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# System Modeling

## Generator, Transformer and Load Modeling

Per Unit (PU) Analysis

SYSTEMS

## 17-Jan-11 EE 308 Power Systems 18

System Modeling
 Systems are represented on a per-phase basis
• A 1-φ representation is used for a balanced system
– the system is modeled as one phase of a Y-connected network
 Symmetrical components are used for unbalanced
systems
• unbalance systems may be caused by: generation,
network components, loads, or unusual operating
conditions such as faults
 The per-unit (PU) system of measurements is used

##  Review of basic network component models

• Generators, Transformers, Loads, and Transmission
lines

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Generator Models
 Generator may be modeled in three different ways:
• Power Injection Model - the real, P, and reactive, Q, power of
the generator is specified at the node that the generator is
connected
– either the voltage or injected current is specified at the
connected node, allowing the other quantity to be determined
• Thevenin Model - induced AC voltage, E, behind the
synchronous reactance, Xd

## • Norton Model - injected AC current, IG, in parallel with the

synchronous reactance, Xd

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Transformer Model

## Transformer equivalent circuit, with secondary impedances

referred to the primary side

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Models are selected based on both the type of analysis and
– Load is made up of R, L, and C elements connected to a network node
and the ground (or neutral point of the system)
– The load has a constant current magnitude I, and a constant power factor,
independent of the nodal voltage
– Also considered as a current injection into the network
 Constant power (PQ) , Sload
– The load has a constant real, P, and reactive, Q, power component
independent of nodal voltage or current injection
– Also considered as a negative power injection into the network

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Per Unit (PU) Analysis (1/4)
P.U. : ratio of the actual quantity to its base values

P.U.Quantities 
ActualQuantity S Base  MVA Base
BaseQuantity
VBase  kV Base

## 1-Ø system 3-Ø system

1000  S 1000 S
I  Base
A I Base
 Base
A
Base
V Base
3V Base

1000  V V 
2

1000  V

V 
2

Z Base
Base
 Base
Z Base
Base Base

I Base
S Base
3I Base
S Base

S Base S Base
Z PU  Z Actual  Z PU  Z Actual 
VBase  VBase 
2 2

## 17-Jan-11 EE 308 Power Systems 23

Per Unit (PU) Analysis (2/4)

Z Actual Old
Z PU  Z Base
Old
New
Z PU  New
 New
Z Base Z Base

Z Old

S New
Base

V 
Old 2
Base

V 
PU Old New 2
S Base Base

## 17-Jan-11 EE 308 Power Systems 24

Per Unit (PU) Analysis (3/4)
Steps for a PU analysis

## 2. Pick VBase arbitrarily (according to line-to-line voltage).

Relate all the others by transformer ratio.

## 17-Jan-11 EE 308 Power Systems 25

Per Unit (PU) Analysis (4/4)
How to Choose Base Values ?
 Divide circuit into zones by transformers.
 Specify two base values out of I B ,VB , Z B , S B ; for example,
S Base and VBase
 Specify voltage base in the ratio of zone voltage (L-L).

Source

## Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4

VBase1 VBase2 VBase3 VBase4
SBase VBase1
I Base1  Z Base1 
VBase1 I Base1
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Example 5.14, p. 164-166
 Given a one line diagram of “Power system analysis” by
the 3-φ system, A.R. Bergen and V. Vittal

Vg ( L L )  13.2 kV
Ig Zline  10  j100  I Load
~ 5 MVA
ITr

10 MVA
13.2 Δ – 132 Y kV 138 Y - 69 Δ kV
X T 1  0.1 p.u. X T 2  0.08 p.u.

## 17-Jan-11 EE 308 Power Systems 27

Example 5.14 (Cont’d)
Step 1, 2, and 3: Base Values
Vg ( L L )  13.2 kV
Ig Zline  10  j100  I Load
~ 5 MVA
ITr

10 MVA
13.2 Δ – 132 Y kV 138 Y - 69 Δ kV
X T 1  0.1 p.u. X T 2  0.08 p.u.

SB3  10 MVA
Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3
VBL1 L  13.8 kV VBL L  138 kV VB3  69 kV
2

2 2 2
VBL1 L 13.8 kV  VBL2 L 138 kV  VBL3 L  69 kV 
2 2 2

## Z B1    19.04  Z B2    1904  Z B3    476 

SB 10MVA SB 10 MVA SB 10 MVA

## 17-Jan-11 EE 308 Power Systems 28

Example 5.14 (Cont’d)
Step 4: All per unit quantities

X T 2  0.08p.u.

+
-
new
Sbase V 
old 2
 Z pu   Z load,p.u.    0.63
new old base
Z pu old
Sbase V 
new 2
base
Z B3 476 

10 MVA 13.2kV 
2

## X T 1,p.u.  0.1   0.183

5 MVA 13.8kV 2
Vg 13.2 kV
Vg,p.u.    0.95650
Z line 10  j100 
 5.25 103 1  j10 
VB1 13.8 kV
Z line,p.u.  
Z B2 1904

## 17-Jan-11 EE 308 Power Systems 29

Example 5.14 (Cont’d)
Step 5: One phase diagram & solve

## X T 1,p.u.  0.183 Z line,p.u.  5.25 103 1  j10 X T 2  0.08

+ Vg,p.u.  0.95650

Vg,p.u. 0.95650
I load,p.u.    1.35  26.4

Z total,p.u. 0.70926.4
*
 1.1474
I g,p.u.  I Tr,p.u.  I load,p.u.  1.35  26.4

## 17-Jan-11 EE 308 Power Systems 30

Example 5.14 (Cont’d)
Step 6: Convert back to actual quantities
Vg  13.2kV
Ig Zline  10  j100 

## Vload,p.u.  0.8505  26.4

5 MVA 10 MVA
13.2 Δ – 132 Y kV 138 Y - 69 Δ kV
X T 1  0.1 p.u. Sload,p.u.  1.1474
X T 2  0.08 p.u.
I g,p.u.  I Tr,p.u.  Iload,p.u.  1.35  26.4

## Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3

S B3 
138
 41.84  83.67
I B1  L L I B2 
13.2
 418.4  41.84
I B3
VB1 69
10 106 3

3

13.8 103
 418.4
I g  I g,p.u.  I B1 Sload  Sload,p.u.  SB
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 P.U. representation results in a more meaningful data. It
gives a clear idea of relative magnitudes of various
quantities.
 It is more uniform compare to actual impedance value of
different sizes of equipment
 It is very useful in simulating power systems for steady-
state and dynamic analysis.
 The P.U. equivalent impedance, voltages, and currents of
any transformers are the same referred to either primary
or the secondary side.
– Different voltage levels disappear across the entire system.
– The system reduces to a system of simple impedances
– P.U. impedance is the same irrespective of the type of 3-φ
transformer
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