You are on page 1of 14

FOLIO SCIENCE

FORM2
WATER POLLUTION
NAME : MUHAMAD WAZIR BIN
MOHD RIJAL

NO I/C: 960616-02-6005

TEACHER NAME: PN. ROSHAIDA


BINTI YAACOB

TITLE : WATER POLLUTION

CLASS:2 BESTARI
CONTENTS
NO CONTENT

1 TITLE

2 INTRODUCTION

3 OBJECTIVE

4 TYPES OF WATER POLLUTANTS

5 EFFECTS OF WATER POLLUTION

6 WAYS TO CONTROL WATER POLLUTION

7 WAYS TO CONSERVE AND PRESERVE WATER


QUALITY

8 CONCLUSION
INTRODUCTION
Comprising over 70% of the Earth’s surface, water
is undoubtedly the most precious natural resource
that exists on our planet. Without the seemingly
invaluable compound comprised of hydrogen and
oxygen, life on Earth would be non-existent: it is
essential for everything on our planet to grow and
prosper. Although we as humans recognize this fact,
we disregard it by polluting our rivers, lakes, and
oceans. Subsequently, we are slowly but surely
harming our planet to the point where organisms
are dying at a very alarming rate. In addition to
innocent organisms dying off, our drinking water has
become greatly affected as is our ability to use water
for recreational purposes. In order to combat water
pollution, we must understand the problems and
become part of the solution.
OBJECTIVE
• To learn more about the effect of the water pollution

• To discuss about ways to conserve and preserve water


quality

• To be able to explain the effects of water pollution on


living things

• To be able to explain ways to control water pollution

• Help controlling water pollution

• To be more responsible when using water

• Understanding the preservation of water quality


By-products, toxic substances and radioactive substances from
factories:
• Radioactive waste substances can cause cancer.
• Mercury, lead and heavy metals from the water will
accumulate in the tissues and organs of animals through the
food chain.
• These harmful metals may end up being consumed by
humans when they eat these animals.

Domestic waste
• People who drink water that has been polluted by domestic
waste can be infected with diseases such as cholera,
dysentery and typhoid.
• This polluted water can also cause skin diseases if it is used
for washing clothes and bathing.
• As bacteria and algae grow in polluted water, they use up
oxygen. The decaying organic substances also reduce the
dissolved oxygen supply in the water. As a result, many
aquatic living things will die. The decaying matter will emit a
bad smell.
Chemicals substances from the agricultural sector:
• Fertilisers that flow into rivers will cause algae to grow fast.
Their growth
• prevents sunlight from reaching the plants in the water.
• The aquatic plants die. The river ecosystem will be affected.
Many aquatic
• animals will also die as a result of lack of oxygen in the
water.
• most pesticides, insecticides, herbicides and fungicides are
not easily broken down. These toxic substances leach into the
soil. From the soil they are transferred through the food chain
to animals and humans.

Siltation
• Mud pollutes rivers and lakes.
• Mud prevents sunlight from entering the water. As a result,
plants cannot carry out photosynthesis and die.

Oil spills
• The layer of oil that forms on the surface of the sea prevents
sunlight and air from entering the water. The plants and
animals in the water will die.
• Seabirds fish and other aquatic organisms are killed because
the oil is toxic.
• Polluted beaches endanger the organisms which live along
the beach areas.
• Fishermen depend on the sea for their livelihood. So they
suffer economic hardship.
1. Water pollution is a serious and complex problem in
Malaysia.
2. several approaches can be used to control water
pollution:
(a) Holding campaigns to prevent water pollution.
These campaigns educate the public on the dangers
of water pollution and suggest ways to prevent
water pollution.
(b) Rubbish should be placed in closed rubbish bin
and disposed of in the designated dumps. They
should not be thrown into drains, river or seas.
(c) The use of fertilisers, fungicides and pesticides
must be controlled to reduce water pollution. Safer
alternative methods such as biological control can
be used in the agricultural sector.
(d) Recycling paper, plastic, glass and metals
prevents these materials from ending up in drains
and rivers.
(e) Waste products from factories have to be treated.
This is to make sure that they are not harmful
before they are disposed of into the public sewage
system.
1. A factory that has caused water pollution must be responsible for its
actions. It must pay compensation for the damages brought about by
its activities.
2. Projects such as building hotels and rest house along beach areas to
attract tourists may cause pollution of the seas and beaches. Therefore,
a carefully planned construction strategy should be followed.
3. Cleaning agents that are used in homes are mostly petrochemical-
based. These cleaning agents contain substances that can pollute the
rivers and lakes. Today, cleaning agents without petrochemicals are
available. The public should be encouraged to use these new cleaning
agents.
4. In the agricultural sector, steps should be taken to reduce the use of
pesticides, fungicides and fertilisers. These chemicals pollute the
water.
5. To control pests, biological control methods can be used. For
example, owls can be used to control rats which eat the oil palm fruit.
6. Educational programmes for the community should be carried out.
This increases the public awareness of conserving water, reducing
dangerous wastes and recycling to preserve water quality.
7. As part of the efforts to preserve water quality, recycling should be
carried out. Wastes which can be recycled include old newspapers,
glass, aluminium cans, old tyres and plastic.
8. We should make an effort to conserve and preserve water quality. The
first step must come from us. We are the ones who determine the
water quality in our country.
Surface Waters
Surface waters are the natural water resources of the Earth. They are
found on the exterior of the Earth's crust and include:
Oceans
Rivers
Lakes
These waters can become polluted in a number of ways, and this is called
surface water pollution.

Underground
A lot of the Earth's water is found underground in soil or under rock.
Humans often use aquifers as a means to obtain drinking water, and build
wells to access it. When this water becomes polluted it is called groundwater
pollution. Groundwater pollution is often caused by pesticide contamination
from the soil, this can infect our drinking water and cause huge problems.

Microbiological
Microbiological water pollution is usually a natural form of water pollution
caused by microorganisms.

Many types of microorganisms live in water and cause fish, land animals and
humans to become ill. Microorganisms such as:

Bacteria
Viruses
Protozoa
Chemical
Industrial and agricultural work involves the use of many different
chemicals that can run-off into water and pollute it.

Metals and solvents from industrial work can pollute rivers and lakes. These
are poisonous to many forms of aquatic life and may slow their development,
make them infertile or even result in death.
Pesticides are used in farming to control weeds, insects and fungi. Run-offs
of these pesticides can cause water pollution and poison aquatic life.
Subsequently, birds, humans and other animals may be poisoned if they eat
infected fish.

Nutrient
Nutrients are essential for plant growth and development. Many nutrients
are found in wastewater and fertilisers, and these can cause excess weed
and algae growth if large concentrations end up in water. This can
contaminate drinking water and clog filters.
Clearly, the problems associated with water pollution have the
capabilities to disrupt life on our planet to a great extent. Congress has
passed laws to try to combat water pollution thus acknowledging the fact
that water pollution is, indeed, a serious issue. But the government alone
cannot solve the entire problem. It is ultimately up to us, to be informed,
responsible and involved when it comes to the problems we face with our
water. We must become familiar with our local water resources and learn
about ways for disposing harmful household wastes so they don’t end up in
sewage treatment plants that can’t handle them or landfills not designed to
receive hazardous materials. In our yards, we must determine whether
additional nutrients are needed before fertilizers are applied, and look for
alternatives where fertilizers might run off into surface waters. We have to
preserve existing trees and plant new trees and shrubs to help prevent soil
erosion and promote infiltration of water into the soil. Around our houses,
we must keep litter, pet waste, leaves, and grass clippings out of gutters and
storm drains. These are
just a few of the many ways in which we, as humans, have the ability to
combat water pollution. As we head into the 21st century, awareness and
education will most assuredly continue to be the two most important ways to
prevent water pollution. If these measures are not taken and water
pollution continues, life on earth will suffer severely.
Global environmental collapse is not inevitable. But the developed world
must work with the developing world to ensure that new industrialized
economies do not add to the world's environmental problems. Politicians must
think of sustainable development rather than economic expansion.
Conservation strategies have to become more widely accepted, and people
must learn that energy use can be dramatically diminished without
sacrificing comfort. In short, with the technology that currently
exists, the years of global environmental mistreatment can begin to be
reversed.