r a f t ,
p o s i t i o n i n g of t h e w a i s t t e t h e r s f o r a t t a c h i n g t h e spacecraft/GATV t e t h e r
and deploying t h e Experiment S010, and work s t a t i o n e v a l u a t i o n
( f i g . 7.2-10). Because of p r i o r EVA problems, body p o s i t i o n and handhold
placement were evaluated e x t e n s i v e l y t o i n s u r e t h a t t h e p i l o t w a s familiar
with a l l p o s s i b l e v a r i a t i o n s necessary t o complete t h e assigned t a s k s .
A s a r e s u l t of t h e s e e v a l u a t i o n s , modifications were made t o t h e w a i s t
t e t h e r s t o s i m p l i f i f a s t e n i n g and unfastening w i t h t h e p r e s s u r i z e d gloves.

7.2.3 Concluding Remarks

The e x t r a v e h i c u l a r crew t r a i n i n g conducted i n t h e zero-g a i r c r a f t


f o r each Gemini mission w a s valuable f o r many of t h e i n f l i g h t t a s k s . The
value of t h e a c t u a l t r a i n i n g w a s enhanced by t h e use of up-to-date f l i g h t
hardware f o r which design and procedure v a l i d a t i o n had already been accom-
p l i s h e d . The mission r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t f o r extended t a s k s , such as
AMU donning and spacecraft/target-vehicle t e t h e r attachment, d a t a from
t h e s h o r t periods of weightlessness were misleading. The rest p e r i o d s
between t h e weightless parabolas prevented assessment of f a t i g u e as a
f a c t o r . Also, t h e s e r e s t periods l e d t o t h e tendency t o s t a r t each
segment of t h e t a s k s with more f a v o r a b l e i n i t i a l conditions t h a n would
be experienced i n a continuous t a s k . The zero-g a i r c r a f t s i m u l a t i o n
w a s e f f e c t i v e only for s h o r t p e r i o d t a s k s such as e g r e s s and i n g r e s s .

7-23
NASA- S-6 7-2 08

Figure 7.2-1. - Ingress training in zero-g aircraft.

7-24
NASA-S-6 7-209
!

Figure 7.2-2 e - Body position for hatch closing.

7-25
NASA-S-6 7-211

Figure 7.2-3 e - Technique for handoff of ELSS during ingress.

7-26
NASA-S-67-2 1 2

Figure 7.2-4. - Removal of Experiment SO10


(Agena Micrometeorite Collection) in zero -g aircraft.

7-27
NASA-S-67-213

Power Tool Evaluation in zero-g aircraft.

7-28
NASA-S-67-2 16

Figure 7,2-6. - Standup position for Experiment SO13


.
(Ultraviolet Astronomical Camera)

7-29
igure 7.2- 7. - raining for ingress with 50-foot umbilical in zero-g aircraft.

7- 30
7- 31
NASA-S-67-219

igure 7.2-9. - Installation of umbilical i n adapter umbilical guide.

7- 32
NASA- S-67-2 2 1

igure 7,2- 10. - T D A work station training in zero-g aircraft,

7- 33
7.3 UNDERWATER TRAINING

In July 1966, the Langley Research Center sponsored a demonstration


of water immersion as an EVA simulation technique. Film clips of the
activity were reviewed, and a decision was made to pursue the technique
as an equipment and flight plan evaluation aid for Gemini EVA and to
investigate its suitability as a crew training aid. The following steps
were taken:

(a) Simulation services were contracted.

(b) Gemini mockups were built for underwater use.

(c) Gemini space suits and support equipment were supplied for the
simulation.

7.3.1 Simulations
The initial simulation was a partial task evaluation of the
Gemini X EVA. As a result of the contractor simulation, it was concluded
that the Gemini X tasks were reasonable and feasible. The only diffi-
culties discovered were associated with handling interactions between
Experiment SO10 (Agena Micrometeorite Collection ) and Experiment TO17
(Micrometeoroid Erosion) and the EVA still camera. The subsequent flight
results confirmed these conclusions.

The second simulation was a reenactment of the Gemini IX-A EVA using
the pilot as the subject (fig. 7.3-1). The purpose of this activity was to
evaluate the fidelity of the simulation as compared with actual orbital
conditions. The conclusions were that the simulation had merit in the
area of space suit dynamics and continuity of task. The pilot reported
that the body positioning problems and the associated fatigue strongly
resembled the conditions he had experienced in orbit.

The third simulation was a contractor evaluation of the Gemini XI


EVA procedures and equipment (fig. 7.3-2). The evaluation was analyzed
and the results discussed with the flight crew. A primary change was
made in the EVA flight plan as a result of the simulation. The EVA still
camera and the EVA motion picture camera were deleted from the task in
the adapter in order to concentrate on retrieval of the eKperiment cameras
and the HHMU.

The fourth simulation was a contractor evaluation of the original


Gemini XI1 EVA plan using the AMU (fig. 7.3-3). The simulation was used
to evaluate EVA equipment, to verify the time line and flight plan, and to

7-34
t r a i n t h e EVA p i l o t . The p i l o t completed t h e s e simulations; however,
t h e f l i g h t p l a n f o r Gemini X I 1 EVA w a s subsequently modified, and f u r t h e r
crew t r a i n i n g was r e q u i r e d .

The f i f t h simulation w a s a p r e f l i g h t e v a l u a t i o n of t h e r e v i s e d
Gemini X I 1 EVA w i t h t h e s p a c e c r a f t adapter and TDA work s t a t i o n s
( f i g . 7.3-4). The o b j e c t i v e s of t h e simulation were t o evaluate t h e EVA
equipment, develop t h e EVA time l i n e , t r a i n t h e prime and backup EVA
p i l o t s , and o b t a i n b a s e l i n e biomedical d a t a on t h e prime EVA p i l o t . The
simulation w a s repeated i n seven s e s s i o n s over a p e r i o d of 4 weeks pre-
ceding t h e Gemini X I 1 mission. The prime EVA p i l o t p a r t i c i p a t e d i n
f i v e s e s s i o n s and t h e backup EVA p i l o t p a r t i c i p a t e d i n two s e s s i o n s .
The command p i l o t a c t e d as t h e f l i g h t - p l a n communicator i n t h e f i n a l two
s e s s i o n s w i t h t h e prime EVA p i l o t . A s a r e s u l t of t h e s i m u l a t i o n s , t h e
Gemini X I 1 f l i g h t crew concluded t h a t t h e EVA equipment, f l i g h t p l a n ,
time l i n e , procedures, and workload were acceptable f o r f l i g h t w i t h i n
t h e l i m i t s of t h e simulation technique. These conclusions were substan-
t i a t e d by t h e Gemini X I 1 mission. The Gemini X I 1 p i l o t made t h e f o l -
lowing comments i n t h e p o s t f l i g h t d e b r i e f i n g :

"The underwater (simulation i s ) ... a medium t h a t has


considerable advantage over t h e zero-g a i r c r a f t i n t h a t we
can t i m e l i n e t h i n g s , we can look a t t h e e n t i r e f l i g h t p l a n ,
or whatever t h e EVA a c t i v i t y might be. It has disadvantages
a l s o i n t h a t t h e r e a r e buoyancy e f f e c t s . . . I t h i n k t h e s e a r e
minor i n looking a t t h e whole underwater s i t u a t i o n . I would
say t h a t it i s an e x c e l l e n t t r a i n i n g device and w e should
attempt t o make as much use of it as we can...
11
T o t a l t i m e l i n e s a r e much more valuable t o look a t i n
underwater work. Body p o s i t i o n i n g , I t h i n k , i s very w e l l
simulated i n underwater work.

"... t h e . . . important t h i n g , I t h i n k t h a t we l e a r n e d . . .
i s t h a t t h e motion t h a t you can g e t i n t r u e zero g i n ( t h e )
f o o t r e s t r a i n t s and t h e a b i l i t y t o move around i s d u p l i c a t e d
t o an e x c e l l e n t degree by zero-g f l i g h t and a l s o by under-
water. So, i f we can t a k e any s i t u a t i o n and expose it t o
an underwater environment and make s u r e t h a t t h e s u b j e c t has
g o t t e n t h e r i g h t buoyancy and t h e r i g h t kind of s u i t t h a t
reproduces t h e f l i g h t s u i t t h a t he i s going t o have, w e can
check out t h e operation t h i s way r a t h e r t h a n t r y i n g t o t a k e
any measurements from t h e Gemini adapter and e x t r a p o l a t e
from t h e r e .

The f i n a l simulation w a s a p o s t f l i g h t e v a l u a t i o n of t h e Gemini X I 1


EVA by t h e p i l o t . The purpose w a s t o f u r t h e r e v a l u a t e and d e f i n e t h e

7-35

, *.
fidelity of the simulation technique. The pilot reported that the fidel-
ity of the simulation was good and that underwater simulation was valu-
able as a method of establishing flight plans, procedures, and operating
techniques for EVA. The biomedicalmonitors concluded that for the
Gemini XI1 EVA, the preflight and postflight biomedical data obtained
from the simulation correlated well with similar data obtained from the
Gemini XI1 pilot as he performed the same tasks during flight.

7.3.2 Concluding Remarks


In summary, underwater neutral buoyancy techniques were adapted to
the solution of problems associated with Gemini EVA. The simulation was
improved and expanded through Gemini X and XI and fully utilized in eval-
uating the Gemini XI1 EVA tasks, equipment, and time line, and in train-
ing the Gemini XI1 prime and backup EVA pilots. Underwater simulation
and training contributed materially to the success of the Gemini XI1 EVA
mission. The postmission evaluation showed that there was a very good
correlation between the underwater simulation and the actual EVA con-
ditions in orbit. There was strong evidence as to the correlation of
task difficulty, and the results indicated that tasks which could be
accomplished readily underwater were also accomplished readily in orbit.
The use of flight-configuration equipment was essential to the validity
of the simulation.

7-36
NASA-S-67-222
. -

Figure 7 3 - 1 e - Underwater simulation o f Gemini E A EVA,


7-37
NASA-S-67-223

Figure 7 e 3-2 e - Underwater s imu lation of Gemin i XI EVA.

7-38
NASA-S-67-224

Figure 7.3-3. 0 Underwater simulation of A M U preparations.

7-39
NASA- S-6 7-2 25

Figure 7.3-4. - Underwater simulation of Gemini XU EVA transit between


adapter and TDA work stations.

7-40
8.0 OPERATIONAL ASPECTS OF EXTRAVEHICULAR ACTIVITY

David C. S c h u l t z , F l i g h t C r e w Support D i v i s i o n
John H. Covington, F l i g h t C r e w Support D i v i s i o n
Antoine F. Smith, F l i g h t C r e w Support D i v i s i o n
8.0 OPEFATIONAL ASPECTS O F EXTRAVEHICULAR ACTIVITY

The o p e r a t i o n a l aspects of Gemini EVA included t h e f a c t o r s of plan-


ning EVA, t h e various approaches taken t o f i n d s o l u t i o n s t o problems,
and t h e knowledge gained from experience i n EVA.

8.1 ZERO-G ENVIRONMENT

One of t h e e a r l y discoveries by p i l o t s performing EVA w a s t h e domi-


nant e f f e c t of s m a l l f o r c e s i n t h e weightless environment. The l a c k of
a l a r g e g r a v i t y f o r c e made t h e second-order f o r c e s s i g n i f i c a n t , although
they had previously been neglected. Each s m a l l f o r c e exerted on t h e
p i l o t r e s u l t e d i n a displacement v e l o c i t y which, i n most cases, i n t e r -
f e r e d with t h e t a s k he w a s attempting t o perform. Also, t h e p i l o t s
seemed t o have d i f f i c u l t y i n r a t i o n a l i z i n g t h e f o r c e s and t h e r e s u l t i n g
motions i n zero g without adequate simulation and t r a i n i n g . It was not
u n t i l a f t e r s e v e r a l hours of extravehicular experience i n t h e space
environment had been obtained t h a t a p r a c t i c a l appreciation of t h e s e
second-order f o r c e s w a s achieved. A s a r e s u l t of t h i s knowledge, an
increased emphasis w a s placed on t h e design and use of body r e s t r a i n t
devices. I n t h e Gemini X I 1 mission, t h e p i l o t demonstrated methods t o
perform t h e assigned EVA t a s k s more e f f i c i e n t l y .

Some of t h e e a r l y experiences i n EVA i n d i c a t e d t h e p o s s i b l e existence


of e x t e r n a l body f o r c e s which caused t h e p i l o t t o f l o a t up, away from t h e
e a r t h . The Gemini IX-A p i l o t commented a s follows i n t h e p o s t f l i g h t
debriefing:

"My work l o a d , I f e l t , w a s harder than it should be.


It w a s harder than it should be because of p o s i t i o n c o n t r o l
or maintaining yourself i n t h e s t i r r u p s i n t h e adapter. A l l
of our work had been b u i l t around t h e f a c t t h a t i n zero g ,
you would s t a y t h e r e unless you p e r t u r b your body p o s i t i o n
with some e x t e r n a l f o r c e or motion. This is not t r u e . It
w a s a continuous work load j u s t t o s t a y put i n zero g. I
always tended t o roll back over t o t h e r i g h t and over t h e
t o p of t h e s p a c e c r a f t . So, i n addition t o t h e s e o t h e r t h i n g s ,
it w a s a case of p o s i t i o n maintenance."

Later Gemini missions included an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of e x t e r n a l f o r c e s


during EVA. Objects w e r e placed i n a free p o s i t i o n i n s i d e t h e space-
c r a f t , with t h e hatch opened and closed, while t h e crews watched f o r
any tendencies f o r movement of t h e o b j e c t s . Also, t h e p i l o t s attempted
t o p o s i t i o n themselves i n a s t a t i o n a r y p o s i t i o n with r e s p e c t t o t h e

8-1
spacecraft and t o observe t h e motions caused by any e x t e r n a l forces.
No p r e f e r r e d d i r e c t i o n of motion w a s observed i n any of t h e s e evaluations,
although some movement invariably ensued. The Gemini XI1 p i l o t reported
t h a t , i f such forces e x i s t e d , they were much s m a l l e r than t h e magnitude
of known s m a l l forces such as those associated with t h e body t e t h e r .
The r e s u l t s of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n a l s o verified t h a t s m a l l f o r c e s were
s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h e motions of t h e p i l o t ' s body or of other objects i n
t h e EVA environment. Small forces applied with t h e f i n g e r s or t h e
hand induced body motions and could be used f o r body positioning a t
low rates. The following f a c t o r s , which r e f l e c t t h e knowledge gained
from i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of some of t h e l a t e r Gemini p i l o t s , may have l e a d t o
t h e i n i t i a l r e p o r t s of unknown body forces:

( a > Forces were induced by t h e space s u i t tending t o r e t u r n t o t h e


neutral position.

( b ) Body motions r e s u l t e d from inadvertent application of s m a l l


forces by t h e p i l o t .

( c ) Spacecraft outgassing when t h e hatch w a s f i r s t opened, induced


an outward f o r c e on a l l loose items i n t h e cabin, including t h e p i l o t .

( a ) Small perturbations i n spacecraft motion caused primarily by


a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l l i m i t cycling may have induced body motions r e l a t i v e t o
t h e spacecraft.

( e ) I n a b i l i t y t o set up an i n i t i a l condition of no movement may


have l e d t o t h e impression af e x t e r n a l forces.

The e f f o r t required t o perform assigned EVA t a s k s w a s g r e a t e r than


planned on s e v e r a l EVA missions. A major p a r t of t h e e f f o r t was due t o
t h e p i l o t working against t h e pressurized space s u i t . The Gemini space
s u i t tended t o assume a unique n e u t r a l p o s i t i o n and t o maintain t h a t
p o s i t i o n . Therefore, i f a p i l o t w a s unable t o perform an assigned t a s k
with t h e s u i t i n t h e n e u t r a l p o s i t i o n , he had t o work against t h e space
s u i t t o complete t h e task. While t h i s f a c t o r had been a n t i c i p a t e d , t h e
magnitude of t h e e f f o r t had not been f u l l y appreciated u n t i l the g r a v i t y
b i a s f o r c e was eliminated. S u i t forces of considerable magnitude w e r e
encountered when t h e p i l o t s attempted t o change from t h e n e u t r a l s u i t
p o s i t i o n , such as moving t h e arm toward t h e head area or toward t h e feet.
The magnitude of t h e s e forces exerted by t h e p i l o t w a s a function of t h e
displacement from t h e n e u t r a l p o s i t i o n of t h e s u i t . However, t h e p i l o t s
were able t o minimize t h e s u i t f o r c e s by t r a i n i n g for assigned EVA t a s k s
i n high-fidelity simulations and by becoming familiar with optimum
methods of operating i n t h e i r own suits.

Experience i n EVA indicated t h a t a p i l o t w a s i n b e t t e r condition t o


perform h i s assigned EVA t a s k successfully i f he had had an opportunity

8-2
to familiarize himself with the EVA environment. The pilots performing
the EVA in the Gemini Program had no previous experience in a sustained
weightless environment; they approached the tasks without complete knowl-
edge of how to operate in the space suit or to control body positions
and attitudes. They were operating in a new environment, and a peripd
of acclimatization improved pilot performance.

8-3
8.2 SCHEDULING OF EXTRAVEHICULAR ACTIVITY

Maximum ground t r a c k i n g coverage d?lring EVA allowed t h e f l i g h t con-


t r o l network t o monitor systems performance with m a x i m u m communication
between t h e ground and t h e s p a c e c r a f t . The Gemini EVA w a s b a s i c a l l y ex-
perimental; and, f o r t h e o v e r a i l mission, t h e EVA could occur a t almost
any time. EVA w a s normally scheduled i n o r b i t s when t h e s p a c e c r a f t w a s
over t h e United S t a t e s , s i n c e t h e s e o r b i t s afforded maximum t r a c k i n g
coverage. Only 4 revolutions of every 15 gave t h e d e s i r e d coverage,
and t h i s caused a r e s t r i c t i o n i n t h e f l i g h t planning.

An a d d i t i o n a l r e s t r i c t i o n w a s imposed on t h e f l i g h t plan by t h e ex-


t e n s i v e preparation and p o s t i n g r e s s cleanup time required for EVA. A
2-hour umbilical EVA on a t y p i c a l Gemini mission occupied about 7 hours
of f l i g h t t i m e . Three and one-half hours were required f o r EVA prepara-
t i o n , 2 hours f o r a c t u a l EVA, and about 1-1/2 hours for restowage a f t e r
EVA. Total elapsed t i m e f o r a standup EVA w a s less, s i n c e standup EVA
required only about 2 hours f o r preparation. I n e i t h e r case, EVA consumed
a s i g n i f i c a n t p o r t i o n of a mission day. Whenever p o s s i b l e , t h i s p e r i o d
was uninterrupted. The many items of hardware unstowed f o r EVA made con-
t i n u i t y highly d e s i r a b l e . Any o t h e r a c t i v i t y during EVA p r e p a r a t i o n com-
p l i c a t e d both a c t i v i t i e s because of t h e loose hardware i n t h e cabin.

F a m i l i a r i z a t i o n with t h e EVA environment a l s o had o v e r a l l f l i g h t


plan implications. No p i l o t encountered any d i s o r i e n t a t i o n problems
during EVA; however, t h e d e s i r a b i l i t y of an i n i t i a l period of familiar-
i z a t i o n was b e s t s a t i s f i e d by avoiding m i s s i o n - c r i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s im-
mediately following t h e i n i t i a l egress.

8-4
8.3 CAPABILITIES OF TKF: EXTRAVEHICULAR PILOT

Unless t h e p i l o t w a s adequately r e s t r a i n e d , h i s c a p a b i l i t y f o r use-


f u l work during EVA w a s severely l i m i t e d . P i l o t s w e r e a b l e t o perform
r e l a t i v e l y d i f f i c u l t t a s k s without adequate r e s t r a i n t , but only with an
excessive expenditure of energy. The problem w a s t h a t t h e p i l o t expended
a l a r g e percentage of h i s energy i n overcoming t h e space s u i t f o r c e s and
i n maintaining body p o s i t i o n . Two p i l o t s terminated t h e i r planned EVA
prematurely because t h e l a c k of adequate body r e s t r a i n t s r e s u l t e d i n
high workloads and i n high energy expenditures. However, it w a s a l s o
demonstrated t h a t , with proper f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n , u s e f u l work could be
continued f o r long periods of t i m e , i f t h e p i l o t w a s provided with ade-
quate body r e s t r a i n t s and i f t h e work w a s paced properly. An i d e a l
sequence included rest periods of 2 t o 3 minutes every 5 t o 1 5 minutes
depending on t h e work performed. If t h e p i l o t w a s properly r e s t r a i n e d ,
h i s normal c a p a b i l i t i e s were l i m i t e d p r i n c i p a l l y by t h e mobility limits
of t h e space s u i t . Examples of t h e t a s k s performed by Gemini p i l o t s a r e
shown i n Table 8.3-1.

I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e l a c k o f adequate r e s t r a i n t s and t h e l a c k of space


s u i t mobility, t h e EVA p i l o t ' s c a p a b i l i t i e s were l i m i t e d by t h e design
of t h e EVA hardware. Early experience i n d i c a t e d t h a t performance of
EVA t a s k s w a s f r e q u e n t l y more d i f f i c u l t i n o r b i t than on t h e ground. I n
some cases, t a s k s were more d i f f i c u l t because of minor i n c o m p a t i b i l i t i e s
between t h e hardware design and t h e EVA o p e r a t i o n a l environment. The
extensive underwater simulation before t h e Gemini X I 1 mission served t o
i d e n t i f y t h i s type of hardware problem and t o f a c i l i t a t e c o r r e c t i o n .
Hardware designs t h a t were found t o be s u i t a b l e i n a v a l i d underwater
simulation were a l s o s u i t a b l e f o r use i n o r b i t .

The command p i l o t ' s c a p a b i l i t i e s were a l s o l i m i t e d during EVA. The


normal functions of s p a c e c r a f t c o n t r o l , systems monitor, replacement of
voice t a p e c a r t r i d g e s and film magazines, and general equipment manage-
ment were complicated by t h e r e s t r i c t i o n s of operating i n t h e pressurized
space s u i t . Since t h e command p i l o t w a s responsible f o r d i r e c t i n g t h e
e n t i r e EVA operation, he received d e t a i l e d t r a i n i n g i n a l l equipment
and procedures. The r e s u l t i n g f a m i l i a r i t y enabled e f f e c t i v e e x e r c i s e of
t h e command function. Because of t h e extensive involvement of t h e com-
mand p i l o t , a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s of h i s t a s k s and t i m e l i n e s was a l s o
needed i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n of t h e EVA f l i g h t plan.

8- 5
TABLE 8.3-1.- SUMMARY OF GEMINI EILTRAVEHICTJLAR TASKS

r
Body
EVA tasks restraints Forces required Ease of
used accomplishment

Removal of 7 in2 of nylon Handholds Finger , hand, and body Satisfactory


Velcro strip, Gemini XI

Translation between two None Establish velocity vector Satisfactory


points, Gemini X when leaving first point
GATV tether attachment to Handholds Body control and forces Unsatisfactory
spacecraft docking bar, from hands, arms, legs,
Gemini XI and torso
Experiment package deploy- Handholds Body control and forces Satisfactory
ment o r retrieval (S009, from fingers, hand, and
S010, and 5012), Gem- body
ini IX-A, X, and XI

Unstowage and extension of Foot Torquing and forces from Unsatisfactory


the AMU controller arm stirrups hands, arms, and body
(during AMU checkout),
Gemini IX-A

Unstowage and installation Waist Alignment, body control, Satisfactory


of the telescopic hand- tethers and forces from fingers,
rail, Gemini XI1 hands, and body
GATV tether attachment to Waist Body control and forces Satisfactory
the spacecraft docking tethers from fingers, hands,
bar, Gemini XI1 and body
Translation between two Handrail Bo@ control and forces Satisfactory
points along the surface from fingers, hands,
of the spacecraft on and body
Gemini IX-A, X, and XI1

Experiment package deploy- Waist Alignment, torque, body Satisfactory


ment; bolt-torquing tethers control, and forces from
operations, Gemini XI1 finger, hand, and body
Connector operations, Waist Alignment , body control, Satisfactory
Gemini XI1 tethers and push/turn, blind
pushjturn, and pushjpush
Cutting operations, Foot Body control, finger, and satisfactory
Gemini XI1 restraints hand
2
Removal of 200 in of nylon Foot Finger, hand, and body Satisfactory
Velcro strip, Gemini XI1 restraints
8.4 DETAILED EXTRAVEHICULAR PROCEDURES

One of the many factors to be considered in EVA flight planning was


the writeup of EVA procedures. Detailed checklists were used during
Gemini EVA. The Gemini crews consistently used the checklists either as
a step-by-step sequence of the tasks to be performed or as a check to see
that various tasks had been completed. The detail included was com-
mensurate with the requirements of the tasks to be performed. The check-
list included procedures for preparing for the EVA, for performing the
EVA, and for ingress. The checklist also provided information concern-
ing equipment location and unstowage, operation, restowage, and concern-
ing the crew function and interface with the equipment. Since the
stowed equipment for the later Gemini missions included items for numer-
ous experiments and inflight tasks, the preparation for EVA required
substantial handling of loose equipment. A written plan of action was
necessary to insure the completion of all the tasks within the time
allowed. A typical checklist for standup EVA is shown in figure 8.4-1.
Note the Velcro in the photographs which was used to hold the checklist
in position.

Early EVA experience indicated the necessity of a detailed check-


list for extravehicular tasks. With extravehicular tasks, such as the
checkout and donning of the AIW, the procedures were complex and required
a specific sequence. Most EVA tasks consisted of individual steps with
a specific sequence required for successful completion. Hence, the
pilots were confronted with the sequencing of the steps for completing
each task, as well as the sequencing of all the tasks to be completed
in the EVA flight plan. The efficiency of operation outside the space-
craft was enhanced by reference to a comprehensive set of extravehicular
procedures. Besides defining the sequence, the procedures for Gemini XI1
also provided a realistic time line for EVA which had been developed
during underwater zero-g simulations. The Gemini XI1 experience re-
flected the benefit of the use of underwater simulations for development
of procedures and time lines. An excerpt from the crew checklist for
the Gemini XI1 umbilical EVA is shown in figure 8.4-2.

The EVA checklist was a byproduct of the crew training program.


The checklist was the focal point for all items related to EVA, and it
was updated because of the following:

(a) Modifications to procedures resulting from crew training and


procedures development

(b) Modifications to equipment

(c) Changes to the flight plan or mission because of other factors


Review and v a l i d a t i o n by t h e crew during t h e i r t r a i n i n g w a s repeated
a f t e r each r e v i s i o n of t h e c h e c k l i s t . The f l i g h t procedures w e r e i n
f i n a l form when t h e crew t r a i n i n g w a s completed.

8-8
NASA-S-67-4639

Figure 8.4-1. - Standup EVA checklist for Gemini X.

8-9
NASA-S-67-4640

BOTH PILOTS:
1. MAKE F I N A L CHECK O F A L L F I T T I N G S
PILOT:
1. I N S U R E S / C M I R R O R IS OUT OF WAY
2. P O S I T I O N WASTE POUCH FOR J E T T I - 1. S T A N D I N S E A T
SONING- 2. J E T T I S O N WASTE POUCH
3. :RECORD CONT
4. KEYING - VOX CMO P I L O T :
1. R E S T R A I N P I L O T B Y U S I N G L E G
CMD P I L O T : RESTRAINT
1. HOLD U M B I L I C A L I N L A P . (REMOVE PILOT:
BAG)
2. V E R I F Y C A B I N R E C I R C VALVE-DWN 1. REST ( 2 M I N )
(CLOSED)
3. C A B I N V E N T CHECK V A L V E - O P E N EXTRAVEHICULAR A C T I V I T I E S
4. SLOWLY OPEN C A B I N V E N T V A L V E
D E P R E S S U R I Z E C A B I N TO 3 . 0 P S I A . 1 S T DAY
V E R I F Y SYSTEM I N T E G R I T Y W H I L E
HOLDING C A B I N @ 3.0 P S I A . PILOT:
5. COMPLETE C A B I N 1. STANDUP F A M I L I A R I Z A T I O N :
'BY O P E N I N G C A B I N V E N T V A L V E A L L A. CHECK FOR E L S S OUT FLOW AND
T H E WAY. F L O A T OUT T E N D E N C I E S
B. EVALUATE STANDUP OYNAMICS IN
-
PILOT: COMPARISON W I T H STANDUP EVA
2. E V A L U A T E E V A CAMERA 1NSTA.LLATION:
-
1. V E R I F Y R / H H A T C H C L O S I N G LANYARD
F R E E FROM C A B I N V E N T V A L V E HANDLE
A.
8.
TETHERED I N C O C K P I T
UNTETHEREO I N C O C K P I T
-
C. FROM O U T S I D E C O C K P I T ( V E R I F Y
-
CMO P I L O T : CAMERA S E T T I N G )
3. REST ( 2 M I N I
- M P
1. H O L D HATCH C L O S I N G D E V I C E TO PRE-
C L U D E HATCH E X P L O S I V E O P E N I N G
4.
5.
P U L L U M B I L I C A L O U T OF-B&-s/C
MOVE TO NOSE ON H A N D R A I L
ih
~

T
EGRESS ( S U N R I S E ) 6 . A T T A C H W A I S T T E T H E R TO H A N D R A I L
GET: : 7. E V A L U A T E R E S T T E T H E R E D TO HANDRAIL-
START EVENT T I M E R - UP ( A T S U N R I S E ) 00:Ol
8. HOOK UP AGENA T E T H E R
9. A T T A C H D O C K I N G BAR CLAMP
-
-
9A. EVALUATE W A I S T TETHER DYNAMICS
9B. R E S T ( @ T D A )
- h/
PILOT: 0. RETURN TO S / C H A T C H
1. HAND E V 1 6 M M CAMERA TO CP
28:oo
1. U N L A T C H S P A C E C R A F T HATCH
2. OPEN T H E HATCH
(CHANGE F I L M MAG.)
2 . R E T R I E V E ( 4 ) G L V S T R I P S & STOW
-
3. P O S I T I O N G A I N AND D R I V E SELECTOR
TO T H E "L" ( L O C K ) P O S I T I O N
ABOVE R / H S E A T
3 . P I C K UP & SECURE A D A P T E R WORK -
-4. STOW HATCH H A N D L E S T A T I O N CAMERA
-----l

Figure 8.4-2. - Umbilical EVA checklist for Gemini XU.

8-10
NASA-S-67-464 1

PILOT: I 1 3. DISCOilRECT & CONF!ECT CENTER] l


13. MOVE TO ADAPTER 3 4 : 00 4.
CONNECTOR
DISCONNECT & CONNECT
FLUID qD
H
CMD P I L O T : 5. REST ( 2 M I N )
1. CHANGE V O I C E TAPE @ SUNSET 6. REMOVE CUTTERS FROM POUCH
7. CUT 2 STRANDS OF RJGHT
N I G H T PASS: OF E L E C T R I C A L CABLE & F L U 1
QD CABLE
PILOT:
1. ROUTE U M B I L I C A L THROUGH U M B I L I C A L 8.
9.
STOW CUTTERS I N POUCH
REMOVE P I P - P I N S FROM HAND
-
GUIDE
2. P O S I T I O N F E E T I N FOOT R E S T R A I N T S HOLDS AND STOW
( P R I O R TO SUNSET) c 10: UNSTOW WRENCH FROM VELCRO &-
SUNSET @ 55:OO E T OR 43:30:00 G.E.T. REMOVE SATURN BOLT. STOW
3. I N S T A L L ADAPTER WORK S T A T I O N WRENCH ON VELCRO I-
CAMERA (CONNECT PWR CABLE) 11. ATTACH W A I S T TETHERS TO
F I X E D R I N G S ON WORK S T A T I O N ;
CMD P I L O T : REMOVE F E E T FROM FOOT RE-
STRAINTS
1. EVA CAMERA C/B CLOSED - 12. REMOVE WRENCH FROM VELCRO' &
2. EVA CAMERA PWR SWITCH ON - REPLACE SATURN BOLT. ( A L L ~ W
ONE M I N U T E TO START B O L T ) j
PILOT: STOW WRENCH ON V E L C R O / I N
1. S T A R T C A ~ ~ E R A(VERIFY CAMERA SETTI'NG)
2. REST 13.
3. P U L L U M B I L I C A L TAUT & 1N.SERT I N
C L I P ON HAND BAR 14.
1. UNSTOW AND P O S I T I O N MIRROR 15.
5. UNSTOW PEN L I G H T S , ACTUATE & 16.
L I G H T S TO HAND BARS W I T H VELCRO
6. EVALUATE FOOT R E S T R A I N T S
7. REST 17.
8. PERFORM WORK STATION TASKS
ADAPTER 18.
A. PERFORM THE FOLLOWING TASKS I N
FOOT R E S T R A I N T S :
1 . OPEN POUCH AND REMOVE
19.
CONNECTOR
R E P O S I T I O N F E E T I N FOOT
RESTRAINTS
I I
WRENCH 20. REST ( 2 M I N )
2 . PERFORM TOROUEING
TORQUEING OOPERA-
.P E R A
21. CONNECT W A I S T TETHER TO HA
T I O N ON F II XXE~DD BOLT A T TTOP
TION HAND HOLDS & SECURE HAND H
O F BOLT HOUSING TO CHESTPACK
COMPARE 1 / 2 " HEAD B O L T 22. EVALUATE ONE FOOT R E S T R A I N
TO 1 / 4 " HEAD B O L T .
STOW WRENCH ON VELCRO REMOVE U M B I L I C A L FROM C L I P ON HAND
BAR
1=I

Figure 8.4-2. - Continued.


--
NASA-S-67-4642

:MD

PILOT:

PILOT:
1.
2.
3.

1.

2.
3.

4.
5.
PILOT:
F . 2 EVA CAMERA C / B
%.I

INSTALL
LOADED
OPEN -
EVA CAMERA PWR S W I T C H

I . PICK UP & SECURE ADAPTER WORK STA'TION


2.
CAMERA
REST U N T I L SUNRISE
2ND DAY
- OFF

REMOVE U M B I L I C A L FROM P I G T A I L
MOVE TO S / C HATCH
HAND ADAPTER WORK S T A T I O N CAMERA
TO CMD P I L O T
CMD P I L O T :
1.
PILOT:
SECURE T H I R D CAMERA TO CLOTHESLINE-

E V I ~ M M CAMERA ( N E W FILM MAG


-
V E R I F Y CAMERA S E T T I N G )
MOVE TO S / C NOSE AREA
I N S T A L L 2 P I P - P I N S I N TDA & CONNECT
W A I S T TETHER.

REST ( 2 M I N )
PERFORM WORK S T A T I O N TASKS
A.

2.
TDA
PERFORM THE FOLLOWING TASKS
ON TWO W A I S T TETHERS A T TDA:
1 . DISCONNECT & CONNECT E L E C T -
R I C A L CONNECTOR
DISCONNECT & CONNECT
F L U I D QD
3 . UNSTOW APOLLO TORQUE WRENCH
& STOW I N APOLLO B O L T
4 . TORQUE B O L T A T PRESET
I
I
c-!-
MOVE I N T O P O S I T I O N
FOR WORK S T A T I O N T A S K ( R E P O S I T I O N
P I P - P I N S . A D J U S T W A I S T TETHER AS
REQUIREDj

i=
II
40:O
PILOT:

7.

PILOT:
1.
2.
3.
B.

1:D.
8.

CMD P I L O T :
REMOVE L E F T / R I G H T W A I S T TETHER
& ATTACH TO E L S S
CHANGE V O I C E T A P E
PERFORM FOLLOWING TASK W I T H ONE
W A I S T TETHER
I . DISCONNECT
2.
& CONNECT ELEC,T-
R I C A L CONNECTOR
DISCONNECT & CONNECT F L U I D Q Z
3 . TORQUE B O L T A T S E T VALUE
4 . A D J U S T TORQUE S E T T I N G UP OR
DOWN AS R E Q U I R E D
5. STOW WRENCH I N APOLLO BOLT-
6.
7.
REST ( 2 M I N )

RETURN TO S / C HATCH ( W A I S T T E T H E R S
JETTISONED)

BOTH P I L O T S :
1.

2.
3.
INGRESS

STAND I N SEAT ( E V V I S O R UP)


R E T R I E V E EV 16MM CAMERA.
CAMERA ABOVE CAMERA BOX
REMOVE H A N D R A I L & D I S C A R D
60:OO

VELCRO

R E T R I E V E U M B I L I C A L & STOW I N L A P
OR FOOTWELL OF CMD P I L O T
PILOT:
1. DEPLOY HATCH H O L D I N G D E V I C E (SAW-
TOOTH)
CHECK HATCH PAWLS TO LOCK ( U P )
CHECK HATCH S E A L FOR PROPER SEAT--
I N G AND D E B R I S
CMD P I L O T :
46 :00

REMOVE R I G H T / L E F T WAISTTET-
ATTEMPT S T E P S B 1 THROUGH 8 6
W
STOW
I T H NO
APOLLO
I N APOLLO B O L T
TETHERS
TORQUE WRENCH
I
L

-
H
-
-

1. CLEAR P I L O T AREA OF HOSES 1o:oo


TORQUE VALUE
5. A D J U S T TORQUE S E T T I N G UP PILOT:
-PARTIALLY I N G R E S S C A B I N , RELEASE E L S S
DOWN AS REQUIRED
6 . STOW APOLLO TORQUE WRENCH I N
I R E S T R A I N T S , AND HAND E L S S TO CMD P I L O T
AP L L B O L T
7 . R E ~ T9 2 MINI

Figure 8.4-2.- Continued,

8-12
NASA-S-67-4643

F~~CMD I 1 '
PILOT:

2. COMPLETE I N G R E S S
I
PILOT:
111. PLACE ELSS C/B
I T C U T n N FI C C -
-
OPEN (S,'"II. "'In
rwK ' '
I I

t-I
LIUlll urrl
2. WHEN EMERGENCY 0 2 PRESSURE DROPS
BOTH P I L O T S : TO A P P R O X I M A T E L Y 1000 P S I , E L S S
-
- .

t
BATTERY SWITCH OFF
1. CLOSE H A T C H T I G H T B Y P U L L I N G ON
HATCH CLOSING D E V I C E BOTH P I L O T S :
1. M O N I T O R E L S S EMERGENCY 0 2 PRESSURE
PILOT: WHEN PRESSURE DROPS TO 100 P S I , T H E
S H U T O F F E L S S EMERGENCY 02 S U P P L Y
1. WHEN H A T C H F U L L Y LOCKED, P O S I T I O N
G A I N S E L E C T O R AND D R I V E S E L E C T O R
TO T H E " N " ( N E U T R A L ) REMOVE GLOVES, H E L M E T ( I N S T A L L EV
2. STOW H A N D L E V I S O R COVER) & STOW H E L M E T I N FOOT
3. STOW HATCH H O L D I N G D E V I C E WELL W I T H GLOVES & D O N v L I G H T W E I G H T
HEADSET 9u.d ~ & @
-
CMD-PILOT: OPEN RECIRC VALVE R E M ~ V E INTER-
CONNECT FROM S / C HOSES & STOW TEMP
1. C A B I N VENT VALVE -CLOSE ORARILY
2. C A B I N V E N T CHECK V A L V E - C L O S E D I S C O N N E C T O U T L E T " Y " CONNECTOR &
3. V E R I F Y E L S S EMERGENCY 0 2 S U P P L Y CONNECT O U T S / C HOSE TO S U I T
4. E L S S FLOW SELECTOR V A L V E -
HIGH 4. D I S C O N N E C T I N L E T " Y " CONNECTOR &
5. ELSS BYPASS VALVE -
NORMAL CONNECT I N L E T S / C HOSE TO S U I T
6. EVAPORATOR - CONDENSER V A L V E - O F F (UNSTOW MIRROR, I F R E Q U I R E D )
5 . R / H S U I T FLOW V A L V E - F U L L I N C R E A S E
&N OUTFLOW FROM E L S S WILL REPRESS
CAB I N
6. EXTERItAL L T S - OFF
CMD P I L O T :
1. HAND E L S S T O P I L O T
BOTH P I L O T S :
I /]_
P I L O T_: ~ I
1. M O N I T O R C A B I N PRESSURE. I F CABIN
CANNOT B E R E P R E S S U R I Z E D USE REPRESS-
I 1 . D I S C O N N E C T E L S S HOSES FROM E L S S
& STOW
U R I Z A T I O N F A I L U R E PROCEDURES L CMD P I L O T :
2. I F C A B I N I S R E P R E S S U R I Z I N G NORMALLY1
& E L S S EMERGENCY 0 2 HAS NOT B E E N USED, 1 . A D J U S T L A P & SHOULDER R E S T R A I N T S
CLOSE C A B I N REPRESS V A L V E . AS D E S I R E D

NOTE: EMERGENCY 02 OUTFLOW FROM


WILL R E P R E S S U R I Z E C A B I N .
E L S
PILOT
MAY S E L E C T B Y P A S S A F T E R REPRESS
S
i-
V A L V E C L O S I N G TO S P E E D B O T T L E D E -
P L E T IO N
2. REMOVE H E L M E T & GLOVES & STO
3 . DON L I G H T W E I G H T H E A D S E T
PILOT:
1. B I O M E 0 C / B
2.
- OPEN
D I S C O N N E C T E L E C T R I C A L JUMPER FROM
3 . WHEN C A B I N PRESSURE REACHES 4.5 PSI+--- S U I T & . S / C , RECONNECT S / C E L E C T -
GRADUALLY OPEN V I S 9 R TO D E P R E S S U R I Z E R I C A L TO S U I T
SUIT. CLOSE C A B I N REPRESS V A L V E I F NOTE: C O M M U N I C A T I O N S WILL B E L O S T W I T H
N O T ALREADY C L O S E 0 m T D U R I N G CHANGE O F E L E C T R I C A L CONNECTORS
L

Figure 8.4-2. - Continued.

8-13
NASA-S -67-4644

>ILOT: CMO P I L O T : I
3. B I O M E 0 C/B - CLOSE 1. R E T R I E V E USEO 16MM MAGAZINES & PLACE
4. V E R I F Y NORMAL COMMUNICATIONS HAVE
BEEN R E G A I N E D

CMD P I L O T :
$, PILOT:
1.
I N L / H FORWARD FOOTWELL POUCH

STOW HATCH H O L D I N G O E V I C E
1. DISCONNECT U M B I L I C A L 02 A N 0 E L E C T -

-
R I C A L JUMPER FROM E L S S BOTH P I L O T S :
2. OISCONNECT TETHER FROM P I L O T ' S
HARNESS AN0 EGRESS BAR 1. STOW EV GEAR TO B E J E T T I S O N L A T E R
3. DISCONNECT U M B I L I C A L A T S / C 9.0. I N BAG W I T H U M B I L I C A L [ W A S T E POUCH
A N 0 PLACE U M B I L I C A L I N BAG 2. STOW R E M A I N I N G EVA GEAR I N APPRO-
4. UNSTOW CAMERA BOX PRIATE ?&
/
3. STOW GLV S T R I P S I N GLV S T R I P POUCH
PILOT:
1. STOW ELSS
2. V E R I F Y G A I N & D R I V E SELECTOR I N
I' N "
( N E UT RA L ) P OS I T ION
END U M B I L I C A L
CMD P I L O T :
1. STOW 5MM LENS FROM ADAPTER WORK
S T A T I O N CAMERA I N CAMERA BOX
STOW HASSELBLAO, MAURER & USEO
MAGAZINES I F D E S I R E 0
2. REMOVE L / H 16MM CAMERA GEAR AND
STOW
3. STOW CAMERA BOX

PILOT:
1. REMOVE BRACKET & CABLE FROM
ADAPTER WORK S T A T I O N CAMERA &
STOW FOR J E T T I S O N I N G
2. TEMPORARILY STOW ADAPTER WORK
S T A T I O N CAMERA ABOVE R / H S E A T
v-
-4=6444-
&.3*REMOVE A N 0 STOW HATCH C L O S I N G
DEVICES

Figure -
8.4-2. Concluded.

8-14
8.5 DOCUMENTATION OF EXTRAVEHICULAfi ACTIVITY

Within t h e l i m i t a t i o n s of equipment c a p a b i l i t i e s , t h e following


documentation w a s obtained on each EVA mission:

( a ) Continuous onboard voice recordings were made of t h e crew con-


versations from near-completion of EVA preparation t o ingress. These
recordings included d e t a i l e d descriptions from t h e p i l o t s of t h e events
which took place during t h e EVA. This method of documenting t h e EVA a l s o
provided t h e necessary information f o r generating an a c t u a l time l i n e of
t h e EVA for p o s t f l i g h t analysis.

( b ) Air-to-ground voice recordings provided a d d i t i o n a l backup


documentation of t h e EVA.

( c ) Film coverage provided graphic description f o r a l l EVA t h a t


occurred within t h e f i e l d of view of t h e camera. I n some missions, t h i s
photography added information not provided by t h e crew. The EVA film
w a s an invaluable a i d i n p o s t f l i g h t evaluation.

8-15
8.6 NIGHT OPERATIONS

Night EVA operations were l i m i t e d t o e i t h e r t h e standup a c t i v i t y ,


i n which t h e p i l o t w a s r e s t r a i n e d i n t h e cockpit, or t o a c t i v i t i e s i n
t h e s p a c e c r a f t adapter s e c t i o n . The EVA p i l o t s c a r r i e d out t h e s e night
operations s u c c e s s f u l l y . Adequate l i g h t i n g w a s t h e only c o n s t r a i n t
i d e n t i f i e d . A r e l a t i v e l y low l e v e l of l i g h t i n g w a s provided i n t h e
adapter s e c t i o n , and t h i s l i g h t i n g w a s found adequate i n Gemini IX-A
and X I I . Both t h e Gemini IX-A and X I 1 p i l o t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t , with
appropriate l i g h t i n g , t r a n s i t along f i x e d h a n d r a i l s appeared f e a s i b l e
for n i g h t operation.

8-16
8.7 SPACECRAFT CONSTRAINTS

Control of s p a c e c r a f t a t t i t u d e and p o s i t i o n during EVA w a s compli-


c a t e d by s e v e r a l f a c t o r s . T e s t s showed t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t damage t o EVA
equipment could r e s u l t i f t h e s p a c e c r a f t c o n t r o l t h r u s t e r s w e r e f i r e d
when t h e equipment w a s w i t h i n t h e d i r e c t impingement envelope of t h e
t h r u s t e r s . To avoid such damage, t h e f l i g h t crews coordinated t h r u s t e r
operation and t h e EVA p i l o t ' s movements. The p i l o t kept t r a c k of t h e
p o s i t i o n of t h e u m b i l i c a l and of h i s p o s i t i o n and n o t i f i e d t h e command
p i l o t when c e r t a i n t h r u s t e r s could be f i r e d s a f e l y . This coordination
w a s p a r t i c u l a r l y important during t h e u m b i l i c a l EVA on Gemini X when t h e
command p i l o t w a s station-keeping w i t h t h e Gemini V I 1 1 GATV. Coordina-
t i o n between t h e p i l o t s enabled them t o accomplish t h e t a s k without
equipment damage.

Another complication t o s p a c e c r a f t a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l w a s t h e s i g n i f -
i c a n t torques introduced by t h e EVA p i l o t s . During t h e u m b i l i c a l EVA on
Gemini IX-A, t h e p i l o t may have caused n o t i c e a b l e a t t i t u d e excursions
when he moved about on t h e e x t e r n a l s u r f a c e of t h e s p a c e c r a f t . The con-
t r o l system w a s o f f a t t h e time. When he w a s i n t h e adapter s e c t i o n and
t h e c o n t r o l system w a s r e a c t i v a t e d , t h e r e were frequent t h r u s t e r f i r i n g s ,
e s p e c i a l l y whenever t h e p i l o t moved vigorously. The use of an automatic
c o n t r o l mode tended t o r e l i e v e t h e command p i l o t of t h e t a s k of counter-
a c t i n g t h e disturbances introduced by t h e EVA p i l u t .

Although t h e s p a c e c r a f t e x t e r i o r w a s designed t o withstand t h e


extremes of heat i n p u t s from d i r e c t s o l a r r a d i a t i o n and of r a d i a t i o n
heat l o s s e s t o deep space, t h e Gemini s p a c e c r a f t i n t e r i o r w a s not so
designed. Opening t h e hatch f o r EVA exposed t h e s p a c e c r a f t i n t e r i o r t o
t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s . On Gemini IX-A, t h e r e w a s an overheating problem, and
some of t h e p a i n t on t h e t o p of t h e e j e c t i o n seat headrest and on t h e
seat pan w a s b l i s t e r e d . Review of t h e time l i n e i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e seat
w a s only exposed t o t h e sun f o r approximately 30 minutes. Subsequent
a n a l y s i s showed t h a t i n t h i n metal s t r u c t u r e s , such as t h e e j e c t i o n
s e a t , t h e s u r f a c e temperature could reach 200' t o 300' F w i t h i n 20 min-
u t e s exposure t o d i r e c t s u n l i g h t . A study of t h e shadowing using a
s c a l e d mockup w a s made t o determine t h e sun angles which could be t o l -
e r a t e d . For Gemini X I and X I I , a f i x e d i n e r t i a l a t t i t u d e w a s maintained
during t h e u m b i l i c a l EVA, using t h e GATV a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l system. The
a t t i t u d e w a s chosen t o avoid d i r e c t s u n l i g h t on t h e i n t e r i o r of t h e
c o c k p i t , even with t h e r i g h t hatch open.
9.0 MEDICAL ASPECTS OF EXTRAVEHICULAR ACTIVITY

Dr. G. Fred K e l l y , Medical Operations O f f i c e


D r . D. Owen Coons, Medical Operations O f f i c e
9.0 MEDICAL ASPECTS OF EXTRAVEHICULAR ACTIVITY

9.1 DISCUSSION OF MEDICAL FACTORS

During Gemini e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , several p h y s i o l o g i c a l


problems developed which were w i t h i n t h e a r e a of medical cognizance.
There w e r e i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t excessive workload might be a l i m i t i n g fac-
t o r during EVA. A p o s t f l i g h t e v a l u a t i o n of d a t a from Gemini IX-A and
X I i n d i c a t e d t h a t an excessive thermal l o a d may have been imposed on
t h e e x t r a v e h i c u l a r p i l o t , and high r e s p i r a t i o n r a t e s encountered during
Gemini X I i n d i c a t e d t h a t a buildup i n carbon dioxide l e v e l may have been
a problem. Since t h e r e w e r e no a c t u a l d a t a on thermal conditions or
carbon dioxide l e v e l s and no d i r e c t measure of metabolic l o a d , a quan-
t i t a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n of t h e s e p o s s i b l e problem areas could not b e
made.

Gemini e x t r a v e h i c u l a r bioinstrumentation c o n s i s t e d of t h e e l e c t r o -
cardiogram and t h e impedance pneumogram. These parameters have been
monitored during a g r e a t many p h y s i o l o g i c a l and psychological t e s t s and
under widely varying conditions. The e x i s t i n g pool of information has
e s t a b l i s h e d t h e f a c t t h a t h e a r t r a t e responds t o psychological, physio-
l o g i c a l , and p a t h o l o g i c a l conditions. There a r e considerable i n d i v i d u a l
v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e s e responses; however, s i n c e a q u a n t i t a t i v e i n d i c a t i o n
of workload a c t u a l l y experienced i n f l i g h t appeared t o be of primary im-
portance, t h e f e a s i b i l i t y of using h e a r t r a t e as a q u a n t i t a t i v e indica-
t i o n of workload w a s i n v e s t i g a t e d . On Gemini IX-A, X, X I , and X I I ,
p r e f l i g h t and p o s t f l i g h t e x e r c i s e t e s t s using t h e b i c y c l e ergometer were
performed on t h e p i l o t s . During t h e s e t e s t s , t h e s u b j e c t performed a
measured amount of work i n i n c r e a s i n g increments, while h e a r t r a t e , blood
p r e s s u r e , and r e s p i r a t i o n r a t e were monitored and p e r i o d i c samples of
expired gas w e r e c o l l e c t e d f o r a n a l y s i s . These d a t a were t r a n s l a t e d in-
t o oxygen u t i l i z a t i o n curves and Btu p l o t s which a r e included as f i g -
ures 9.1-1 and 9.1-2. Timed volumes f o r expired a i r GP , f o r oxygen
u

, and f o r carbon dioxide


VCO,
were c o r r e c t e d t o standard tempera-

t u r e and p r e s s u r e , dry (STPD). Using t h e s e p l o t s and t h e h e a r t r a t e d a t a


obtained during each f l i g h t , an approximate workload curve w a s p l o t t e d
a g a i n s t t h e EVA t i m e l i n e ( f i g . 9.1-3). These derived d a t a were consid-
e r e d i n a c c u r a t e , because changes i n h e a r t rate caused by thermal or
environmental problems could not be taken i n t o consideration. The psy-
c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t of a new and d i f f e r e n t environment a l s o could have in-
creased t h e h e a r t rates without a corresponding change i n metabolic r a t e .
However, any e r r o r introduced by these' f a c t o r s would have i n c r e a s e d t h e
observed h e a r t rate f o r a given workload l e v e l . This f a c t tended t o
i n c r e a s e t h e usefulness of such a p l o t i n p r e f l i g h t planning and i n in-
f l i g h t monitoring of EVA. When d a t a from previous f l i g h t s , a l t i t u d e
chamber t e s t s , one-g walk throughs, and underwater zero-g simulations
w e r e examined i n t h i s manner, a q u a l i t a t i v e i n d i c a t i o n of work expended
on various t a s k s could be derived. This w a s important i n t h e assess-
ment of t h e r e l a t i v e physiological c o s t of various t a s k s and i n t h e
determination of acceptable t a s k s and r e a l i s t i c t i m e l i n e s during simu-
l a t i o n s and p r e f l i g h t planning. The h e a r t rate and r e s p i r a t i o n r a t e
d a t a , when coupled with voice contact and with an understanding of t h e
planned a c t i v i t i e s , proved t o be an extremely important and r e l i a b l e
i n d i c a t i o n of t h e medical s t a t u s of e x t r a v e h i c u l a r crewmen during EVA.
An example w a s seen i n t h e Gemini X I mission.

During t h e attempts by t h e p i l o t of Gemini X I t o a t t a c h t h e


spacecraft/target-vehicle t e t h e r t o t h e docking b a r , he expended an un-
expectedly high l e v e l of energy i n attempting t o maintain h i s p o s i t i o n .
H e used t h e l a r g e muscles i n h i s t o r s o and l e g s t o s t r a d d l e t h e space-
c r a f t nose s e c t i o n . I n doing so, he worked strenuously t o f o r c e h i s
l e g s i n t o an unnatural p o s i t i o n f o r t h e pressurized space s u i t . The
high work s u b j e c t i v e l y described by t h e p i l o t was confirmed by h e a r t
r a t e s and r e s p i r a t i o n rates as seen i n f i g u r e 9.1-3(d). The high res-
p i r a t i o n rates seen i n t h i s f i g u r e a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of an
increased carbon dioxide l e v e l . The ELSS w a s not designed t o handle
workloads of t h e magnitude i n d i c a t e d by t h e s e r a t e s i n terms of thermal
c o n t r o l or carbon dioxide removal. The thermal and carbon dioxide
buildups, along with psychological f a c t o r s which may have been p r e s e n t ,
probably contributed t o t h e high h e a r t rates recorded.

I n planning f o r Gemini X I 1 EVA, one of t h e o b j e c t i v e s was t o avoid


workloads which would overload t h e ELSS. Previous t e s t s had shown t h a t
t h e EMS w a s capable of d i s s i p a t i n g 2000 Btu/hr, while maintaining a
carbon dioxide l e v e l of approximately 6 mm Hg. Figure 9.1-1 shows t h a t
during t h e p r e f l i g h t ergometry s t u d i e s , t h e p i l o t ' s h e a r t r a t e w a s ap-
proximately 120 b e a t s p e r minute when h i s workload w a s 2000 Btu/hr.
Because of t h e s e v e r a l f a c t o r s which were known t o cause increased
h e a r t r a t e , t h e a c t u a l h e a r t r a t e s were expected t o exceed t h i s l e v e l
during t h e planned EVA on Gemini XII. A f t e r evaluation of a l l d a t a
from previous EVA missions, a l t i t u d e chamber t e s t s , and underwater zero-g
simulations, it w a s concluded t h a t i f t h e p i l o t ' s h e a r t r a t e remained
under 140 b e a t s p e r minute f o r t h e m a j o r i t y of t h e EVA, t h e p r o b a b i l i t y
of s u c c e s s f u l l y completing t h e EVA without exceeding t h e ELSS c a p a b i l i -
t i e s was high. Therefore, t h e p i l o t was t o be advised t o slow down and
r e s t whenever h i s h e a r t r a t e exceeded 140 b e a t s p e r minute. I f h i s
h e a r t r a t e exceeded 160 b e a t s p e r minute, he would b e advised t o s t o p
a l l activities.

9-2
Figure 9.1-3(e) i s a p l o t of h e a r t rate r e l a t e d t o events during
t h e Gemini X I 1 u m b i l i c a l EVA. The p i l o t ' s h e a r t rate exceeded t h e ex-
pected levels only one time, during a p e r i o d of unscheduled a c t i v i t i e s
i n which psychological f a c t o r s may have c o n t r i b u t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o t h e
h e a r t rate. When t h e p i l o t w a s asked t o decrease h i s a c t i v i t i e s , h i s
h e a r t rates r e t u r n e d t o a r e s t i n g l e v e l i n less t h a n l m i n u t e .

Periods of e x e r c i s e w e r e included i n both of t h e standup EVA'S.


These e x e r c i s e s c o n s i s t e d of moving t h e arms away from t h e n e u t r a l posi-
t i o n of t h e p r e s s u r i z e d space s u i t . Both arms w e r e brought from t h e
n e u t r a l p o s i t i o n t o t h e s i d e s of t h e helmet once each second f o r 60 sec-
onds. An attempt w a s made t o c o r r e l a t e h e a r t rate d a t a during t h e s e
i n f l i g h t e x e r c i s e p e r i o d s w i t h p r e f l i g h t e x e r c i s e t e s t s , as shown i n
f i g u r e 9.1-4. When compared i n t h i s manner, no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e
appeared i n t h e response t o e x e r c i s e performed b e f o r e and during f l i g h t .
It must b e remembered, however, t h a t only q u a l i t a t i v e conclusions can be
drawn from t h e s e d a t a . Valid q u a n t i t a t i v e conclusions must a w a i t t h e
r e s u l t s of more p r e c i s e i n f l i g h t medical experimentation i n which con-
t r o l l e d c o n d i t i o n s and a d d i t i o n a l d a t a c o l l e c t i o n a r e f e a s i b l e .

S e v e r a l o t h e r f a c t o r s were s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h e medical a s p e c t s of
Gemini EVA. One of t h e s e was t h e a r t of conserving energy as demon-
s t r a t e d i n Gemini X I I . The p i l o t of Gemini X I 1 w a s a b l e t o condition
himself t o r e l a x completely w i t h i n t h e n e u t r a l p o s i t i o n of t h e space
s u i t . H e r e p o r t e d t h a t he s y s t e m a t i c a l l y monitored each muscle group.
When a group of muscles w a s found t o be t e n s e while performing no use-
f u l work, he w a s a b l e t o r e l a x t h e s e muscles consciously. All of h i s
movements were slow and d e l i b e r a t e . When a t a s k could be performed by
small movement of t h e f i n g e r s , he would use only t h o s e muscles necessary
f o r t h i s s m a l l movement. This technique of conserving energy c o n t r i b u t e d
t o t h e low i n d i c a t e d work l e v e l s i n t h e Gemini X I 1 u m b i l i c a l EVA.

Chronic f a t i g u e and p h y s i c a l conditioning may have been a problem


during some of t h e EVA missions. S l e e p during t h e f i r s t n i g h t of each
mission w a s c o n s i s t e n t l y inadequate, and scheduled a c t i v i t i e s necessary
f o r EVA p r e p a r a t i o n tended t o be d e t a i l e d and f a t i g u i n g . Furthermore,
t h e pace of p r e f l i g h t a c t i v i t i e s , t h e p r e s s u r e of planning, t r a i n i n g , and
p r e p a r a t i o n t o meet a f l i g h t schedule predisposed t h e crews t o chronic
f a t i g u e . During t h e f i n a l weeks of p r e p a r a t i o n f o r a f l i g h t , each crew
found t h a t t i m e f o r r e s t , r e l a x a t i o n , and p h y s i c a l conditioning w a s a t a
premium and w a s o f t e n reduced. Accordingly , t h e workload peaks i n d i c a t e d
during several of t h e EVA missions may have been due i n p a r t t o a fa-
t i g u e d condition.

9- 3
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Figure 9.1-2. - Exercise capacity test results.

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Figure 9.1-4. - Preflight and inflight exercise studies.

9-12
9.2 CONCLUDING REMARKS

Medical e x p e r i e n c e g a i n e d as a result o f Gemini EVA h a s p r o v i d e d


information which w i l l b e v a l u a b l e i n p r e p a r i n g f o r f’uture EVA m i s s i o n s .
There w e r e no i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t t h e a b i l i t y o f m a n t o do work-was s i g -
n i f i c a n t l y a l t e r e d d u r i n g EVA. The major f a c t o r s which produced t h e
h i g h e s t workload d u r i n g EVA were e n g i n e e r i n g d e s i g n problems which were
r e s o l v e d f o r Gemini X I I . The s u c c e s s o f Gemini XI1 EVA demonstrated
t h a t when t h e s e f a c t o r s w e r e understood p r o p e r l y , t h e medical response
t o EVA w a s v e r y c l o s e t o p r e d i c t i o n . E v a l u a t i o n of p h y s i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s
d u r i n g EVA i n Gemini w a s l i m i t e d by t h e l a c k o f more e x t e n s i v e i n s t r u -
mentation. Much w a s l e a r n e d about t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l responses t o EVA
from s i m u l a t i o n s such as s e a - l e v e l p r a c t i c e e x e r c i s e s and t h e zero-g
underwater s i m u l a t i o n s . However, w i t h o u t s p e c i f i c knowledge of t h e t h e r -
m a l and environmental c o n d i t i o n s , a complete a n a l y s i s of t h e physiolog-
i c a l a s p e c t s o f EVA c o u l d n o t be accomplished. S p e c i f i c measurements
which were l a c k i n g were t h e carbon d i o x i d e c o n c e n t r a t i o n , t h e dew p o i n t
i n t h e s p a c e s u i t helmet, t h e space s u i t i n l e t and o u t l e t t e m p e r a t u r e s ,
and t h e body t e m p e r a t u r e . The e l e c t r o c a r d i o g r a m and t h e r a t e and depth
of r e s p i r a t i o n were useful b u t o n l y p a r t i a l l y e f f e c t i v e i n a s s e s s i n g
t o t a l p h y s i o l o g i c a l performance d u r i n g EVA.

The s u c c e s s f u l completion o f t h e Gemini EVA program i n d i c a t e d t h a t


EVA l i f e s u p p o r t system p l a n n i n g had been e s s e n t i a l l y sound. The suc-
c e s s of Gemini X I 1 i n d i c a t e d t h a t w i t h i n t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f our e x p e r i -
ence, t i m e l i n e s and work l e v e l s could be t a i l o r e d s o t h a t f l i g h t
o b j e c t i v e s could be accomplished. There were no medical c o n t r a i n d i c a -
t i o n s t o t h e t y p e o f EVA accomplished i n t h e Gemini Program.

9-13
10.0 RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS

Reginald M. Machell, Gemini Program O f f i c e


L a r r y E. B e l l , Crew Systems D i v i s i o n
David C. S c h u l t z , F l i g h t Crew Support D i v i s i o n
10.0 FESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS

10.1 CAPABILITIES DEMONSTRATED

A number of c a p a b i l i t i e s were demonstrated during t h e Gemini m i s -


sions which m e t or exceeded t h e o r i g i n a l EVA objectives. The b a s i c
f e a s i b i l i t y o f EVA was established by 11 hatch openings and by more than
1 2 hours of operation i n t h e environment outside t h e spacecraft. The
Gemini X I 1 mission demonstrated t h e a b i l i t y t o c o n t r o l t h e workloads
within t h e l i m i t s of t h e l i f e support system and t h e c a p a b i l i t i e s of
t h e EVA p i l o t . Standup and umbilical extravehicular operations were
accomplished during e i g h t separate nighttime periods t o confirm t h e
f e a s i b i l i t y of night EVA.

The need f o r handholds f o r t r a n s i t over e x t e r i o r surfaces of t h e


spacecraft w a s shown, and several types of fixed and portable handholds
and handrails were demonstrated t o be s a t i s f a c t o r y . The c a p a b i l i t y t o
perform work t a s k s of varying complexity w a s demonstrated. The char-
a c t e r of f e a s i b l e and p r a c t i c a l t a s k s w a s shown, and some of t h e f a c t o r s
l i m i t i n g t a s k complexity and d i f f i c u l t y were i d e n t i f i e d .

Several methods were demonstrated f o r crew t r a n s f e r between two


space vehicles: (1) surface t r a n s i t while docked, ( 2 ) f r e e - f l o a t i n g
t r a n s i t between two undocked vehicles i n close proximity, (3) self-
propulsion between two undocked vehicles, and ( 4 ) t e t h e r o r umbilical
p u l l - i n from one undocked vehicle to another. These methods were accom-
plished with a m a x i m u m separation of 15 f e e t .

The Hand Held Maneuvering Unit (HHMU) w a s evaluated b r i e f l y , but


successfully, on two missions. The EVA p i l o t s accomplished maneuvers
they attempted w i t h t h e HHMU without d i s o r i e n t a t i o n .

Retrieval of equipment from outside t h e spacecraft w a s demonstrated


on f o u r missions. I n one case, equipment w a s r e t r i e v e d from an unstabi-
l i z e d passive t a r g e t vehicle which had been i n o r b i t f o r more than
4 months.
During Gemini X, t h e command p i l o t was able t o maneuver i n close
proximity t o t h e t a r g e t vehicle while t h e p i l o t w a s outside t h e space-
c r a f t . The c l o s e formation f l y i n g was successfully accomplished by
coordinating t h e t h r u s t e r f i r i n g s by t h e command p i l o t with t h e extra-
vehicular maneuvers of t h e p i l o t . No damage nor i n d i c a t i o n of imminent
hazard occurred during t h e operation.

10-1
Photography from o u t s i d e t h e s p a c e c r a f t w a s accomplished on every
EVA mission. The most successful photograph a c t i v i t i e s were t h e u l t r a -
v i o l e t s t e l l a r s p e c t r a l photography, performed during standup EVA on
t h r e e missions, and t h e extravehicular sequence photography, taken with
t h e camera mounted o u t s i d e t h e spacecraft cabin.

The dynamics of motion on a s h o r t t e t h e r were evaluated on two m i s -


s i o n s . The only c a p a b i l i t y demonstrated with a t e t h e r w a s i t s use as a
distance-limiting device. Return t o t h e s p a c e c r a f t w i t h t h e 25-foot
umbilical w a s accomplished on t h r e e missions, but i n a l l cases t h e con-
t r o l w a s marginal and c a r e f u l motions w e r e required.

The requirements and t h e c a p a b i l i t i e s of foot r e s t r a i n t s and w a i s t


t e t h e r s were demonstrated i n considerable d e t a i l . The v a l i d i t y of
underwater simulation i n solving body r e s t r a i n t problems and i n assessing
workloads w a s confirmed by i n f l i g h t r e s u l t s and p o s t f l i g h t evaluation.

The basic techniques f o r productive use of EVA w e r e demonstrated


during t h e Gemini missions. Problem a r e a s were defined t o i n d i c a t e t h e
p r e f e r r e d equipment and procedures f o r f u t u r e EVA a p p l i c a t i o n .

10-2
10.2 PRINCIPAL PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

While most of t h e Gemini EVA r e s u l t s were s u c c e s s f u l , several areas


of s i g n i f i c a n t l i m i t a t i o n s w e r e encountered. Space s u i t m o b i l i t y re-
s t r i c t i o n s c o n s t i t u t e d . o n e b a s i c l i m i t a t i o n which a f f e c t e d a l l t h e m i s -
s i o n results. The e x c e l l e n t p h y s i c a l c a p a b i l i t i e s and condition of t h e
f l i g h t crews tended t o obscure t h e f a c t t h a t moving around i n a pressur-
i z e d space s u i t w a s a s i g n i f i c a n t work t a s k . Since t h e suit design w a s
f i x e d , t h e p r i n c i p a l s o l u t i o n w a s t o optimize t h e t a s k s and t h e body
r e s t r a i n t s . For t h e 2-hour EVA mission, glove m o b i l i t y r e s t r i c t i o n s
caused hand f a t i g u e i n both t r a i n i n g and f l i g h t s i t u a t i o n s .

The s i z e and l o c a t i o n of t h e ELSS chestpack w a s a constant encum-


brance t o t h e crews. The design w a s s e l e c t e d because of space l i m i t a -
t i o n s w i t h i n t h e s p a c e c r a f t , and t h e crews w e r e c o n t i n u a l l y hampered i n
two-handed o p e r a t i o n s by t h e bulk of t h e chest-mounted system.

The use of gaseous oxygen as t h e coolant medium i n t h e space s u i t


w a s a l i m i t i n g f a c t o r both i n t h e r e j e c t i o n of metabolic h e a t and i n
p i l o t comfort. The use of a gaseous system r e q u i r e d t h e evaporation of
p e r s p i r a t i o n as a cooling mechanism. Heavy p e r s p i r a t i o n and high
humidity w i t h i n t h e s u i t occurred on t h e ' t w o missions where t h e work-
loads apparently exceeded t h e planned values. Corrective a c t i o n involved
c o n t r o l l i n g t h e workload w i t h i n t h e c a p a b i l i t i e s of t h e ELSS and t h e
space s u i t .

Work l e v e l s and metabolic r a t e s could not be measured i n f l i g h t ; how-


ever, t h e f l i g h t r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e design l i m i t s of t h e ELSS
were exceeded. I n f l i g h t work l e v e l s were c o n t r o l l e d by designing t a s k s
so t h a t t h e y could be accomplished r e a d i l y , by providing a d d i t i o n a l body
r e s t r a i n t s , by allowing a generous amount of time f o r each t a s k , and by
e s t a b l i s h i n g planned r e s t periods between t a s k s . These s t e p s and t h e use
of underwater simulation techniques enabled t h e Gemini X I 1 p i l o t t o con-
t r o l h i s workload w i t h i n t h e design l i m i t s of t h e ELSS.

The l i m i t a t i o n s of t h e zero-g a i r c r a f t simulations and t h e ground


t r a i n i n g without weightless simulation were emphasized by t h e experience
of t h e Gemini X I EVA mission. These media were u s e f u l but incomplete
i n simulating EVA t a s k s . The use of underwater simulation f o r both t h e
development of procedures and crew t r a i n i n g proved very e f f e c t i v e f o r
Gemini X I I .

10-3
The ease of acleomplishing EVA t a s k s appeared t o c o r r e l a t e with
t h e sequence i n which they were scheduled. A p e r i o d of a c c l i m a t i z a t i o n
t o t h e e x t r a v e h i c u l a r environment appeared d e s i r a b l e . Those p i l o t s
who had completed a standup EVA f i r s t appeared t o be more a t ease during
t h e u m b i l i c a l EVA. It appears t h a t c r i t i c a l EVA t a s k s should not be
scheduled u n t i l t h e p i l o t has had an opportunity t o f a m i l i a r i z e himself
w i t h t h e environment.

Equipment r e t e n t i o n during EVA w a s a problem f o r a l l i t e m s which


were not t i e d down or s e c u r e l y fastened. By t h e e x t e n s i v e use of
equipment lanyards, t h e l o s s of equipment w a s avoided on t h e l a s t two
missions.

Human engineering of f o o t r e s t r a i n t s , handholds, and equipment


design caused problems i n o r b i t which were d i f f i c u l t t o i d e n t i f y on t h e
ground p r i o r t o f l i g h t . Extensive one-g s i m u l a t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y
underwater s i m u l a t i o n s , reduced t h e s e problems s u b s t a n t i a l l y .

Differences i n c o n f i g u r a t i o n between t h e t r a i n i n g hardware and t h e


f l i g h t hardware caused occasional problems. Although considerable a t t e n -
t i o n w a s given t o maintaining t h e t r a i n i n g hardware i n an a u t h e n t i c con-
f i g u r a t i o n , t h e e f f o r t s were not always s u c c e s s f u l . The use of t h e a c t u a l
f l i g h t hardware i n f i n a l simulations w a s t h e p r i n c i p a l method f o r i n s u r i n g
crew f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e f l i g h t c o n f i g u r a t i o n .

10-4
10.3 CONCLUSIONS

The following conclusions are based on t h e results of t h e Gemini


EVA :

(1) Extravehicular operation i n free space i s f e a s i b l e and can be


used f o r productive t a s k s , i f adequate a t t e n t i o n i s given t o body re-
s t r a i n t s , t a s k sequence, workload c o n t r o l , r e a l i s t i c simulation, and
proper t r a i n i n g .

( 2 ) Space s u i t mobility r e s t r i c t i o n s c o n s t i t u t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t
l i m i t i n g f a c t o r i n t h e t a s k s which could be accomplished i n Gemini EVA.
For f u t u r e EVA missions i n e a r t h o r b i t , improved mobility i n t h e arms,
shoulders , gloves , and w a i s t i s h i g h l y d e s i r a b l e .

( 3 ) The Hand Held Maneuvering Unit i s promising as a t r a n s p o r t a t i o n


device i n f r e e space; however, evaluations t o d a t e have been t o o b r i e f
t o f u l l y d e f i n e i t s c a p a b i l i t i e s or l i m i t a t i o n s .

(4) The Extravehicular L i f e Support System f o r Gemini performed


s a t i s f a c t o r i l y on a l l m i s s ns. The s i z e and t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r a chest-
mounted l o c a t i o n caused some encumbrance t o t h e EVA p i l o t s . The use of
gaseous cooling w a s n o t optimal f o r t h e high workloads which were en-
countered i n some EVA t a s k s .

( 5 ) Extravehicular umbilicals v e r e u s e f u l f o r EVA i n t h e v i c i n i t y


of t h e s p a c e c r a f t . The use of umbilicals reduced t h e volume of t h e l i f e
s u p p o r t , communications, and e l e c t r i c a l power equipment worn by t h e EVA
p i l o t s . Excess umbilical length w a s undesirable because of t h e p o s s i b i l -
i t y of entanglement.

( 6 ) Underwater simulation provided a h i g h - f i d e l i t y d u p l i c a t i o n of


t h e EVA environment which w a s very e f f e c t i v e f o r procedures development
and crew t r a i n i n g . Strong evidence i n d i c a t e d t h a t t a s k s which could b e
r e a d i l y accomplished i n a v a l i d underwater simulation could a l s o be
accomplished i n o r b i t .

( 7 ) Undesirable a s p e c t s of t h e Gemini Extravehicular L i f e Support


System q u a l i f i c a t i o n t e s t program were t h e l a c k of d e t a i l e d component
l e v e l t e s t s , t h e l a c k of off-nomind manned t e s t s following representa-
t i v e mission p r o f i l e s ana emergency conditions , and t h e s p l i t responsi-
b i l i t y between t h e government and t h e l i f e support system c o n t r a c t o r .

10-5
(8) Vacuum chamber t e s t s with t h e prime and backup EVA p i l o t s using
t h e i r f l i g h t space s u i t s and extravehicular l i f e support equipment con-
t r i b u t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o t h e readiness of t h e crews t o perform EVA i n
o r b i t . These t e s t s provided end-to-end v e r i f i c a t i o n and increased con-
fidence i n t h e EVA systems.

( 9 ) The environmental q u a l i f i c a t i o n of t h e ELSS with t h e oxygen


tank empty l e d t o o p e r a t i o n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s when an emergency spacecraft
r e e n t r y w a s made with t h e t a n k fully serviced. Q u a l i f i c a t i o n t e s t i n g
i n a nonoperational configuration w a s undesirable.

(10) The use of f l i g h t configuration hardware i s e s s e n t i a l f o r


e f f e c t i v e crew t r a i n i n g f o r EVA. Special e f f o r t i s r e q u i r e d t o c o n t r o l
t h e configuration of EVA t r a i n i n g hardware.

(11) Loose equipment must be t i e d down a t a l l times during extra-


v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t y t o avoid l o s s .

(12) The type of body r e s t r a i n t s used i n Gemini XI1 EVA w a s s u i t a b l e


f o r i n - o r b i t use.

(13) The Gemini Program provided a foundation of t e c h n i c a l and


operational knowledge on which t o base t h e planning f o r extravehicular
a c t i v i t y i n subsequent programs.

10-6
11.0 RECOMMENDATI~NS

NASA Manned Spacecraft Center S t a f f


11.0 RECOMMENDATIONS

(1) EVA should be considered for future missions where a specific


need exists, and where the activity cannot be accomplished by any other
practical means. Since EVA involves some increased hazard, it should
not be conducted merely for the purpose of doing EVA.

( 2 ) In future EVA missions, consideration should be given to body


restraints , proper task sequence, workload control , realistic simulation,
and proper training.

(3) Underwater simulation should be used for EVA procedures devel-


opment and crew training in conjunction with zero-g aircraft simulations
and ground.simulations.

(4) The Hand Held Maneuvering Unit should be evaluated further in


orbital flight with emphasis on stability and control capabilities.
Other maneuvering systems which incorporate stabilization systems should
be evaluated for comparison.

( 5 ) Priority efforts should be given to improving the mobility of


space suits with emphasis on arm, shoulder, and glove mobility.

( 6 ) In f’uture Extravehicular Life Support Systems, consideration


should be given to cooling systems with greater heat removal capacity
than the gaseous cooling systems used in the Gemini Program. The bulk
and encumbrance of sizable chest-mounted units should be avoided. Any
life support system should be capable of supporting the anticipated peak
workloads.

( 7 ) Qualification test programs for future EVA life support sys-


tems should include detailed component testing; should be conducted in
a flight-serviced configuration, whenever appropriate; should include
manned testing on representative off-nominal mission profiles; and should
require that the contractor take the lead in all qualification testing
of his equipment.

(8) Vacuum chamber tests should be included in the preparations


for future EVA missions. Both the prime and backup crews should partic-
ipate in these tests using EVA flight hardware.

( 9 ) Detailed EVA flight plans and crew procedures should be


established as early in the hardware development cycle as possible, so
t h a t the impact of design or procedures changes can be evaluated.

12-1
(10) Training programs for further EVA missions should include a
configuration control procedure to insure that the training hardware is
maintained in representative flight configuration.

(11) Planning for future EVA missions should include consideration


of the Gemini EVA experience and results.

11-2
12.0 REFERENCES
12.0 REFERENCES

1. Copeland, R. J.; Lipnicky, E. G.; and Goodnight, F. H.: Unmanned


Thermal Performance Evaluation of a Gemini Extravehicular Space
Suit. Vol. 1 and 2, Report Number 00.683 (NAS 9-3414) submitted
by Astronautics Division, LTV Aerospace Corp., July 15, 1965.

2. Baker, M. E.; Goodnight, F. H.; and Jordan, W. D.: An Investigation


of Modular Maneuvering Exhaust Plume Heating of the Gemini Extra-
vehicular Suit. Report Number 335.12 (AF04( 6951-592) submitted by
Astronautics Division, LTV Aerospace Corp., Nov. 25, 1964.

3. Jordan, W. D.; and Rogers, D. C.: Design Studies of Exhaust Plume


Heating on the Extravehicular Coverall for the MMU Mission. Report
Number 335.44 (AFOb(695)-592) submitted by Astronautics Division,
LTV Aerospace Corp., Aug. 23, 1965.

4. Jordan, W. D.; and Ward, T. L.: Final Report on Exhaust Plume Heat-
ing Qualification Test of the Gemini/MMU Extravehicular Coverall
and Upper Forward Nozzle Extension. Report Number 335.52
(AF04( 695)-592) submitted by Astronautics Division, LTV Aerospace
Corp., Oct. 29, 1965.

I
NASA-Langley, 1967 -5 12-1