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Index

Sr. No. Content Pg. No.


I List of Figures 1
1 Abstract 3
2 Introduction 3
3 Development of VVT technology 5
4 Basics of Valve timing 6
6 VVT generations in series production 14
7 Benefits of VVT 19
8 Conclusion 25
9 References 26

I. List of Figures:
Figure 1 Valve-timing diagrams

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Figure 2 Honda VTEC system
Figure 3 Toyota VVTi system
Figure 4 Ferrari Cam advance mechanism
Figure 5 Lexus advance valve timing control
Figure 6 P/M steel components for vane type valve system
Figure 7 Relationship between engine performance improvement factors
and variable valve actuation.
Figure 8 Pressure change in cylinder and reduction in pumping loss
achieved by valve timing.
Figure 9 Fuel Rate v\s BMEP
Figure 10 Cam torque v/s Engine speed
Figure 11 Valve lift v/s BMEP
Figure 12 BSFC v/s BMEP
Figure 13 BSNOx v/s BMEP

1. Abstract:
The basics and historic developments and recent developments of variable
valve timing (VVT) systems are briefly discussed. VVT systems reduce the
fuel consumption and the subsequent formation of exhaust gases and
improve the performance of engines, especially the torque characteristics at
low rpm.

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2. Introduction:

Until recently, a manufacturer used one or more camshafts (plus some


pushrods, lifters and rocker arms) to open and close an engine's valves. The
camshaft/camshafts was turned by a timing chain that connected to the
crankshaft. As engine rpm's rose and fell, the crankshaft and camshaft would
turn faster or slower to keep valve timing relatively close to what was
needed for engine operation. Unfortunately, the dynamics of airflow through
a combustion chamber change radically between 2,000 rpm and 6,000 rpm.
Despite the manufacturer's best efforts, there was just no way to maximize
valve timing for high and low rpm with a simple crankshaft-driven valve
train. Instead, engineers had to develop a "compromise" system that would
allow an engine to start and run when pulling out of the driveway but also
allow for strong acceleration and highway cruising at 70+ mph. Obviously,
they were successful. However, because of the "compromise" nature of
standard valve train systems, few engines were ever in their "sweet zone,"
which resulted in wasted fuel and reduced performance. Variable valve
timing has changed all that. By coming up with a way to alter valve timing
between high and low rpm's, Honda, Toyota and BMW and many more
manufacturer's can now tune valve operation for optimum performance and
efficiency throughout the entire rev range.

Engine breathing is analogous to the breathing of any living organism. At


rest, the lungs take in the necessary amount of air for normal function. When
running, the lungs and heart work faster to supply more oxygen to the
system. Engines can't do that because their breathing apparatus (comprised

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intake manifolds, intake runners, valves, valve lift and throttle bores) is
fixed.

There was a time when engines had to be big to be powerful. There was a
time when engines could either be tuned for low-rpm torque or high-rpm
power, but not both. There was a time was a time when a specific output of
100 hp per liter was the stuff of racecar fantasies. Today these limitations are
all but gone. Getting 100 hp for each liter of displacement is now possible
on cars that have to get good gas mileage, emit clean air, act civilized
enough for your grandmother to drive them and sell for under $20,000

Remember that an engine is basically a glorified air pump and, as such, the
most effective way to increase horsepower and/or efficiency is to increase an
engine's ability to process air. There are a number of ways to do this that
range from altering the exhaust system to upgrading the fuel system to
installing a less-restrictive air filter. Since an engine's valves play a major
role in how air gets in and out of the combustion chamber, it makes sense to
focus on them when looking to increase horsepower and efficiency. This is
exactly what Honda, Toyota and BMW and quite a number of other
manufacturer's have done in recent years.

Poppet valves are used in gasoline and diesel engines to control the inlet and
exhaust of air passing through the engine. When the intake values open, air
is drawn into the engine cylinder. After the fuel has been burnt, the exhaust
valves then open to let it leave. In conventional engines, the poppet valves
open and close at a constant speed. Their timings do not depend on how fast
the engine is running. At high engine speeds [e.g. when overtaking a slower
vehicle], this starts to become a problem. Large amounts of air are required
by the engine at higher speeds. However, the intake valves may close before

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all the air has been given a chance to flow in. On the other hand, if the
valves were calibrated to remain open for longer periods of time, problems
start to occur at the lower engine speeds. In these situations, unburnt fuel
may exit from the engine since the valves are still open. This leads to lower
engine performance and increased emissions. By using advanced systems to
alter the opening and closing of engine valves, they have created more
powerful and clean burning engines that require less fuel and are relatively
small in displacement.

DEVELOPMENT OF VVT TECHNOLOGY:

Honda broke the ice when the NSX debuted in 1991 as the first production
car with a variable valve timing system. Honda's VTEC (which sort of
stands for Variable valve Timing and lift Electronic Control) system,
which has basically remained unchanged since then, is still one of the
most effective systems for making ultra high specific output. Ferrari has
a really neat way of doing this. The camshafts on some Ferrari engines
are cut with a three-dimensional profile that varies along the length of
the cam lobe. At one end of the cam lobe is the least aggressive cam
profile, and at the other end is the most aggressive. The shape of the cam
smoothly blends these two profiles together. A mechanism can slide the
whole camshaft laterally so that the valve engages different parts of the
cam. The shaft still spins just like a regular camshaft, but by gradually
sliding the camshaft laterally as the engine speed and load increase, the
valve timing can be optimized.

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3. Basics of Valve Timing:

Valve timing is the regulation of the points in the cycle at which the valves

are set to open and close. Since the valves require a finite period .Since, the
valves require a finite period of time to open or close for smooth operation, a

slight lead time is necessary for proper opening and closing. The traditional
way of showing exactly when the valve opens and closes is by the use of a
valve-timing diagram (Ref Fig. 1)

While the intake valve should open theoretically, at TDC, almost all SI
engines employ an intake valve opening of a few degrees before TDC on the
exhaust stroke. This is to ensure that the valve will be fully open and the
fresh charge starts to flow into the cylinder as soon as the piston reaches
TDC. In fig. 1 , the intake valve starts to open 8 degrees before TDC. From
fig. 1, it may be noted that for a low performance engine,intake valve closes
44 degrees after BDC and for high performance engine 59 degrees after
BDC. At low engine speeds, the charge is moving into the cylinder relatively
slowly and its inertia is low. If the intake valve were to remain open much
beyond BDC, the up-moving piston on the compression stroke would tend to
force some of the charge , already in the cylinder back into the intake
manifold, with consequent reduction in volumetric efficiency. Hence the
intake valve is closed relatively early after BDC for slow speed engines.

During the exhaust stroke, the piston forces the burned gases out at high
velocity. If the closing of the exhaust valve is delayed beyond TDC, the
inertia of the exhaust gases tend to scavenge the cylinder better by carrying
out greater mass of the gas left in the clearance volume and results in

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increased volumetric efficiency. Hence the exhaust valve is often set to close
a few degrees after TDC on exhaust stroke, as shown in fig 1[Ref. 1]

Figure 1: Valve-timing diagrams (a) low performance engine(b) High


performance engine [Ref. 1]

4. Types of VVT:

5.1 Honda VTEC

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The concept is incredibly simple. So simple, in fact, that you have to wonder
why nobody thought of it earlier. Basically each pair of valves has three cam
lobes, two that operate the valves at low-rpm, and a third that takes over at
high rpm. During low-rpm operation, the two rocker arms riding the low-
rpm lobes push directly on the top of the valves. In most cases, the cam
profiles of the two intake valves will be slightly different, promoting swirl in
the combustion chamber for better drivability. At high rpm (usually 4500
rpm to 6500 rpm range, depending on the engine) the ECU sends a signal to
an oil control valve that allows oil pressure to flow into the low-rpm rocker
arms. A third, high rpm rocker arm sits between the two low-rpm arms and
follows a much more aggressive lobe (Ref fig 2)
The low-rpm lobes in this case then actuate the valves through a set of
rocker arms, so that the mechanical connection can be broken if desired. The
third, high-rpm lobe also has its own follower, but it is in a freewheeling
state, flopping around and not contributing anything. As our engine
accelerates through its rev range, it passes through the power peak of the
Low -rpm lobes. Then, at the engine speed and throttle position programmed
into the computer's memory map a signal is sent which electronically opens
a spool valve, which then directs oil pressure to a mechanical sliding pin.
This pin locks the rocker arms actuating the valves to the follower on the
high-rpm cam lobe. As this grind is steeper and higher then the other four
cams it will supersede them. In a few milliseconds you have completely
altered the valve timing and the engine's power band begins anew.

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Fig 2: Honda VTEC system [Ref.2]

5.2 Toyota VVTI:


VVT-i comprises of (Ref fig 3) (1) the electronic control unit or ECU which
helps calculate optimum intake valve timing based on various engine
operating parameters; (2) the oil control valve or OCV which helps maintain
hydraulic pressure as per inputs from the ECU; and (3) the VVT pulley
which continuously changes the intake valve timing using hydraulic
pressure. The VVT pulley dispenses with the need for an additional pump
because it runs off the engine’s normal oil pump. In the VVT pulley
operation sequence, a piston with a helical spline is moved hydraulically in

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the direction of the camshaft axis to move the camshaft by the exact amount
required. Thanks to advances in machining technology, Toyota has been
able to make the spline with a large spiral angle of 300. This produces a very
swift response and a large variable angle (up to 600 crankshaft angle) with a
small stroke in the direction of the camshaft axis. The OCV helps modulate
the right hydraulic pressure constantly for both advancing and retarding the
valve timing. Valve overlap (the timing when both intake and exhaust valves
are open), created by continuous broad control of intake valve timing based
on engine speed and load helps to increase fuel economy and tail pipe
emissions. In conventional petrol engines, the throttle valve controls the air
intake when the accelerator pedal is not completely depressed, meaning that
the driver is in partial-load driving mode. This causes pumping losses
In comparison the VVTi advances the timing for opening the intake valve
during partial-load driving, increases valve overlap and draws partial
exhaust gas back into the cylinder resulting in negative pressure inside the
cylinder which mitigates in lowering the power loss and increasing fuel
efficiency; the combustion temperature is lowered to reduce the production
of NOx and finally unburned gas is returned to the combustion chamber to
be reburnt. The system is further designed so that the valves do not overlap
so as to stabilize combustion during idling thereby reducing idling speed and
enhancing fuel efficiency.

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Fig 3: Toyota VVTi [Ref 3]
5.3 Ferrari Cam advance mechanism:
Ferrari has a really neat way of doing this. The camshafts on some Ferrari
engines are cut with a three-dimensional profile that varies along the length
of the cam lobe. At one end of the cam lobe is the least aggressive cam
profile, and at the other end is the most aggressive. The shape of the cam
smoothly blends these two profiles together. A mechanism can slide the
whole camshaft laterally so that the valve engages different parts of the cam.
The shaft still spins just like a regular camshaft, but by gradually sliding the

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camshaft laterally as the engine speed and load increase, the valve timing
can be optimized.
This does not keep the valves open longer; instead, it opens them later and
closes them later. Rotating the camshaft ahead a few degrees does this. If the
intake valves normally open at 10 degrees before top dead center (TDC) and
close at 190 degrees after TDC, the total duration is 200 degrees. The
opening and closing times can be shifted using a mechanism that rotates the
cam ahead a little as it spins. So the valve might open at 10 degrees after
TDC and close at 210 degrees after TDC. Closing the valve 20 degrees later
is good, but it would be better to be able to increase the duration that the
intake valve is open.(fig 4)

Fig 4: Ferrari Cam


advance mechanism [Ref 3]
5.4 Lexus Advance Valve timing control:
All Lexus engines employ continuously Variable Valve Timing with
intelligence (VVTi), which eliminates the compromise between low-end

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torque and high-rpm horsepower by optimizing valve overlap throughout the
engine’s speed range, not just at one or two set speeds. VVT-i helps improve
fuel economy and lower emissions. Models powered by the new generation
V6 and V8 engines employ a Dual VVT-i system that acts on the exhaust
valves as well as the intake valves. The LS models and the GS 460 feature
the more advanced dual Variable Valve Timing with intelligence and
electrically controlled intake cam (VVT-iE). This is the world’s first
electronically controlled valve-timing system, able to provide optimal intake
valve timing over a wider operating range. The new IS F, with its 5.0-liter
high-performance Lexus V8, also features this groundbreaking valve control
technology. (Ref fig 5)

Fig 5: Lexus advance valve timing control [Ref 5]

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5. VVT Generations in Series Production:

6.1 The First Generation: Black & White-Systems


The first variable valve timing system for mass production was presented
some twenty years ago, and employed two possible cam-positions (black &
white systems). Most of these systems are based on the spur/helical gear
principle (Alpha Romeo, DaimlerChrysler, Ford, Jaguar, Nissan, Porsche,
Toyota) and are integrated into conventional toothed belt or chain timing
gear drives. Another family is based on the camshaft chain adjustment
system (Porsche, Audi, VW). The black & white cam-phaser allows the
camshaft to be moved into two positions. It shows significant benefits as
compared to previous fixed cam-drives. The intent of these systems was to
increase the maximum power by retarding the closure of the inlet valve.
Also smooth engine operation is improved at low speed, allowing reduction
of the engine’s idle speed, which implicitly has a positive impact on
untreated exhaust emissions. The torque characteristics exhibit two maxima
as a result of the two camshaft positions.

6.2 The Second Generation: Continuously Variable Valve Timing


Applying continuously variable adjustment to the spur/helical gear system is
regarded as the second design generation. The first application of this kind
was BMW’s VANOS system [5]. The angular position of the camshaft is
measured by a sensor and is compared to the desired position being
determined from the engine’s load, speed and temperature. A valve is
actuated to reposition the camshaft to the required position. The main goal
for the second-generation systems is to increase the maximum power and
torque over a wide range of engine speeds. Exhaust gas quality and idling

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are also improved. The VANOS system employs several parts (including
helical ones) made by powder-metallurgy processes, which offer a
reasonable solution in terms of cost.

6.3 The Third Generation: Vane Type Continuously Variable Valve


Timing
The current generation of continuously variable camshaft adjustment
systems uses the vane-type actuator. In addition to the benefits of the second
generation, internal friction is significantly reduced in these systems.
Compared to a two valve engine without camshaft phaser, a four valve
engine with continuous camshaft adjustment on intake and exhaust is
reported to consume 15% less fuel when idling and 10% less fuel overall
together with considerably improved emission characteristics. Third
generation VVTs also offer cost effectiveness due to a small number of
components employed. However, the components are complex shaped parts
with tight tolerances, and require materials which combine moderate
strength with high wear resistance and with the feasibility for mass-
production. Thus, these parts are ideally suited for steels which are
manufactured by the powder-metallurgy route.

6.3.1 Vane Type VVT-Components made by the P/M Route:


Technical Requirements
The components for vane-type systems employ complex two-dimensional
inside and outside geometry which may be combined with one or more steps
in axial direction

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Fig 6: P/M steel components for vane type valve system [Ref 6]

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To minimize internal oil-leakage between neighboring pressurized
chambers, only small clearances between all components are allowed. Thus
tight tolerances in terms of dimensions and geometry are required. Also,
small chamfers with defined geometry which ensure tolerable oil-leakage are
important. Furthermore, loose burrs or dirt are not allowed as they could get
stuck in the clearances or injure the valve’s operation. Wear resistance on
the drive sprocket teeth is required when using a chain drive to transmit the
working torque of the camshaft. Wear is also a topic for all components
which are in sliding contact with the vanes. For belt driven actuators, the
housing (stator) has to be sealed against oil-leakage to prevent loss of oil
into the environment. The relevant operation loads (centrifugal forces,
transmitted camshaft torque, tightening forces of fastening elements, internal
oil-pressure, mass loads from dynamic motions and engine vibrations...)
result in rather moderate requirements in terms of strength.[Ref 6]

6.3.2 PM Capabilities:
The complex geometries of vane type VVT-components are ideally suited
for being produced by the powder metallurgy route, i.e. by pressing,
sintering, sizing. P/M-steel parts fully match the above requirements.
Depending on the part’s geometry, many features can be shaped by tooling
which reduces the need for machining and subsequently minimizes overall
cost. By selecting P/M-steels which feature dimensional stability during
sintering (tight shrinkage/swelling characteristics) and good sizeability
(small elastic spring-back, low strength, i.e. Rm < 400 MPa), process
capable tight radial tolerances together with superior surface roughness are
achieved. For chamfering and deburring conventional techniques such as
brushing, grinding with stones, electrochemical deburring, thermal deburring

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etc. can be used. Resistance in heavy-duty wear situations is accomplished
by plasma-nitriding or induction hardening, while steam-treatment suffices
for less demanding loads. If sealing of the component is necessary, standard
impregnation techniques or steam-treatment can be used.[Ref 6]

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6. Benefits of VVT:
Traditionally the requirements for valve actuation mechanisms were higher
lift and faster operation. These are also key issues for variable valve
actuation where mechanism is more complex. On top of this, there is need to
use variable valve actuation to improve combustion and obtain better
thermal efficiency in order to get better fuel economy and emission control.
Fig shows relationship between variable valve actuation and factors that
improve engine performance

Fig 7 - Relationship between engine performance improvement factors and


variable valve actuation. VVA has extensive benefit on fuel economy and
exhaust emission as well as engine output [Ref 7]

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The benefits are not limited to engine output and include fuel economy and
exhaust emission. In terms of thermal efficiency variable valve actuation has
major benefits that include reducing pumping loss associated with the timing
while intake valve is closed as well as achieving better combustion by better
gas motion and fuel atomization through lower valve lift. Fig shows an
example of pumping loss achieved by variable valve actuation [Ref 7]

Fig 8: Pressure change in cylinder and reduction in pumping loss achieved


by valve timing. By using late close or early close for the intake valve the
effective intake stroke can be shortened and the throttle opened accordingly.
This reduces the negative intake pressure and reduces pumping loss.[Ref 7]

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7.1 Smooth Idle:
At idle rpm, retarding the camshaft eliminates valve overlap. With the intake
valve opening after the exhaust valve has closed, there is no blow back of
exhaust gases to the intake side.
Now, combustion is more stable because of the clean air/fuel mixture. This
allows the engine idle smoothly at a lower rpm and fuel consumption is
reduced.(Ref fig)

Fig 9: Fuel Rate v\s BMEP [Ref 8]

7.2 Torque Improvement in Low to Medium Speed Range:


In the low to medium speed range with a heavy load, the camshaft is
advanced increasing the valve overlap. This has two effects. First, the
exhaust gases help pull in the intake mixture. Second, by closing the intake
valve early, the air/fuel mixture taken into the cylinder is not discharged.
This improves volumetric efficiency and increases torque (and therefore
horsepower) in the low and midrange rpm range. The driver notices a more
powerful acceleration. Fig. 8 shows early measures of the VVT mechanism

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intake cam torque (friction) values. The cam torque for low lift is less than a
baseline for low speed and low lift, but greater for high lifts and high speeds.
Figure displays the effects of VVT upon idle speed operation.(Ref fig 10)

Fig 10: Cam torque v/s Engine speed [Ref 8]

7.3 EGR Effect :


VVT eliminates the need for an EGR valve. As a result of increasing the
valve overlap in which the exhaust and intake valves are both open, the
exhaust gas is able to flow to the intake side. Diluting the air/fuel mixture
with exhaust gases reduces the combustion temperature and the production
of NOx. Also, some of the unburned air/fuel mixture present in the exhaust
gas will be burned. Figure compares engine combustion stability (COV of
IMEP) between the baseline and VVT configurations. (Ref fig 11)

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Fig 11: Valve lift v/s BMEP [Ref 8]

7.4 Better Fuel Economy:


A VVT equipped engine is more efficient and provides better fuel economy
from a variety of factors. Without VVT, the engine would have to be larger
and heavier to produce the same horsepower. Smaller pistons, connecting
rods, and crankshaft reduce friction and mechanical losses. A lighter engine
improves vehicle fuel economy.
Improved fuel consumption is also realized because of the further reduction
in the intake stroke resistance. In the medium-load operation range, when the
valve overlap is increased, the vacuum (negative pressure) in the intake
manifold is reduced. Now, it takes less energy to move the piston downward
on the intake stroke. With the pumping loss reduced during the intake stroke,
more energy is available to propel the vehicle.
At idle, with no valve overlap, the idle speed is lower improving fuel
economy. Figure shows that at 2000 rpm, the application of the VVT
mechanism to this engine (without additional engine design changes)

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reduces the Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) in the low to middle
load regions by 5 – 7%. (Ref fig 12)

Fig 12: BSFC v/s BMEP [Ref 8]

7.5 Improved Emission Control Performance:


In the light-medium load operation range, VVT increases the valve overlap
creating an internal EGR effect. By opening the intake valve earlier in the
exhaust stroke at a lower rpm allows the exhaust gases to push into the
intake manifold mixing with the fresh air. The return of exhaust gas into the
cylinder lowers the combustion temperature, resulting in NOx reduction.
Essentially, VVT will increase the valve overlap to obtain the same EGR
effect as an engine equipped with an EGR valve. In other words, when an
EGR valve on an EGR equipped engine opens is when VVT will increase
the valve overlap.
Another benefit is that HCs are also reduced. Some of the unburned air/fuel
mixture from the previous cycle returns to the cylinder for combustion.

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Finally, C02 is reduced because of the decrease in fuel consumption. Figure
presents engine-out HC and NOx specific emissions at 2000 engine rpm.
(Ref fig 13)

Fig 13: BSNOx v/s BMEP [Ref 8]

7. Conclusion:
So after this seminar we come to know that VVT technology is going to
become prominent in road cars as this technology is going to be researched a
lot and may be in few years its cost of production can be brought down to
incredible levels. We already kwon about the benefits of such a system and
there should not be anyone who dislikes this technology, since in today’s
eco-friendly world this technology brings a ray of hope for a cleaner and
healthier environment. Already the automobile giants like Honda, Toyota,
BMW, Mercedes-Benz, etc. are spending lots of money on research in this
field. So VVT technology is bound to have a bright future in the automobile
industry.

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8. References:
1. Internal Combustion Engines by V Ganesan, Third edition, Chapter 5,

Actual cycles and their analysis


2. www.wabashtech.com
3. www.toyotamotors.com
4. www.howstuffworks.com
5. Lexus technology summary 2009
6. “Recent Developments in P/M Variable-Valve-Timing Systems for

Automobiles” by Heinrich Wiedemann, Patrice Delarbre, Bernd


Engelmann, Michael Krehl & Lorenz S. Sigl , Sinterstahl GmbH
Füssen,Germany ,www.sinterstahl.com,2006
7. “Variable valve actuation systems for environmentally friendly

engines” by Seinosuke Hara, Seiji Suga, Saturo Watanabe, Makoto


Nakamura, Hitachi Unisia Automotive, 2009
8. “Design and Development of a Mechanical Variable Valve Actuation
System”, Ronald J. Pierik & James F. Burkhard, Delphi Automotive
Systems, SAE Technical Paper 2000-01-1221
9. “The application of variable event valve timing to a modern diesel

engine” Tim Lancefield and Ian Methley Dr. Ulf Räse Thomas
Kuhn SAE Technical paper 2000-01-1229

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