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Department of Marine Technology

STRUCTURAL DESIGN

AND STRENGTH ASSESSMENT

Prepared By

yahya@fkm.utm.my

Department of Marine Technology

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

81310, UTM Skudai

Johor Bahru, JOHOR

July 2005

Structural Design and Strength Assessment Note - 1/16

3.0 Introduction 1.0 Structural Design Process

Structural design is an important design task and The ship structure is design upon completion of lines

one of the most difficult parts in ship design that plan and general arrangement design as indicated in

often required deep understanding and vast Figure 1. Structural design is also an essential part of

experience. It requires good knowledge on ship production process as it provides important data for

structures and often involves a lot and tedious material ordering and costing. In general practice, the

calculation, initial estimation (guestimate) with little midship scantling of the ship is to be designed first

information, judgement and critical decision making. and the rests / detailing of the structures will be

Whilst strength is the most important aspect in derived from it. Midship scantling is also important to

structural design which is not to be compromised at determine the overall strength of the ship, which

any time, it is also important to consider the weight need to be known at the early of design stage. The

and function of the ship so that the ship can be design process may differ from one rule to another,

operated in cost effective manner. Therefore it is but generally it involves determination of rule

essential that the designer have a good exposure and dimensions, material selection, framing systems,

had gone through structural design exercise before determination of plating thickness and stiffener /

embarking on serious design project. frames sizes, midship scantling drawing and strength

assessment.

4.0 Aim of the Note

2.0 Midship Scantling Calculation

This note is written to facilitate the participants with Procedures Using Lloyds Rules

a brief guideline on how ship structures should be

designed based on the Lloyds Register Rules and The ship structures can be designed with three

Regulations. The details can be referred to the rules different approach; From first principles (rational

and the participant will be given a copy of the design), using rules and regulation / standards, or

selected part of the rule during the hands on project. mixed of both above. Design from first principles is

tedious and involves a large amount of man- hours. It

Structural Design and Strength Assessment Note - 2/16

often done for novel or military vessels. For Merchant assessment need to be carried out. In order to do this

ships, the structural design is normally designed accurately, first the midship scantling need to be

based on rules and regulation developed by drawn / sketched in scaled and all measurement

classification societies. The conventional rules use must be taken from this drawing. Then the overall

formula that were based purely on empirical data of section modulus of the ship structures or hull girder

previous good designs and often are overly designed. can be calculated using the standard procedures. The

The new approach, however, as in Lloyds Register, Hull bending strength and shear strength will be

had incorporated first principles calculation in the determined based on the hull girder section modulus.

formula especially in the strength assessment. This For local strength, the plate panel strength

will allow the designer to rationalize his/her design in assessment will be done using hull buckling strength

order to be more cost effective. criteria. The strength assessment procedure is shown

in Figure 4.

The midship scantling calculation procedures using

Lloyds Register Rules is shown in Figure 2. It Although the scantling formula used in Lloyds rules

basically involves determination of rule dimensions may differ form other rules, the basic concept and

measured from lines plan drawing, selection of calculation procedures in general, remain the same.

material properties, equipment number and design Therefore it is expected that once the designer has

loading appropriate to the required location. Once experienced in one particular rule, he/she will be

these basic data have been determined (same able to design in other rules without any difficulty.

procedure for all types of ships), the following

calculation will be based on the specific type of ship 5.0 Hands on Structural Design Project

being designed. As an example in Figure 2, the

general cargo is selected and the scantling design The participants will be given a hands on structural

involves calculation of plating thickness for deck, design task of a selected general cargo. The step by

shell envelope, scantling for deck and shell envelope step design procedure is given in Table 1. All the

stiffening members, bottom structures and necessary formula, calculation sheets, drawings and

bulkheads thickness and stiffeners sizes. Upon diagrams will also be given during the hands on

completion of midship scantling calculation, strength structural design project.

Structural Design and Strength Assessment Note - 3/16

DESIGN

RULE DIMENSION

REQUIREMENTS

MAIN EXPANSION

DIMENSIONS

LOADING CALCULATION

STRUCTURAL

HULL FORM SELECTION OF FRAMING SYSTEM

DETAILING

DESIGN

PLATING THICKNESS

HYDROSTATICS NESTING

CALCULATION STIFENERS SCANTLING

GENERAL TAKE OFF

ARRANGEMENT

STRUCTURES SCANTLING LIST

MATERIAL

MIDSHIP SCANTLINGDRAWING

PRELIMINARY COST

WEIGHT ESTIMATION

STRENGTH ASSESSMENT

Structural Design and Strength Assessment Note - 4/16

(Part 3, Chapter 1, Section 6.1- 6.8) (Part 4, Chapter 1, Section 1.5) MIDSHIP

SCANTLING DRAWING

DECK PLATING

EQUIPMENT NUMBER (Part 4, Chapter 1, Section 4.2)

(Part 3, Chapter 1, Section 7.1)

MIDSHIP

SHELL ENVELOPE PLATING SECTION MODULUS

(Part 4, Chapter 1, Section 5.1 – 5.4)

MATERIAL PROPERTIES

(Part 3, Chapter 2, Section 1.1- 2.1)

DECK STIFFENING HULL BENDING STRENGTH

(Part 4, Chapter 1, Section 4.3 – 4.4) (Part 3, Chapter 4, Section 5.1 –5.9

STRUCTURAL IDEALIZATION

(Part 3, Chapter 3, Section 3.1- 3.3) SHELL STIFFENING

(Part 4, Chapter 1, Section 6.1 – 6.4) HULL SHEAR STRENGTH

(Part 3, Chapter 4, Section 6.1 –6.7

BULKHEAD REQUIREMENTS

(Part 3, Chapter 3, Section 4.1- 4.4) BOTTOM STRUCTURES

(Part 4, Chapter 1, Section 7.1 – 8.5)

HULL BUCKLING STRENGTH

(Part 3, Chapter 4, Section 7.1 –7.5

DESIGN LOADING BULKHEADS

(Part 3, Chapter 3, Section 5.1- 5.3)

(Part 4, Chapter 1, Section 9.1 – 9.2)

Structural Design and Strength Assessment Note - 5/16

STEP TASKS

Preparing Data and Drawings (Lines Plan, GA, Hydrostatics, Capacity Plan etc). A sketch (scaled)

1

on Midship Frame Section is required based on Lines Plan and GA Drawing.

2 Preparation of Calculation Sheets – see examples in Table 2(a) and 2 (b).

Based on the GA and Lines Plan Drawing Determine the Rules Dimension, L, B, D, T, CB etc. Also

3 determine the weather /strength /freeboard deck as required by (Part 3, Chapter 1, Section 6.1-

6.8). Also calculate the Equipment Number based on (Part 3, Chapter 1, Section 7.1).

Select material to be used. For high Tensile steel or Aluminum, determine the Material Properties

4 Factors as in (Part 3, Chapter 2, Section 1.1- 2.1). These factors will be used throughout the

scantling calculation.

If Bulkheads Number and Location need to be checked, used (Part 3, Chapter 3, Section 4.1-

5 4.4) to determine the minimum number of bulkheads, position of collision bulkhead and aft end bkhd

arrangement. Transverse bkhds location need to be adjusted to the nearest frame location.

Loading Calculation – Based on (Part 3, Chapter 3, Section 5.1- 5.3), Determine the appropriate

6 design Load, design head, stowage factors etc for decks, tanks and bkhds. The design load must be

calculated based on the position (height) of the structures in consideration.

Structural Design and Strength Assessment Note - 6/16

STEP TASKS

7 Determining the Basic Data for calculation as required in (Part 4, Chapter 1, Section 1.5).

8 Longitudinals, Stringers, etc spacing need also to be selected. No specific formula is given, thus it

should be determined based on shipyard standard practices.

Calculation of Shell Envelope Plating Thickness (Keel, Bottom & Bilge, and Side Shell)as required

10

by (Part 4, Chapter 1, Section 5.1 – 5.4).

Calculation of Deck Stiffening Section Modulus for Deck Longitudinals, Beams, and Girders

11 based on (Part 4, Chapter 1, Section 4.3 – 4.4). The scantling of deck stiffening members should be

determined based on Structural Idealization as specified in (Part 3, Chapter 3, Section 3.1- 3.3).

Calculation of Shell Envelope Stiffening Section Modulus for Logituidinals or Transverse, and

Primary Structures based on (Part 4, Chapter 1, Section 6.1 – 6.4). The scantling of shell envelope

12

stiffening members should also be determined based on Structural Idealization as specified in

(Part 3, Chapter 3, Section 3.1- 3.3).

Structural Design and Strength Assessment Note - 7/16

STEP TASKS

Calculation of Bottom (Single or Double Bottom) Structures Plating Thickness and Stiffening

13 members Section Modulus as required by (Part 4, Chapter 1, Section 7.1 – 8.5). The calculation

includes Girders, Floors, and Inner Bottom Plating and Longitudinals.

Calculation of Bulkheads Platting Thickness and Stiffeners Section Modulus for watertight

14

deep tank bulkheads and Shaft Tunnel based on (Part 4, Chapter 1, Section 9.1 – 9.2).

STRENGTH ASSESSEMNT

Preparation of Scantling List, which should at least includes Name, numbers, sizes (thickness and

15 stiffeners scantling). See example in Table 3. This list will be used for strength calculation and

materials take off.

Preparation of Midship Scantling Drawing / sketches based on lines plan, GA and scantling list.

16 The scantling drawing should be drawn in scale. Clearly label the structures name and size. See

example Figure 3.

Calculation of Moment of Inertia and Section Modulus of the Hull Girders. Hull girder should

17 consists of all continuous longitudinal structures as specified in (Part 3, Chapter 3, Section 3.4). Use

Calculation Tables as shown in the example in Table 4 and the formula given Table 5 & 6.

Structural Design and Strength Assessment Note - 8/16

Determine the Hull Bending Strength by Calculation of Design Vertical Wave BM, Design Still

Water BM, Minimum section Modulus, Permissible Still Water BM, Permissible Hull

18 Vertical Bending Stress, Factors of reduction, and Minimum Moment of Inertia as required

by (Part 3, Chapter 4, Section 5.1 – 5.9). Strength is to be determine by comparing the required

minimum or permissible to the actual or design value.

Determine the Hull Shear Strength by calculating Design Wave SF, Design Still Water SF,

Design Shear Stress, Permissible Still Water SF, Permissible Shear Stress as required by

19

(Part 3, Chapter 4, Section 6.1 – 6.7). Strength is to be determine by comparing the permissible to

the design value

Determine the Hull Buckling Strength (Local Strength) by calculating or checking the Elastic

20 Critical Buckling Stress, Design Stress and comparing with Scantling Criteria as given by

(Part 3, Chapter 4, Section 7.1 – 7.5).

Based on the Strength Assessment, Modification of Structural Scantling may be required either

to increase the strength (in case of inadequate strength) or reducing strength (in case of excessive

strength / overly design). The modification can be in the form of adding/removing structures,

21

changing plating thickness or/and changing section modulus for stiffening members. It is

recommended that once modification has been carried out, the strength Assessment need to be

carried out once again.

Structural Design and Strength Assessment Note - 9/16

CALCULATION

NO ITEM (unit) SYMBOL FORMULA INPUT DESIGN REF

RESULT

Pt.3, Ch.3 - 5.2.1

1 General Loading - - - - -

(Table 3.5.1)

2 Weather Deck (Standard Cargo)

2(a) Frd. - 0.075L from FP

Design Load for Beam/Long

p 12.73

(KN/m^2)

Design Load for Prime Structure

p 29.64 + 14.41E

(KN/m^2)

T)-0.15 (Table 3.5.1)

but must 0.0 ≤ E ≤ 0.147

Equivalent Design Head -

h1 1.8

Beam/Long(m)

h1 4.2 + 2.04E

Structures(m) (Table 3.5.1)

Standard Stowage (m^3/tonnes) C 1.39

Permissible Cargo Loading

8.5

(KN/m^2)

Equivalent Permissible Head (m) 1.2

Structural Design and Strength Assessment Note - 10/16

CALCULATION

NO ITEM (unit) SYMBOL FORMULA INPUT DESIGN REF

RESULT

Pt.3, Ch.3 - 4.1.1

1 No of Bulkheads See Table 3.4.1

(Table 3.4.1)

2 : Ship Without Extending Part of Underwater Body more than LL (Other Than Passenger Ships)

2(a) Collsion Bulkhead Ship <= 200 m

Distance From Fore End of LL Pt.3, Ch.3 - 4.2.1

(m) (Table 3.4.2)

LL from Pt.3,Ch.1 -

Minimum 0.05LL

6.1.8

Maximum 0.08LL

Distance From Fore End of LL Pt.3, Ch.3 - 4.2.1

(m) (Table 3.4.2)

Minimum 10

LL from Pt.3,Ch.1 -

Maximum 0.08LL

6.1.8

Structural Design and Strength Assessment Note - 11/16

STRUCTURE Size Z

No.

DESCRIPTION Thickness (mm) Web (mm) (m From Keel)

Bottom Plate 6 - 0

Inner Bottom Plate 6 - 2.8

Deck Plate 8 - 10

Side Plating 7 - 6.15

Centre Girder 7.5 1 1.4

Side Girder 6 1 1.4

Long BKHD 6 1 6.4

bilge Plating 8 - 1.15

Margin Plate 6 - 2.55

Deck Longi L - 6x20x20 4 9.8

Side Longi -1 T - 6x15x15 8.3

Side Longi -2 T- 6x15x15 3 6.3

Side Longi -3 T- 6x15x15 4.3

Inner Botton Longi Bulb - 5x20x10 5 2.5

Bottom Longi Top Hat - 5x10x10 2 0

Bilge Longi -1 I – 6x15x15 0.43

2

Bilge Longi -2 I – 6x15x15 1.15

Structural Design and Strength Assessment Note - 12/16

8m

1.5m

DECK PLATE

t = 8 mm

DECK LONGL

A = 12 cm2

SIDE PLATE

t = 7 mm 2.0m

t = 6 mm

t = 6 mm SIDE LONGL 2.0m

A = 12 cm2

INNER BOTTOM LONGL

A = 12 cm2

CENTRE

GIRDER

t = 6 mm 0.5 m

1m 2m 1m 1m BILGE PLATE

t = 6 mm 2.0m

2.8 m t = 6 mm A = 10 cm2

2.3m

BOTTOM LONGL

2.5m A = 12 cm2 BILGE PLATE

t = 10 mm

BOTTOM PLATE

t = 10 mm 4m

Structural Design and Strength Assessment Note - 13/16

Calculation L

STRUCTURE t Z A 1st Mmt 2nd Mmt Io Angle h

NO 2 Type

DESCRIPTION (m) (mm) (m From Keel) (m.mm) (m .mm) (m3.mm) 3

(m .mm) (deg) (m)

1 Bottom Plate 4 6 0 24 0 0 0 HP

2 Inner Bottom Plate 5.5 6 2.8 33 92.4 258.72 0 HP

3 Deck Plate 4 8 10 32 320 3200 0 HP

Side Plating 7.7 7 6.15 53.9 331.485 2038.63275 266.311 VP

4 Centre Girder 2.8 7.5 1.4 21 29.4 41.16 13.72 VP

5 Side Girder 2.8 6 1.4 16.8 23.52 32.928 10.976 VP

6 Long BKHD 7.2 6 6.4 43.2 276.48 1769.472 186.624 VP

7 bilge Plating 4.61 8 1.15 36.88 42.41 48.77 16.33 IP 30 1.15

8 Margin Plate 2.54 6 2.55 15.24 38.84 99.01 0.31 IP 11.3 0.25

Deck Longi x 4

9 9.8 4 39.20 384.16 0 Sec

(4x10/10)

Side Longi -1

10 8.3 1.2 9.96 82.67 0 Sec

(1x12/10)

11 Side Longi -2 6.3 1.2 7.56 47.63 0 Sec

12 Side Longi -3 4.3 1.2 5.16 22.19 0 Sec

13 Inner Botton Longi x 5 2.5 4 10.00 25.00 0 Sec

14 Bottom Longi x 2 0 2.4 0.00 0.00 0 Sec

15 Bilge Longi -1 0.43 1 0.43 0.18 0 Sec

16 Bilge Longi -2 1.15 1 1.15 1.32 0 Sec

292.02 1228.00 8051.85 494.28

∑A ∑ 1s t Mmt ∑ 2nd. Mmt ∑ Io

Structural Design and Strength Assessment Note - 14/16

(a) ∑A Total Area = 292.02 m.mm

(b) ∑ 1 Mmt Total 1st. Moment = 1228.00 m 2.mm

st

(d) ∑ 2nd. Mmt Total 2nd. Moment = 8051.85 m 3.mm 80518.49 m 2.cm 2

(e) ∑ Io Total Io = 494.28 m 3.mm 4942.78 m 2.cm 2

(f) (d) + (e) Total I about Keel = 85461.27 m 2.cm 2

(g) (f) – (a)*(c)2 Total I about NA = 80297.28 m 2.cm 2

(h) Measure Height of Deck = 10.00 m

(h) – ( c) or (c )

(i) Max y (ydeck or Ykeel) = 5.79 or 4.21 5.79 m

whichever greater

(j) (g) / (i) Section Modulus (Half) = 13856.78 m 2.cm 2

(k) (j) x 2 Section Modulus (Full) = 27713.5562 m 2.cm 2

SF = SM actual / SM required = 2.66 Acceptable but overly designed

Structural Design and Strength Assessment Note - 15/16

TYPE 1 : Vertical Plate

Data Required and Calculation Diagram

L = Length (m) t

t = Thickness (mm)

Z = Distance of Centroid from keel (m)

A = Area = L x t (m.mm) L

1st . Moment = A x Z (m2 .mm)

2nd. Moment = A x Z2 or 1st Moment x Z (m3 .mm)

Io = Inertia Moment = L3 x t (m3 .mm) Z From Keel

Data Required and Calculation Diagram

L = Length (m) t

t = Thickness (mm)

Z = Distance of Centroid from keel (m)

A = Area = L x t (m.mm)

1st . Moment = A x Z (m2 .mm) L

2nd. Moment = A x Z2 or 1st Moment x Z

(m3 .mm)

Io = Inertia Moment = 0 (Negligible) Z From Keel

TYPE 3 : Inclined Plate

Data Required and Calculation Diagram

L = Length (m)

t = Thickness (mm)

h = Distance of Centroid to base = L/2 x Sin( θ ) t

Z = Distance of Centroid from keel (m)

A = Area = L x t (m.mm) L

1st . Moment = A x Z (m2 .mm)

2nd. Moment = A x Z2 or 1st Moment x Z h

(m3 .mm) θ

Z From Keel

Io = [A x (2xh) 2 ] / 12 (m3 .mm)

TYPE 4 : Sections

Data Required and Calculation Diagram

A = Area (m.mm)

= Area (cm2 /100)

= Area (mm2 /1000)

Z = Distance of Centroid from keel (m)

1st . Moment = A x Z (m2 .mm)

2nd. Moment = A x Z2 or 1st Moment x Z

(m3 .mm)

Io = 0 (Negligable) Z From Keel

Sections can be grouped together provided they

have the same centroid position (Z)

Structural Design and Strength Assessment Note - 16/16

Scantling Overall Strength Local Strength

RULE DIMENSION

Calculation of; Calculation of;

f) Design Wave Bending Moment a) Critical Buckling For Plate

g) Design Still Water Bending Moment b) Critical Buckling For Longi

ASSUMING INITIAL DESIGN

h) Minimum Hull Section Modulus c) Design Stress

VALUES & FACTORS

i) Permissible Still Water BM d) Scantling Criteria

j) Permissible Vertical BM

k) Local Scantling Reduction Factors

CALCULATION OF PLATES AND

STIFFENERS SCANTLING Comparison

Between Design

Comparison and Criteria

MIDSHIP SCANTLING Between Design and

NO YES NO

DRAWING / SKETCHES

Permissible

MIDSHIP YES

SECTION MODULUS & INERTIA YES Calculation of;

a) Design Wave Shear Force

b) Design Still Water Shear

Force

c) Design Shear Stress

d) Permissible Still Water SF STOP

CHANGING INITIAL DESIGN

VALUES & FACTORS

STRUCTURAL SCANTLING CALCULATION SHEETS

(Based on LLOYDS Rules and Regulation 1997)

Important Note

The calculation sheets used in this short course were designed for the purpose of

demonstrating the calculation procedures and examples of selected structures and

for a specific type of ship. Under no circumstances do they represent the complete

calculation process provided in the rules. All formula shown in the calculation

sheets should be checked with the formula given in rules.

Calculation Sheet – Rule Dimensions - 1

CALCULATION

NO ITEM (unit) SYMBOL FORMULA INPUT DESIGN REF

RESULT

1 Length (m) L Pt.3,Ch.1 - 6.1.1

2 Breadth (m) B Pt.3,Ch.1 - 6.1.3

3 Depth (m) D Pt.3,Ch.1 - 6.1.4

4 Draught (m) T Pt.3,Ch.1 - 6.1.5

5 Block Coef Cb Pt.3,Ch.1 - 6.1.6

6 Length Bet PP (m) Lpp Pt.3,Ch.1 - 6.1.7

7 Length Load Line (m) LL Pt.3,Ch.1 - 6.1.8

8 Block Coef at LL Cbl Pt.3,Ch.1 - 6.1.9

EqN = Disp^2/3 +

9 Equipment Number EqN

2BH+A/10

A = L x (H + Hss)

Area in Profile View

A Hss = Height of

(m 2)

SuperStrctures

Calculation Sheet – Material Properties - 1

CALCULATION

NO ITEM (unit) SYMBOL FORMULA INPUT DESIGN REF

RESULT

A : For Steel (Mild and High Tensile Steel)

2 Factor For Hull Girder KL

SM Pt.3,Ch.2 - 1.2.2

(Table 2.1.1)

3 Specific Min Yield Stress SigmaO

4 Factor For Local K or = 0.66 whihever Pt.3,Ch.2 - 1.2.3

Strength higher

B : Aluminum Alloy

1 Aluminum Alloy Types - - Pt.3,Ch.2 - 1.3

2 Yield Stress (N/mm^2) SigmaA (Table 2.1.2)

3 Thickness Equi Factor TeF (ka)^0.5*c

ka = 245/sigmaA

Pt.3,Ch.2 - 1.3.2

Factor c = 0.95 or 1.0

4 SM equi Factor SMeF ka*c

Calculation Sheet – Loading - 1

CALCULATION

NO ITEM (unit) SYMBOL FORMULA INPUT DESIGN REF

RESULT

Pt.3, Ch.3 - 5.2.1

1 General Loading

(Table 3.5.1)

2 : Weather Deck (Standard Cargo)

Aft of 0.12L from FP (KN/m^2)

p 8.5+ 14.41E

Structure

0.003L)/(D-T)-0.15 (Table 3.5.1)

but must L, D & T refer to

0.0 <= E <= 0.147 Pt.3,Ch.1 - 6.1.5

2(c)

Equi Design Head -

h1 1.2 + 2.04E

Beam/Long(m)

Equi Design Head - Prime Pt.3, Ch.3 - 5.2.1

h1 1.2 + 2.04E

Struct(m) (Table 3.5.1)

Standard Stowage

C 1.39

(m^3/tonnes)

Permissible Cargo Loading

8.5

(KN/m^2)

Equivalent Permissible Head

1.2

(m)

Calculation Sheet – Loading - 2

CALCULATION

NO ITEM (unit) SYMBOL FORMULA INPUT DESIGN REF

RESULT

4 : Cargo Deck

Pt.3, Ch.3 - 5.2.1

Standard Cargo Load

(Table 3.5.1)

7.07Htd

Design Load for All Structures Pt.3, Ch.3 - 5.2.1

p Htd (m) = Cargo

(KN/m^2) (Figure 3.5.1)

Head in Twee Deck

4(a) Equi Design Head (m) - All h1 Htd

Structures

Standard Stowage (m^3/tonnes) C 1.39

Permissible Cargo Loading

7.07Htd

(KN/m^2)

Equivalent Permissible Head (m) Htd

Pt.3, Ch.3 - 5.2.1

Mach Space, W/Syop and Stores

(Table 3.5.1)

Design Load for All Structures

p 18.37

4(c) (KN/m^2)

Equi Design Head (m) - All

h1 2.6

Structures

Standard Stowage (m^3/tonnes) C 1.39

Pt.3, Ch.3 - 5.2.1

Ship Stores

(Table 3.5.1)

Design Load for All Structures

p 14.14

4(d) (KN/m^2)

Equi Design Head (m) - All

h1 2

Structures

Standard Stowage (m^3/tonnes) C 1.39

Calculation Sheet – Loading - 3

CALCULATION

NO ITEM (unit) SYMBOL FORMULA INPUT DESIGN REF

RESULT

5: Accommodation Deck

Pt.3, Ch.3 - 5.2.1

Accommodation Deck

(Table 3.5.1)

Design Load for All Structures

p 8.5

(KN/m^2)

5(a)

Equi Design Head (m) - All h3 or 1.2 which ever Pt.3, Ch.3 - 5.2.1

h1

Structures greater (Figure 3.5.1)

6 : Superstructure Deck

(Table 3.5.1)

For F'castle deck Frd of 0.12 L

6(a) See Weather Deck (2)

from FP

6(b) Equi Design Head (m) - S/s Deck h1 h3

(Figure 3.5.1)

6( c) h1

Beams & Longl exposed)

6(d) h1

Beams & Longl exposed)

6(d) h1

Beams & Longl exposed)

Calculation Sheet – Loading - 4

CALCULATION

NO ITEM (unit) SYMBOL FORMULA INPUT DESIGN REF

RESULT

Pt.3, Ch.3 - 5.2.1

8 : Inner Bottom

(Table 3.5.1)

Ship Without Heavy Cargo Notation

p

& Stiffeners

Equi Design Head (m) - - Plate &

h1

Stiffeners

8(a)

Standard Stowage (m^3/tonnes) C 1.39

9.82T

(KN/m^2) Pt.3,Ch.1 - 6.1.5

Watertight Bulkhead

p 10.07h4

& Stiffeners (Figure 3.5.2)

8(c)

Equi Design Head (m) - - Plate & h4 = Appropriate

h1

Stiffeners Design Head

Calculation Sheet – Bkhd No & Collision Bkhd - 1

CALCULATION

NO ITEM (unit) SYMBOL FORMULA INPUT DESIGN REF

RESULT

Pt.3, Ch.3 - 4.1.1

1 No of Bulkheads See Table 3.4.1

(Table 3.4.1)

2 : Ship Without Extending Part of Underwater Body more than LL (Other Than Passenger Ship)

of LL (m) (Table 3.4.2)

Minimum 0.05LL

LL from Pt.3,Ch.1 -

6.1.8

Maximum 0.08LL

Distance From Fore End Pt.3, Ch.3 - 4.2.1

of LL (m) (Table 3.4.2)

Minimum 10

LL from Pt.3,Ch.1 -

6.1.8

Maximum 0.08LL

Calculation Sheet – Deck Plating - 1

CALCULATION

ITEM (unit) SYMBOL FORMULA INPUT DESIGN REF

RESULT

1 : Basic Input Data

1 kL

Factor - For Hull Girder

Pt.3,Ch.2 - 1.2.2

Higher Tensile Strength (Table 2.1.1)

Factor - For Local k

Strength

Spacing for Secondary

s

Stiffeners (mm)

Spacing for Primary

S

Members (m)

7.71x10^-2 x L Pt.4, Ch.1 - 1.5

Wave Head (m) CW

x e^(-0.0044L)

Calculation Sheet – Deck Plating - 2

CALCULATION

NO ITEM (unit) SYMBOL FORMULA INPUT DESIGN REF

RESULT

2 : Strength / Weather Deck Plating (Longitudinal Framing)

2(a) Outside Line of Opening

t = 0.001 x s1 x

Pt.4, Ch.1 - 4.2.1

Thickness (mm) t (0.059L1+7) x

(Table 1.4.1)

SQRT(FD/KL) OR

t = 0.00083 x s1 x

sqrt(LK)+2.5

Which ever Greater

FD = Scant Reduction

Pt.3, Ch.4 - 5.7.2

Factor

s1 = s but bot to less

than 470+L/0.6 or

700 whichever Lower

L1 = L but<=190

2(b) Inside Line of Opening

t = 0.00083 x s1 x

Thickness (mm) t

sqrt(LK)+2.5

But not less than 6.5

s1 = s but bot to less Pt.4, Ch.1 - 4.2.1

than (Table 1.4.1)

470+L/0.6 or

Calculation Sheet – Shell Plating - 1

CALCULATION

NO ITEM (unit) SYMBOL FORMULA INPUT DESIGN REF

RESULT

1 : Basic Input Data and Preliminary Calculation

Higher Tensile Strength Pt.3,Ch.2 - 1.2.2

kL

Factor - For Hull Girder (Table 2.1.1)

Higher Tensile Strength

Factor - For Local k

Strength

Spacing for Secondary

s Pt.4, Ch.1 - 1.5

Stiffeners (mm)

Members (m)

7.71x10^-2xLxe^

Wave Head CW

(-0.0044L)

Scantling Reduction

FD Pt.3, Ch.4 - 5.7.2

Factor above Neutral Axis

Scantling Reduction

FB

Factor below Neutral Axis

Calculation Sheet – Shell Plating - 2

CALCULATION

NO ITEM (unit) SYMBOL FORMULA INPUT DESIGN REF

RESULT

f1 =

f1

1/(1+(s/1000S)^2)

s1 Pt.4, Ch.1 - 5.3.1

than

(Table 1.5.2)

470+L/0.6 or

1(b) Preliminary Calculation

700mm Whichever

less

RB Bilge Radius (mm)

Pt.4, Ch.1 - 5.4.1

But hT1 <= 3.6T

(Table 1.5.3)

FM the greater bet

FM

FD and FB

Calculation Sheet – Deck Stiffening - 1

CALCULATION

NO ITEM (unit) SYMBOL FORMULA INPUT DESIGN REF

RESULT

Basic Input Data

Material Factor - For Hull

kL

Girder Pt.3,Ch.2 - 1.2.2

Material Factor - For (Table 2.1.1)

k

1 Local Strength

Spacing for Secondary

s

Stiffeners (mm)

Pt.4, Ch.1 - 1.5

Relative Density

Rho not to lee than 1.025

(Tonnes/m^3)

2 : Strength / Weather Deck Longitudinals

Outside Line of Opening

Z=0.043xsxkxhT1xle^2x Pt.4, Ch.1 - 4.3.1

Section Modulus (cm^3) Z

F1 (Table 1.4.3)

hT1 = L1/56 fo B-60

Ship

hT1 = L1/70 for B Ship

2(a) or 1.2 whicever greater

L1 = L but <= 190

le = span length >= 1.5 Pt.3, Ch.3 - 3

F1 = 0.25C1

C1 = 60/(225-165FD)

FD = Scant Reduction

Pt.3, Ch.4 - 5.7.2

Factor

Calculation Sheet – Deck Stiffening - 2

CALCULATION

NO ITEM (unit) SYMBOL FORMULA INPUT DESIGN REF

RESULT

4 : Deck Beams for Strength/weather, Cargo and Accomodation Deck

Strength / Weather Decks

Z=

Pt.4, Ch.1 - 4.3.5

Section Modulus (cm^3) Z (K1K2TD+K3B1sh1le^2)

(Table 1.4.5)

k/10^4 or

Z = 2K3B1skh1le^2

/10^4

K1 = Factor based on

Deck No

1 Deck = 20

2 Decks = 13.3

3 Decks = 10.5

4 decks or more = 9.3

4(a) K2 = Factor based on

Location

Bridge & Poop = 133

Elsewhere = 530

K3 = Factor based on

Beam

Adjacent to Ship Side =

3.6

Elsewhere = 3.3

B1 = B but <= 21.5

Pt.3, Ch.3 - 5.2.1

h1 = Weather Head

(Figure 3.5.2)

le = span length >= 1.8 Pt.3, Ch.3 - 3

Calculation Sheet - Stiffener Section Modulus - 1

bf

FACE

PLATE tf

dw tw

tp WEB PLATE

Calculation Sheet - Stiffener Section Modulus - 2

CALCULATION

NO ITEM (unit) SYMBOL FORMULA INPUT DESIGN REF

RESULT

1 Face Plate Area (cm^2) a bf*tf/100

bf (mm) = Flange Width

tf (mm) = Flange Thickness

See Figure Above

2 Web Depth (mm) dw

3 Web Thickness (mm) tw

Pt.3, Ch.3

4 Base Plate Area (cm^2) A 10*f*b*tp

- 3.2.7

Pt.3, Ch.3

f = 0.3*(l/b)^(2/3) But <= 1.0 - 3.2.1 (Table

3.3.1)

l (m) = (Dist of Primary

Pt.3, Ch.3 - 3.2.1

support)

Pt.3, Ch.3

b (m) = (Stiff Spacing) - 3.2.1 (Fig

3.3.2)

(l/b) = Ratio

tp (mm) = Base Plate

Pt.3, Ch.3 - 3.2.1

Thickness

a*dw/10 + tw*dw^2/6000 +

Section Modulus Built

5 Z (1+(200*(A-a)) / Pt.3, Ch.3 - 3.2.6

Section (cm^3)

(200*A+tw*dw))

Moment of Inertia about [bf*tf*(tf/2+dw+tp)^2 + Required in Pt.3,

6 Base With Attached Ia (tw*dw^3)/12 + tw*dw* Ch.4 - 7.3 (Table

Plating (cm^4) (dw/2+tp)^2] /10^4 3.3.1)

Calculation Sheet – Hull Girder Section Modulus - 1

NO Type

DESCRIPTION (m) (mm) (m From Keel) (m.mm) (m2.mm) (m3.mm) 3

(m .mm) (deg) (m)

Calculation Sheet – Hull Girder Section Modulus - 2

(a) ∑A Total Area = m.mm

(h) – ( c) or (c )

(i) Max y (ydeck or Ykeel) = or m

whichever greater

(j) (g) / (i) Section Modulus (Half) = m 2.mm

SM required = m 2.mm

SF = SM actual / SM required =

Calculation Sheet – Hull Bending Strength - 1

CALCULATION

NO ITEM (unit) SYMBOL FORMULA INPUT DESIGN REF

RESULT

1 Basic Input Data Pt.3,Ch.4 - 5.1.1

Higher Tensile Strength Factor - Pt.3,Ch.2 - 1.2.2

kL

For Hull Girder (Table 2.1.1)

Higher Tensile Strength Factor -

k

For Local Strength

f1 =1.0 for

Unrestricted Sea-going

Pt.3,Ch.4 - 5.1.1

f2 = -1.1 for saging (-

Wave Bending Moment Factor f2

ve) Moment

f2 = 1.9Cb/(Cb+0.7)

for Hogging

2 : Design Value

2(a) Design of Vertical Wave BM

Mw Mw = f1f2Mwo Pt.3,Ch.4 - 5.2.1

Mw for restricted (KN-m)

(sagging)

Mw Mw = f1f2Mwo

(Hogging)

Mwo (Kn- Mwo =

m) 0.1C1C2L^2B(Cb+0.7)

Calculation Sheet – Hull Bending Strength - 2

C1 for L <

C1 = 0.0412L +4

90

C1 for L C1 = 10.75-((300-

90-300 L)/100)^1.5

Pt.3,Ch.4 - 5.2.1

C1 for (Table 4.5.1)

300 C1 = 10.75

<L<=350

C1 for

C1 = 10.75-((L-

350

350)/150)^1.5

<L<=500

C2 for

C2 = 1.0 Pt.3,Ch.4 - 5.2.2

Midship

Mw

Mw for Sheltered Water (KN-m) Mw = 0.5f2Mwo

(sagging)

Mw

Mw = 0.5f2Mwo

(hogging)

Pt.3,Ch.4 - 5.2.2 -

5.2.4

Mw

Mw for short Voyage (KN-m) Mw = 0.8f2Mwo

(sagging)

Mw

Mw = 0.8f2Mwo

(hogging)

Calculation Sheet – Hull Bending Strength - 3

CALCULATION

NO ITEM (unit) SYMBOL FORMULA INPUT DESIGN REF

RESULT

2(b) Design Still Water BM

Accurate (KN-m) Ms

Loading Calculation

Approximate (KN-m) Ms

0.5)*9.81 - Tanker

Cs =[0.618+(110 –

L)/462]/100

Directly Calculated

SM at Deck (m^3) ZD

From Midship For Definition of

Long Continuous

See Pt.3,Ch.3 -

Directly Calculated 3.4

SM at Base (m^3) ZB

From Midship

Calculation Sheet – Hull Bending Strength - 4

CALCULATION

NO ITEM (unit) SYMBOL FORMULA INPUT DESIGN REF

RESULT

3 : Minimum or Permissible Value

3(a) Min Hull Section Modulus

Zmin =

Min Hull SM (m^3) Zmin f1kLC1L^2B(Cb+0.7)/

10^6

3(b) Permissible Still Water Bending Moment

Ms Bar Ms Bar =

Still Water BM (KN-m)

(Sagging) FDxSigmaxZDx10^3 - Mw

Ms Bar =

FBxSigmaxZBx10^3 - Mw

Whicever Less

Ms Bar Ms Bar =

(Hogging) FDxSigmaxZDx10^3 - Mw

Ms Bar = Pt.3,Ch.4 - 5.5 -

FBxSigmaxZBx10^3 – Mw 5.6

Whicever Less

FD (Start)

FB (Start)

Sigma

Sigma = 175/kL

(N/mm^2)

Calculation Sheet – Hull Bending Strength - 5

CALCULATION

NO ITEM (unit) SYMBOL FORMULA INPUT DESIGN REF

RESULT

Local Scantling Reduction

Vertical Bending Stress at SigmaD =(Msbar +

SigmaD Pt.3,Ch.4 - 5.7

Deck Mw)/ZD x 10^-3

3( c) Vertical Bending Stress at SigmaB =(Msbar +

SigmaB

Base Mw)/ZB x 10^-4

Reduction Factor at Deck FD FD = SigmaD/sigma

Reduction Factor at Base FB FB = SigmaB/sigma

4 : Strength Assessment

Section Modulus Criteria COMPLIANCE

Section Modulud Safety

SF1 SF1 = ZD/Zmin or Acceptable

4(a) Factor

SF1 = ZB/Zmin which

ever Less

Still Water BM criteria

SF2 = Msbar/Ms

Still Water BM Safety Factor SF2 Acceptable

(hogging) OR

4(b)

SF2 = Msbar/Ms

(Sagging) OR

Whichever Less

Reduction Factor Criteria

Reduction Factor SF3 for plating SF3 = FD/0.67 or Aceptable

SF3 = FB/0.67

whichever Less

4( c)

SF3 for

SF3 = FD/0.75 or Not Acceptable

Longitudinals

SF3 = FB/0.75 Use FB = 0.75 for

Whichever Less Longitudinals

Calculation Sheet – Hull Buckling Strength - 1

CALCULATION

NO ITEM (unit) SYMBOL FORMULA INPUT DESIGN REF

RESULT

Basic Input Data

Spacing for Secondary

s

Stiffeners (mm)

Pt.4, Ch.1 - 1.5

Spacing for Primary

S

Members (m)

Modulud of Elasticity

E E = 206000 For Steel

(N/mm^2)

1 SigmaO SigmaO = 235 Pt.3,Ch.4 - 7.2.1

(N/mm^2)

lamO =

Specific Sheer Stress lamO

sigmaO/sqrt(3)

kL

Factor - For Hull Girder (Table 2.1.1)

Factor - For Local k

Strength

Calculation Sheet – Hull Buckling Strength - 2

CALCULATION

NO ITEM (unit) SYMBOL FORMULA INPUT DESIGN REF

RESULT

2 : Elastic Critical Buckling Stress For Plating

Plating With Longitudinal Stiffeners

Original Plate thickness Selected Plating /

t Pt.3,Ch.4 - 7.2.1

(mm) Stiffeners

Standard Deduction for

dt

Corrosion (mm)

One side exposed - dt = 0.05t (Range 0.5 -

Vertical Plate (mm) 1 mm)

2(a) One Side Exposed - dt = 0.1t (Range 2 -3 Pt.3,Ch.4 - 7.2.1

Horizontal Plate (mm) mm) (Table 4.7.1)

Two side exposed - dt = 0.1t (Range 2 -3

Vertical Plate (mm) mm)

Two Side Exposed - dt = 0.15t (Range 2 - 4

Horizontal Plate (mm) mm)

Plate Thickness after

tp t - dt Pt.3,Ch.4 - 7.2.1

Deduction

Critical Buckling Stress

(i) SigmaE SigmaE = 3.6E(tp/s)^2

(N/mm^2) Pt.3,Ch.4 - 7.3.1

Critical Shear Stress LamE = 3.6[1.335+ (Table 4.7.2)

(ii) LamE

(N/mm^2) (s/1000S)^2] x E(tp/s)^2

(iii) 50 % of SigmaO 1/2sigmaO (ii) exceed (iii)

Correction Required

(ia) Critical Buckling Stress SigmaCR sigmaCR = SigmaO x

(1 - sigmaO/4sigmaE) Pt.3,Ch.4 - 7.3.1

LamCR = LamO x(1 - (Table 4.7.2)

(iia) Critical Shear Stress LamCR

LamO/4LamE)

Calculation Sheet – Hull Buckling Strength - 3

CALCULATION

NO ITEM (unit) SYMBOL FORMULA INPUT DESIGN REF

RESULT

3 : Elastic Critical Buckling Stress For Longitudinals

3(a) Section / Longitudinal Properties

Face Plate Area (cm^2) a a = bf*tf/100 See Figure Above

Flange Width (mm) bf

Flange Thickness after

tf

Deduction (mm)

Web Depth (mm) dw

Web Thickness (mm) tw

Base Plate Area (cm^2) A 10*f*b*tp Pt.3, Ch.3 - 3.2.7

f = 0.3*(l/b)^(2/3) But Pt.3, Ch.3 -

FactorD f

<= 1.0 3.2.1(Table 3.3.1)

Distance of Primary

l Pt.3, Ch.3 - 3.2.1

Support (m)

Pt.3, Ch.3 - 3.2.1

Stiffener Spacing (m) b

(Fig 3.3.2)

Ratio (I/b) (l/b)

Base Plate Thickness After

tp Pt.3, Ch.3 - 3.2.1

Deduction (mm)

Total Area (cm^2) At A + a + (tw*dw)/100

a*dw/10 +

Section Modulus Built tw*dw^2/6000 +

Z Pt.3, Ch.3 - 3.2.6

Section (cm^3) (1+(200*(A-a)) /

(200*A+tw*dw))

Calculation Sheet – Hull Buckling Strength - 4

bftf(dw+tp)^2 +

Inertia Mmt including twdw^3/12 + twdw

Ia

Bace Plate (cm^4) (dw/2 + tp) +

b/4x(tp)^3

St Venant's Inertia Mmt

It It = dwtw^3/3 x 10^-3

for Flat Bars (cm^4)

It = 1/3[dwtw^3

St Venant's Inertia Mmt

+bftf^3 x (1 - 0.63tf /

for Section (cm^4)

bf)] /10^4

Polar Inertia Mmt for Flat

Ip Ip = dw^3tw/3 x 10^-4

Bar (cm^4)

Polar Inertia Mmt for Ip =( dw^3tw/3 +

Section (cm^4) dw^2bftf) /10^4 Pt.3, Ch.4 - 7.3

(Table 4.7.3)

Sectorial Inertia Mmt Flat Iw = dw^3tw^3 /

Iw

Bar (cm^4) (36x10^6)

Sectorial Inertia Mmt Tee Iw = tfbf^3dw^2 /

Section (cm^4) (12x10^6)

Sectorial Inertia Mmt for

Iw = p x (q+r)/10^6

Other (cm^4)

p = bf^3dw^2 /

(12x(bf+dw)^2)

q = tf (bf^2 +

2bfdw+4dw^2)

r = 3twbfdw

Calculation Sheet – Hull Buckling Strength - 5

CALCULATION

NO ITEM (unit) SYMBOL FORMULA INPUT DESIGN REF

RESULT

3(b) Elastic Critical Buckling Stress

Column Buckling Stress SigmaE = 0.001ExIa /

(i) SigmaE

(N/mm^2) (AtxS^2)

Torsional Buckling Stress sigmaE =

(ii) SigmaE

(N/mm^2) 0.001EIw(m^2+k/m^2)/

(ipS^2) + 0.385EIt/Ip

Web Buckling Stress SigmaE = 3.8E

(iii) SigmaE

(N/mm^2) (tw/dw)^2

k = 1.03CS^4 x 10^4 / Pt.3, Ch.4 - 7.3

k

EIw (Table 4.7.3)

C = kpEtp^3 / [3s

Spring Stiffeness C

(1+1.33kpdwtp^3)

/ stw^3]

kp kp = 1-yp

yp yp = sigmaA / SigmaEP

as critical buckling stress

SigmaEP

of plate

to be selected from

m

Table 4.7.3

(i), (ii) and (iii)

(iv) 50 % of SigmaO 1/2sigmaO

exceeds (iv)

Calculation Sheet – Hull Buckling Strength - 6

Correction Required

Critical Column Buckling sigmaCR = SigmaO x

(ia) SigmaCR

Stress (N/mm^2) (1 - sigmaO/4sigmaE)

CriticalTorsional Buckling sigmaCR = SigmaO x

(iia) SigmaCR

Stress (N/mm^2) (1 - sigmaO/4sigmaE)

Critical Web Buckling sigmaCR = SigmaO x

(iiia) SigmaCR

Stress (N/mm^2) (1 - sigmaO/4sigmaE)

CALCULATION

NO ITEM (unit) SYMBOL FORMULA INPUT DESIGN REF

RESULT

4 : Design Stress

Longitudial Compressive

Stress (N/mm^2)

Minimum Compressive

SigmaA SigmaA = 30/kL

Stress

Minimum Compressive

4(a) SigmaA sigmaA = sigmaDxZ/ZD

Stress above NA

Minimum Compressive

SigmaA sigmaA = sigmaBxZ/ZB

Stress Below NA

Vertical Distance from NA Pt.3, Ch.4 - 7.4

Z Measure from dwg

to structure

Shear Stress

Initial estimation Design

LamA LamA = 110/kL

4(b) Shear Stress

Accurate Design Shear

LamA Based on Part 3, Ch 4, 6

Stress

Calculation Sheet – Hull Buckling Strength - 7

CALCULATION

NO ITEM (unit) SYMBOL FORMULA INPUT DESIGN REF

RESULT

5 : Strength Assessment

5(a) Scantling criteria for plate

Plate Buckling Factor Beta Beta = 1 Pt.3, Ch.4 - 7.5

Design Buckling Stress SigmaR Beta x sigmaA COMPLIANCE

Critical Buckling Stress SigmaCR as in 2(a) - (ia)

Safety Factor SF SigmaCR/sigmaR

Design Shear Stress LamA as in 4(b)

Critical Buckling Shear

LamCR as in 2(a) - (iia)

Stress

Safety Factor SF SF = LamCR/LamA

5(b) Pt.3, Ch.4 - 7.5

Longitudinal

Longitudinal Buckling

Beta Beta = 1.1

Factor

Design Buckling Stress SigmaR Beta x sigmaA

Critical Column Buckling

SigmaCR as in 3(b) - (ia)

Stress

Safety Factor SF SigmaCR/sigmaR

CriticalTorsional Buckling

SigmaCR as in 3(b) - (iia)

Stress

Safety Factor SF SigmaCR/sigmaR

Critical Web Buckling

SigmaCR as in 3(b) - (iiia)

Stress

Safety Factor SF SigmaCR/sigmaR

CALCULATED BY : DATE : SHEET NO : OF :

NO ITEM (unit) SYMBOL FORMULA INPUT CALCULATION DESIGN REF

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