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PERIODIC TABLE

HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT : -To know the contribution of scientists in the


arrangement of
elements in the Periodic Table

- To get the ideas of the arrangement of the elements in the


Periodic Table based on their proton number.

ARRANGEMENT IN THE PERIODIC TABLE


-To write the electron arrangement for the atoms of elements with
• GROUP proton number from 1 to 20.
• PERIOD -To determine the group and period based on the electron arrangement
of the atoms or otherwise.

PROPERTIES OF ELEMENTS IN THE PERIODIC TABLE


GROUP 18 – To explain the existence of noble gases as monoatoms and their uses

GROUP 1 - To explain the physical properties, the similar chemical properties( with
water,oxygen and chlorine) and the different reactivity.

GROUP 17 – To explain the physical properties, the similar chemical properties (with water,
sodium hydroxide and iron) and the different reactivity.

PERIOD 3 - To explain the changes in atomic size, electronegativity,metallic


properties as well oxide properties across period 3 from left to right.

TRANSITION ELEMENTS- To state the metallic properties of the transition metals and
their
special characteristics.

1
Name :………………………..

Form :……………………….

CHAPTER 4 : PERIODIC TABLE FOR ELEMENTS

4.1 THE ADVANTAGES OF CLASSIFYING THE ELEMENTS IN THE PERIODIC TABLE

1. Elements are arranged systematically in the Periodic Table in the order of increasing proton number which enable:
a) Chemists to study , understand and remember the chemical and physical properties of all the elements and
compounds in an orderly manner.
b) Properties of elements and their compounds are predicted based on the position of elements in the Periodic Table.
c) Relationship between the elements from different groups can be known.

4.2 SCIENTISTS CONTRIBUTION TO THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE PERIODIC TABLE

Scientists Discoveries

1. Antoinne Lavoiser -Substances were classified into 4 groups with similar chemical properties.
.

2. J.W Dobreinar -Substances were arranged in 3 groups.


-Groups with similar chemical properties were called Triads.
-Triad system was confined to some elements only.

3. John Newlands -Elements were arranged according to the increasing atomic mass.-
-Law of Octaves because similar chemical properties were repeated at
every eighth element.
-This system was inaccurate because there were some elements with wrong
mass number.

4. Lothar Meyer - The atomic volume = mass of 1 mole(g)


density (gcm-3)
-Plotted graph for the atomic volume against atomic mass.
-Found that elements with similiar chemical properties were positioned at the
equivalent places along the curve.

5. Mendeleev -Elements were arranged in the order of increasing atomic mass.


-Elements with similar chemical properties were in the same group.
-Empty spaces are allocated for elements which have yet to be discovered.
-Contributor to the fomation of the modern Periodic Table.

6. Hendry Moseley -Classified concepts of proton number and elements in the order of increasing
proton number.

-Contributor to the formation modern Periodic Table.

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4.3 : THE ARRANGEMENT OF THE ELEMENTS IN THE MODERN PERIODIC TABLE:

Element symbol : Nucleon Number


A
X
GROUP Z Proton Number
PERIOD 18
1
1 4
H* He
1
1 2 13 14 15 16 17 2
….. ……
7 8 11 12 14 16 19 20
2
Li Be B C N O F Ne
3 4 TRANSITION METALS 5 6 7 8 9 10
……. ……. ……. ……. …….. …….. …… ……..
23 24 27 28 31 32 35 40
3 Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
…….. …… ……. ……. ……. …….. ……. …
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
4 39 40 80
K Ca Br
19 20 35
…….. …….

1. Write the electron arrangement for each element in above the Periodic Table, using the information given beside the
element symbol.
2. Elements in the Periodic Table are arranged in the order of increasing ……………………..horizontally.
3. Two main components of the Periodic Table :
I. Group II.Period

4.4 :GROUP :

a) The_______________ columns in the Periodic Table are arranged according to the number of _________ in the
__________ are called group.
b) There are 18 vertical columns, called Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 until Group 18.

Number of 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8(except
electron valence Helium)
Group 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 18
3 4 5 6 7

For elements with 3 to 8 electron valence, the group


c) Specific name of groups: number is: 10 + number of electron valence.

-Group 1 –Alkali metals #

-Group 2 – Alkali-earth metals.

-Group 3 to 12 Transition elements #

-Group 17 – Halogens #

-Group 18 – Noble gases #

# - The important groups that will be studied from the aspect of chemical and physical properties.

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d) Types of substance according to the groups :
-The elements of group 1,2 and 13 – each with 1 , 2 and 3 electron valence are metals.
-The elements of group 3 to 12 – transition elements which are metals.
-The elements of Group 14, 15, 16, 17 and 18 – each has 4, 5, 6 7 and 8 electrons valens and are non-metals.

4.5:PERIOD:

a) The ___________ row of elements in the Periodic Table, arranged according to the number of ________
containing ____________ in an ________ , is known as period.
b) There are seven horizontal rows of elements known as period 1,2,…..,7 [ Refer to the periodic table on page 85 in
the text book]
• Period 1 - has ……. elements
Short periods, # Period 3 will be studied in more detail,
• Period 2 and 3# –have…..elements from the aspect physical and chemical properties.
• Period 4 and 5 – have 18 elements
Long periods
• Period 6 – has 32 elements
• Period 7 – has 23 elements

Activity: Complete the table below.

Element Proton number Electron Number of Group Number of Period


arrangement electron shell
valence
H 1
He 2
Li 3
Be 4
B 5
C 6
N 7
O 8
F 9
Ne 10
Na 11
Mg 12
Al 13

7.
Element Nucleon number Number of
Note :
neutrons Nucleon no. = proton no. + no. of neutrons
A 9 4 No. of electrons = no. of protons = Proton no.
B 31 16
C 35 18
D 40 20

Complete the statement/answer the following questions based on the above table.

a)The proton number of atom A is ……… and the number of electrons in atom A is ……. The electron arrangement
of atom A is……………and the valence electron of atom A is ……..
b) Atom A is in group ….. and Period ……..
c) Atom B is in Group …… and Period …….
d) A student states that atom C is in Group 17. Is the statement true or false? Explain your answer.

Do exercise….On page…… of text book

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4.6 :GROUP 18( NOBLE GASES)

a. Consist of Helium (He), Neon (Ne), Argon (Ar), Krypton (Kr), Xenon (Xe) and Radon (Rn).
b. The exist as monoatoms at room condition because noble gases have attained stable electron arrangement which is
duplet for helium and octet for other elements of other noble gases. It do not have to lose, gain or share electrons.

Elements Electron arrangement


Helium 2
Neon 2.8
Argon 2.8.8
Krypton 2.8.18.8

c. Going down group 18:


 The atomic size is increasing because of the number of ………… increases.
 The melting point/boiling point is very low because the atoms of noble gases are attracted by ……………
Van der Waal force. Less energy is required to overcome it. However, the melting / boiling point increases
going down the group because the atomic size increases causing ,the Van der Waal force to increase and
more ………… energy is required to overcome it.
 The density is low and increases gradually because the mass increases greatly going down the group.
 All noble gases are insoluble in water and cannot conduct electricity in all conditions.
d.Complete the uses of noble gases in the table below:
Noble gases Uses
Helium
Neon
Argon
Krypton
Radon
Do exercise …… pg ……..

4.7 : GROUP 1 ( ALKALI METALS)


a. Consist of Lithium(Li), Sodium(Na), Potassium(K), Rubidium(Rb), Cesium(Cs) and Francium(Fr)

Elements Proton no. Electron No. of shells Going down Group


arrangement 1
Lithium 3
Sodium 11
Potassium 19

b. Physical properties:
- Grey solid with shiny surface.
- Softer and the density is lower compared to other metals.
- Low melting / boiling points compared to other metals.
c. Change in the physical properties going down the group:
- The atomic size increases because the number of shells increases.
- The density increases because mass increases ,faster than the increase in radius.
- The melting / boiling points decreases because when the atomic size increases, the metal bonds decreases.
d. Chemical Properties for group 1:
i) Has one electron valence, the stable electron arrangement is attained by losing one electron valence.

Li Li+ + e , Na Na+ + e
2.1 2+ 2.8.1 2.8
3 + 3
3- 2- 11+ 11+
11- 10-

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(ii) All elements in Group 1 have similar chemical properties because all __________ in Group 1 have __________
electron valence to attain the stable___________ arrangement by ___________ its valence electron to form a
____________ charged ion.
(iii) The different reactivity of alkali metals __________ as the go down the group.
Explanation:
• The metal atoms of Group 1 attained a stable electron arrangement of noble gases by losing one electron
valence to form a +1 charged ion.
• The metal reactivity of Group 1 depends on the case for atoms to lose electron; the easier to lose
electron the more reactive.

• Going down Group 1, the number of ________ increases, the atomic radius increases and the single
electron in the outer most shell gets _________ from nucleus.The nuclear attraction get
_____________,the valence electron is loosely pulled and the electron is __________ to be released.
• Reactivity increases.
Chemical Reaction :[Exp…..pg…..]

i) With water
A piece of Group 1 metal

water

2X + 2H2O 2XOH + H2

Elements Observations Reactions

Li

Na

ii) with chlorine:


2X + Cl2  2 XCl , X is a metal elements of Group 1

Burning Chlorine gas


metal gas
Elements Observations Reaction equations
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Li

Na

ii. With Oxygen (**arrangement of apparatus is similar as chlorine)

4X + O2(g)  2X2O (burn in oxygen)


X2O + H2O  2XOH (dissolve in water)

Elements Observations Reaction equations

Li

Na

Conclusion: Going down Group 1: Li Na K Rb


----------------------->
Increase in reactivity

Do exercise ……… pg ……..

4.8 : Group 17(HALOGENS)

a. Consist of Fluorine (F2), Chlorine (Cl2), Bromine (Br2), Iodine (I2) and Astatine (At2)

Elements Proton no. Electron no. of orbital/shell


configuration
Fluorine 9
Chlorine 17
Bromine 35 2.8.18.7
Iodine 53 2.8.18.18.7

b. Physical Properties;
- Cannot conduct electricity in all state.
-Cannot conduct heat.
c. The changes in physical properties going down the group :-
o Physical properties changed from gas ( F2, Cl2) to liquid (Br2) and solid (I2)
o The atomic size ____________ going down the group because of the increasing in number of_______.
o The density is low and increases as going down the group.
o The melting and boiling points are low because the molecules are pulled by the weak Van der Waals force,
and little energy is required to overcome it. However the melting/ boiling point increases as going down

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the group because ……………………………………..
…………………………………………………………….
……………………………………………………………………………………………….
o The colour of the elements becomes __________ going down the group: Fluorine (light yellow), Chlorine
(greenish yellow), Bromine (Brown) and Iodine (Purplish black).

d. Chemical properties of Group 17


(i) All ________ of elements Group 17 have __________ valence electron and attain a stable electron
arrangement by accepting ________ electron to form _________ charged ions :
F + e F- Cl + e Cl-
2.7
9+ 2.8 2.8.7 2.8.8
9- 9+ 17+ 17+
-
10- 17 18-
(ii) Chemical properties of all elements are _________ because the number of valence electrons are the same
and attain the noble gas arrangement in a similar way.
(iii) Reactivity of halogens decreases as going down the group :

Explaination :
o All the atoms of Group 17 have seven valence electrons and attain a stable Noble Gas electron
arrangement by accepting one electron to form –1 ion charge or by sharing a pair of electrons.
o The reactivity of the elements in Group 17 depends on ____________ atom accepts electron
o Going down Group 17,the number of __________ increases, atomic ____________ increases.
o Outer shell became _________ from the nucleus.
o The nucleus attraction on the other electrons becomes _____________.
o The strength of halogen atom to pull electron _______________ from fluorine to astatine
(electronegativity decreases)
o Exists as diatomic molecules ( 2 atoms of elements sharing a pair of valence electron) to attain an octet
stability. (Complete the electron arrangement for the atom /molecule below)

F F F F

2 fluorine atoms Fluorine molecule ( F2 )

 The elements of the group exist as diatomic molecules: F2 , Cl2 , Br2 , I2 dan At2

e. Chemical reaction of Group 17 elements[Exp…..pg…]

i. With water
- Solubility ( The reactivity of reaction decreases going down Group 17)
F2, Cl2, Br2 , I2
----------------------------->

reactivity decreases
- F2, Cl2 reactions:
2F2 + H2O 4HF + O2
F2 / Cl2
Cl2 + H2O HOCl + HCl

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water

- Reaction with bromine - shake bromine water with water,a brown solution is formed

Br2 + H2O HBr + HOBr


Draw a diagram:

- Reaction with iodine – difficult to dissolve, must shake hard/heat

I2 + H2O HI + HOI

Draw a diagram:

ii. With NaOH (Sodium hydroxide)

X2 + 2NaOH  NaX + NaOX + H2O


(The arrangement of apparatus is similar to the experiment on the reaction with water):
Complete :
-Br2 + 2NaOH →
-I2 + 2NaOH →

iii. With iron (Fe) :

Chlorine
or
Pieces of iodine
bromine
gas
Iron wool
NaOH to
absorb
Cl/Br

2Fe + X2  2FeX3 , X2 represents any halogens ( Cl2, Br2 or I2 )

Halogens Observations Equations


Chlorine

Bromine

Iodine

Experiments i, ii, iii show that all halogens have ________chemistry properties but their__________ going
down the group

Reactivity __________

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F2 , Cl2 , Br2 , I2 and At2

Do exercise ….. pg …….

4.9 PERIOD
a. Horizontal rows in the periodic table
b. There are 7 periods known as period 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7.
c. The period number of an element represents the number of ………….. each element has.

Example:1.
Element Proton Number Electron Number of Period
arrangement period
Li 3 2.1
Na 11 2.8.1
K 19 2.8.8.1

2. Period 3 elements
Element Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
Proton No. 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Electron
arrangement
Nucleur +11 +12 +13 +14 +15 +16 +17 +18
charge
(number of
protons)
Radius 0.156 0.136 0.125 0.117 0.110 0.104 0.009 0.001

Draw the relationship between nuclear charge and radius

Na Mg Al Si P S Cl

d. The physical changes across the period (from left to right)


(i) Atomic radius decreases because:

- Moving from left to right ,the number of electrons in the third shell increases.

- Proton number increases causing the number of ______ charge at the nucleus to _______

- Nucleas attraction on the electrons in all the shell ____________


(ii) Electronegativity increases:
- Electronegativity: The strength of an atom in a molecule to attract _____________ towards its nucleus.
- Because ______________ decreases and the_______________increases from left to right across the
period, the strength of the nucleus to attract _________ also decreases.
(iii) Physical state :
- The physical state of elements in a period changes from solid to gas, from left to right
(iv) Metallic properties
Metallic, metalloid and non metal properties across the period :
Metallic properties decreas across a period
Example

Period 3 : Na, Mg, Al Si P, S, Cl, Ar


↓ ↓ ↓
Metal Metalloid Non metal
Good conductor of electricity. Weak electrical conductivity Cannot conduct electricity
The conductivity but it increases as the temperature
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decreases with the increase in rises
temperature

Uses : Semiconductor

e. Changes in the chemical properties


- Metals form basic oxides
(i) Metal oxide + water alkali
Na2O + H2O --------> 2NaOH

(ii) metal oxide + acid -------> salt + water


MgO + 2HCl -------> MgCl2 + H20

- Non metals form acidic oxide:


(i) Non metal oxide + water-----> acid
SO2 + H20 ------> H2SO3

(ii) Non metal oxide+ alkali → Salt + water


SiO2 + 2NaOH → Na2SO4 + H2O

- Aluminium element that is situated between metals and non metals has amphoteric properties
(i) Amphoteric oxide will dissolve in both acid and alkali.
Al2O3 + 6HNO3 → 2Al(NO3)2 + 3H2O
Al2O3 + NaOH → 2NaAlO2 +3H2O

Metal oxides change from : Basic oxideamphoteric oxide acidic oxide, from left to right across the period.
In brief:

Element Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
Metallic properties metal metalloid Non metal
(from the aspect of
electrical conductivity)
Chemical properties of Basic oxide Amphoteric Acid oxide
oxides oxide
(from the aspect of
reaction with acid and
alkali)

# Metal: Good conduductor of electricity and heat, shiny surface ,ductile and high melting /boiling point.
# Metalloid : Not a very good conductor of electricity bur the conductivity increases with temperature
and the presence of foreign material.
# Non metal : cannot conduct electricity at all .
# Basic oxide: metal oxides that can react with acid to form salt and water.
# Acidic oxide: non metal oxides that can react with alkali to form salt and water.
#Amphoteric oxide : oxides that can react with both acid and alkali. ]

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Answer the following questions:

Element Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
Proton No 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Atomic 0.156 0.136 0.125 0.117 0.111 0.104 0.099 -
radius
Electron
arrangement

a) When crossing the period from left to right, the atomic size decreases. Explain why?
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
b) Complete the electron arrangement in the above table.
c)List the elements in the above table according to their properties.:
i. Metals :………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
ii. Metalloids :………………………………………………………………………………………………………
iii. Non-metals :……………………………………………………………………………………………………….
d)Metallic sodium oxides, aluminium and silicone is reacted with nitric acid and sodium hydroxide.
State the expected observations.
i) Magnesium oxide :…………………………………………………………………………………………………
ii)Aluminium oxide:………………………………………………………………………………………………….
iii)Silicones oxide:………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
e)State the acidic and alkaline properties of magnesium oxide, aluminium oxide and sulphur oxide.
i) Magnesium oxide:…………………………………………………………………………………………………..
ii) Aluminium oxide:…………………………………………………………………………………………………
iii)Silicone oxide:……………………………………………………………………………………………………..

Exercise …… page ……..

4.10: Transition Elements


a. Are situated between Group 2 and 13. Example Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Zn
b. Its show metallic properties :
- Shiny, conducts heat and electricity, malleable, high tensil strength, high melting point and density.
c. Special characteristics:
(i)Form coloured ions :[Act____ pg _____ ]
Example : Iron(III) Chloride – Brown , Iron(II)Chloride – Green and Copper(II)Sulphate - Blue
(ii) Form different oxidation numbers

(iii)Form complex ions :MnO4- , Cr2O7- , CrO4- , etc.

(iv)Useful as a catalyst in industries.


Iron : Haber process
Fe
N2 + 3H2 2NH3
Vanadium (V) Oxide :Contact Process
V2 O5
2SO2 + O2 2SO3
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-Do exercise…….. Pg……..
Enforcement Exercise pg…………

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