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System Modeling

Generator, Transformer and Load Modeling


Per Unit (PU) Analysis

POWER APPARATUS MODELING AND PER UNIT


SYSTEMS

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System Modeling
 Systems are represented on a per-phase basis
• A 1-φ representation is used for a balanced system
– the system is modeled as one phase of a Y-connected network
 Symmetrical components are used for unbalanced
systems
• unbalance systems may be caused by: generation,
network components, loads, or unusual operating
conditions such as faults
 The per-unit (PU) system of measurements is used

 Review of basic network component models


• Generators, Transformers, Loads, and Transmission
lines

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Generator Models
 Generator may be modeled in three different ways:
• Power Injection Model - the real, P, and reactive, Q, power of
the generator is specified at the node that the generator is
connected
– either the voltage or injected current is specified at the
connected node, allowing the other quantity to be determined
• Thevenin Model - induced AC voltage, E, behind the
synchronous reactance, Xd

• Norton Model - injected AC current, IG, in parallel with the


synchronous reactance, Xd

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Transformer Model

Transformer equivalent circuit, with secondary impedances


referred to the primary side

Figure source: wikipedia

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Load Models
Models are selected based on both the type of analysis and
the load characteristics. Three main static load models are:
 Constant impedance, Zload
– Load is made up of R, L, and C elements connected to a network node
and the ground (or neutral point of the system)
 Constant current, Iload
– The load has a constant current magnitude I, and a constant power factor,
independent of the nodal voltage
– Also considered as a current injection into the network
 Constant power (PQ) , Sload
– The load has a constant real, P, and reactive, Q, power component
independent of nodal voltage or current injection
– Also considered as a negative power injection into the network

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Per Unit (PU) Analysis (1/4)
P.U. : ratio of the actual quantity to its base values

P.U.Quantities 
ActualQuantity S Base  MVA Base
BaseQuantity
VBase  kV Base

1-Ø system 3-Ø system


1000  S 1000 S
I  Base
A I Base
 Base
A
Base
V Base
3V Base

1000  V V 
2


1000  V

V 
2

Z Base
Base
 Base
Z Base
Base Base

I Base
S Base
3I Base
S Base

S Base S Base
Z PU  Z Actual  Z PU  Z Actual 
VBase  VBase 
2 2

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Per Unit (PU) Analysis (2/4)

Changing the base of PU quantities

Z Actual Old
Z PU  Z Base
Old
New
Z PU  New
 New
Z Base Z Base

Z Old

S New
Base

V 
Old 2
Base

V 
PU Old New 2
S Base Base

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Per Unit (PU) Analysis (3/4)
Steps for a PU analysis

1. Pick S Base for the whole system

2. Pick VBase arbitrarily (according to line-to-line voltage).


Relate all the others by transformer ratio.

3. CalculateZ Base for different zones.

4. Express all quantities in P.U.

5. Draw impedance diagram and solve for P.U. quantities.

6. Convert back to actual quantities if needed.

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Per Unit (PU) Analysis (4/4)
How to Choose Base Values ?
 Divide circuit into zones by transformers.
 Specify two base values out of I B ,VB , Z B , S B ; for example,
S Base and VBase
 Specify voltage base in the ratio of zone voltage (L-L).

V1 :V2 V2 :V3 V3 :V4


Source

Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4


VBase1 VBase2 VBase3 VBase4
SBase VBase1
I Base1  Z Base1 
VBase1 I Base1
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Example 5.14, p. 164-166
 Given a one line diagram of “Power system analysis” by
the 3-φ system, A.R. Bergen and V. Vittal

Vg ( L L )  13.2 kV
Ig Zline  10  j100  I Load
~ 5 MVA
ITr
Zload  300 

10 MVA
13.2 Δ – 132 Y kV 138 Y - 69 Δ kV
X T 1  0.1 p.u. X T 2  0.08 p.u.

Find I g , ITr , I load , Vload , and Pload .

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Example 5.14 (Cont’d)
Step 1, 2, and 3: Base Values
Vg ( L L )  13.2 kV
Ig Zline  10  j100  I Load
~ 5 MVA
ITr
Zload  300 

10 MVA
13.2 Δ – 132 Y kV 138 Y - 69 Δ kV
X T 1  0.1 p.u. X T 2  0.08 p.u.

SB3  10 MVA
Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3
VBL1 L  13.8 kV VBL L  138 kV VB3  69 kV
2

2 2 2
VBL1 L 13.8 kV  VBL2 L 138 kV  VBL3 L  69 kV 
2 2 2

Z B1    19.04  Z B2    1904  Z B3    476 


SB 10MVA SB 10 MVA SB 10 MVA

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Example 5.14 (Cont’d)
Step 4: All per unit quantities

X T 2  0.08p.u.

+
-
new
Sbase V 
old 2
Z load 300 
 Z pu   Z load,p.u.    0.63
new old base
Z pu old
Sbase V 
new 2
base
Z B3 476 

10 MVA 13.2kV 
2

X T 1,p.u.  0.1   0.183


5 MVA 13.8kV 2
Vg 13.2 kV
Vg,p.u.    0.95650
Z line 10  j100 
 5.25 103 1  j10 
VB1 13.8 kV
Z line,p.u.  
Z B2 1904

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Example 5.14 (Cont’d)
Step 5: One phase diagram & solve

X T 1,p.u.  0.183 Z line,p.u.  5.25 103 1  j10 X T 2  0.08

+ Vg,p.u.  0.95650
- Z load,p.u.  0.63

Vg,p.u. 0.95650
I load,p.u.    1.35  26.4

Z total,p.u. 0.70926.4
Vload,p.u.  I load,p.u.  Zload,p.u.  0.8505  26.4
Sload,p.u.  Vload,p.u.  I load,p.u.
*
 1.1474
I g,p.u.  I Tr,p.u.  I load,p.u.  1.35  26.4

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Example 5.14 (Cont’d)
Step 6: Convert back to actual quantities
Vg  13.2kV
Ig Zline  10  j100 
~ Zload  300 

Vload,p.u.  0.8505  26.4


5 MVA 10 MVA
13.2 Δ – 132 Y kV 138 Y - 69 Δ kV
X T 1  0.1 p.u. Sload,p.u.  1.1474
X T 2  0.08 p.u.
I g,p.u.  I Tr,p.u.  Iload,p.u.  1.35  26.4

Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3


S B3 
138
 41.84  83.67
I B1  L L I B2 
13.2
 418.4  41.84
I B3
VB1 69
132 I load  I load,p.u.  I B3
10 106 3

3

13.8 103
 418.4
ITr  ITr ,p.u.  I B2 Vload  Vload,p.u. VB3
I g  I g,p.u.  I B1 Sload  Sload,p.u.  SB
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Advantages of P.U. System
 P.U. representation results in a more meaningful data. It
gives a clear idea of relative magnitudes of various
quantities.
 It is more uniform compare to actual impedance value of
different sizes of equipment
 It is very useful in simulating power systems for steady-
state and dynamic analysis.
 The P.U. equivalent impedance, voltages, and currents of
any transformers are the same referred to either primary
or the secondary side.
– Different voltage levels disappear across the entire system.
– The system reduces to a system of simple impedances
– P.U. impedance is the same irrespective of the type of 3-φ
transformer
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