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CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that Miss. Khushboo Singh a student of Master of Business


Administration, International institute of Professional Institute,Indore, has
successfully completed his project under my supervision and guidance.

During this period she worked on the project titled “LEADERSHIP IN 21ST CENTURY;
THE EFFECT OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE.” in partial fulfillment for the award of
degree of Master of Business Administration of Devi Ahilya Vishwavidhyalaya, Indore.
Her performance and conduct has been good throughout the period

I wish her all the success in life

Date: 20-04-2010
DR. JYOTI SHARMA

Place: Indore
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The satiation and euphonies that accompany the success completion of a


task would be
Incomplete without a mention of people who made it possible. So, with
immense gratitude, I acknowledge all those, whose guidance and
encouragement served as a beacon light and crowned my effort with
success. It would be my privilege to express my sincere and deep sense of
gratitude to Dr. Jyoti Sharma Mam ,Faculty of INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF
PROFESSIONAL STUDIES,DAVV, INDORE and my project guide for her
valuable guidance, untiring supervision and suggestions throughout the
project work period which were vital inputs towards the completion of the
project. Lastly, I would like to thank all my friends and my family who have
directly or indirectly helped me completing the project successfully.

KHUSHBOO SINGH
MBA (MS)VIIIth sem
Im/2k6/32

DECLARATION
I hereby declare that the Project report on “Leadership in 21st
century-the effect of Emotional Intelligence “is a record of independent
work carried out by me, towards partial fulfillment of the
requirements for MBA course of International institute of
professional studies,DAVV University,

Date: 20/04/2010
KHUSHBOO SINGH
Place: Indore
MBA (MS) 5yrs, 8th SEM
TITLE

“A STUDY OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LEADERSHIP AND


EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE”
CONTENT

CHAPTER-1 ABSTRACT

CHAPTER-2 INTRODUCTION

(2.1) EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE


(2.2) EVOLUTION
(2.3) THEORIES
(2.4) LEADERSHIP
(2.5) TYPES OF LEADERSHIP
(2.6) FOUR FACTORS
(2.7) LEADERSHIP MODELS
(2.8) TYPES OF LEADERSHIP
(2.9) LEADERSHIP THEORIES

CHAPTER-3 OBJECTIVE

CHAPTER-4 LITERATURE REVIEW

CHAPTER-5 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

CHAPTER-6 FINDINGS & DISCUSSIONS

(6.1) CORRELATION BETWEEN EI AND TOTAL


LEADERSHIP SCORE

(6.2) CORRELATION BETWEEN


EI AND
CONCERN FOR PEOPLE

(6.3) CORRELATION BETWEEN


EI AND CONCERN
FOR TASK
(6.4) ANALYSIS OF CORRELATION

(6.5) ANALYSIS OF PEARSON’S R VALUE AND SIG


( (2-TAILED) VALUE FOR CORRELATION.

(6.6) REGRESSION BETWEEN


EMOTIONAL
INTELLIGENCE AND CONCERN FOR TASK

(6.7) REGRESSION BETWEEN EMOTIONAL


INTELLIGENCE AND CONCERN
FOR PEOPLE

CHAPTER-7 CONCLUSION

CHAPTER-8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY


CHAPTER -1
ABSTRACT

This paper suggests that feelings (moods and emotions) play a central role in the
leadership process. More specifically, it is proposed that emotional intelligence, the
ability to understand and manage moods and emotions in the self and others,
contributes to effective leadership in organizations.

Today’s business environment is changing tremendously due to economic forces that


result in the redesign of systems and the thought process to speed up the work
effectively and efficiently. Emotional intelligence plays a critical role in our working lives
since the relationships we form are governed by rules of behaviour - of cooperation and
dominance, among others - that are triggered by our emotions. Being able to
understand emotional intelligence, and its impact on personnel and the organization, is
what makes an individual, at least in part, emotionally intelligent. Not surprisingly, then,
business leaders who can "embrace the emotional side of an organization will infuse
strength and meaning into management structures, and bring them to life.

Emotional intelligence has become increasingly popular as a measure for identifying


potentially effective leaders, and as a tool for developing effective leadership skills. This
paper states the effect of emotional intelligence on leadership style in the 21st century.
It is proposed that the emotional intelligence concepts of self-awareness, self-
management, social awareness, and relationship management contribute to enhance a
leader's sense of self and others in order to accomplish organization's goal.

The literature suggests that leadership skills in general and emotional intelligence in
particular, play a significant role in the success of executives in the workplace. This
argument, despite its popularity, remains elusive. This can be attributed to the fact that
although a few studies have provided evidence to support this argument, it has not
received an appropriate empirical investigation.

This study attempts to narrow this gap by empirically examining the extent to which
executives with a high emotional intelligence employed in the organizations effects their
leadership skills. The results indicate that emotional intelligence augments positive work
attitudes, altruistic behavior towards task and people. The result of the project indicates
that Emotional Intelligence and Leadership skills go hand in hand and is directly
proportional to each other.
CHAPTER -2

INTRODUCTION
Our World today has more civilized societies with ever expanding population, having
diversity in racial polarization, creed and gender. One common thread or feature in all
these people is that everyone has feelings and emotions, and emotions engender
emotional intelligence. We, being humans, are superior over other living creatures- we
can think, feel and rationalize. Because of that we are being deluded by many
behaviors, traits, perceptions, mindset patterns and attitudes. All these call for some
kind of set order where one can act and interact with one another in ways that are not
repugnant, but in harmony and with the decorum that portrays one to be civilized.
Leadership is a dynamic process of relationships building between individuals and
groups. The constant nourishing of individuals is at the core of effective leadership.
Effective leaders improve performance by assuming a level of competence and building
upon existing strengths. This paper briefly looks into the impact of emotional intelligence
on leadership.

The purpose of this paper is to propose relationships between emotional intelligence


and transformational leadership. In the current millennium, companies need leaders
who are able to operate in multicultural environments, are aware of global marketing
issues, and recognize the need for diversity because these will allow organizations to
remain competitive and survive in multicultural environments. Leaders around the world
need to consider personal, social, business, and cultural aspects of global literacy well
as social literacy issues such as, trust, listening, constructive impatience, connective
teaching, and collaborative individualism. In addition, the business literacy must include,
among other skills, the ability to create leaders, manage difficult situations, and be a
real link between leaders and followers. In short, global literacy and social literacy relate
to emotional intelligence through motivation, adeptness in relationships, and self
regulation of emotions.

Furthermore, emotional intelligence is gaining legitimacy due to studies that support its
theories as a valid construct. In fact, in the current millennium there will exist a very
competitive environment not only within boundaries but also in a global market.
Investigators are eager to obtain answers to how leaders can be more successful in an
ever changing business environment. Moreover, leaders who want to improve their
knowledge of EI must begin with an accurate analysis of one's self awareness because
it constitutes the main basis that supports EI theories. Therefore, executive coaches
have found success in those organizations that have seen in EI the back bone in total
organization.

In short, organizations that choose EI as a real framework to achieve goals will get
returns on their investment. The more comprehensive skill sets a leader uses, the better
environment to work will be created, thereby; benefits will also appear as a real
consequence. Employees not only will be happy to share their own emotions, but also
to contribute their best effort to accomplish the company's objectives. The interest in
emotional intelligence has been escalating since 1990. We have attempted to provide a
conceptual model linking the ingredients of emotional intelligence, social information
processing, and goal setting theories in influencing the work place effectiveness
outcomes. Providing such linkages is essential if the field is to integrate knowledge
across topical areas of organizational behavior and human relations.

2.1 EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE:-

It is very evident to say that without the preferences reflected by positive


and negative self, our experiences would be a neutral gray. In this situation,
we would never care what is happening to us or what we will do with us and
others. And because of these reasons Emotional Intelligence holds
significance. Emotional Intelligence deals with the cognitive aspects of life.
The general trends of management like leadership, group performance,
social exchange and managing change is supported by emotional intelligence
today to raise the level of social and emotional competence in an individual.

Emotional intelligence (EI) is defined as one's ability to manage and monitor one's own
emotions; recognize different types of emotions in others; distinguish the difference
between one's emotions and those of others; and possess the ability to direct
information towards one's decision making actions. In fact, EI has been identified as a
real measure for distinguishing superior leadership skills and abilities, and in recent
years has become an important topic in social and organizational science. Moreover,
the influence of emotional intelligence on popular culture and the academic community
has been rapidly growing. Therefore, the study of EI has stimulated a great number of
research initiatives under a wide range of psychological patterns that have created a
gap between what we know and what we need to know . In the same way, emotional
intelligence has caught the attention of business leaders and scholars; and its concepts
are within an area of interest for executive development consultants. While technical
skills and core competencies are essential for sustainable competitive advantage, the
ability to outperform other organizations largely depends on how employees manage
their relationships with others.

In other words, emotional intelligence helps an organization commit to a basic strategy,


build relationships inside and outside that offer competitive advantage, promote
innovation and risk taking, provide a platform to shared learning, maintain balance
between the human and financial side of the company's agenda, and develop open
communication and trust-building among employees and leaders. Research suggests
that leaders possessing EI create a work climate that further develops EI at the
subordinate level. Although some researchers point out that EI helps in building a
successful organization, to date very little has been done to explain the mechanism
through which EI increases work-place effectiveness. More precisely, EI is proposed as
an antecedent of transformational leadership behaviors. EI enhances workplace
performance by enhancing a leader's transformational leadership behaviors.

2.2 EVOLUTION

The term Emotional Intelligence is defined in very common terms as a ability, capacity,
or skill to perceive, assess, and manage the emotions of one's self, of others, and of
groups. The evolution of Emotional Intelligence goes as follows: it has its roots in the
concept of "social intelligence," first identified by E.L. Thorndike in 1920. Psychologists
have discovered three types of intelligences and have grouped them mainly into three
clusters: abstract intelligence (the ability to understand and manipulate with verbal and
mathematic symbols), concrete intelligence (the ability to understand and manipulate
with objects), and social intelligence (the ability to understand and relate to people).
This includes inter and intrapersonal intelligences.

Social intelligence is defined as "the ability to understand and manage men and women,
boys and girls -- to act wisely in human relations." These two intelligences comprise
social intelligence and are defines as -Interpersonal intelligence is the ability to
understand other people: what motivates them, how they work individually and
cooperatively. Many successful salespeople, politicians, teachers, clinicians, and
religious leaders are generally the individuals with high degrees of interpersonal
intelligence. Intra personal intelligence is a correlative ability, turned inward. It is a
capacity which forms an accurate model for oneself and makes that model usable so
that it can operate effectively in the life. Inter and Intrapersonal intelligence involves
abilities that may be categorized into four dimensions:

Self-awareness: This means observing yourself and recognizing all the feelings as and
when it happens.

Managing emotions: This refers to handling feelings and sentiments; realizing what is
behind those feeling and finding ways to handle fears and anxieties, anger, and
sadness.

Motivating oneself: This means moving the flow of emotions in line with the goals;
emotional self control; delaying gratification and controlling impulses.

Empathy: This refers to seeing things with other point of views; sensitivity to others'
feelings and concerns and taking their perspectives.

Goleman is the father of emotional intelligence who wrote a book on Emotional


Intelligence proved tha Emotional Intelligence is twice as important as technical skills
and cognitive abilities for leadership jobs at all levels of an organization. Intellect
remained a driver of outstanding performance, and cognitive skills such as big picture
thinking and long-term vision were also important, but mainly as “threshold capabilities”:
entry level requirements for executive positions. Goleman listed five components of
emotional intelligence that an effective leader exhibits: self-awareness, self-regulation,
motivation, empathy, and social skill.

Self-awareness means having a deep understanding of one’s emotions, strengths,


weaknesses, needs, and drives, as well as their effect on others. Characteristics of a
self-aware individual include self-confidence, realistic self-assessment, and a self-
depreciating sense of humor. Self-regulation is the ability to control or redirect disruptive
impulses and moods and the propensity to suspend judgment--to think before acting.
Characteristics include trustworthiness, integrity, and comfort with ambiguity, and
openness to change. Motivation, the third component, is defined as a passion to work
for reasons that go beyond money or status, with a propensity to pursue goals with
energy and persistence. Characteristics of a motivated emotionally intelligent leader are
strong desire to achieve, optimism--even in the face of failure--and organizational
commitment. Empathy, the fourth component, is the ability to understand the emotional
makeup of other people, with skill in treating people according to their emotional
reactions. Characteristics include service to clients and customers, cross-cultural
sensitivity, and expertise in building and retaining talent. Social skill, the final component
of EI, is proficiency in managing relationships and building networks, with an ability to
find common ground and build rapport. Characteristics include effectiveness in leading
change, persuasiveness, and expertise in building and leading teams.

2.3 THEORIES:-

Many researches are being done in the field of Emotional Intelligence by


many researchers and Up to the present day, there are three main models of
EI:

1. Ability-based EI models

2. Mixed models of EI

3. Trait EI model
The ability-based model

Salovey and Mayer's conception of EI strives to define EI within the confines


of the standard criteria for a new intelligence. Following their continuing
research, their initial definition of EI was revised to: "The ability to perceive
emotion, integrate emotion to facilitate thought, understand emotions and to
regulate emotions to promote personal growth."The ability based model
views emotions as useful sources of information that help one to make sense
of and navigate the social environment. The model proposes that individuals
vary in their ability to process information of an emotional nature and in their
ability to relate emotional processing to a wider cognition. This ability is seen
to manifest itself in certain adaptive behaviors. The model proposes that EI
includes 4 types of abilities:

 Perceiving emotions — the ability to detect and decipher emotions


in faces, pictures, voices, and cultural artifacts- including the ability to
identify one’s own emotions. Perceiving emotions represents a basic
aspect of emotional intelligence, as it makes all other processing of
emotional information possible.

 Using emotions — the ability to harness emotions to facilitate various


cognitive activities, such as thinking and problem solving. The
emotionally intelligent person can capitalize fully upon his or her
changing moods in order to best fit the task at hand.

 Understanding emotions — the ability to comprehend emotion


language and to appreciate complicated relationships among
emotions. For example, understanding emotions encompasses the
ability to be sensitive to slight variations between emotions, and the
ability to recognize and describe how emotions evolve over time.

 Managing emotions — the ability to regulate emotions in both


ourselves and in others. Therefore, the emotionally intelligent person
can harness emotions, even negative ones, and manage them to
achieve intended goals.

Measurement of the ability-based model

Different models of EI have led to the development of various instruments for


the assessment of the construct. While some of these measures may
overlap, most researchers agree that they tap slightly different constructs.
The current measure of Mayer and Salovey’s model of EI, the Mayer-Salovey-
Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) is based on a series of emotion-
based problem-solving items. Consistent with the model's claim of EI as a
type of intelligence, the test is modeled on ability based IQ tests. By testing
a person’s abilities on each of the four branches of
Emotional intelligence, it generates scores for each of the branches as well
as a total score. Central to the four-branch model is the idea that EI requires
atonement to social norms. Therefore, the MSCEIT is scored in a consensus
fashion, with higher scores indicating higher overlap between an individual’s
answers and those provided by a worldwide sample of respondents. The
MSCEIT can also be expert-scored, so that the amount of overlap is
calculated between an individual’s answers and those provided by a group of
21 emotion researchers.

Mixed models of EI

The Emotional Competencies (Goleman) model

The model introduced by Daniel Goleman focuses on EI as a wide array of


competencies and skills that drive leadership performance. Goleman's model
outlines four main EI constructs:

 Self-awareness — the ability to read one's emotions and recognize


their impact while using gut feelings to guide decisions.

 Self-management — involves controlling one's emotions and


impulses and adapting to changing circumstances.

 Social awareness — the ability to sense, understand, and react to


others' emotions while comprehending social networks.

 Relationship management — the ability to inspire, influence, and


develop others while managing conflict. Goleman includes a set of
emotional competencies within each construct of EI. Emotional
competencies are not innate talents, but rather learned capabilities
that must be worked on and developed to achieve outstanding
performance. Goleman posits that individuals are born with a general
emotional intelligence that determines their potential for learning
emotional competencies. Goleman's model of EI has been criticized in
the research literature as mere pop-psychology.
Measurement of the Emotional Competencies
(Goleman) model

Two measurement tools are based on the Goleman model:

 The Emotional Competency Inventory (ECI) which was created in 1999


and the Emotional and Social Competency Inventory (ESCI), which was
created in 2007.

 The Emotional Intelligence Appraisal, which was created in 2001 and


which can be taken as a self-report or 360-degree assessment.

The Bar-On model of Emotional-Social Intelligence


(ESI)

Reuven Bar-On (2006) developed one of the first measures of EI that used
the term Emotion Quotient. He defines emotional intelligence as being
concerned with effectively understanding oneself and others, relating well to
people, and adapting to and coping with the immediate surroundings to be
more successful in dealing with environmental demands. Bar-On posits that
EI develops over time and that it can be improved through training,
programming and therapy. Bar-On hypothesizes that those individuals with
higher than average E.Q.’s are in general more successful in meeting
environmental demands and pressures. He also notes that a deficiency in EI
can mean a lack of success and the existence of emotional problems.

Problems in coping with one’s environment are thought, by Bar-On, to be


especially common among those individuals lacking in the subscales of
reality testing, problem solving, stress tolerance, and impulse control. In
general, Bar-On considers emotional intelligence and cognitive intelligence
to contribute equally to a person’s general intelligence, which then offers an
indication of one’s potential to succeed in life. However, doubts have been
expressed about this model in the research literature (in particular about the
validity of self-report as an index of emotional intelligence) and in scientific
settings it is being replaced by the trait emotional intelligence (trait EI)
model discussed below.
Measurement of the ESI Model

The Bar-On Emotion Quotient Inventory (EQ-i) is a self-report measure of EI


developed as a measure of emotionally and socially competent behavior that
provides an estimate of one's emotional and social intelligence. The EQ-I is
not meant to measure personality traits or cognitive capacity, but rather the
mental ability to be successful in dealing with environmental demands and
pressures. One hundred and thirty three items (questions or factors) are
used to obtain a Total EQ (Total Emotion Quotient) and to produce five
composite scale scores, corresponding to the five main components of the
Bar-On model. A limitation of this model is that it claims to measure some
kind of ability through self-report items. The EQ-i has been found to be highly
susceptible to faking.

3. The Trait EI model

Petridis et al. proposed a conceptual distinction between the ability based model and a
trait based model of EI. Trait EI is "a constellation of emotion-related self-perceptions
located at the lower levels of personality". In lay terms, trait EI refers to an individual's
self-perceptions of their emotional abilities. This definition of EI encompasses
behavioral dispositions and self perceived abilities and is measured by self report, as
opposed to the ability based model which refers to actual abilities, which have proven
highly resistant to scientific measurement. Trait EI should be investigated within a
personality framework. An alternative label for the same construct is trait emotional self-
efficacy.

The trait EI model is general and subsumes the Goleman and Bar-On models discussed
above. Petridis et al. are major critics of the ability-based model and the MSCEIT
arguing that they are based on "psychometrically Meaningless" scoring procedures
(e.g., Petrides, Furnham, & Mavroveli,). The conceptualization of EI as a personality
trait leads to a construct that lies outside the taxonomy of human cognitive ability. This
is an important distinction in as much as it bears directly on the operationalization of the
construct and the theories and hypotheses that are formulated about it.

Measurement of the Trait EI model


There are many self-report measures of EI, including the EQ, the Swinburne University
Emotional Intelligence Test (SUEIT), the Six Seconds Emotional Intelligence
Assessment (SEI), the Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence Test (SSEIT), a test
by Tett, Fox, and Wang. (2005) From the perspective of the trait EI model, none of
these assess intelligence, abilities, or skills (as their authors often claim), but rather,
they are limited measures of trait emotional intelligence (Petrides, Furnham, &
Mavroveli). The Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue) is an open-access
measure that was specifically designed to measure the construct comprehensively and
is currently available in 15 languages.

The TEIQue provides an operationalization for Petridis and colleagues' model that
conceptualizes EI in terms of personality. The test encompasses 15 subscales
organized under four factors: Well-Being, Self-Control, Emotionality, and Sociability.
The psychometric properties of the TEIQue were investigated in a recent study on a
French-Speaking Population, where it was reported that TEIQue scores were globally
normally distributed and reliable. The researchers also found TEIQue scores were
unrelated to nonverbal reasoning (Raven’s matrices), which they interpreted as support
for the personality trait view of EI (as opposed to a form of intelligence). As expected,
TEIQue scores were positively related to some of the Big Five personality traits
(extraversion, agreeableness, openness, conscientiousness) as well as inversely
related to others.

2.4 LEADERSHIP:-

Leadership is the art of motivating a group of people to act towards achieving a


common goal. Put even more simply, the leader is the inspiration and director of the
action. He or she is the person in the group that possesses the combination of
personality and skills that makes others want to follow his or her direction.

2.5 TYPES OF LEADERSHIP:-

Transactional Leadership Transformational Leadership

 Builds on man’s need to get a job  Builds on a man’s need for


done and make a living. meaning.

 Is preoccupied with power and  Is preoccupied with purposes and


position, politics and perks and is values, morals, and ethics.
mired in daily affairs.
 Transcends daily affairs and is
 Is short-term and hard data orientated toward long-term goals
orientated and Focuses on without compromising human
tactical issues and relies on values and principles.
human relations to lubricate
human interactions.  Focuses more on missions and
strategies and Releases human
 Follows and fulfils role potential – identifying and
expectations by striving to work developing new talent.
effectively within current systems
 Designs and redesigns jobs to
 Supports structures and systems make them meaningful and
that reinforce the bottom line, challenging.
maximise efficiency, and
guarantee short-term profits  Aligns internal structures and
systems to reinforce overarching
values and goals

2.6 FOUR FACTORS OF LEADERSHIP:-

Leader
One must have an honest understanding of who you are, what you know, and what you
can do. Also, note that it is the followers, not the leader or someone else who
determines if the leader is successful. If they do not trust or lack confidence in their
leader, then they will be uninspired. To be successful you have to convince your
followers, not yourself or your superiors, that you are worthy of being followed.

Followers
Different people require different styles of leadership. For example, a new hire requires
more supervision than an experienced employee. A person who lacks motivation
requires a different approach than one with a high degree of motivation. You must know
your people! The fundamental starting point is having a good understanding of human
nature, such as needs, emotions, and motivation. You must come to know your
employees' be, know, and do attributes.
Communication
One lead through two-way communication. Much of it is nonverbal. For instance, when
you "set the example," that communicates to your people that you would not ask them
to perform anything that you would not be willing to do. What and how you communicate
either builds or harms the relationship between you and your employees.

Situation
All situations are different. What you do in one situation will not always work in another.
You must use your judgment to decide the best course of action and the leadership
style needed for each situation. For example, you may need to confront an employee for
inappropriate behavior, but if the confrontation is too late or too early, too harsh or too
weak, then the results may prove ineffective.

Also note that the situation normally has a greater effect on a leader's action than his or
her traits. This is because while traits may have an impressive stability over a period of
time, they have little consistency across situations.

Various forces will affect these four factors. Examples of forces are your relationship
with your seniors, the skill of your followers, the informal leaders within your
organization, and how your organization is organized.

2.7 LEADERSHIP MODELS


Leadership models help us to understand what makes leaders act the way they do. The
ideal is not to lock oneself in to a type of behavior discussed in the model, but to realize
that every situation calls for a different approach or behavior to be taken. Two models
will be discussed, the Four Framework Approach and the Managerial Grid.

Four Framework Approach


In the Four Framework Approach, Bolman and Deal (1991) suggest that leaders display
leadership behaviors in one of four types of frameworks: Structural, Human Resource,
Political, or Symbolic.

This model suggests that leaders can be put into one of these four categories and there
are times when one approach is appropriate and times when it would not be. That is,
any style can be effective or ineffective, depending upon the situation. Relying on only
one of these approaches would be inadequate, thus we should strive to be conscious of
all four approaches, and not just depend on one or two. For example, during a major
organization change, a Structural leadership style may be more effective than a
Symbolic leadership style; during a period when strong growth is needed, the Symbolic
approach may be better. We also need to understand ourselves as each of us tends to
have a preferred approach. We need to be conscious of this at all times and be aware
of the limitations of just favoring one approach.

Structural Framework
In an effective leadership situation, the leader is a social architect whose leadership
style is analysis and design. While in an ineffective leadership situation, the leader is a
petty tyrant whose leadership style is details. Structural Leaders focus on structure,
strategy, environment, implementation, experimentation, and adaptation.
Human Resource Framework
In an effective leadership situation, the leader is a catalyst and servant whose
leadership style is support, advocating, and empowerment. while in an ineffective
leadership situation, the leader is a pushover, whose leadership style is abdication and
fraud. Human Resource Leaders believe in people and communicate that belief; they
are visible and accessible; they empower, increase participation, support, share
information, and move decision making down into the organization.

Political Framework
In an effective leadership situation, the leader is an advocate, whose leadership style is
coalition and building. While in an ineffective leadership situation, the leader is a hustler,
whose leadership style is manipulation? Political leaders clarify what they want and
what they can get; they assess the distribution of power and interests; they build
linkages to other stakeholders, use persuasion first, then use negotiation and coercion
only if necessary.

Symbolic Framework
In an effective leadership situation, the leader is a prophet, whose leadership style is
inspiration. While in an ineffective leadership situation, the leader is a fanatic or fool,
whose leadership style is smoke and mirrors. Symbolic leaders view organizations as a
stage or theater to play certain roles and give impressions; these leaders use symbols
to capture attention; they try to frame experience by providing plausible interpretations
of experiences; they discover and communicate a vision.

Managerial Grid

The Blake and Mouton Managerial Grid (1985) uses two axes:
1. "Concern for people" is plotted using the vertical axis
2. "Concern for task or results" is plotted along the horizontal axis.

They both have a range of 0 to 9. The notion that just two dimensions can describe a
managerial behavior has the attraction of simplicity. These two dimensions can be
drawn as a graph or grid:

Most people fall somewhere near the middle of the two axes — Middle of the Road. But,
by going to the extremes, that is, people who score on the far end of the scales, we
come up with four types of leaders:

 Authoritarian — strong on tasks, weak on people skills.


 Country Club — strong on people skills, weak on tasks.
 Impoverished — weak on tasks, weak on people skills.
 Team Leader — strong on tasks, strong on people skills.

The goal is to be at least in the Middle of the Road but preferably a Team Leader —
that is, to score at least between a 5,5 to 9,9.

Authoritarian Leader
(high task, low relationship)
People who get this rating are very much task oriented and are hard on their workers
(autocratic). There is little or no allowance for cooperation or collaboration. Heavily task
oriented people display these characteristics: they are very strong on schedules; they
expect people to do what they are told without question or debate; when something
goes wrong they tend to focus on who is to blame rather than concentrate on exactly
what is wrong and how to prevent it; they are intolerant of what they see as dissent (it
may just be someone's creativity), so it is difficult for their subordinates to contribute or
develop.

Team Leader
(high task, high relationship)
This type of person leads by positive example and endeavors to foster a team
environment in which all team members can reach their highest potential, both as team
members and as people. They encourage the team to reach team goals as effectively
as possible, while also working tirelessly to strengthen the bonds among the various
members. They normally form and lead some of the most productive teams.

Country Club Leader


(low task, high relationship)
This person uses predominantly reward power to maintain discipline and to encourage
the team to accomplish its goals. Conversely, they are almost incapable of employing
the more punitive coercive and legitimate powers. This inability results from fear that
using such powers could jeopardize relationships with the other team members.

Impoverished Leader
(low task, low relationship)
A leader who uses a "delegate and disappear" management style. Since they are not
committed to either task accomplishment or maintenance; they essentially allow their
team to do whatever it wishes and prefer to detach themselves from the team process
by allowing the team to suffer from a series of power struggles.

The most desirable place for a leader to be along the two axes at most times would be a
9 on task and a 9 on people — the Team Leader. However, do not entirely dismiss the
other three. Certain situations might call for one of the other three to be used at times.
For example, by playing the Impoverished Leader, you allow your team to gain self-
reliance. Be an Authoritarian Leader to instill a sense of discipline in an unmotivated
worker. By carefully studying the situation and the forces affecting it, you will know at
what points along the axes you need to be in order to achieve the desired result.

Total Leadership
What makes a person want to follow a leader? People want to be guided by those they
respect and who have a clear sense of direction. To gain respect, they must be ethical.
A sense of direction is achieved by conveying a strong vision of the future.

When a person is deciding if she respects you as a leader, she does not think about
your attributes, rather, she observes what you do so that she can know who you
really are. She uses this observation to tell if you are an honorable and trusted leader or
a self-serving person who misuses authority to look good and get promoted. Self-
serving leaders are not as effective because their employees only obey them, not follow
them. They succeed in many areas because they present a good image to their seniors
at the expense of their workers.

Be Know Do

The basis of good leadership is honorable character and selfless service to your
organization. In your employees' eyes, your leadership is everything you do that effects
the organization's objectives and their well-being. Respected leaders concentrate on:

 what they are [be] (such as beliefs and character)


 what they know (such as job, tasks, and human nature)
 what they do (such as implementing, motivating, and providing direction).

What makes a person want to follow a leader? People want to be guided by those they
respect and who have a clear sense of direction. To gain respect, they must be ethical.
A sense of direction is achieved by conveying a strong vision of the future
2.8 LEADERSHIP STYLES

Leadership style is the manner and approach of providing direction, implementing plans,
and motivating people. Kurt Lewin (1939) led a group of researchers to identify different
styles of leadership. This early study has been very influential and established three
major leadership styles. The three major styles of leadership are

 Authoritarian or autocratic
 Participative or democratic
 Delegative or Free Reign

Although good leaders use all three styles, with one of them normally dominant, bad
leaders tend to stick with one style.

Authoritarian (autocratic)
This style is used when leaders tell their employees what they want done and how they
want it accomplished, without getting the advice of their followers. Some of the
appropriate conditions to use it is when you have all the information to solve the
problem, you are short on time, and your employees are well motivated.

Some people tend to think of this style as a vehicle for yelling, using demeaning
language, and leading by threats and abusing their power. This is not the authoritarian
style, rather it is an abusive, unprofessional style called bossing people around. It has
no place in a leader's repertoire.

The authoritarian style should normally only be used on rare occasions. If you have the
time and want to gain more commitment and motivation from your employees, then you
should use the participative style.

Participative (democratic)
This style involves the leader including one or more employees in the decision making
process (determining what to do and how to do it). However, the leader maintains the
final decision making authority. Using this style is not a sign of weakness, rather it is a
sign of strength that your employees will respect.
This is normally used when one have part of the information, and your employees have
other parts. Note that a leader is not expected to know everything -- this is why one
employ k n o w l e d g e a b l e and s k i l l f u l employees. Using this style is of mutual
benefit -- it allows them to become part of the team and allows you to make better
decisions.

Delegative (free reign)


In this style, the leader allows the employees to make the decisions. However, the
leader is still responsible for the decisions that are made. This is used when employees
are able to analyze the situation and determine what needs to be done and how to do it.
You cannot do everything! You must set priorities and delegate certain tasks.

This is not a style to use so that you can blame others when things go wrong, rather this
is a style to be used when you fully trust and confidence in the people below you. Do
not be afraid to use it, however, use it wisely!

POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE APPROACHES

There is a difference in ways leaders approach their employee. Positive leaders use
rewards, such as education, independence, etc. to motivate employees. While negative
employers emphasize penalties. While the negative approach has a place in a leader's
repertoire of tools, it must be used carefully due to its high cost on the human spirit.

Negative leaders act domineering and superior with people. They believe the only way
to get things done is through penalties, such as loss of job, days off without pay,
reprimand employees in front of others, etc. They believe their authority is increased by
frightening everyone into higher lever of productivity. Yet what always happens when
this approach is used wrongly is that morale falls; which of course leads to lower
productivity.

Also note that most leaders do not strictly use one or another, but are somewhere on a
continuum ranging from extremely positive to extremely negative. People who
continuously work out of the negative are bosses while those who primarily work out of
the positive are considered real leaders.
Keeping the above in mind, it seems that some picture paternalistic behavior as almost
a barbaric way of getting things accomplished. Yet, leadership is all about getting things
done for the organization. And in some situations, a paternalistic style of decision-
making might be required; indeed, in some cultures and individuals, it may also be
expected by not only those in charge, but also the followers. That is what makes
leadership styles quite interesting -- they basically run along the same continuum as
Hofstede's PDI, ranging from paternalistic to consultive styles of decision making. This
allows a wide range of individual behaviors to be dealt with, ranging from beginners to
peak performers. In addition, it accounts for the fact that not everyone is the same.

However, when paternalistic or autocratic styles are relied upon too much and the
employees are ready and/or willing to react to a more consultive type of leadership
style, then it normally becomes quite damaging to the performance of the organization.

2.9 THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP


Based on the belief that leaders are
exceptional people, born with innate
qualities, destined to lead. The use of the
term 'man' was intentional since until the
Great Man Theories latter part of the twentieth century
leadership was thought of as a concept
which is primarily male, military and
Western. This led to the next school of
Trait Theories
The lists of traits or qualities associated
with leadership exist in abundance and
continue to be produced. They draw on
Trait Theories virtually all the adjectives in the dictionary
which describe some positive or virtuous
human attribute, from ambition to zest for
life
These concentrate on what leaders
actually do rather than on their qualities.
Different patterns of behaviour are
Behaviourist Theories observed and categorised as 'styles of
leadership'. This area has probably
attracted most attention from practising
managers
This approach sees leadership as specific
to the situation in which it is being
exercised. For example, whilst some
situations may require an autocratic style,
Situational Leadership others may need a more participative
approach. It also proposes that there may
be differences in required leadership
styles at different levels in the same
organisation
This is a refinement of the situational
viewpoint and focuses on identifying the
situational variables which best predict
Contingency Theory
the most appropriate or effective
leadership style to fit the particular
circumstances
This approach emphasises the
importance of the relationship between
leader and followers, focusing on the
mutual benefits derived from a form of
Transactional Theory
'contract' through which the leader
delivers such things as rewards or
recognition in return for the commitment
or loyalty of the followers
The central concept here is change and
the role of leadership in envisioning and
Transformational Theory
implementing the transformation of
organisational performance
McGregor’s Theory X & Theory Y Managers

Theory X managers believe that: Theory Y managers believe that:

 The average human being has an  The expenditure of physical and


inherent dislike of work and will mental effort in work is as natural
avoid it if possible. as play or rest, and the average
human being, under proper
 Because of this human conditions, learns not only to
characteristic, most people must accept but to seek responsibility.
be coerced, controlled, directed,
or threatened with punishment to  People will exercise self-direction
get them to put forth adequate and self-control to achieve
effort to achieve organizational objectives to which they are
objectives. committed.

 The average human being prefers  The capacity to exercise a


to be directed, wishes to avoid relatively high level of imagination,
responsibility, has relatively little ingenuity, and creativity in the
ambition, and wants security solution of organizational
above all else. problems is widely, not narrowly,
distributed in the population, and
the intellectual potentialities of the
average human being are only
partially utilized under the
conditions of modern industrial
life.
Fiedler's Contingency Model

Fiedler's contingency theory postulates that there is no single best way for managers to
lead. Situations will create different leadership style requirements for a manager. The
solution to a managerial situation is contingent on the factors that impinge on the
situation. For example, in a highly routine (mechanistic) environment where repetitive
tasks are the norm, a relatively directive leadership style may result in the best
performance, however, in a dynamic environment a more flexible, participative style
may be required.

Fiedler looked at three situations that could define the condition of a managerial task:

1. Leader member relations: How well do the manager and the employees get along?

2. Task structure: Is the job highly structured, fairly unstructured, or somewhere in


between?

3. Position power: How much authority does the manager possess?


Managers were rated as to whether they were relationship oriented or task oriented.
Task oriented managers tend to do better in situations that have good leader-member
relationships, structured tasks, and either weak or strong position power. They do well
when the task is unstructured but position power is strong. Also, they did well at the
other end of the spectrum when the leader member relations were moderate to poor
and the task was unstructured. Relationship oriented managers do better in all other
situations. Thus, a given situation might call for a manager with a different style or a
manager who could take on a different style for a different situation.
These environmental variables are combined in a weighted sum that is termed
"favourable" at one end and "unfavourable" at the other. Task oriented style is
preferable at the clearly defined extremes of "favourable" and "unfavourable"
environments, but relationship orientation excels in the middle ground. Managers could
attempt to reshape the environment variables to match their style.

Another aspect of the contingency model theory is that the leader-member relations,
task structure, and position power dictate a leader's situational control. Leader-member
relations are the amount of loyalty, dependability, and support that the leader receives
from employees. It is a measure of how the manager perceives he or she and the group
of employees is getting along together. In a favourable relationship the manager has a
high task structure and is able to reward and or punish employees without any
problems. In an unfavourable relationship the task is usually unstructured and the
leader possesses limited authority. The spelling out in detail (favourable) of what is
required of subordinates affects task structure.

Positioning power measures the amount of power or authority the manager perceives
the organization has given him or her for the purpose of directing, rewarding, and
punishing subordinates. Positioning power of managers depends on the taking away
(favourable) or increasing (unfavourable) the decision-making power of employees.

The task-motivated style leader experiences pride and satisfaction in the task
accomplishment for the organization, while the relationship-motivated style seeks to
build interpersonal relations and extend extra help for the team development in the
organization. There is no good or bad leadership style. Each person has his or her own
preferences for leadership. Task-motivated leaders are at their best when the group
performs successfully such as achieving a new sales record or outperforming the major
competitor. Relationship-oriented leaders are at their best when greater customer
satisfaction is gained and a positive company image is established.
CHAPTER-3

OBJECTIVE:-
To study the relationship between Leadership and Emotional Intelligence. The research
is basically being conducted to find out how Emotional Intelligence of Executives,
working in an organization effects their Leadership qualities.

To find out the impact of Emotional intelligence on the two traits of Leadership i.e.,
Concern for People, and Concern for Task.

RATIONALE FOR THE STUDY

Emotional Intelligence is a very critical area now-a-days for management to deal with. It
encompasses the whole of individual’s personality, perception, values and attitude
towards work. Emotional Intelligence in leadership is a deciding factor for the success of
the leader as he has to make people wok according o him and this can only be done if
the leader has the ability to direct the emotions of people working under him.

Nearly almost all the employees are driven by their emotions in one way or the other
and this fact makes Emotional Intelligence one of the most important factor for success
in work. The reason for choosing this topic is because of its imperative importance in
workplace and its powerful impact over people.

Hypothesis:-

Null hypothesis (HO) :-

There is no significant relationship between Emotional Intelligene and Leadership.


CHAPTER-4

LITERATURE REVIEW
The most distant roots of Emotional intelligence can be traced back to Darwin’s early
work on the importance of emotional expression for survival and second adaptation. In
the 1900s, even though traditional definitions of intelligence emphasized cognitive
aspects such as memory and problem solving, several influential researchers in the
intelligence field of study had begun to recognize the importance of the non-cognitive
aspects. For instance, as early as 1920, Thorndike used the term social intelligence to
describe the skill of understanding and managing other people
.
Prior research has explored the concept of emotional intelligence, which is the ability
both to know one’s own emotions and to read others’ emotions as well. Work by
Goleman (1995; 1998) has assessed the link between emotional intelligence and
leadership ability. Goleman researched and analyzed 188 companies (primarily large
and global organizations), to determine the personal capabilities among leaders which
appeared to drive outstanding performance within these organizations, and to what
degree they did so. According to Goleman’s research, emotional intelligence proved to
be twice as important as technical skills and cognitive abilities for leadership jobs at all
levels of an organization. Intellect remained a driver of outstanding performance, and
cognitive skills such as big picture thinking and long-term vision were also important, but
mainly as “threshold capabilities”: entry level requirements for executive positions

Similarly, in 1940 Wechsler described the influence of non intellective factors on


intelligent behaviour, and further argued that our models of intelligence would not be
complete until we can adequately describe these factors. In 1983, Gardner's Frames of
Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences introduced the idea of Multiple Intelligences
which included both Interpersonal intelligence (the capacity to understand the
intentions, motivations and desires of other people) and Intrapersonal intelligence (the
capacity to understand oneself, to appreciate one's feelings, fears and motivations).

In Gardner's view, traditional types of intelligence, such as IQ, fail to fully explain
cognitive ability. Thus, even though the names given to the concept varied, there was a
common belief that traditional definitions of intelligence are lacking in ability to fully
explain performance outcomes.

Pennsylvania State University study done by Sosik and Megerian (1999) looked at the
self-awareness component of emotional intelligence and transformational leadership.
The results of the study provided empirical support for emotional intelligence being the
foundation of other aspects of leadership. The data for the study were collected from
300 employees. Managers reported their assessment of their emotional intelligence and
leadership behavior; the subordinates reported their view of their manager’s
transformational leadership behavior and performance outcomes; and each manager’s
superior rated managerial performance. The study tried to answer two questions. The
first question tried to find "what aspects of [emotional intelligence] differentiate those
leaders who are in agreement with others concerning their transformational leadership
qualities from those who are not in agreement" and "how do non-military leaders who
are in agreement with others regarding their transformational leadership qualities differ
in terms of performance from those who are not in agreement"

Ashforth and Humphrey (1995) noted that transformational leadership appears to be


dependent upon the evocation, framing and mobilisation of emotions, whereas
transactional leadership appears to be more dependent upon subordinates’ cognitions,
and tends to follow a rational model of motivation (i.e. motivate employees to achieve
basic goals with the reward of pay and security). House et al. (1988) suggest that the
paradigm of transformational leadership is associated with higher levels of subordinate
effort and performance and higher ratings of effectiveness from supervisors.

The study comparing Benchmarks results with scores from the Baron Emotional
Quotient Inventory (EQ-i™), an assessment of emotional intelligence, found that ten of
the sixteen skills and perspectives assessed by Benchmarks were strongly associated
with one or more emotional intelligence measures. In other words, higher levels of
certain emotional intelligence components appear to be connected to better
performance in those ten areas.

Emotional intelligence, as originally conceptualized by Salovey and Mayer (1990),


``involves the ability to perceive accurately, appraise, and express emotion; the ability to
access and/or generate feelings when they facilitate thought; the ability to understand
emotion and the ability to regulate emotions to promote emotional and intellectual
growth.’’ Mayer and Salovey (1993) suggested that there are individual differences in
emotional intelligence relating to differences in our ability to appraise our own emotions
and those of others. They further suggested that individuals higher in emotional
intelligence might be more open to internal experience and better able to label and
communicate those experiences.

Caruso et al. (in press) have also discussed theoretical relationships between emotional
intelligence and effective leadership and have hypothesised specifically how emotional
intelligence facilitates the functioning of an effective leader. These hypothesised
relationships are derived from Mayer and Salovey’s (1997) four-branch model of
emotional intelligence.

CHAPTER-5

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
DATA COLLECTION METHOD
The source of the data collection is primary. This states that the data is taken directly
from the executives and not from the past data records.

DATA COLLECTION TOOL

The data is being collected through questionnaire related to Emotional Intelligence and
Leadership. The questionnaire consists 10 questions of Emotional Intelligence and 35
questions of Leadership.

Each question of Emotional Intelligence questionnaire has four options to mark and the
weightage marks is different for each option as per the requirement of the questions.
The questionnaire of Leadership is divided into two parts i.e. concern for task and
concern for people. Each question is assigned 1 marks. Questions are assigned to
these two parts individually and the marks are calculated accordingly individually for
concern for task as well as concern for people. Together, they give total score for
Leadership. Questions, that are assigned to concern for people are 3, 5, 8, 10,
15, 18, 19, 22, 24, 26, 28, 30, 32, 34 and 35. Remaining questions gives the score of
concern for task.

SAMPLING

The universe in the research is the Executives of the organization and the sample size
is 150.

TEST APPLIED

The datas are being arranged in the MS Excel sheet. After arranging the data, the test
is applied. The test applied is Pearson Correlation and Regression using SPSS
software.

CHAPTER-6

FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION

6.1HYPOTHESIS ANALYSIS:-

The null hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between the emotional
intelligence and the leadership has been rejected in this research.
6.2 CORRELATION BETWEEN EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND TOTAL SCORE
OF LEADERSHIP

EMOTIONAL
INTELLIGENCE TOTAL

EMOTIONAL Pearson Correlation 1 .080


INTELLIGENCE Sig. (2-tailed) .331

N 150 150

TOTAL Pearson Correlation .080 1

Sig. (2-tailed) .331

N 150 150

CORRELATION BETWEEN EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND CONCERN FOR


PEOPLE

EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE CONCERN FOR PEOPLE

EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE Pearson 1 .108


Correlation

Sig. (2-tailed) .186

N 150 150

CONCERN FOR PEOPLE Pearson .108 1


Correlation

Sig. (2-tailed) .186

N 150 150
6.3 CORRELATION BETWEEN EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND
CONCERN FOR TASK

EMOTIONAL CONCERN FOR


INTELLIGENCE TASK

EMOTIONAL Pearson Correlation 1 .042


INTELLIGENCE Sig. (2-tailed) .606

N 150 150

CONCERN FOR TASK Pearson Correlation .042 1

Sig. (2-tailed) .606

N 150 150

6. 4ANALYSIS OF CORRELATION

When Pearson’s r is close to 1…

This means that there is a strong relationship between your two variables. This means
that changes in one variable are strongly correlated with changes in the second
variable. In our example, Pearson’s r is 0.985. This number is very close to 1. For this
reason, we can conclude that there is a strong relationship between our water and skin
variables. However, we cannot make any other conclusions about this relationship,
based on this number.

When Pearson’s r is close to 0…

This means that there is a weak relationship between your two variables. This means
that changes in one variable are not correlated with changes in the second variable. If
our Pearson’s r were 0.01, we could conclude that our variables were not strongly
correlated.
When Pearson’s r is positive (+)…

This means that as one variable increases in value, the second variable also increase in
value. Similarly, as one variable decreases in value, the second variable also decreases
in value. This is called a positive correlation. In our example, our Pearson’s r value of
0.985 was positive. We know this value is positive because SPSS did not put a negative
sign in front of it. So, positive is the default. Since our example Pearson’s r is positive,
we can conclude that when the amount of water increases (our first variable), the
participant skin elasticity rating (our second variable) also increases.

When Pearson’s r is negative (-)…

This means that as one variable increases in value, the second variable decreases in
value. This is called a negative correlation. In our example, our Pearson’s r value of
0.985 was positive. But what if SPSS generated a Pearson’s r value of -0.985? If SPSS
generated a negative Pearson’s r value, we could conclude that when the amount of
water increases (our first variable), the participant skin elasticity rating (our second
variable) decreases.

If the Sig (2-Tailed) value is greater than 05…

It can be concluded that there is no statistically significant correlation between your two
variables. That means, increases or decreases in one variable do not significantly relate
to increases or decreases in your second variable.

If the Sig (2-Tailed) value is less than or equal to .05…

It can be concluded that there is a statistically significant correlations between your two
variables. That means, increases or decreases in one variable do significantly relate to
increases or decreases in your second variable.

6.5 ANALYSIS OF PEARSON’S R VALUE AND SIG (2-TAILED) VALUE FOR


CORRELATION

EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND TOTAL LEADERSHIP SCORE

The Pearson’s r for Correlation between Emotional Intelligence and Total Leadership
score is .080. This means that there is a relationship between the two variables. So it
can be concluded that changes in one variable is correlated with changes in the second
variable.

The sig (2-tailed) value for correlation between Emotional Intelligence and Total
Leadership score is 0.333 which again shows a relation between the two variables.

EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND CONCERN FOR PEOPLE


The Pearson’s r for Correlation between Emotional Intelligence and Concern for People
is 0.108. This means that there is a relationship between the two variables. This depicts
that Emotional Intelligence does have an impact on Concern for People.

The sig (2-tailed) value for correlation between Emotional Intelligence and Concern for
People is 0.186 which further strengthens the relationship between the two variables.

EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND CONCERN FOR TASK


The Pearson’s r for Correlation between Emotional Intelligence and Concern for Task is
0.042. This means that there is a relationship between the two variables. So it can be
concluded that changes in one variable is correlated with changes in the second
variable.

The sig (2-tailed) value for correlation between Emotional Intelligence and Concern for
Task is 0.606 which shows a relationship between the two variables.

6.6 REGRESSION BETWEEN EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND TOTAL


LEADERSHIP SCORE

Model Summary

Adjusted R Std. Error of the


Model R R Square Square Estimate

1 .803a .601 .000 5.263

a. Predictors: (Constant), EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE


This table displays R, R squared, adjusted R squared, and the standard error. R is the
correlation between the variable. The values of R range from -1 to 1. The sign of R indicates
the direction of the relationship (positive or negative). The absolute value of R indicates the
strength, with larger absolute values indicating stronger relationships. R squared is the
proportion of variation in the dependent variable explained by the regression model. The
values of R squared range from 0 to 1. Small values indicate that the model does not fit the
data well. The sample R squared tends to optimistically estimate how well the models fit the
population. Adjusted R squared attempts to correct R squared to more closely reflect the
goodness of fit of the model in the population.

The value of R is 0.803 and R Square is 0.601, which shows that the relationship between
Emotional Intelligence and Total Leadership score is strong as the model fits the data well.

If the significance value of the F statistic is small (smaller than say 0.05) then the
independent variables do a good job explaining the variation in the dependent variable.
If the significance value of F is larger than say 0.05 then the independent variables do
not explain the variation in the dependent variable, and the null hypothesis that all the
population values for the regression coefficients are 0 is accepted.

Coefficients

Standardized
Unstandardized Coefficients Coefficients

Model B Std. Error Beta T Sig.

1 (Constant) 21.713 1.328 16.348 .000

EMOTIONAL .015 .016 .080 .976 .331


INTELLIGENCE

a. Dependent Variable: TOTAL

The value of F statistic is 0.030, which is smaller than 0.05. this shows that the
relationship between the independent variable i.e. Emotional Intelligence and the
dependent variable i.e. Total Leadership score is strong.
6.7 REGRESSION BETWEEN EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND CONCERN
FOR TASK

Variables Entered/Removed
Variables Variables
Model Entered Removed Method

1 EMOTIONAL . Enter
a
INTELLIGENCE

a. All requested variables entered.

b. Dependent Variable: CONCERN FOR TASK

Model Summary
Adjusted R Std. Error of the
Model R R Square Square Estimate

1 .425a .501 -.005 3.695

a. Predictors: (Constant), EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE

The value of R is 0.425 and R Square is -.501, which shows that the relationship
between Emotional Intelligence and Total Leadership score is strong as the model fits
the data well.
ANOVA
Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.

1 Regression 3.651 1 3.651 .027 .606a

Residual 2020.109 148 13.649

Total 2023.760 149

a. Predictors: (Constant), EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE

b. Dependent Variable: CONCERN FOR TASK

The value of F statistic is 0.027, which is smaller than 0.05. this shows that the
relationship between the independent variable i.e. Emotional Intelligence and the
dependent variable i.e. Total Leadership score is strong. In this the independent
variables do explain the variation in the dependent variable.

Coefficients
Standardized
Unstandardized Coefficients Coefficients

Model B Std. Error Beta t Sig.

1 (Constant) 13.504 .932 14.484 .000

EMOTIONAL .006 .011 .042 .517 .606


INTELLIGENCE

a. Dependent Variable: CONCERN FOR TASK

6.8 REGRESSION BETWEEN EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND CONCERN


FOR PEOPLE

Variables Entered/Removed
Variables Variables
Model Entered Removed Method

1 EMOTIONAL . Enter
a
INTELLIGENCE

a. All requested variables entered.

b. Dependent Variable: CONCERN FOR PEOPLE


Model Summary
Adjusted R Std. Error of the
Model R R Square Square Estimate

1 .108a .012 .005 2.431

 Predictors: (Constant), EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE

The value of R is 0.108 and R Square is .005, which shows that the relationship
between Emotional Intelligence and Total Leadership score is weak as the model does
not fit the data well.

ANOVA
Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.

1 Regression 10.411 1 10.411 0.429 .186a

Residual 874.529 148 5.909

Total 884.940 149

a. Predictors: (Constant), EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE

b. Dependent Variable: CONCERN FOR PEOPLE

The value of F statistic is 0.429, which is smaller than 0.05. this shows that the
relationship between the independent variable i.e. Emotional Intelligence and the
dependent variable i.e. Total Leadership score is strong. In this the independent
variables explains the variation in the dependent variable.
Coefficients
Standardized
Unstandardized Coefficients Coefficients

Model B Std. Error Beta t Sig.

1 (Constant) 8.210 .613 13.383 .000

EMOTIONAL .010 .007 .108 1.327 .186


INTELLIGENCE

a. Dependent Variable: CONCERN FOR PEOPLE

CHAPTER 7

CONCLUSION:-

The study is aimed at investigating the effect of Emotional Intelligence on the


Leadership. It has been proved that leadership is an emotion-laden process. The
research shows that there exists a strong relationship between Emotional Intelligence
and Leadership. An effective Leader is necessary to have Emotional Intelligence. The
outcomes of leadership (extra effort, effectiveness and satisfaction) were all found to
correlate significantly with the Components of emotional intelligence as well as with total
emotional intelligence
Given the complexities of the issues involved, both qualitative and quantitative
methodologies hold promise for exploring the ways in which emotional intelligence may
contribute to leader effectiveness, as theorized in this paper. The research has given a
strongly significant impact of Emotional Intelligence on overall Leadership as well as its
effect on two traits of Leadership i.e. Concern for People and Concern for Task.

Quality Emotional Intelligence motivate employees to work in an organization more


enthusiastically and produces satisfied employees and such employee can also proved
to be an effective and efficient leader. Organizations that choose EI as a real framework
to achieve goals will get returns on their investment. The more comprehensive skill sets
a leader uses, the better environment to work will be created, thereby; benefits will also
appear as a real consequence. Employees not only will be happy to share their own
emotions, but also to contribute their best effort to accomplish the company's objectives.

They also illustrate how the manager who can think accurately and clearly about
emotions, may often be in a better position to anticipate, cope with, and effectively
manage change. A leader has to have emotional intelligence to align personal and
subordinate goals to accomplish company goals.

Leaders who are high in EI may be better equipped to develop stronger teams, and to
communicate more effectively with others. People high in EI will build real social fabric
within an organization, and between an organization and those it serves, whereas those
low in EI may tend to create problems for the organization through their individual
behaviors. This story is still being written and we urge both researchers and
practitioners to proceed knowing that new findings will continue to change and improve
our understanding

Emotional Intelligence does not fit the classic historical models of leadership. The latter
are usually associated with great figures of military history and conjure up charismatic
and sometimes despotic images. However, people often use the same language for
leadership today - bold, brave and tough with a strong sense of purpose and resolve.
However, this does not fit today's needs, because:

• Today’s workforce does not accept the autocratic style often adopted by leaders
following historical models of leadership.

• leadership has had to evolve to match a growing sense of democracy and


independence in the workforce

• employees now have far more options and choices than the foot soldiers of
yesterday
Emotional intelligence plays a critical role in our working lives since the relationships we
form are governed by rules of behaviour - of cooperation and dominance, among others
- that are triggered by our emotions. Being able to understand emotional intelligence,
and its impact on personnel and the organization, is what makes an individual, at least
in part, emotionally intelligent. Not surprisingly, then, business leaders who can
"embrace the emotional side of an organization will infuse strength and meaning into
management structures, and bring them to life.

Emotional intelligence on the job and specifically in an individual occupying a leadership


position can have vast ramifications. A hidden, but often crucial, dimension of
leadership, the emotional impact of what a leader says and does, certainly affects those
all important intangibles such as higher morale, motivation, and commitment.

Emotional intelligence is increasingly relevant to organizational development and


developing people, because it provides a new way to understand and assess people’s
behaviors, management styles, attitudes, interpersonal skills, and potential. Emotional
intelligence and feelings of team and non-team members are among the most important
resources an organization has in addressing challenges and reaching goals. Defining
emotional intelligence and its ability to predict management outcomes is key to
explaining how knowing and managing your emotions can help a leader motivate
themselves and others.

The phrase "emotional intelligence" was coined by Yale psychologist Peter Salovey and
the University of New Hampshire's John Mayer to describe qualities like understanding
one's own feelings, empathy for the feelings of others and "the regulation of emotion in
a way that enhances living “The systematic study of emotional intelligence (EI) is often
dated to the early 1990s, when scientific articles suggested that there existed an
unrecognized but important human mental ability to reason about emotions and to use
emotions to enhance thoughts. From self-awareness, understanding one’s emotion and
being clear about one’s goals.

The most effective leaders we have known possess great reserves of empathy,
interpersonal astuteness, awareness of their own feelings, and awareness of their
impact on others, but more importantly, they apply these capabilities judiciously as best
benefits the situation. The key to this is self-regulation: having some minimum level of
these emotional intelligences will help one be effective as a leader, as long as they are
channeled appropriately. Having a large amount of these capabilities may be too much
of a good thing if they are allowed to drive inappropriate behavior.

In addition, emotional intelligence alone does not guarantee good leadership. From a
moral standpoint, emotional intelligence is neither good nor bad. Emotionally intelligent
leaders can be manipulative, selfish, and dishonest, just as they can be altruistic,
focused on the general welfare, and highly principled. It is also not the only way that an
effective leader needs to be “intelligent”. Serious consideration of other qualities that
make for effective leadership, such as mental capacity, confidence, integrity, drive, and
wisdom, must also be factored in.

As in most things, emotional intelligence as a leadership requirement should be kept in


perspective. The key to effectiveness is balance: a strong mix of cognitive capacity
(logical, conceptual and creative thinking), people skills (interpersonal astuteness,
influence skills, and communication skills), and the wisdom borne of experience and
having to make unprecedented decisions based on a strong

All in all, investigating how leaders’ capabilities in the emotion domain or their emotional
intelligence contribute to their effectiveness certainly seems worthy of future empirical
research and theorizing. The research has helped in unfolding the reasons behind my
topic i.e. “A study of relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Leadership”.
.

..

CHAPTER-8

LIMITATION OF STUDY
 Due to time constraint and cost, the study is not diversified instead, it is confined
to a particular target group of Executives.

 The sample composition in this research did not control for biographical factors.
The data generated by this research, therefore, is limited to the demographic
confines of the sample population.

 The questionnaires might be filled by the Executives in hurry.


 The questions might have been misinterpreted by the Executives and this could
have resulted in faulty results.

 The sample size is not sufficient to get the accurate result of the study.