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The following were the problems of

the Hong Kong Team Selection Test 2, Law Ka Ho, Leung Tat Wing and Li Kin Yin

which was held on November 8, 2008

There are often different ways to The simplest combinatorial identity

for the 2009 IMO.

count a quantity. By counting it in two is perhaps Crn = Cnn− r . While this can be

Problem 1. Let f:Z→Z (Z is the set of ways (i.e. double counting), we thus verified algebraically, we can give a

all integers) be such that f(1) = 1, f(2) = obtain the same quantity in different proof in a more combinatorial flavour:

20, f(−4) = −4 and forms. This often yields interesting to choose r objects out of n, it is

equalities and inequalities. We begin equivalent to choosing n − r objects out

f(x+y) = f(x) + f(y) + axy(x+y) + bxy

with some simple examples. of n to be discarded. There are Crn

+ c(x+y) + 4

ways to do the former and Cnn− r ways to

for all x,y ∊Z, where a, b and c are Below we will use the notation do the latter. So the two quantities must

certain constants. Crn = n!/( r!(n − r )!). be equal.

(a) Find a formula for f(x), where x is Example 1. (IMO HK Prelim 2003)

any integer. Fifteen students join a summer course. Example 3. Interpret the following

Every day, three students are on duty equalities from a combinatorial point of

(b) If f(x) ≥ mx2 + (5m+1)x + 4m for all view:

after school to clean the classroom.

non-negative integers x, find the greatest

After the course, it was found that every (a) Ckn = Ckn−−11 + Ckn −1

possible value of m.

pair of students has been on duty

(b) C1n + 2C2n + L + nCnn = n ⋅ 2n −1

Problem 2. Define a k-clique to be a set together exactly once. How many days

of k people such that every pair of them does the course last for?

Solution. (a) On one hand, the number

know each other (knowing is mutual). Solution. Let the answer be k. We of ways to choose k objects out of n

At a certain party, there are two or more count the total number of pairs of objects is C kn . On the other hand, we

3-cliques, but no 5-clique. Every pair of students were on duty together in the k may count by including the first object

3-cliques has at least one person in days. Since every pair of students was or not. If we include the first object, we

common. Prove that there exist at least on duty together exactly once, this is need to choose k − 1 objects from the

one, and not more than two persons at equal to C215 × 1 = 105 . On the other remaining n − 1 objects and there are

the party, whose departure (or hand, since 3 students were on duty per Ckn−−11 ways to do so.

simultaneous departure) leaves no day, this is also equal to C23 × k = 3k .

3-clique remaining. Hence 3k = 105 and so k = 35. If we do not include the first object, we

(continued on page 4) need to choose k objects from the

Editors: 張 百 康 (CHEUNG Pak-Hong), Munsang College, HK

Example 2. (IMO 1987) Let pn (k ) be remaining n − 1 objects and there are

高 子 眉 (KO Tsz-Mei) the number of permutations of the set Ckn −1 ways to do so. Hence

梁 達 榮 (LEUNG Tat-Wing) {1, 2, …, n}, n ≥ 1 , which have exactly Ckn = Ckn−−11 + Ckn −1 .

李 健 賢 (LI Kin-Yin), Dept. of Math., HKUST k fixed points. Prove that

吳 鏡 波 (NG Keng-Po Roger), ITC, HKPU n

(b) Suppose that from a set of n people,

Artist: 楊 秀 英 (YEUNG Sau-Ying Camille), MFA, CU ∑ k ⋅ p (k ) = n ! .

k =0

n

we want to form a committee with a

Acknowledgment: Thanks to Elina Chiu, Math. Dept.,

HKUST for general assistance. (Remark: A permutation f of a set S is a chairman of the committee. On one

one-to-one mapping of S onto itself. An hand, there are n ways to choose a

On-line:

http://www.math.ust.hk/mathematical_excalibur/ element i in S is called a fixed point of chairman, and for each of the remaining

The editors welcome contributions from all teachers and the permutation f if f (i ) = i .) n − 1 persons we may or may not

students. With your submission, please include your name, include him in the committee. Hence

address, school, email, telephone and fax numbers (if Solution. Note that the left hand side of there are n ⋅ 2n −1 ways to finish the task.

available). Electronic submissions, especially in MS Word,

are encouraged. The deadline for receiving material for the

the equality is the total number of fixed

next issue is January 10, 2009. points in all permutations of {1,2,…, n}. On the other hand, we may choose k

For individual subscription for the next five issues for the To show that this number is equal to n!, people to form a committee (1≤ k ≤ n),

05-06 academic year, send us five stamped self-addressed note that there are (n − 1)! permutations which can be done in Ckn ways, and for

envelopes. Send all correspondence to:

of {1, 2, …, n} fixing 1, (n − 1)! each of these ways there are k ways to

Dr. Kin-Yin LI

Department of Mathematics

permutations fixing 2, and so on, and select the chairman. Hence the number

The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (n − 1)! permutations fixing n. It of ways to finish the task is also equal to

Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong follows that the total number of fixed

Fax: (852) 2358 1643 points in all permutations is equal to C 1n + 2 C 2n + L + nC nn .

Email: makyli@ust.hk

n ⋅ (n − 1)! = n ! .

Mathematical Excalibur, Vol. 13, No. 4, Nov.-Dec. 08 Page 2

( xi + yi ) 2 / 2 xi + yi S ≤ 2007000+2007000=4014000,

positive integers and let S be a set of n ≥ −

points in the plane such that: 2 2

a contradiction.

(i) no three points of S are collinear, 1 2 n 1⎡

n − = ( n − 1) − 1⎤ .

2

=

and 4 2 4⎣ ⎦ Example 7. (2004 IMO Shortlisted

Problem) There are 10001 students at a

(ii) for every point P of S, there are at Since n is odd and C 2xi + C 2yi is an university. Some students join together

least k points of S equidistant from P. integer, it is at least (n − 1)2/4. to form several clubs (a student may

belong to different clubs). Some clubs

Prove that k < 1 + 2n . On the other hand, there are n judges and

join together to form several societies (a

2 each pair of judges agree on at most k

contestants. Hence the number of pairs of club may belong to different societies).

Solution. Solving for n, the desired There are a total of k societies. Suppose

judges who agree on a certain contestant is

inequality is equivalent to n > k(k−1)/2 n the following conditions hold:

at most kC2 . Thus,

+ 1/8. Since n and k are positive

integers, this is equivalent to n − 1 ≥ m

m(n − 1) 2 (i) Each pair of students is in exactly

kC2n ≥ ∑ (C2xi + C2yi ) ≥ , one club.

C 2k . Now we join any two vertices of i =1 4

S by an edge and count the number of (ii) For each student and each society,

which can be simplified to obtain the

edges in two ways. the student is in exactly one club of the

desired result.

society.

On one hand, we have C 2n edges. On

Some combinatorial problems in (iii) Each club has an odd number of

the other hand, from any point of S

mathematical competitions can be solved students. In addition, a club with 2m+1

there are at least k points equidistant

by double counting certain ordered triples. students (m is a positive integer) is in

from it. Hence if we draw a circle with

The following are two such examples. exactly m societies.

the point as centre and with the

distance as radius then there are at least Find all possible values of k.

Example 6. (CHKMO 2007) In a school

C 2k chords as edges. The total number

there are 2007 male and 2007 female

of such chords, counted with Solution. An ordered triple (a, C, S) will

students. Each student joins not more

multiplicities, is at least nC 2k . Any be called acceptable if a is a student, C

than 100 clubs in the school. It is known

two circles can have at most one

that any two students of opposite genders is a club and S is a society such that a∊C

common chord and hence there could

have joined at least one common club. and C∊S. We will count the number of

be a maximum C 2n chords (for every acceptable ordered triples in two ways.

Show that there is a club with at least 11

possible pairs of circles) counted twice.

male and 11 female members.

Therefore, On one hand, for every student a and

nC − C ≤ C ,

k n n

Solution. Assume on the contrary that society S, by (ii), there is a unique club

2 2 2

every club either has at most 10 male C such that (a, C, S) is acceptable.

which simplifies to n − 1 ≥ C 2k . (Note members or at most 10 female members. Hence, there are 10001k acceptable

that collinearity was not needed.) We shall get a contradiction via double ordered triples.

counting certain ordered triples.

Example 5. (IMO 1998) In a On the other hand, for every club C, let

competition, there are m contestants Let S be the number of ordered triples of the number of members in C be denoted

and n judges, where n ≥ 3 is an odd the form (m, f, c), where m denotes a male by |C|. By (iii), C is in exactly (|C|−1)/2

integer. Each judge rates each student, f denotes a female student and c societies. So there are |C|(|C|−1)/2

contestant as either “pass” or “fail”. denotes a club. On one hand, since any acceptable ordered triples with C as the

Suppose k is a number such that, for two students of opposite genders have second coordinates. Let Γ be the set of

any two judges, their ratings coincide joined at least one common club, we have all clubs. Hence, there are

for at most k contestants. Prove that

S ≥ 2007 2 = 4028049 . | C | (| C | −2)

k n −1

≥ .

∑

C∈Γ 2

m 2n On the other hand, we can consider two

types of clubs: let X be the set of clubs acceptable ordered triples. By (i), this is

Solution. We begin by considering

with at most 10 male members, and Y be equal to the number of pairs of students,

pairs of judges who agree on certain

the set of clubs with at least 11 male which is 10001×5000. Therefore,

contestants. We study this from two

members (and hence at most 10 female | C | (| C | −2)

perspectives.

members). Note that there are at most 10001k = ∑

C∈Γ 2

For contestant i, 1≤ i ≤ m, suppose 10×2007×100=2007000 triples (m, f, c)

there are xi judges who pass him, and yi with c ∈ X , because there are 2007 = 10001×5000,

judges who fail him. On one hand, the choices for f, then at most 100 choices for

number of pairs of judges who agree on c (each student joins at most 100 clubs), which implies k = 5000.

him is and then at most 10 choices for m (each

club c ∈ X has at most 10 male

xi2 − xi + yi2 − yi members). In exactly the same way, we

C2xi + C2y i = can show that there are at most 2007000

2 (continued on page 4)

triples (m, f, c) with c ∈ Y . This gives

Mathematical Excalibur, Vol. 13, No. 4, Nov.-Dec. 08 Page 3

Problem Corner Group (Roma, Italy) and LKL Problem Solving Group (Roma, Italy), Ozgur

Solving Group (Madam Lau Kam Lung KIRCAK and Bojan JOVESKI

(Jahja Kemal College, Skopje,

We welcome readers to submit their Secondary School of Miu Fat Buddhist Macedonia), LKL Problem Solving

solutions to the problems posed below Monastery). Group (Madam Lau Kam Lung

for publication consideration. The Secondary School of Miu Fat Buddhist

For such an integer n, we will say cubes Monastery), NG Ngai Fung (STFA

solutions should be preceded by the Leung Kau Kui College, Form 6), O

solver’s name, home (or email) address are n-decomposable. Let r-cube mean a Kin Chit Alex (G.T. Ellen Yeung

and school affiliation. Please send cube with sidelength r. If a r-cube C is College) and Fai YUNG.

submissions to Dr. Kin Y. Li, n-decomposable, then we can first

decompose C into 8 r/2-cubes and then For such polynomial f(x), let k be

Department of Mathematics, The Hong

decompose one of these r/2-cubes into n largest such that ak≠0. Then

Kong University of Science &

cubes to get a total of n+7 cubes so that C

Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, f (x) f (2x2 ) = a02 2n x3n +L+ ak2 2n−k x3(n−k) ,

Hong Kong. The deadline for sending is (n+7)-decomposable.

solutions is January 10, 2009. f (2 x3 + x) = a0 2n x3n + L + ak xn − k ,

Let C be a 1-cube. All we need to show is where the terms are ordered by

Problem 311. Let S = {1,2,…,2008}. C is n-decomposable for 48 ≤ n ≤ 54. decreasing degrees. This can happen

Prove that there exists a function only if n − k = 0. So f(0) = an ≠ 0.

For n=48, decompose C to 27 1/3-cubes

f : S → {red, white, blue, green} such Assume f (x) has a real root x0 ≠ 0. The

and then decompose 3 of these, each into 8

that there does not exist a 10-term equation f (x) f (2x2) = f (2x3+x) implies

1/6-cubes.

arithmetic progression a1,a2,…,a10 in S that if xn is a real root, then

satisfying f(a1) = f(a2) = ⋯ = f(a10). For n=49, cut C by two planes parallel to xn +1 = 2 xn3 + xn is also a real root.

the bottom at height 1/2 and 1/6 from the Since this sequence is strictly

Problem 312. Let x, y, z > 1. Prove bottom, which can produce 4 1/2-cubes at monotone, this implies f(x) has

that the top layer, 9 1/3-cubes in the middle infinitely many real roots, which is a

x4 y4 z4 layer and 36 1/6-cubes at the bottom layer. contradiction.

+ + ≥ 48.

( y − 1) 2

( z − 1) 2

( x − 1) 2 For n=50, decompose C to 8 1/2-cubes Commended solvers: Simon YAU Chi

and then decompose 6 of these, each into 8 Keung (City U).

Problem 313. In Δ ABC, AB < AC 1/4-cubes.

and O is its circumcenter. Let the Problem 308. Determine (with proof)

For n=51, decompose C into 8 1/2-cubes,

tangent at A to the circumcircle cut line the greatest positive integer n >1 such

then take 3 of these 1/2-cubes on the top

BC at D. Let the perpendicular lines to that the system of equations

half to form a L-shaped prism and cut out

line BC at B and C cut the (x +1)2 + y12 = (x + 2)2 + y22 = L= (x + n)2 + yn2.

5 1/3-cubes and 41 1/6-cubes.

perpendicular bisectors of sides AB and

AC at E and F respectively. Prove that For n=52, decompose C into 1 3/4-cube has an integral solution (x,y1, y2, ⋯, yn).

D, E, F are collinear. and 37 1/4-cubes, then decompose 2 Solution. Glenier L. BELLO-

1/4-cubes, each into 8 1/8-cubes. BURGUET (I.E.S. Hermanos

Problem 314. Determine all positive D`Elhuyar, Spain), Ozgur KIRCAK

For n=53, decompose C to 27 1/3-cubes and Bojan JOVESKI (Jahja Kemal

integers x, y, z satisfying x3 − y3 = z2, College, Skopje, Macedonia) and LKL

where y is a prime, z is not divisible by and then decompose 1 of these into 27 Problem Solving Group (Madam Lau

3 and z is not divisible by y. 1/9-cubes. Kam Lung Secondary School of Miu

Fat Buddhist Monastery).

For n=54, decompose C into 8 1/2-cubes,

Problem 315. Each face of 8 unit then take 2 of the adjacent 1/2-cubes, We will show the greatest such n is 3.

cubes is painted white or black. Let n which form a 1×1/2×1/2 box, from which For n = 3, (x, y1, y2, y3) = (−2, 0, 1, 0) is a

be the total number of black faces. we can cut 2 3/8-cubes, 4 1/4-cubes and solution. For n ≥ 4, assume the system

Determine the values of n such that in 42 1/8-cubes. has an integral solution. Since x+1,

every way of coloring n faces of the 8 x+2, …, x+n are of alternate parity, so

unit cubes black, there always exists a Comments: Interested readers may find y1, y2, …, yn are also of alternate parity.

way of stacking the 8 unit cubes into a more information on this problem by Since n ≥ 4, yk is even for k = 2 or 3.

2×2×2 cube C so the numbers of black visiting mathworld.wolfram.com and by Consider

squares and white squares on the searching for Cube Dissection . (x+k −1)2 + yk2−1 =(x−k)2 + yk2 =(x+k +1)2 + yk2+1.

surface of C are the same.

The double of the middle expression

Problem 307. Let

***************** equals the sum of the left and right

Solutions f (x) = a0xn + a1xn−1 + ⋯ + an expressions. Eliminating common

be a polynomial with real coefficients terms in that equation, we get

****************

such that a0 ≠ 0 and for all real x, 2 yk2 = yk2−1 + yk2+1 + 2. (*)

Problem 306. Prove that for every Now yk−1 and yk+1 are odd. Then the left

f (x) f (2x2) = f (2x3+x).

integer n ≥ 48, every cube can be side of (*) is 0 (mod 8), but the right

decomposed into n smaller cubes, Prove that f(x) has no real root. side is 4 (mod 8), a contradiction.

where every pair of these small cubes Solution. José Luis DÍAZ-BARRERO

does not have any common interior (Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Commended solvers: O Kin Chit Alex

point and has possibly different Barcelona, Spain), Glenier L. (G.T. (Ellen Yeung) College), Raúl A.

BELLO-BURGUET (I.E.S. Hermanos SIMON (Santiago, Chile) and Simon

sidelengths.

Mathematical Excalibur, Vol. 13, No. 4, Nov.-Dec. 08 Page 4

YAU Chi Keung (City U). Problem 310. (Due to Pham Van Thuan) Olympiad Corner

Prove that if p, q are positive real numbers (continued from page 1)

Problem 309. In acute triangle ABC, such that p + q = 2, then

AB > AC. Let H be the foot of the

3pqqp + ppqq ≤ 4. Problem 3. Prove that there are

perpendicular from A to BC and M be

infinitely many primes p such that Np =

the midpoint of AH. Let D be the point

p2, where Np is the total number of

where the incircle of ∆ABC is tangent Solution 1. Proposer’s Solution.

solutions to the equation

to side BC. Let line DM intersect the As p, q > 0 and p + q = 2, we may assume

incircle again at N. Prove that ∠ BND 2 > p ≥ 1 ≥ q > 0. Applying Bernoulli’s 3x3+4y3+5z3−y4z ≡ 0 (mod p).

= ∠ CND. inequality, which asserts that if x > −1 and

Problem 4. Two circles C1, C2 with

Solution. r∊ [0,1], then 1+rx ≥ (1+x)r, we have

different radii are given in the plane,

A pp = ppp−1 ≥ p(1+(p−1)2) = p(p2−2p+2), they touch each other externally at T.

qq ≤ 1+q(q−1) = 1+(2−p)(1−p) = p2−3p+3, Consider any points A∊C1 and B∊C2,

N

pq ≤1+q(p−1)=1+(2−p)(p−1) = −p2+3p−1, both different from T, such that ∠ ATB

qp = qqp−1 ≤ q(1+(p−1)(q−1)) = p(2−p)2. = 90°.

I M

Then (a) Show that all such lines AB are

B 3pqqp + ppqq −4 concurrent.

K DH C

≤ 3(−p2+3p−1)p(2−p)2

(b) Find the locus of midpoints of all

+p(p2−2p+2)(p2−3p+3) − 4

such segments AB.

= −2p5+16p4 −40p3+36p2 −6p −4

P

= −2(p −1)2(p −2)((p −2)2 −5) ≤ 0.

Let I be the center of the incircle. Let

the perpendicular bisector of segment (To factor with p−1 and p−2 was

BC cut BC at K and cut line DM at P. suggested by the observation that (p,q) = Double Counting

To get the conclusion, it is enough to (1,1) and (p,q) → (2,0) lead to equality

cases.) (continued from page 2)

show DN·DP=DB·DC (which implies

B,P,C,N are concyclic and since PB = Comments: The case r = m/n∊ℚ∩[0,1]

PC, that will imply ∠ BND = ∠ CND). Example 8. (2003 IMO Shortlisted

of Bernoulli’s inequality follows by Problem) Let x1, …, xn and y1, …, yn be

applying the AM-GM inequality to real numbers. Let A =(aij)1≤i,j≤n be the

Let sides BC=a, CA=b and AB=c. Let a1,…,an, where a1 = ⋯ = am = 1+x and am+1

s = (a+b+c)/2, then DB = s−b and DC matrix with entries

= ⋯ = an = 1. The case r∊[0,1]∖ℚ follows

= s−c. Let r be the radius of the by taking rational m/n converging to r. ⎧1, if xi + y j ≥ 0;

aij = ⎨

incircle and [ABC] be the area of ⎩0, if xi + y j < 0.

triangle ABC. Let α = ∠ CDN and AH Solution 2. LKL Problem Solving

= ha. Then [ABC] equals Group (Madam Lau Kam Lung Suppose that B is an n×n matrix with

Secondary School of Miu Fat Buddhist entries 0 or 1 such that the sum of the

aha / 2 = rs = s ( s − a )( s − b)( s − c) . Monastery). elements in each row and each column

Now Suppose 2 > p ≥ 1 ≥ q > 0. Applying of B is equal to the corresponding sum

Bernoulli’s inequality with 1+x = p/q and for the matrix A. Prove that A=B.

a +c −b a c −b r = p/2, we have

DK = DB − KB = − = ,

2 2 2 ⎛ p⎞

p/2

p ⎛ p ⎞ p2 + q2

Solution. Let A = (aij)1≤i,j≤n. Define

⎜⎜ q ⎟⎟ ≤ 1+ ⎜ − 1⎟ =

2 ⎜⎝ q ⎟⎠ 2q

. n n

⎝ ⎠

DH = DC − HC =

a+b−c

− b cos∠ACB S = ∑∑ ( xi + y j )( aij − bij ).

2 Multiplying both sides by q and squaring

i =1 j =1

a + b − c a 2 + b2 − c2

= −

2 2a p p q q ≤ ( p 2 + q 2 ) 2 / 4. n ⎛n n ⎞ n ⎛n n

⎞

S = ∑xi ⎜⎜∑aij − ∑bij ⎟⎟ + ∑y j ⎜∑aij − ∑bij ⎟

Similarly, applying Bernoulli’s inequality i=1 ⎝ j =1 j =1 ⎠ j=1 ⎝ i=1 i=1 ⎠

(c − b)(b + c − a ) (c − b)( s − a )

= = . with 1+x = q/p and r = p/2, we can get ppqq = 0.

2a a ≤ p2q2. So

On the other hand, if xi+yj ≥ 0, then aij =

Moreover, DN = 2r sin α, DP = 3 p q q p + p p q q ≤ ( p 4 + 14 p 2 q 2 + q 4 ) / 4 1, which implies aij−bij ≥ 0; if xi+yj < 0,

DK/(cos α) = (c −b)/(2cos α). So then aij = 0, which implies aij−bij ≤ 0.

= (p4+6p2q2+q4+4pq(2pq))/4 Hence, (xi+yj)(aij−bij) ≥ 0 for all i,j.

MH

DN ⋅ DP = r (c − b) tan α = r (c − b)

DH ≤ ( p4+6p2q2+q4+4pq(p2 +q2))/4 Since S = 0, all (xi+yj)(aij−bij) = 0.

= (p+q)4/4 = 4. In particular, if aij=0, then xi+yj < 0 and

ha / 2

= r (c − b)

(c − b)( s − a ) / a Commended solvers: Paolo Perfetti so bij = 0. Since aij, bij are 0 or 1, so aij ≥

(Dipartimento di Matematica, Università bij for all i,j. Finally, since the sum of the

aha / 2 rsrs [ ABC ]2 degli studi di Tor Vergata Roma, via della elements in each row and each column

=r = = of B is equal to the corresponding sum

s − a s( s − a) s( s − a) ricerca scientifica, Roma, Italy).

for the matrix A, so aij = bij for all i,j.

= ( s − b)( s − c) = DB ⋅ DC.

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