You are on page 1of 7

 


 
 
&" #$% !"       
  
   

    


 
   

     


  

  $  ! "# NaCl-KCl        


   :
A319  A380 1234 5./ "&  '(  ) *+,-./ '0, "# CaF2   %  Na2SiF6
BC !D =-,/ E 4,/ 64 7  "89 :;!< =, # 
>, ?@  & A

?@ N+O! .B
K  L J # -, (SEM) 2H. I-HJ H, 
 K-.2, (RPT) "2
4  E

  .B
K  L J # -, A QQR 40 5./ 2EK # '(  ) '0, # P -, 

.4 K NS 
T!< "+U# >, V42 "# "W- #   4,/ XD

D
.#4#  "89 TY/ 
*+,-./ '0, :  

K-Y "# B,>, 4& B


 p<# TY/ -W  S# .[o] +h,
TY/  8;23, `- .[r]  K , 1234 "ScL 1, >q 
4-;
4 ;h 4 # #h 4 2 ]h +,
SI 
  .
B]#  U/ 4 Z-Y ). "# *+,-./ [;23, 5./ \ 9,
W-, , N!  "2
4 4A
 UW- )#L -7 "# Y TJ
of
-W *+,-./ U#0,  , L# '0, Ui!  h
^#+, =-+S# U/ B
4# "# "W-  5./ N4 "  L 4A

 B3J ]#  O 2YJ  TY/ N4 th .[so]  H+&,  ) !+,-./ "&  #4# .BJ "2EK "4-?
TY/ .-& \0 '0,  4# =i,    +2] ++i& BS+  Z-9Y "# A;
N4 ^J  # ). "# H&  
ive

+& T-,
# 6#c,  & +& K '0W "D2  Al2O3 +;#  a, )H& ). "# .BJ 2! A_ `- -, J -Y
.[o] +4/, u# A;
vcJ  -2J N4 #4# H&  Nb  ] # CcJ K-./ A4 
: +m< " Y -c# *+,-./ "89  U]
 82J > 4& B.S
). "# .B] ], T-!S, U& #  "& 
xz yTY/ \0 ^4 ] x' y'0, =-J]   K-;W x[. J/ "#  K"234  '( +4
N  A;
N4 '0, *+,-./
ch

\0x y*+,-./ ] # J  A;


*+,-./ #4# ;b) ]  TY/   + dC, B#-7  =] #
.[Q{] - -4  # "2
K )H& ] .[f] 4/, -W "# =5 K  (Al2O3
"# 4-;
 4 ;h Ui!  7-;3, ;b ,W 
"h +2] 8;23, A;
b :( ),& ;b *+,-./ U#0,
Ar

'0,  TY/ \0 B;#L 


@,-!< .+2] A
  ! 6;S, =/   '0, # "h 8S K-&  ). "# :( N4
 ] # |!  H! 
 4 y+ , 4A
  )3;3  j, )iE  # "-W Ui, =-+< "#  +, ,
 U]
;b .++ , D4 #-Y K-&  TY/ # A;
N# :m  :(   TY/ -l .[k] ++h, )!<
*]; 4-;
(Na3AlF6) B.-4  +! 4-;
:m  "W-, )iE, #  "40n  H;!<  "2&0K ?@ '0, B.J
4A
 mJ " +2] (Na2SiF6) *4J :H;J-;
(CaF2)
# )3;3 N1!  "-W .[}] -&, K-&  BY
)9
5  u# =A,  [$] -# )!2C, ]#  TY/  / / : 

=5 =& ^!W p<# X-+,-./ '0,  TY/ N# ~ 2E, // :


 
      
    , 
.[f]-&, =5 T-H.-, )HE  '0,  T-;C,
omajidi@mail.iust.ac.ir !" #$%
4!& 2YJ : +m< 
T!< :;!< # ?,  2,  
   .   
   ,! "# 
, .!< 
  
)H&  +# " 
shabestari@iust.ac.ir !" #$%
.[ff]
T!< € '0,  
|! =, A;
'0, 
  .   
   ,$% &' ( )* 
mrezab@iust.ac.ir !" #$% 

www.SID.ir

      

/0,   /  
 !"#  - +!&, .* () " BJ 4 2,  H4 & A
 
"+U# >, N2
4
1
2 34 #  , .&#, "W- -, 2S+  92L "m+W  2E#
(wt %)$34  +-. 012
, =E X-+,-./ '0, "89 "+,  & XD :>>C
m;c, *+,-./ "89  
`-  =A, ?@ -,  "
&' NaCl
&'
.BJ E €AK
KCl

( Na2SiF6
"#$ %& .!
) CaF2
5./ HH, Z-Y  .1q # 
>, ?@  N4 
.BJ "2
K  L J # -, *+,-./ '0, "89 +4

78 9  ;<  =  /0,  ;
-  46 ! .5 ()
:ScL H+&, :;!<  ) "&  2# J #  #
!"#
-P+, "#  / ^!W (A319  A380 5./) *+,-./ 1234
53)3 '  " 53)3 6 )!  :, "# (... B#-7   # q)CcJ K-./ \0
"/")
   !  
U1 %{˚C :  BC    :;!< -  B<J

D
S0
(#$ %&
'* 
   !   S# #) "&  N4  f kg  4,/   J   # .&
S1
-* #$ %& ,/+
4# =-H;J „-# =  & N4- (/{*{*f{ mm m4 >

SI
'* 
   !  
-* #$ %& ,/.
S2 .&   L *+,-./ X K-; f{  '( B
… "# (SiC)
'* 
   !   
:;!< .& '( K )SE, # +, - dJ- †J
S3
-* #$ %& ,/0
K  ! "# 
64A 64 7  }‡±{ ˚C ,  
'* 
   !  
-* #$ %& ,/1
S4 .& XD ">L f{ :, "# =A! #  ! '0, = "# =-K/
of

  4"45 ! 23  W0 -7 "# f )H&  .B
K XD 
[;23, 4>, # 4,/
"/6 '* 
  4"45 ! 23 
W1   "# 4>, N4 .BJ &  =E  XD -C ˆ!&
-* #$ %&
4"45 !  7  W2
.& '32 '0, )   /‡  /R /% /f
ive

12J # 4"-! ";


#  K # J  
T!<  
4,/ (Reduced Pressure Test) "2
4  E
BC !D
.L  '0,  K"234 64 7  E =-,/ "-! .&
4 "-!  "2
K :- ASTM-B108 2J |J # A;

ch

.4 K "U }‡˚C ,  '0, 4!& A./ BUW A


ASTM- 2J S# # 6#c, E 4,/ 1234 "-!
"J )L 4,/  J   # .& ,/  H&  B557M
Ar

T, INSTRON 12J # E 4,/  & ,/ E "-!


RPT !D 4,/ .B
K XD %mm/min   ‰  BC 4486
XD ŠY ‹! "# AUD, Stahl Gas-TECH II 12J  82J #
$ # # #)"2
4  E
 & !D+, "-! .1q .B
K !"# $%# &# 
' . 
T2D4   dJ- 8]!  & !D+, "-!  (# ;,
NS |!& "7-b €  82J # E< *L  BL #  
T!< :;!< ?@ =A, 2E# J #  # N+O!
)Y )3;3 =A, 4 "c#  (D.I) .1q 4 „mJC, # .& 4,/  J ˆ4 QQR 40 5./ 2EK # "89 -,
:& "mJC,  "-! '( # =/ V42  B
K XD 
"+U#  T!< #
B & QQR „. !& '(  
T!< =# 2EK #
da − dv
D.I = × 100 (r) 64 7  82J -, 
4!&   .& "]4>, -H. 4
da
N+O! .BJ ,/ f TW   "mJC, XRD  XRF 4,/
dv  8]!  & !D+, "-! .1q da Œ-
".S,  "
"_ %TW  
  |J # "-! 0K 
g/cm3 ] # ($ mbar) ŠY  & !D+, "-! .1q
.BJ &

www.SID.ir
 &' % ( ) *+,$ '-% 
 ! "#$  

180
d4 & =-# 2U# 1E &# 2! .1q 4 "q  .+&#,
165

150
156.0
146.8  "-! B]H& Ž-cJ .-# -Y TY/ -l C.  '0,
137.1

T, (SEM) E#  2H. I-HJ H, dJ- E 4,/
UTS (MPa)  
 

135 132.4

120

Super Ultra Thin ) ~ ]#  D+ "# AUD, Philips-XL40


105 102.6

90

75
`- 4J+&  ]  TY/ -l J # BUW (Window
60

45   
 K-.2, J # N+O! .B
K  L J # -, =/
30

15 E 4,/  "-!  & 4 # :ScL  # J ,/
.B
K :-
0
S0(0.0) S1(0.1) S2(0.2) S3(0.3) S4(0.4)

( 
)  

A '  &= ! /0, !"# $% &BC, .5    


.
@ 9  ;
- DD! @ 9   2  ;
- .?>*
 "89 [;23, d4 &  1234 "-! 4!& A./ V42
5

N1, "# -# , -!   "# R %)H& .BJ ,/ RTW

D
4.5
4.26

"89 "-! m] T-7 4  N1,  EE XHC2J


4.23
4 3.93 3.93
 

 
 

a  '0,   .+&#, 


[;23, 4>, # &
3.5

2.5

1.5

0.5
2

1
2.20

SI
B] (A319  A380) 2J 5./   6#c, C,
"# -# , " &#, T2,   # =/  -W-, N/ >, 
" &#, ,-+,-./ "&  5& = N/  # -l
X! "q K .BJ Sm7 S4 -,  82J -,  , N4
of
0
S0 S1 S2 S3 S4
 L 14H4 "# ˆ4A C,  4!&   P  "-!
( 
)  
S3 "-! -& , "P , R  % )H&  " "-1! .
 E <  &= ! /0, !"# $% &BC, .?  "# Bm]  m] T-7 4   EE XHC2J N4 2E#
@ 9  ;
- FG (
H   /R  
=A, 4A
 # .&#,  "-! 4J
ive

 ] # .1q 4 : n "# -# , -! N+O!  /‡ T!< # ,  E4A
  EE XHC2J '0,
" -&, "P , BJ&  =E ‡)H&  
[;23,   XHC2J  & [L-2,  N4 
 
N4 2!  N4 #+#  &#, S3 "-! "# -# , 4 N4 2! p<# (S3 "-!) '0, "# 
    /R=A
 .#4,
4  4A
   {% =A, "# EE XHC2J 4A

ch

4 >, "q K .&#, "-! 4J "# Bm] )3;3 =A,
"-! .1q 4 +2] ˆ4A ]# S4  S3 "-!  .1q T!< =# "-! "# Bm]  R/Q =A, "# m] T-7
. "-! 4J # H&/ :8 S0 # B& TY/ -l "-! N4  .BJ & (S0)

A ! D4 # O  … )H& A  [;23, 4!&  


Ar

N4) -&, "-!  40\cS  XHC2J  W-, +


12.00

.(+2] B]H& U  D4 ". UH, u -!S, :(


10.00 10.07

8.00
 

 

6.00

@ 9  ;
-  - % 2 .? ()
4.00

2.97
2.6
2.22 2.23
 S0 S1 S2 S3 S4
2.00

%Si 8/.0. 8/09: 8/.8, 8/.;+ 8/.1,


0.00
S0(0.0) S1(0.1) S2(0.2) S3(0.3) S4(0.4)

( 
)  %Fe +/:,< +/;8; +/;,+ +/;9+ +/:<<

 @  &= ! /0, !"# $% &BC, >I %Cu 0/0:; 0/0<0 0/0:0 0/08< 0/8+0

,/.81 ,/0,< ,/.90 ,/.80 ,/0+.


@ 9  ;
- %Mn

%Mg ,/,:: ,/,;1 ,/,:< ,/,;: ,/,;,


"-! B]H& ^c>, vcJ  SEM  2H. I-HJ H, 49 %Zn ,/,:0 ,/,8+ ,/,:: ,/,:8 ,/,::
[.x{ )H&  .&  =E Q { TH&    "# S3  S0 Ti ,/,., ,/,., ,/,., ,/,., ,/,.0
@2m] .Y/  S0 "-! B]H& ^c>, vcJ " -&, "P , Al = = = = =

www.SID.ir

      

 TY/ 14]!  u -!S, SEM  


 K-.2, 49   EDS "c> 8 A./ .BJ -Y Nq   )H& # B&
N! -l .-&, E, ]# )3;3  : 8 ]  m  TY/ N4 " BJ N4 1# ' .{ )H&  TY/ N4
# "-!  40\cS  XHC2J #  < A )3;3  : 8 K .&#, (MgO.Al2O3 )+†J) *4A+,  *+,-./ ]
" -c!  K, U/  W-,  "2&0K ?@ .1q 4 "P , -& "]4>, (Q )H&) S3 "-! 4-9 # SEM 4-9 N4
 m] T-7 4   EE XHC2J "# -# , -!  TY/ :D, : 8 -l m] -c# { )H&  " -&,
.& E, .1q 4 2YJ "# -# , [.x})H& "]4>, #  N4 .&#, 2E#
E, A S3 "-! "# -# , 'x})H& S0 "-! 
 K-.2,
 TY/ >, (S0 & "-! "# -# ,) [.x} 4-9  . K,
N4 .&#, (S3"-!)& "89 "-!  2E# m] -c# )3;3
2YJ '-< "89 +4
2U# XD # " BJ N4 4, ;c,
J-]C,  "ScL  )3;3 H,  : 8 TY/ +!
.BJ "2&

D
SI
of
ive
ch

S3>3 S0>7  
- = Q
=& R  % .P 

BJ & N& [;23, N>>C, dJ- "2


K XD :>>C 6#c,
Ar

p<# CaF2 *]; 4-;


 (Na2SiF6) *4J :H;J-;
" S0 
- KG LMN E SEM &
0, .7  .J 
ro rk] -&, NaCl-KCl ˆ! -;3, K-&  B;#L 4A
 7   MN E EDS % 2 .3
4 )H& "# *+,-./ ]  *4J :H;J-;
+ .[rs 
:BJ

6 Na2 SiF6 + 2 Al2 O3 → 4 Na3 AlF6 + 3SiO2 + 3SiF4 ( gas ) (k)

 "2
4 4A
 B.J , 4A
 #  -# , K Œ-
+
|! "4 "D2   & 2E# '0,  
N# |! Ž-cJ
'0,  TY/ K-&  m< "# .-&, 4 '0,  TY/ N#
 TY/ ^4 J 4W , N4 .#4,  2E# *+,-./
) (SiF4) *];J 4-;
K N+O! .-&, p<#  '0,
U/ = +&  TY/ "# =m]q # - , + N4 XD  S3 
- KG LMN E SEM &
0, .O 

www.SID.ir
     
 
   

, 4A
 K 'm dJ- J +& 64 7  TY/ \0 =-L |J #) &# ?-, '0,  U/ \0  vcJ -J "#
.#4 ‘AW 4A
 m< "# 
>, 4A
 # N4 #+# .(-2J
 "89 +4
-mU#  " -&, "P , V42 "]4>, # , "# D+,  24U  #4, 4A
 '0, "89 =, Na2SiF6 TS

# , &#, -S 


T!<  /R =A, .-&, 1234 "-! Z-Y -mU#
 2  & [L-2,  N4 
 /‡=A
 TS
),<) *4J :H;J-;
N# )!2C, UE+  14 H4
Ž-cJ 
>, 4A
 # " J, P "# .BJ "2
4  :&#, 4 :- "# *+,-./ '0,  (
=
 ˆ4   Ž-cJ N4 , #4 , 4A
 '0, = |! Na SiF ⎛ ⎞ + 2 Al ⎛ ⎞ → 2 Na + Si + 2 AlF ⎛ ⎞
2 6 ⎜⎝ s ⎟⎠ ⎜l ⎟ 3⎜⎝ l ⎟⎠ (o)
 N4    4 .#4,  (
 /R) `m& ⎝ ⎠

-&, 4 L =/ A;


'0, "# Bm] (: cL) :( S `m& .-&, '0, '0W *];J  *4J + N4 XD ? 
A U/ N2J- * "# B;#L  14H4 "# : cL -Y # T!2 " "c# 6#c,  CcJ B.S
:& "# " BJ  +<  *4J
 =]H4 `S& # 
 cL  N2J- *U#  .& -Y 2E# :[f%] , 4A
 mK
4 
(:() : cL  # B], `-!D, 4W ’ cL )HE ⎛ 1 ⎞⎛ ∂γ ⎞
Γ S = −⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ (s)
"q  .#4 ,  *+,-./ '0, # 
?, |! vcJ ⎝ RT ⎠⎝ ∂Lna ⎠ T

D
Ž-cJ  &# 2E# -, 14H4 "# "  cL S (Solute) & ) ‘AW  & & "
  Ž-cJ Γ "c# N4 
S

"# & A


 
=A, K N4 #+# .& -Y 2E# A ?-, T-;C, ‘AW "24-2 a  T-;C, CcJ E γ vcJ  
4A
 U+ " "89 =, -& 2E# `m&  ˆ4  '0,
.& -Y "W-,  # "H;# #4 !


  .
SI
‘AW BP;b # ( γ ) T-;C, CcJ E " -&, "P , .BJ
 & ) ‘AW \0 # +S4 y |-HS, "c# (a) & )
 T-;C, ‘AW K  #4, 4A
 T-;C, CcJ E vcJ
CcJ E (#4 4A
 =/ BP;b) -& '0W ~ 2E, )9

of
[;23, '0, "# -# , W2  W1 W0 "-! 4!& A./ BP;b & A
 
>, 4A
 # .#4,  T-;C,
"-!) W0 "-!  .-&, "P , ‡TW  QQR 5./ p<#  (a 4A
) & 2E# CcJ TS
‘AW =-+< "# *4J
"-!) W1  ("89 :;!< XD =# QQR 5./ 2EK #  '0, ’4 " D/  .-&, T-;C, CcJ E 2E# 
/R =A
 # "89 :;!<   QQR 5./ 2EK #  '0,
ive

),< '0, 
 *+,-./ '0, # ]  TY/ K-& 
'0, "-!) W2 "-!  2E# ,  N/ =A, (
  # J B!J "# TY/ =  +&  '0, A! # ?,  *U,
5./ 2EK #  ! "#  4 .&#, (QQR 5./ ". !& `-!D, 
>, 4A
 " J , P "# 0. &#,
.&#, )!2C, ,  N/ "  L -l u -!S, QQR = TY/ 6;S, :( N# K-&  (|! Ž-cJ) ?, =H,
ch


    ! "
#  . .[rs  ro rk] +, 2E#  
 '0,

(CaF2  Na2SiF6) 
  = 4-;
:m  -l
W0 W1 W2 TY/ # =-K/ K 'm K-&  BY 4A
 p<#

 
'0,x'm |! Ž-cJ 
4>, 4A
 # .[rk] -&,
Ar

/ / / %Si


# " #-Y K+m]q "# "W- # 'm N4 .+#4, 4A

/ /
/ %Fe W-,  +m]q, U/ "#  '0, = ]  TY/
/
 /

/
 %Cu dJ- J+& TY/ \0 .b XAH, . K, TY/ \0
/
/ /
%Mn '0, = " ". TY/ " -& “
K .&#, K 'm
/ / / 
%Mg
'm =m]q   &# ρ0 .1q d0 cL   -l
.1q  d1 4W cL  14H4 +  U/ `-!D, =/ "# K
/
 /
 /  %Zn
.1q  ". cL  2KA# 4W cL " BJ U4# .-&, ρ1
/  /  /  Ti
"c# 6m7 "D2   -# -Y ". .1q  2! 4W
   Al =m]q   '0, vcJ "# TY/ =& +& B< J -2J
 4A
 #  .#4, 4A
 :& "# =/ "# K 'm
4  -!  $ )H&  "-! EE XHC2J -!
‰  4A
 ). "# "89 =, '0, "# A
 

-! N+O! .-&, E,  )H&  "-! m] T-7
.BJ & "_ f )H&  "-! N4  # .1q 4 : n

www.SID.ir

      

 
. N4  
T!< " -&, "P , -! N4 "# "W- #
 Na2SiF6  
) & A
 
=A, 4A
 # ([. # "H4-c# -&, HH, Z-Y -mU# p<# A 40 5./
"2J- -c# '0, "89 =, '0,   /R  (CaF2 XHC2J (W1 "-!) '0,   /R >, "# 
T!<
. E4A
  %{  f$/‡   "# m] T-7 4  N1,  EE
=A
 # " 5./ m] T-7 4  EE XHC2J (' =A
 =#  2EK # '(  ) "-! "# Bm] 
4A
 BJ & "89 '0,   /R =A, "# 
N4 2! W2 "-! 
7  .BJ "2
4 4A
 (W0 "-!) 

BC " "-! "# Bm] %R/Q %{%   "#  1!Eq   2! A =/ )3;3 =A, N4 #+#    .1q 4
., =E BJ "2
1  L "89 :;!<  " "-1! A -, N4  "89 XAH, .BJ -# 14 "-!
). "# '0,   /R  # =A, "# 
=A
 # (z  J+& u !2 4 K ( 1234 5./ "-! -,
"89 =, 4A
  
-l  '0, =& `m& .&#, TY/  
N# 4!& +
.-&, [L-2, 140

"# 
T!< dJ- QQR 5./ 2EK # '0, "89 # ( 120

T-7 4  EE XHC2J '0,   /R =A,

D
100 102.0
98.9

(MPa )  



."2
4 4A
 "89  )mL "# Bm] %%{ %f$/‡   "# m] 80
83.5

SI
60

 40

[1] Zhou, M., et al; "Performance Improvement of Industrial


20
Pure Aluminum Treated by Stirring Molten Fluxes", Mat.
Sci. & Eng., Vol. A347, 2003, PP.280-290. 0
W0 W1 W2
of
 
[2] Wittaya La-Orchan, "Quantification of the Reduced
Pressure test", Ph.D. Thesis, McGill University, 1994.  -/*0!  "'' ($)*+ , .&%$#
[3] Makarov, S., Apelian, D., Ludwig, R., "Inclusion Removal 14

And Detection In Molten Aluminum: Mechanical, 12


12.46
ive

Electromagnetic, and Acoustic Techniques", AFS 11.25

Transaction, 1999, PP.727-742. 10


 
 


9.00
8
[4] Apelian, D., "How clean is the metal you cast? The issue of
assessment: a status report", Proceeding of 3rd Int. Conf. 6

on Molten Aluminum Processing;1992, PP.1-15. 4


ch

[5] Crepeau, P.N., Fenyes, M.L., Jeanneret, J.L., "Solid Fluxing 2

Practices for Aluminum Melting", Modern Casting, 1992, 0


PP.28-30. W0 W1 W2

 

[6] Cochran, B.P., Fenyes, M.L., Jeanneret, J.L., Mulae, R.P.,


-/*0!  "23 4 ,
,5 6 , , .1 %$#
Ar

Crepeau, P.N., "Flux Practice in Aluminum Melting", AFS


Transaction, 1992, V.88, PP.737-742.  
[7] Utigard, T.A. et al; "Properties of Fluxes Used In Molten 3.5

Aluminum Processing", Journal of Metals, Nov.1998,


3
PP.38-43.
2.73
2.5
(MPa ) 
 

[8] Mohanty, P.S., Samuel, F.H., Gruzleski, J.E., "Role of


Inclusions on Pore Nucleation in Aluminum Casting 2

Alloys", Light Metals Processing and Applications, 1993,


1.5
PP.273-282.
1 0.95
[9] Crepeau, P.N., "Molten Aluminum Contamination: Gas, 0.72

Inclusions, and Dross", Modern Casting, 1997, PP.39-41. 0.5

0
[10] Fox, J.M., "Aluminum Alloy Castings Inclusions", AFS W0 W1 W2

Transactions, 1961, V. 69, P.737.  

[11] Gallo, R., "Development, Evaluation and Application of  "89 :


 ; <=> ?/@ AB> .7 %$#
Granular and Powder Fluxes in Transfer Ladles, Crucible
 

www.SID.ir
     
 
   

and Reverberatory Furnaces", Proceeding of 6th


International AFS Conference in Molten Aluminum
Processing, 2001, PP.55-69.

[12] Roy, R.R., "Physiochemical Measurements in Aluminum


Salt Systems Relevant to Recycling of Aluminum Scrap",
Ph.D. Thesis, Ohio State University, 1994.

[13] Grjotheim, K., "Characteristic and Thermodynamics of


Fused Salts", Chemistry and Geochemistry of Solutions at
High Temperatures and Pressures, Bergman Press,
London England, 1981, PP.237-441.

[14] Utigard, T.A., "Thermodynamic Considerations of


Aluminum Refining and fluxing", Extraction, Refining and
Fabrication of Light Metals, 1991, PP.353-365.

D
SI
of
ive
ch
Ar

www.SID.ir