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&

Grid Generation

ME469B/2/GI 1

Geometry Modeling & Grid Generation

• Grid generation algorithms

• GAMBIT

• Grid quality and improvement

• Automation

Acknowledgements:

Fluent Inc. Gambit User Manual

S. Owen: Introduction to unstructured mesh generation

ME469B/2/GI 2

Simulation Process

Conditions

4. Computational Analysis

5. Visualization

ME469B/2/GI 3

Adaptive Simulation Process

User

supplies meshing

parameters

2

3

Adaptivity Loop

Error > ε supplies meshing

parameters

6. Remesh/Refine/Improve

4. Computational Analysis 5. Error Estimation

Error < ε

ME469B/2/GI 4

7. Visualization

Geometry

Mesh Generation

Geometry Engine

ME469B/2/GI 5

Grid generation package: GAMBIT

Special

Geometry Grid BC Tools

File I/O Defaults Grid

Format

Geometry

Tools

Graphics

Window

Volume

Tools

Visualization

Text Tools

Window

ME469B/2/GI 6

GAMBIT

Interactive execution with GUI

Batch execution without GUI

The mesh is saved into a solver-dependent file (*.msh)

At the end of each session Gambit automatically saves a journal file (*.jou)

ME469B/2/GI 7

Geometry

vertices:

x,y,z location

ME469B/2/GI 8

Geometry

curves: bounded

vertices: by two vertices

x,y,z location

ME469B/2/GI 9

Geometry

curves: bounded surfaces: closed

vertices: by two vertices set of curves

x,y,z location

ME469B/2/GI 10

Geometry

curves: bounded surfaces: closed

vertices: by two vertices set of curves

x,y,z location

volumes: closed

ME469B/2/GI

set of surfaces 11

Geometry

curves: bounded surfaces: closed

vertices: by two vertices set of curves

x,y,z location

group: collection

volumes: closed of volumes

ME469B/2/GI

set of surfaces 12

Geometry

Manifold Geometry:

Each volume maintains

Surface 11

its own set of unique

Volume 1

surfaces

Volume 2

Volume 2

Surface 7

Surface 8 Surface 9 Surface 10 Surface 11

Volume 1

ME469B/2/GI 13

Geometry

Non-Manifold

Geometry: Volumes

share matching surfaces

Volume 1

Volume 2

Volume 2

Surface 7

Surface 8 Surface 9 Surface 10

Volume 1

ME469B/2/GI 14

Geometry & Topology

reference to another entity.

respect to an underlying grid

ME469B/2/GI 15

Geometrical types - Topology

• Vertex

build on top of them higher dimensional entities

boolean operation to define the other entities

ME469B/2/GI 16

Vertex:

• Input Coordinates…

Edge:

• Circular arc

• Quadratic functions

• NURBS: Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (connect N vertices)

(additional vertices used to build the geometry are NOT part of the edge)

ME469B/2/GI 17

Edge by NURBS

Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines

sum of all the knot points

NURBS can use various blending/control functions (for the weights)

Can achieve high degree of continuity

http://www.ibiblio.org/e-notes/Splines/NURBS.htm

ME469B/2/GI 18

Face:

• Rectangular

• Circular

•…

• Sweep (translation or rotation of an edge)

• Wireframe (connecting 3 or more edges)

ME469B/2/GI 19

Volume:

• Cuboid

• Sphere

• Cone

• Pyramids

•…

• Sweep (translation or rotation of a face)

• Wireframe (connecting 3 or more faces)

ME469B/2/GI 20

Manipulate Geometry - Boolean Operations:

Volume 1

• Unite

• Substract

• Intersect

Volume 2

it generates the

intersection edge

ME469B/2/GI 21

Manipulate Geometry - Blend

ME469B/2/GI 22

Create Entities - Faces

ME469B/2/GI 23

Create Entities - Faces

Some entities generated using “primitives” have fewer lower topological entities

Example:

Cube volume: 6 faces, 12 edges, 8 vertices

Cylinder volume: 3 faces, 2 edges, 2 vertices

ME469B/2/GI 24

Manipulate Geometry – Create Entities

Create a vertex on a face

Parametric representation

of the face

ME469B/2/GI 25

Manipulate Geometry – Create Entities

Parametric representation

of the edge

ME469B/2/GI 26

Manipulate Geometry – Scaling

Geometrical scaling of a volume (isotropic)

Default (0,0,0) - origin of the original Cartesian coordinate system

It is possible to introduce additional coordinate systems

ME469B/2/GI 27

Manipulate Geometry – Align

Modify the geometry of an entity with reference

to another one

ME469B/2/GI 28

Connect Geometry

requires that they are properly connected

Inconsistent

connections

Consistent

connections

ME469B/2/GI 29

Import Geometries

from “simple” shapes

• Engineering design is based on CAD systems

• ACIS (Andy, Charles & Ian’s System) is the most widely used 3D

modeling software technology (http://www.spatial.com)

• It can also import:

• STEP (STandard for Exchange of Product model data; ISO standard)

• IGES (Initial Graphics Exchange Specification; ANSI standard)

• STL (STereo Lithography; Rapid Prototyping Standard)

• ….

ME469B/2/GI 30

Import Geometries

ME469B/2/GI 31

Clean-Up a CAD Model

ME469B/2/GI 32

Example: Helicopter Rotor

is VERY complicated

ME469B/2/GI 33

Geometrical entities

3 blades, 1 shaft support, 6 connectors

ME469B/2/GI 34

Example: Import IGES Model

CAD system

“untrimmed” edges and faces

0 volumes

~250 faces

~1100 edges

~1000 vertices

ME469B/2/GI 35

Example: Import STEP Model

CAD system

or components

10 volumes

~190 faces

~450 edges

~300 vertices

ME469B/2/GI 36

Components “exploded”

connector-1

support

blade

connector-2

connection are not important. The geometry of the

blades MUST be preserved

ME469B/2/GI 37

Geometry simplification

Connectors eliminated

Support generated as a

“simple” cylinder with

blended side

ME469B/2/GI 38

Geometry simplification

sealed

Blade-support connector

is a “simple” cuboid

ME469B/2/GI 39

Clean Geometry

ME469B/2/GI 40

Virtual Geometry

VIRTUAL: defined only with reference to REAL or other VIRTUAL entities

VIRTUAL are used to SIMPLIFY, CLEAN UP, DECOMPOSE real entities

(boolean operation, volume blending, creation of volumes by sweeping faces, etc.)

ME469B/2/GI 41

Virtual Geometry

Interpolant: Entity represents an average/interpolant ot various real entities

Parasite: Entity defined completely from a real entity

ME469B/2/GI 42

Virtual Geometry Clean-Up

REAL VIRTUAL

ME469B/2/GI 43

Clean-Up Cracks

A "crack" is defined as a geometry consisting of an edge pair

that meets the following criteria.

･Each edge in the pair serves as a boundary edge for a separate face.

･The edges share common endpoint vertices at one or both ends.

･The edges are separated along their lengths by a small gap.

ME469B/2/GI 44

Clean-Up Hard Edges

Hard edges (dangling edges) are those that are included in the list of

edges that define a face but which do not constitute necessary parts of

the closed edge loop that circumscribes the face.

Such edges often result from face-split operations in which the split-

tool face only partially intersects the target face.

ME469B/2/GI 45

Grid Generation

• Grid generation algorithms

• GAMBIT

• Grid quality and improvement

• Automation

ME469B/2/GI 46

Grid generation techniques

• Structured grids

• Ordered set of (locally orthogonal) lines

• Several Techniques can be used to Map a computational domain into

a physical domain: Transfinite Interpolation, Morphing, PDE Based, etc.

• The grid lines are curved to fit the shape of the boundaries

• Unstructured grids

• Unorganized collection of polygons (polyhedron)

• Three main techniques are available to generate automatically triangles

(tetrahedra): Delaunay triangulation, Advancing front, OCTREE

• Paving for automatic generation of quads in 2D

ME469B/2/GI 47

Grid generation techniques

From S. Owen, 2005

ME469B/2/GI 48

Grid generation techniques

standard) algorithms. New methods are slow to gain robustness and

generality and therefore are not directly available

Cubit is a “research” grid generator and the latest approaches are typically

included (several of them have been actually invented by the Cubit team)

http://cubit.sandia.gov/

ME469B/2/GI 49

Grid generation techniques

From S. Owen, 2005

ME469B/2/GI 50

Structured Grids: Mapping

Transfinite Interpolation

Side B

S id

Side A2

eC

k=NK

Side A1 Side A2

Side C

Side D

k k=1

Side D

j

Side A1

ME469B/2/GI 51

Structured Grids: Sub-mapping

have to be chosen consistently

by a vertex attribute

ME469B/2/GI 52

Vertex-face type

User can specify the behavior of the grid at a certain node

ME469B/2/GI 53

Unstructured Grids: Triangulations

• Delaunay

• Empty circle principle: any node must not be contained within the

circumcircle (circle passing through the vertices of a triangle) on any

triangle within the mesh

• Automatic triangulation of random set of nodes

• Nodes are inserted locally in a triangulation and triangles are redefined

locally to satisfy the Delaunay criterion (available mathematical tools)

+ Elegant mathematical basis

- Boundary integrity

ME469B/2/GI 54

Delaunay

circumcircle

No other vertex is contained within the circumcircle

ME469B/2/GI (circumsphere) of any triangle (tetrahedron) 55

Delaunay

Delaunay Triangulation:

Obeys empty-circle (sphere) property

ME469B/2/GI 56

Delaunay

Non-Delaunay Triangulation

ME469B/2/GI 57

Delaunay

Given a Delaunay

Triangulation of n nodes,

How do I insert node n+1 ?

X

Lawson Algorithm

•Locate triangle containing X

•Subdivide triangle

•Recursively check adjoining

triangles to ensure empty-

circle property. Swap

diagonal if needed

•(Lawson,77)

ME469B/2/GI 58

Delaunay

Lawson Algorithm

•Locate triangle containing X

•Subdivide triangle

•Recursively check adjoining

triangles to ensure empty-

circle property. Swap

diagonal if needed

•(Lawson,77)

ME469B/2/GI 59

Delaunay

Bowyer-Watson Algorithm

•Locate triangle that contains

the point

•Search for all triangles

X whose circumcircle contain

d the point (d<r)

r c

•Delete the triangles (creating

a void in the mesh)

•Form new triangles from the

new point and the void

boundary

•(Watson,81)

Given a Delaunay

Triangulation of n nodes,

How do I insert node n+1 ?

ME469B/2/GI 60

Delaunay

Bowyer-Watson Algorithm

•Locate triangle that contains

the point

•Search for all triangles

X whose circumcircle contain

the point (d<r)

•Delete the triangles (creating

a void in the mesh)

•Form new triangles from the

new point and the void

boundary

•(Watson,81)

Given a Delaunay

Triangulation of n nodes,

How do I insert node n+1 ?

ME469B/2/GI 61

Unstructured Grids: Triangulations

• Advancing front

• Triangles are built inward from the boundary surfaces

• The last layer of elements constitutes the active front

• An optimal location for a new nodes is generated for each segment on

the front; the new node is generated by checking all existing nodes and

this new optimal location

• Intersection checks are required to avoid front overlap

+ Specialized layers near surfaces

- Computationally complex

- Low quality

ME469B/2/GI 62

Advancing Front

A B

•Begin with boundary mesh - define as initial front

•For each edge (face) on front, locate ideal node C based on front AB

ME469B/2/GI 63

Advancing Front

C D

r

A B

radius r of ideal location C (Choose D instead of C)

ME469B/2/GI 64

Advancing Front

triangles are formed

•Continue until no front edges remain on front

ME469B/2/GI 65

Advancing Front

triangles are formed

•Continue until no front edges remain on front

ME469B/2/GI 66

Advancing Front

triangles are formed

•Continue until no front edges remain on front

ME469B/2/GI 67

Advancing Front

triangles are formed

•Continue until no front edges remain on front

ME469B/2/GI 68

Advancing Front

r

C

A

B

•Where multiple choices are available, use best quality (closest

shape to equilateral)

•Reject any that would intersect existing front

•Reject any inverted triangles (|AB X AC| > 0)

•(Lohner,88;96)(Lo,91)

ME469B/2/GI 69

Advancing Front

ME469B/2/GI 70

Unstructured Grids: Triangulations

• OCTREE

• Squares containing the boundaries are recursively subdivided until

desired resolution is obtained

• Irregular cells (or triangulation) are generated near the surface where

square intersect the boundary

+ Highly automated

- Cannot match surface grid

- Low quality near surfaces

ME469B/2/GI 71

Octree/Quadtree

•Recursively break into 4 leaves per root to resolve geometry

•Find intersections of leaves with geometry boundary

•Mesh each leaf using corners, side nodes and intersections with geometry

•Delete Outside

•(Yerry and Shephard, 84), (Shepherd and Georges, 91)

ME469B/2/GI 72

Unstructured Grids: Paving

• Only in 2D

Triangulation Paving

ME469B/2/GI 73

Unstructured-Quad

Paving

•Advancing Front: Begins with front at boundary

•Forms rows of elements based on front angles

•Must have even number of intervals for all-quad mesh

ME469B/2/GI (Blacker,92)(Cass,96) 74

Unstructured-Quad

Paving

•Advancing Front: Begins with front at boundary

•Forms rows of elements based on front angles

•Must have even number of intervals for all-quad mesh

ME469B/2/GI (Blacker,92)(Cass,96) 75

Unstructured-Quad

Paving

•Advancing Front: Begins with front at boundary

•Forms rows of elements based on front angles

•Must have even number of intervals for all-quad mesh

ME469B/2/GI (Blacker,92)(Cass,96) 76

Unstructured-Quad

Form new row

and check for

overlap

•Advancing Front: Begins with front at boundary

•Forms rows of elements based on front angles

•Must have even number of intervals for all-quad mesh

ME469B/2/GI (Blacker,92)(Cass,96) 77

Unstructured-Quad

Insert

“Wedge

”

•Advancing Front: Begins with front at boundary

•Forms rows of elements based on front angles

•Must have even number of intervals for all-quad mesh

ME469B/2/GI (Blacker,92)(Cass,96) 78

Unstructured-Quad

Seams

•Advancing Front: Begins with front at boundary

•Forms rows of elements based on front angles

•Must have even number of intervals for all-quad mesh

ME469B/2/GI (Blacker,92)(Cass,96) 79

Unstructured-Quad

Close

Loops and

smooth

•Advancing Front: Begins with front at boundary

•Forms rows of elements based on front angles

•Must have even number of intervals for all-quad mesh

ME469B/2/GI (Blacker,92)(Cass,96) 80

Unstructured-Quad

ME469B/2/GI 81

Unstructured-Quad

allows flexibility in the edge meshing

ME469B/2/GI 82

Unstructured Quad-to-Tri

ME469B/2/GI 83

Unstructured Grids: Coopering

• 2D mesh sweeping

• Only for cylindrical volumes

• unstructured surface mesh is generated

on surface A (source face)

surfaces C & D

to generate the full 3D m esh

ME469B/2/GI 84

Coopering/Sweeping

Geometry Requirements

•source and target surfaces

topologicaly similar

•linking surfaces mapable

Sweeping or submapable

ME469B/2/GI 85

Coopering/Sweeping

linking

surfaces

target

source

Geometry Requirements

•source and target surfaces

topologicaly similar

•linking surfaces mapable

Sweeping or submapable

ME469B/2/GI 86

Coopering/Sweeping

Geometry Requirements

•source and target surfaces

topologicaly similar

•linking surfaces mapable

Sweeping or submapable

ME469B/2/GI 87

Coopering/Sweeping

Geometry Requirements

•source and target surfaces

topologicaly similar

•linking surfaces mapable

Sweeping or submapable

ME469B/2/GI 88

Coopering/Sweeping

Geometry Requirements

•source and target surfaces

topologicaly similar

•linking surfaces mapable

Sweeping or submapable

ME469B/2/GI 89

Coopering/Sweeping

Geometry Requirements

•source and target surfaces

topologicaly similar

•linking surfaces mapable

Sweeping or submapable

ME469B/2/GI 90

Coopering/Sweeping

Geometry Requirements

•source and target surfaces

topologicaly similar

•linking surfaces mapable

Sweeping or submapable

ME469B/2/GI 91

Coopering/Sweeping

Geometry Requirements

•source and target surfaces

topologicaly similar

•linking surfaces mapable

Sweeping or submapable

ME469B/2/GI 92

Unstructured Grids: 3D elements

Standard Elements:

Hex: Maximum Ratio Nodes/Elements

Hex/Wedges: Clustering at Solid Wall with High Quality Elements

Tets: Automatic Meshing of Extremely Complicated Regions

Pyramids/Wedges: Transition Between Tets & Hex

ME469B/2/GI 93

Unstructured Grids: Hex or Tets?

Equiangular Tets are NOT Good for Thin Volumes

Too Many Elements for Reasonable Resolutions

(estimated >2M grid Points in conical-annular Swirler)

Complex Geometry

What is available in GAMBIT

Robustness

Mesh sizes

Speed

• Structured gridding (mapping) + + + - +

- + +/- + -

• Unstructured triangulation (2D/3D)

- - +/- + +

• Unstructured paving (2D)

+ - +/- - +

• Unstructured coopering (3D)

ME469B/2/GI 95

Grid generation – 1D - Edges

Straightforward

Select distribution of points

Clustering toward one side is defined accordingly

ME469B/2/GI 96

Grid generation – 2D - Faces

Easy

• use predefined edge meshes

• use uniform spacing

Select meshing scheme

• constraints on the edge meshing

for mapping and paving schemes

ME469B/2/GI 97

Grid generation – 2D - Faces

at face-vertices

elements

forced to

be triangles

main advantages of unstructured mesh

technology

ME469B/2/GI 98

Grid generation – 2D - Mesh-patching options

ME469B/2/GI 99

Grid generation – 3D - Volumes

Not so easy

• use predefined face meshes

• use uniform spacing

Select meshing scheme

• constraints on the face meshing

for mapping and cooper schemes

ME469B/2/GI 100

3D Grid generation – Advanced Cooper technique

ME469B/2/GI 101

Grid generation – Sizing functions

Sizing functions can be specified to mesh volumes directly

ME469B/2/GI 102

Grid generation – Clustering points

cells BUT they cannot provide directional control (anisotropy)

to form “viscous” layers

ME469B/2/GI 103

Grid generation – Boundary Layers

ME469B/2/GI 104

Example – meshing a circle

Paving Paving Multiblock Paving Multiblock Paving

ME469B/2/GI 105

Mesh linking

can be linked

and ALSO reference entities

grids on different entities (i.e.

for periodicity bc)

ME469B/2/GI 106

Grid quality

connection with solution schemes

quality

• Depending on the shape of the elements

• Depending on relative dimensions of neighboring elements

ME469B/2/GI 107

Quality measures available in GAMBIT

ME469B/2/GI 108

Examine meshes

• Define a cutting plane

• Define the quality measure

ME469B/2/GI 109

Mesh improvement

ME469B/2/GI 110

Mesh improvement/smoothing

P4

Averaging

P3

Methods

P

P5

P2

P1

(Field, 1988)

ME469B/2/GI Laplacian 111

Mesh improvement/smoothing

P4

Averaging

P3

Methods

P

P5 Centroid of

attached nodes

Can create

inverted elements

P2 n

! Pi

P1

P = i =1

n

(Field, 1988)

ME469B/2/GI Laplacian 112

Mesh improvement/smoothing

P4

Averaging

Methods

P

Centroid of

P5 attached nodes

P1

Can create

inverted elements

P3

n

! Pi

P6 P = i =1

P2 n

ME469B/2/GI Laplacian 113

Mesh improvement/smoothing

P4

Averaging

Methods

Centroid of

P5 attached nodes

P1

Can create

inverted elements

P3

P

n

! Pi

P6 P = i =1

P2 n

ME469B/2/GI Laplacian 114

Mesh improvement/smoothing

P4

Averaging Weighted Laplacian: Do not

Methods move node unless minimum

distortion metric is improved

P

Centroid of

P5 attached nodes

P1

Can create

inverted elements

P3

n

! Pi

P6 P = i =1

P2 n

ME469B/2/GI Laplacian 115

Mesh improvement/smoothing

Averaging Weighted

Methods average of

C4 triangle centroids

C4 P

n

C3 ! AiCi

P = i =1n

C1

A1

C2

! Ai

i =1

A2 Ai=area of triangle i

Ci=centroid of triangle i

Grid Generation Automation

• GAMBIT saves a “journal” file with the commands issues during a session

ME469B/2/GI 117

GAMBIT Journal file

The command:

$W = 2.3

$D = 1.5

$H = 4

Volume create width $W depth $D height $H offset 0 0 0 brick

ME469B/2/GI 118

GAMBIT Journal file

$SUM = $A + 0.5*$B

$SUM = SIN($A)

$X = INTERSECTING(volume, “volume.5”, “volume.12”)

$X = BBOX("volume.3")

$X = GETNORMAL("face.3", 1, 13, 89)

(…)

ME469B/2/GI 119

GAMBIT Journal file

Conditional statements:

volume create sphere radius ($A+3)

endif

Loops:

$Z = 0

do para "$Z" init 6 cond ($Z .le. 24) incr ($Tmp*3)

volume create sphere radius $Z

Enddo

.eq. .le. .lt. (…)

.and. .or.

ME469B/2/GI 120

/ --------------------------------------------------------

Example of Journal file / CYCLONE GRID GENERATION

/ ME269B - Spring 2002

/ --------------------------------------------------------

/

/ R1 = External radius of Cyclone

/ R2 = Gas Outlet Pipe (External)

/ R3 = Gas Outlet Pipe (Internal)

/ RB = Particles Outlet (Bottom)

/ H1 = Height of the Cylindrical Part of Cyclone

/ H2 = Height of the Conical Part

/ HE = Depth of the Outlet Channel into the Cyclone

/

/ inletl = Length (x) of the Gas Inlet Channel

/ inleta = Height (z) of the Gas Inlet Channel

/ inletb = Span (y) of the Gas Inlet Channel

/ outletl = Length (z) of the outlet (gas) pipe

/

/ cellsize = Average size of the cells

/

/ Remark: z-axis is the Cyclone Axis

/ --------------------------------------------------------

/

/ Input Quantities

/

$R1 = 1.555

$R2 = 0.45

$R3 = 0.4

$RB = 0.75

$H1 = 4.5

$H2 = 5

$HE = 3.6

$inletl = 2

$inleta = 1.03

$inletb = 0.7

$outletl = 7.2

$cellsize = 0.18

/

/

ME469B/2/GI 121

Grid generation research

of mappable subdomains

NLR 2000-366 Report

(PDF available from class web site)

Shimada et al. “High quality anisotropic tetrahedral mesh generation

via ellipsoidal bubble packing” (PDF available)

ME469B/2/GI 122

Grid generation research

Unstructured hex-dominant grids: OCTREE based

SAMM – Computational Dynamics Ltd.

Hexpress – Numeca International Inc.

CUBIT – Sandia National Lab. (PS report available)

ME469B/2/GI 123

Grid generation using Medial Axis

Medial Axis

•Medial Object - Roll a Maximal circle or sphere through the model. The

center traces the medial object

•Medial Object used as a tool to automatically decompose model into

simpler mapable or sweepable parts (Price, 95;97)(Tam,91)

ME469B/2/GI 124

Grid generation using Medial Axis

Medial Axis

•Medial Object - Roll a Maximal circle or sphere through the model. The

center traces the medial object

•Medial Object used as a tool to automatically decompose model into

simpler mapable or sweepable parts (Price, 95;97)(Tam,91)

ME469B/2/GI 125

Grid generation using Medial Axis

Medial Axis

•Medial Object - Roll a Maximal circle or sphere through the model. The

center traces the medial object

•Medial Object used as a tool to automatically decompose model into

simpler mapable or sweepable parts (Price, 95;97)(Tam,91)

ME469B/2/GI 126

Grid generation using Medial Axis

Medial Axis

•Medial Object - Roll a Maximal circle or sphere through the model. The

center traces the medial object

•Medial Object used as a tool to automatically decompose model into

simpler mapable or sweepable parts (Price, 95;97)(Tam,91)

ME469B/2/GI 127

Grid generation using Medial Axis

Medial Axis

•Medial Object - Roll a Maximal circle or sphere through the model. The

center traces the medial object

•Medial Object used as a tool to automatically decompose model into

simpler mapable or sweepable parts (Price, 95;97)(Tam,91)

ME469B/2/GI 128

Grid generation using Medial Axis

Medial Axis

•Medial Object - Roll a Maximal circle or sphere through the model. The

center traces the medial object

•Medial Object used as a tool to automatically decompose model into

simpler mapable or sweepable parts (Price, 95;97)(Tam,91)

ME469B/2/GI 129

Grid generation using Medial Axis

Medial Axis

•Medial Object - Roll a Maximal circle or sphere through the model. The

center traces the medial object

•Medial Object used as a tool to automatically decompose model into

simpler mapable or sweepable parts (Price, 95;97)(Tam,91)

ME469B/2/GI 130

Grid generation using Medial Axis

(from FEGS website, URL: http://www.fegs.co.uk/medial.html)

ME469B/2/GI 131

Grid generation – Links and References

• Links

• Mesh generation and grid generation on the Web

http://www-users.informatik.rwth-aachen.de/~roberts/meshgeneration.html

• Meshing research corner

http://www.andrew.cmu.edu/user/sowen/mesh.html

• General CFD: Topic mesh generation

http://www.cfd-online.com

• References:

• Handbook of grid generation. Thompson, Soni, Weatherill, CRC Press

• Numerical Grid Generation: Foundation & Applications.

Thompson, Warsi, Mastin. North Holland Press

ME469B/2/GI 132

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