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ANIMATION (2D & 3D)

ANIMATION (2D & 3D) DITM 2113 – Multimedia Systems
  • DITM 2113 – Multimedia Systems

ANIMATION (2D & 3D) DITM 2113 – Multimedia Systems
ANIMATION (2D & 3D) DITM 2113 – Multimedia Systems

INTRODUCTION

  • Animation is the creation of the illusion of movement by assembling a sequence of still images

  • These pictures are composed of a series of static images that affect the eyes at the rate of 12 to 24 images per second

  • The illusion of movement is caused by a physiological affect known as 'persistence of vision'

  • Animation can be built in 2 or 3 dimension.

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  • The Computer Animation Dictionary (1989) defines animation as…

 The Computer Animation Dictionary (1989) defines animation as… "producing the illusion of movement in a

"producing the illusion of movement in a film/video by photographing, or otherwise recording, a series of single frames, each showing incremental changes in the position of the subject images which when shown in sequence, at high speed, give the illusion of movement.

 The Computer Animation Dictionary (1989) defines animation as… "producing the illusion of movement in a

The individual frames can be produced by a variety of techniques from computer generated images, to hand-drawn cells."

 The Computer Animation Dictionary (1989) defines animation as… "producing the illusion of movement in a
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DEFINITION OF ANIMATION

  • The word animate comes from the Latin verb animare, meaning “to make alive or to fill with breath.”

  • Traditionally, animation can be defined as a process of producing images that show a motion object and then we can play the image in a fast mode. The result? We can see from the movement.

  • Animation is an art of making things real.

  • How to make it looks real can be done by multiple ways.

    • It can be drawn like Snow White and The Seven Dwarft. You can also make a model and move it like The Nightmare Before Christmas and Chicken Run.

    • You can install it into the computer, like Toy Story and Final Fantasy.

    • Have you ever watched South Park? It is produce by cutting out a piece of paper and we move it piece by piece.

    • You can also move people and shooting a picture frame by frame so it can be moved without any motion (rotoscope), for instance Beauty and the Beast. They are all form a different shape of animation.

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TRADITIONAL ANIMATION METHOD

  • Before the advent of the computer animation, all frames in an animation had to be drawn by hand.

  • Considering that each second of animation contains 24 frames (film), one can only imagine the tremendous amount of work that has to go into creating even the shortest of animated films.

  • A couple of different techniques were developed for creating animation by hand.

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CELL ANIMATION

  • The word 'cell' comes from 'celluloid', the material which was used in early motion pictures, and refers to the transparent pieces of film used in hand-drawn animation

  • Each character is drawn on a separate piece of transparent film.

  • A background is also drawn on a separate sheet of opaque paper.

  • Then, when it comes to shooting the animation, the different characters are overlaid on top of the background in each frame.

  • The artists do not have to draw in entire frames, but rather just the parts that need to change such as individual characters.

6 C ELL A NIMATION  The word 'cell' comes from ' celluloid ', the material

KEY FRAMES

K EY F RAMES  The drawing or painting is usually done by more than one
  • The drawing or painting is usually done by more than one person. After a storyboard has been laid out, the senior artists go and draw the major frames of the animation.

  • These major frames are frames in which a lot of change takes place. They are the key points of the animation.



Later, a bunch of junior artists draw in the frames in between. This way, the workload is distributed and controlled by the key frames.

  • Work can be done simultaneously by many people, thus cutting down on the time needed to get a final product out. Key frames, in conjunction with 'tweening', are still used in many forms of computer animation.

K EY F RAMES  The drawing or painting is usually done by more than one
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ROTASCOPING

  • Involves using images from moving video or film as the basis for an animation.

  • Example:To animate a frog jumping. It is a lot easier to draw the motion and shape of the frog in the different parts of the animation when you have some reference, such as video, as opposed to imagining it in your head.

  • With the help of rotascoping, one can animate some complex scenes that would be very hard to visualize.

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FLIP BOOK ANIMATION

  • This is also known as 'frame-based' animation and is the simplest kind of animation to visualize.

  • It consisted of a series of progressive drawings, one on each page of a book, through which the viewer flipped thus creating the illusion of movement.

  • Within the computer environment, flip-book animation means displaying a sequence of independent graphics files.

F LIP B OOK A NIMATION  This is also known as 'frame-based' animation and is
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COMPUTER ANIMATION

  • Computer animation is a term that covers a wider area than cell or keyframe animation. The computer can fill various roles in animation:

C OMPUTER A NIMATION  Computer animation is a term that covers a wider area than
  • creating the basic images to be animated (digitizing or created with graphics editor) plus backgrounds

  • adding motion to prefabricated images by generating trajectory paths for whole objects (in-betweening) or motion of components of objects (e.g. a person's hands) or otherwise transforming their shape, color or brightness

  • coloring the images to create a realistic look

  • synchronizing motion of the graphics with sound

  • controlling a physical movie camera to record an animation sequence or following a virtual camera program

  • editing and synchronizing animated film at the postproduction stage

C OMPUTER A NIMATION  Computer animation is a term that covers a wider area than
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FRAME-BASED ANIMATION

F RAME - BASED A NIMATION  A frame-based animation imitates the original animation techniques of
F RAME - BASED A NIMATION  A frame-based animation imitates the original animation techniques of
  • A frame-based animation imitates the original animation techniques of drawing each frame carefully by hand.

  • Improves the speed and ease with which each frame is created.

  • The final animation is assembled from a sequence of frames (bitmaps) and is in a form of a movie file (usually with .avi or .mov suffix).

  • The software used to create the animation does is automatically upon your choice of "Create a movie" or similar command.

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CELL-BASED ANIMATION

C ELL - BASED A NIMATION  A cell-based animation evolved from frame-based animation techniques as
C ELL - BASED A NIMATION  A cell-based animation evolved from frame-based animation techniques as
  • A cell-based animation evolved from frame-based animation techniques as a way to speed up the production.

  • The name derives from a technique of using celluloid layers to overlay the active elements in an animation frame on a static background.

  • Often the process of creating such an animation is greatly automated by computer - you just specify the two positions of an object and the computer will create frames approximating the movements of the object between these positions (this is the case when you are working with Adobe Director).

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OBJECT ANIMATION

  • An object animation (also known as Sprite, Path and Vector Animation) is the simplest of the three.

  • Instead of creating animation files that you import to your presentation, program or title, you animate objects within the title-building software (such as AfterEffects).

  • Object animation usually involves moving an unchanging object along a path. You might be able to rotate, resize or add filters to it as it moves.

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14 P ROCEDURAL A NIMATION  Procedures are used that define movement over time.  These
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PROCEDURAL ANIMATION

  • Procedures are used that define movement over time.

  • These might be procedures that use the laws of physics (Physically - based modeling) or animator generated methods.

  • An example is a motion that is the result of some other action (this is called a "secondary action"), for example throwing a ball which hits another object and causes the second object to move.

REPRESENTATIONAL ANIMATION

R EPRESENTATIONAL A NIMATION  This technique allows an object to change its shape during the
  • This technique allows an object to change its shape during the animation.

  • There are three subcategories to this:

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  • The first is the animation of articulated objects, i.e., complex objects composed of connected rigid segments.

  • The second is soft object animation used for deforming and animating the deformation of objects, e.g. skin over a body or facial muscles.

  • The third is morphing which is the changing of one shape into another quite different shape. This can be done in two or three dimensions.

R EPRESENTATIONAL A NIMATION  This technique allows an object to change its shape during the

STOCHASTIC AND BEHAVIOURAL

  • Stochastic

Animation uses stochastic processes to control groups of objects, such as in particle systems. Examples are fireworks, fire, water falls, etc.

  • Behavioural

Animation is about Objects or "actors" that are given rules about how they react to their environment. Examples are schools of fish or flocks of birds where each individual behaves according to a set of rules defined by the animator.

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3D ANIMATION

3D ANIMATION Consist of 5 categories: 1. Storyboarding – pre - production 2. Modeling 3. Animation

Consist of 5 categories:

3D ANIMATION Consist of 5 categories: 1. Storyboarding – pre - production 2. Modeling 3. Animation
  • 1. Storyboarding pre-production

3D ANIMATION Consist of 5 categories: 1. Storyboarding – pre - production 2. Modeling 3. Animation
  • 2. Modeling

  • 3. Animation

  • 4. Scene layout setup

    • Materials, Texture Interfaces, Lighting & Shading

production

  • 5. Rendering - post-production

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1. STORYBOARDING

  • Storyboard is a visual interpretation of the screenplay and contains many images and production notes.

  • It consists of a series of panels that contains in visual form the scenes and shots specified in the screenplay.

1. S TORYBOARDING  Storyboard is a visual interpretation of the screenplay and contains many images
1. S TORYBOARDING  Storyboard is a visual interpretation of the screenplay and contains many images
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3 CATEGORIES OF STORYBOARD

  • Conceptual Storyboard

    • Used to develop the basic ideas(actions of characters, camera positions, motions & scenes transitions)

  • Presentation Storyboard

    • Used to show a detailed visual summary of the project to individuals with decision making authority (client-supervisor).Includes important scenes.

  • Production Storyboard

    • Guides the production of an animation project. The document that everybody involved in the production process (very detailed & precise)

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2. MODELING PROCESS

  • The modeling stage could be described as shaping individual objects that are later used in the scene

  • There exist a number of modeling techniques, including, but not limited to the following:

    • Constructive solid geometry (Boolean operators to combine objects)

    • NURBS modeling(Non Uniform Rational B-Spline )

    • Polygonal modeling

    • Subdivision surfaces (the limit of an infinite refinement process)

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  • May also include editing object surface or material properties (e.g., color, luminosity, diffuse and specular shading components

  • May also include various activities related to preparing a 3D model for animation

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 3D Viewing Top View Bottom View Left View Right View Front View Perspective View 22
  • 3D Viewing

  • Top View

  • Bottom View

  • Left View

  • Right View

  • Front View

  • Perspective View

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3. ANIMATION

  • The 12 principles of animation (1930s-Walt Disney)

3. A NIMATION  The 12 principles of animation (1930s-Walt Disney)  Squash & stretch 
  • Squash & stretch

  • Arcs

  • Anticipation

  • Secondary action

  • Staging

  • Timing

  • Pose-to-pose action

  • Exaggeration

  • Follow-through action

  • Solid modeling & rigging

  • Slow-in & slow-out

  • Character personality

CLICK HERE

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4. SCENE LAYOUT SETUP

  • Scene setup involves arranging virtual objects, lights, cameras and other entities on a scene

4. S CENE LAYOUT SETUP  Scene setup involves arranging virtual objects, lights, cameras and other
  • Color models

    • RGB (red, green, blue)

    • CYMK (cyan, yellow, magenta, black)

    • HSL (hue, saturation, lightness)

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THE CAMERA

  • Types of camera shots

    • Point of view shots

    • Low angle & high angle shots

    • Reverse angle shots

    • Close-up shots

    • Medium & Wide shots

      • Waist shot & knee shots(medium)

      • Full bodies (wide)

  • Long shots

T HE CAMERA  Types of camera shots  Point of view shots  Low angle
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LIGHTING & SHADING

L IGHTING & SHADING  Types of lights sources  Point light  Spot light 
  • Types of lights sources

L IGHTING & SHADING  Types of lights sources  Point light  Spot light 
  • Point light

  • Spot light

  • Infinite light

  • Area light

  • Linear light

L IGHTING & SHADING  Types of lights sources  Point light  Spot light 
  • Ambient light

L IGHTING & SHADING  Types of lights sources  Point light  Spot light 
L IGHTING & SHADING  Types of lights sources  Point light  Spot light 
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  • Basic components of the light source

    • Position & orientation

    • Color & intensity

    • Beam angle

 Basic components of the light source  Position & orientation  Color & intensity 
  • Glow & cone light

  • Shadows

    • Umbra

      • the portion of shadow that blocks direct light altogether

    • Penumbra

      • the area in the edges of the shadow that blends with other lights in the environment

    • Softness

 Basic components of the light source  Position & orientation  Color & intensity 
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SURFACE TEXTURES

S URFACE TEXTURES  Bump mapping  a normal-perturbation technique used to simulate wrinkled surfaces. 28
S URFACE TEXTURES  Bump mapping  a normal-perturbation technique used to simulate wrinkled surfaces. 28
S URFACE TEXTURES  Bump mapping  a normal-perturbation technique used to simulate wrinkled surfaces. 28
  • Bump mapping

    • a normal-perturbation technique used to simulate wrinkled surfaces.

S URFACE TEXTURES  Bump mapping  a normal-perturbation technique used to simulate wrinkled surfaces. 28
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  • Textures mapping

    • A technique for simulating a large amount of surface detail by mapping images (textures) onto polygons.

S URFACE TEXTURES  Bump mapping  a normal-perturbation technique used to simulate wrinkled surfaces. 28
  • Displacement mapping

  • 2D Procedural Texture mapping

  • 3D Procedural Texture mapping

  • Transparency mapping

29 R EFLECTION Popular reflection rendering techniques in 3D include:  <a href=Cel shading : A technique used to imitate the look of hand- drawn animation.  Flat shading : A technique that shades each polygon of an object based on the polygon's "normal" and the position and intensity of a light source.  Gouraud shading : a fast and resource-conscious vertex shading technique used to simulate smoothly shaded surfaces.  Phong shading : used to simulate specular highlights and smooth shaded surfaces. " id="pdf-obj-28-2" src="pdf-obj-28-2.jpg">
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REFLECTION

Popular reflection rendering techniques in 3D include:

  • Cel shading: A technique used to imitate the look of hand- drawn animation.

  • Flat shading: A technique that shades each polygon of an object based on the polygon's "normal" and the position and intensity of a light source.

  • Gouraud shading: a fast and resource-conscious vertex shading technique used to simulate smoothly shaded surfaces.

  • Phong shading: used to simulate specular highlights and smooth shaded surfaces.

29 R EFLECTION Popular reflection rendering techniques in 3D include:  <a href=Cel shading : A technique used to imitate the look of hand- drawn animation.  Flat shading : A technique that shades each polygon of an object based on the polygon's "normal" and the position and intensity of a light source.  Gouraud shading : a fast and resource-conscious vertex shading technique used to simulate smoothly shaded surfaces.  Phong shading : used to simulate specular highlights and smooth shaded surfaces. " id="pdf-obj-28-29" src="pdf-obj-28-29.jpg">

5. RENDERING

(INTEGRATE,RUN & EXECUTE)

  • The overall rendering process consists of 5 major steps:

    • Get model

    • Place camera

    • Define light sources

    • Define surface characteristic

    • Choose shading technique

    • Render

5. R ENDERING ( INTEGRATE , RUN & EXECUTE )  The overall rendering process consists
  • Save file & output

5. R ENDERING ( INTEGRATE , RUN & EXECUTE )  The overall rendering process consists
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STAGES OF ANIMATION

  • PRE-PRODUCTION

    • Pre-production stage, can also be known as planning stage

    • Director will evaluate story, storyboard, produced soundtrack, layout and drawing background.

    • Animation is a long and expensive process. Therefore detail planning is crucial to meet the budget. This is where animation process started.

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  • PRODUCTION

    • We need longer time at this stage.

    • Animation is produced by three steps:

    • i. Rough Draft – The time for key animation will be set as well as scene for every action.

    • ii. Assistant animator will draw in-between drawing; a part of the drawing is the key animation.

    • iii. Animation is clean up and ready to be colours.

    • After every step, drawing will be shot.

    • This line test enables animator to check the quality of animation line while it is made.

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  • POST-PRODUCTION

    • Animator must edit the film, synchronize with the music and send to the specific company to cut the negative and printed photo.

    • When the film is fully completed, the last preparation that needs to be done is a packaging design, things to be promoted and sales strategy.

    • At this stage, animator will send the complete film to the distributor or customer.

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Example of uses for animation in Multimedia

• Animation plays a huge role in entertainment (providing

action and realism) and education (providing visualization and demonstration).

• Extremely effective learning medium

  • - Eg: animation provide a simulation and even dramatize to visualize concept or process.

• To attract user attention

  • - Eg: 3D Rotating/Transforming objects

• To show design prototype

  • - Eg: House/machine design

Example of uses for animation in Multimedia • Animation plays a huge role in entertainment (providing

• To build data model

Example of uses for animation in Multimedia • Animation plays a huge role in entertainment (providing
  • - Model of Patient’s brain based on MRI (Magnetic Resonance Image) data.

Advantages

  • Present / visualize ideas / concept effectively

Advantages  Present / visualize ideas / concept effectively  Disadvantages  Requires extensive memory and
  • Disadvantages

    • Requires extensive memory and storage

    • Requires special equipment

    • Does not effectively illustrate the real situation such as video or photograph

Advantages  Present / visualize ideas / concept effectively  Disadvantages  Requires extensive memory and