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...and a few words from Caroline... and others


MINIMAL PAIRS, LISTENING LISTS, AND MORE
for articulation and phonological therapy

When you have looked at the words below (and helped yourself, if you
like!) here are links to a few words from John in Shaftesbury, Dorset,
Freida in Albury, NSW, Australia, and Peter at Idaho State University at
Pocatello. For the budget conscious, Alan, Gillian and Helen at Black
Sheep Press in the North of England have an extensive range of pictures of
minimal word pairs in their photocopy free materials and worksheets.

IN THE FOLLOWING LISTS:


English spelling is used
The feature contrasts reflect Australian English pronunciation
SIWI = syllable initial word initial
SFWF = syllable final word final (see footnote)

MINIMAL PAIRS
singletons
Stops vs. Affricates Fricatives vs. Affricates
SIWI SIWI
tear - chair sore - chore
tease - cheese sum - chum
tin - chin sip - chip
top - chop sick - chick
talk - chalk sat - chat
ticks - chicks Sue - chew
tiled - child silly - chilly
tip - chip soak - choke
tips - chips suck - chuck
tore - chore sill - chill
two - chew search - church
PICTURES: here

Stops vs. Fricatives and Voiced vs. Voiceless Alveolar


Affricates SFWF Stops SIWI /d/vs. /t/
rat - rash
members.tripod.com/…/wordlists.html deer tear 1/14
2/23/2011 ...and a few WORDS from Caroline...and …
rat - rash deer tear
out - ouch die tie
write - rice din tin
cat - catch doll toll
late - lace door tore
hut - hush doze toes
mat - match dent tent
road - rose dead Ted
head - hedge dim Tim
hit - hiss PICTURES: here
coat - coach
PICTURES: here

Voiced vs. Voiceless Affricates Voiceless Velars


SIWI vs. Alveolars SIWI: /k/ vs /t/
jeer cheer car tar
joke choke core tore
jeep cheap cape tape
Jane chain cub tub
jaw chore cool tool
jump chump cap tap
jest chest key tea
gin chin call tall
Jess chess corn torn
PICTURES: here

Voiceled Velars Fricative Contrasts (triplets)


vs. Alveolars SIWI: /g/ vs /d/ sort fort short
gaze daze (days) sore four shore
gig dig sign fine shine
go doe (dough) sell fell shell
game dame seat feet sheet
gust dust PICTURES: here
gum dumb
gash dash
grip drip
grab drab
groan drone
gate date
got dot
Guy die (dye)
guide died
PICTURES: here

Final Consonant Inclusion Final Consonant Inclusion


tea team high hide
tie tide see seat
hoe hope shoe shoot
play plane she sheep
car calf cow couch
pea peep sore sort
shoe shoot sea seed
low load say save
PICTURES: here PICTURES: here

Final Consonant Inclusion

buy bike
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2/23/2011 ...and a few WORDS from Caroline...and …
buy bike
sew soap
ow! out
bee beach
pie pile
row road
moo move
car card
PICTURES: here

Initial Glottal Inclusion: /h/ Initial Fricative Inclusion: /f/


"A" hay arm farm
"E" he eel feel
"I" high in fin
"O" hoe air fair
("U" who - yoo-hoo) oar four
eye high ace face
air hair eat feet
old hold ill fill
eel heel oh foe
art heart ox fox
edge hedge ale fail
PICTURES: here PICTURES: here

Initial Velar Inclusion: /k/


Init Consonant Inclusion 'sh'
"R" car
shower hour
art cart
share air
ache cake
shy eye
oar core
shake ache
ape cape
shape ape
air care
shawl all
old cold
shell "L
aim came
shout out
ill kill PICTURES: here
arm calm
off cough
PICTURES: here

Initial Consonant Initial Alveolar Inclusion


Inclusion /s/ /t/
seal eel in tin
sell "L" eye tie
seat eat ache take
sad add aim tame
soak oak air tear
sold old ape tape
saw oar old told
soil oil art tart
sour hour PICTURES: here
PICTURES: here

Initial Consonant Glottal Fric vs. Alveolar


Inclusion Stop SIWI /h/ vs. /t/
us bus hop top
ape tape hall tall
out shout horn torn
eye pie high tie

eel peel
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hose toes 3/14
2/23/2011 ...and a few WORDS from Caroline...and …
eel peel hose toes
air chair hair tear
ache take hen ten
old fold hot tot
PICTURES: here PICTURES: here

Glottal vs. Labio-dental Fricative Glottal vs. Palato-alveolar


SIWI: /h/ vs. /f/ Fricative SIWI
hat fat hall shawl
hit fit head shed
hold fold horn Sean
hive five horn Shawn
hall fall harp sharp
horse force hop shop
hall fall hook shook
heel feel high shy
hole foal hut shut
hairy fairy heap sheep
PICTURES: here hoe show
hair share
heat sheet
hip ship
PICTURES: here

Glottal vs. alveolar Fricative Liquid vs. Fricative SIWI


SIWI: /h/ vs /s/ /l/ vs /s/
sauce horse line sign
soup hoop low sew
sold hold lock sock
side hide long song
sit hit lick sick
sand hand lip sip
suit hoot lend send
sole hole lift sift
soap hope lead seed
seat heat look sook
sip hip
seal heel
PICTURES: here

Liquids vs. Glides SIWI Fricatives vs. Glides SIWI


/r/ vs. /w/ /f/ vs. /w/
one run feel wheel
wig rig fig wig
wing ring fight white
wok rock fork walk
whale rail fall wall
wake rake fish wish
weed read feel wheel
witch rich full wool
wave rave fail whale
west rest fade wade
PICTURES: here

Fricatives vs. Glides SIWI Palato-alveolar Fricative vs.


/v/ vs. /w/ Affricates SFWF
mash match
vest west dish ditch
members.tripod.com/…/wordlists.html 4/14
2/23/2011 ...and a few WORDS from Caroline...and …
vest west dish ditch
veil whale wish witch
vine wine wash watch
vet wet cash catch
volley Wally hush hutch
veal wheel crush crutch
Vic wick marsh march
PICTURES: here

Palato-alveolar Fricative vs. Liquids vs. Alveolars SIWI:


Affricates SIWI /l/ vs. /d/
shops chops lots dots
shoes choose log dog
ships chips lazy daisy
share chair leap deep
Shane chain love dove
shin chin
sheep cheep
shock chock
PICTURES: here

Nasals vs. Liquids SIWI Labio-dental Fricatives vs. Stops


/n/ vs. /l/ SIWI: /f/ vs /d/
knead lead file dial
nip lip fish dish
night light fan Dan
name lame four door
knock lock five dive
neigh lay foam dome
no low fig dig
nine line
knot lot
nap lap
PICTURES: here

Alveolar vs. Palato-alveolar Alveolar vs. Labio-dental


Fricatives SIWI Fricatives SIWI: /s/ vs. /f/
suit shoot sold fold
sock shock sauce force
sore shore sort fort
sip ship six fix
sack shack sit fit
sour shower sole foal
seat sheet cell fell
Sue shoe sole foal
PICTURES: here sore four
PICTURES: here

Alveolar vs. Labio-dental /n/ vs. 'sh' SIWI


Fricatives SIWI: /s/ vs. /f/ gnaw shore
sun fun knee she
seed feed nip ship
sound found nine shine
seat feet neat sheet
seal feel nut shut

socks fox no show


members.tripod.com/…/wordlists.html 5/14
2/23/2011 ...and a few WORDS from Caroline...and …
socks fox no show
saw four knock shock
sunny funny
sat fat
sign fine
PICTURES: here

/w/ vs. /l/ SIWI /w/ vs. /l/ SIWI


wok lock why lie
wine line wake lake
weed lead wait late
white light weep leap
week leek wink link
weigh lay Wally lolly
wet let PICTURES: here
wick lick
PICTURES: here

Alveolar vs. Palato-alveolar /n/ vs. /s/


Fricatives SIWI SIWI
sign shine gnaw saw
sew show nine sign
sip ship nails sails
saw shore kneel seal
sock shock neat seat
PICTURES: here nip sip
knock sock
no sew

/n/ vs. 'ng' 'th' vs. /f/ SIWI


SFWF thin fin
Ron wrong thaw four
pin Ping thought fort
win wing thread Fred
thin thin thorn fawn
three free
thirst first

/v/ vs. /b/ SIWI


vase bars /l/ vs. /j/ SIWI
vest best lawn yawn
vat bat Lou you
V B (Vee-Bee) lap yap
vote boat less yes
van ban lucky yucky
vow bow luck yuck
PICTURES: here
very berry

NEAR MINIMAL PAIRS

singleton vs. cluster


members.tripod.com/…/wordlists.html 6/14
2/23/2011 ...and a few WORDS from Caroline...and …

/s/ vs. /sl/


/p/ vs. /sp/
leap sleep
pie spy
lip slip
peach speech
low slow
pot spot
pit spit
pin spin
pill spill

/s/ vs. /sk/ /s/ vs. /st/


sails scales sick stick
sip skip sack stack
see ski seal steal
sore score soup stoop

/t/ vs. /st/ SIWI /t/ vs. /st/ SFWF


take stake beat Beast
talk stork Bert burst
tar star wet west
tack stack coat coast
top stop goat ghost
tool stool wait waist
tick stick net nest
pet pest
feet feast
vet vest

/w/ vs. /sw/ /k/ vs. /sk/


wing swing key ski
weep sweep cat scat
well swell car scar
wheat sweet core score
witch switch cool school

/n/ vs. /sn/ /m/ vs. /sm/


nail snail Mog smog
knees sneeze mash smash
no snow mall small
nought Snort mile smile
nap snap Mac smack

/l/ Clusters /r/ vs. /tr/


low glow rash trash
lip flip ray tray
lap clap rim trim
loud cloud rain train
lock block rack track
leap sleep Rick trick
lean clean
lime climb
low blow
love glove

/r/ Clusters
root fruit /sk/ vs. /st/
members.tripod.com/…/wordlists.html 7/14
2/23/2011 ...and a few WORDS from Caroline...and …
root fruit /sk/ vs. /st/
rat brat scoop stoop
red bread school stool
rip drip scout stout
rain train score store
row throw sky sty
skate state
skill still
scamp stamp

MINIMAL PAIRS
voicing contrasts PICTURES: here

/k/ vs. /g/ SIWI /d/ vs. /t/ SFWF


cap gap cord caught
gate Kate Bert bird
game came wade wait
gum come wed wet
coat goat bad bat
coast ghost bead beat
cot got write ride
sat sad
sort sword
hid hit
pot pod
feet feed
wrote road
wheat weed

/k/ vs. /g/ SFWF /p/ vs. /b/ SFWF


peck peg cup cub
buck bug nip nib
pick pig cap cab
lock log lap lab
back bag rope robe
stack stag
tack tag

Voicing SFWF
peach beach
town down
fan van
pole bowl
peas bees
buy pie
bear pear
sip zip
pig big
tore door

CLUSTERS SIWI
/skr/ SIWI
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2/23/2011 ...and a few WORDS from Caroline...and …
/skr/ SIWI
scream screen scratch scrub screw

/str/ SIWI
stream string strawberries strum streetlight street strong straight struggle
stretch strict strain stripes

/kr/ SIWI
crash crawl crutches crab cry crayon crane crack crumb cross crew crow
crowd crown

/gr/ SIWI
green grass greet grapes grouch grow Grover great grin grill

/tr/ SIWI
triangle track trash tractor train treasure trick trumpet tree trolley truck trap
trio tray trim trophy

/dr/ SIWI
dream draw drive drum dragon dress drop drill drip drink

/br/ SIWI
Bradley Bruce Brett Brendan Brian bricks brown bronco branch bright
bread broken broom bride branches break breaking Bryony Brenda Briane
Bronnie Brianna

/sp/ SIWI
speech spill spit space spade spark Spice Girls spot sponge spud spoon
spider Spiderman spine spire spy

/st/ SIWI
steam stick stay stairs steps stag star stop stamp stone stork stoop sty
stir stool

/pr/ SIWI
prince princess pram prawn prune pretty proud price prize

/kl/ SIWI
clean Clag clock cloth clog club claw clothes clever close clown cloud
climb

/fl/ SIWI
fleece flea flip flake flame flag flat flash fly flock flute floor float flower

/sm/ SIWI
smell small smart smash smog smudge smoke smile

/sn/ SIWI
snail sneeze snip Sneeches snake snap snooze snow snore snort

Two "Cluster-Word" Lists


Consonant Cluster list

Clusters word final and within word


members.tripod.com/…/wordlists.html 9/14
2/23/2011 ...and a few WORDS from Caroline...and …

VOWELS AND
VOWEL CONTRASTS PICTURES: here

Vowel Contrasts 'er' vs. 'or'


bored bird / cord curd / Paul pearl / bought Bert / short shirt / torn turn /call
curl / lawn learn /walk work / warm worm / fawn fern / born burn / a bored
bird / a warm worm / a short shirt / a coarse curse

Regarding 'er'! In Australian English /r/ is not pronounced in pearl,


shirt, purse, etc.
pearl shirt purse purr bird burn burst term turn dirt curve girl fern fur third
thirst search serve sir shirt chirp church nurse nerd learn worm squirm
search hurt earth surf

Vowel Contrasts
cub cab / rush rash / cub cab /rush rash / truck track / bud bad / cut cat /
hut hat / mud mad / bug bag / cup cap / fun fan

Vowel Contrasts
duck - deck / bunch - bench / bug - beg / nut - net / money - many / bud -
bed

SINGLETONS SIWI
/p/ SIWI
pea peach peel peep pig pick pill Po pink paint paste pay peck peg pen
pest pet pan park poor pool post purr pie pile Piglet Pooh Percy

/b/ SIWI
bee beach bead bean beat big beak bin bear Barbie Barney Barney bell
'baby bird's balloon' 'baby bird' bed best back bus boot book ball bowl bone
bore bored Bobo bird bike buy bite Big Bird Babar but butt
bad bud beard bead bird bed

/t/ SIWI
teach tease team tent tick tin tip tail Ted tell tack tap top tape toe tie toll
talk torch tear tore tall town tight Tinky Winky Thomas Terence

/d/ SIWI
dig dip dish ditch Dipsy die deck duck doll dark dot desk door dome dirt
dial dice dive

/k/SIWI PICTURES: here


key king kiss cage Ken cake Kate case cab calf cow cash cap car card
corn comb come cool cook coach coast coat

/g/ SIWI PICTURES: here


members.tripod.com/…/wordlists.html 10/14
2/23/2011 ...and a few WORDS from Caroline...and …
/g/ SIWI PICTURES: here
goose game gate girl gum goat gold gown go ghost Gordon

/h/ SIWI PICTURES: here and PICTURES: here


he heap 'Rat in a Hat' Henry heat heel hill hip hit hiss hair head hen hand
hat heart hop hot hug hut hoop hush hook hoe hold high hole hose horse
hawk hope horn hide hive Happy

/f/ SIWI PICTURES: here


feast feed feel feet fig fin fit fish fair fall fan fat farm fast fun food foal foot
phone force fork four fern fight file fine fire five Fred

/v/ SIWI
vase vest vet van vat vote voice vine Vegemite 'Vera Violet Vinn'

/s/ SIWI PICTURES: here


seal sit seat sock seed sum sick sun sing suit sail sew same soap sell
soak sack sold sad salt sip sauce sink saw sea sort sword side Sam-I-Am
Celeste

/z/ SIWI
zip zoo zoom Zac zed zebra

'sh' SIWI
she sheep sheet shin ship shake shape shave shed shell shack shut
sharp shock shop shoot shoe shine shawl shore shirt short shout shy
Shawn

'th' SIWI
thief thick thin thing think thank thatch thong thud thumb thump thaw
thought third thirst thigh

'ch' SIWI PICTURES: here


cheep cheek cheese cheer chick chin chip chase chair chest chimp chat
chop chew choose chalk chore child Chitty-Chitty-Bang-Bang

'J' SIWI PICTURES: here


jeans jeep Jack jar jam jet jug jump juice jelly joke Jeff

/w/ SIWI
week weed weep wheat wheel whip wick wig win wind wing whale waist
wait wake wave weigh web wet well west wag one won wash watch wok
wood wolf walk wall Wilma warm whirl work worm world Wally Waldo
Wanda why wine wipe wire

/j/ SIWI PICTURES: here


year yell yes yak yap yacht yard young yuk yum you yolk yawn Yolanda

/l/ SIWI PICTURES: here


lead leap leaf lick leek lift lean Laa Laa lid lace lame late lay let lamb lap
last lock log love lunch lasso letter ladder look loaf load low long learn little

loud lion lie light line like lime Lulu


members.tripod.com/…/wordlists.html 11/14
2/23/2011 ...and a few WORDS from Caroline...and …
loud lion lie light line like lime Lulu

/r/ SIWI PICTURES: here


read rich rig rim Robin Rattie Rat ring rip wrist race rage rail rain rake ray
red rack rock Ron run roof room rope robe rose row Ronald wrong round
rice ride write Rin-Tin-Tin

The Teddies in Bananas in Pyjamas are Amy, Morgan and Lulu. The
Bananas are B1 and B2, and the other main character is The Rat in a Hat.

/m/ SIWI PICTURES: here


me meal mean meet Mickey Minnie milk mail make men man map march
mud moo moon move mouse mice

/n/ SIWI PICTURES: here


knead neat knit nib nip name nail neigh neck nap knock knot none nut
nose gnaw nurse noise knife nice nine

/b/ vs. /t/ and /b/ vs. /d/ CVCs


boat beat bite boot beet beat bat Bert bit bought bait

NO FINAL CONSONANT
in Australian English PICTURES: here

pea pay Pooh paw purr pie pow poi Pa


bee bay boo bore burr buy bow boy bar bow
tea two tore tie toy ta toe
"D" day do door die dough
key Kay coo core cur cow coy car
gay goo guy go
four fur far foe
"V" vie vow
sea say Sue sore sir sigh sow soy sew
zoo zee
she shoe shore shy show
he hay who her high how hoe
chew chore
"G" "J" jaw joy jar Joe
me May moo more my Ma
knee neigh gnaw now no
lay Lou law lie low
we way woo war why wow woe
ray roo raw rye Roy row

NO INITIAL CONSONANT
ape
up
ebb
eat
it

eight
members.tripod.com/…/wordlists.html 12/14
2/23/2011 eight ...and a few WORDS from Caroline...and …
out
ought
odd
Orc
add
aid
ache
oak
egg
if
off
ace
ass
"S"
us
ice
eyes
ash
each
itch
ouch
age
edge
urge
aim
"M"
in
on
urn
own
eel
ill
ale
all
owl
oil
ink
end
arm
old
PICTURES: here

BACKWARD CHAINING
"KING-WORDS" (Verbs) PICTURES: here
e.g., walking-king-talking-king-making-king- etc
walking talking making looking working taking baking hiking soaking
licking wrecking stacking breaking lurking

BACKWARD CHAINING: "KEY" PICTURES: here


e.g., monkey-key-donkey-key-Mickey-key-etc
monkey donkey Mickey lucky duckie hanky Blinkey wonky

MISCELLANEOUS
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2/23/2011 ...and a few WORDS from Caroline...and …

/ks/ SFWF: Third Person Regular Present Tense


licks walks picks wakes looks breaks soaks talks shakes works makes
checks peeks kicks bakes bucks locks

FOOTNOTE
SIWI, SFWF, SIWW, etc
In the branch of Clinical Linguistics called clinical phonology, the
abbreviations SIWI, SFWF, SIWW, SFWW, etc are used to describe
where sounds occur in spoken words. SIWI is "syllable initial word initial
position". In the word "ball", /b/ is SIWI. SFWF is "syllable final word final
position". In the word "rub" /b/ is SFWF. SIWW is "syllable initial within
word position". In the word "abound" /b/ is SIWW.

The terms are used to denote how the words are pronounced by an
individual, not the way you spell them, or the way they "should" be
pronounced. So, for example, when you break a word like "innocent" into
syllables with regard to how you might spell it you get inn-o-cent. But
when most speakers of English SAY the word it becomes (roughly!) ih-nu-
sent so that the /n/ is SIWW (not SFWW as it would be if you said in-uh-
sent).

Some speech-language pathologists use these abbreviations when they


look at "phonotactics" (the patterns of vowels and consonants a child can
produce such as CV, VC, CVC, CCV, CCVC, CCVCC, etc) in detail, as
part of a phonological analysis. The information is useful in choosing
therapy targets and devising word lists for production practice and auditory
bombardment (focused auditory input) when appropriate.

Page updated 23 Mar 2010

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