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CONTACT-LESS TACHOMETER

INTRODUCTION
1 A tachometer is an instrument designed to measure the speed of an object or
substance. The word is formed from Greek roots tachos, meaning speed, and
metron, meaning measure. The traditional tachometer is laid out as a dial, with a
needle indicating the current reading and marking safe and dangerous levels.
Recently, digital tachometers giving a direct numeric output have become more
common. In its most familiar form, a tachometer measures the speed at which a
mechanical device is rotating. A common example is the tachometer found on
automobile dashboards. In this application, the tachometer measures the
revolutions per minute (RPMs) of the engine drive shaft. It is important to
monitor engine RPMs, as running the engine at excessively high rates can
drastically shorten engine life. A tachometer used in this application can be built
in multiple ways. It may be a small generator attached to the engine drive shaft,
where the RPM measurement is scaled to the electric current generated by the
device. Alternately, it may simply measure the rate at which the ignition system
sends sparks to the engine. The traditional tachometer requires physical contact
between the instrument and the device being measured. In applications where
this is not feasible for technical or safety reasons, it may be possible to use a
Contact less tachometer to take measurements from a distance. A Contact less
tachometer works by pulsing an Infrared radiation against the rotating element.
The rotating element will have a reflective spot, and the tachometer measures the
rate at which the infrared radiation is reflected back. A Contact less tachometer
can be a permanent part of the system, or it can be handheld for occasional spot
measurements.
2 So I have made this possible which overcome the disadvantages of the
traditional tachometer. I have used new technologies like the liquid crystal
display, the 8051 microcontroller, the infrared sensor and the generator. It has
many advantages over the traditional tachometer. Although, laser can be used
instead of the infrared transmitter and the receiver. There was a practical problem
using the laser. The laser uses more power consumption. By using the infrared
radiation I have omitted those practical problems. We can name it as a pick up or
transducer because it converts the frequency of the shaft into the pulses using the
infrared transmitter and the receiver. These pulses are counted by the
microcontroller. These pulses are the short duration pulses of the order of few
milliseconds. So the microcontroller sense these pulses counted these pulses and
convert it into revolutions per minute. These revolutions per minute is then
converted in the voltage and then sent it to the liquid crystal display. The liquid
crystal display can be replaced by the seven segment display but I have used the
liquid crystal display because I have display the four digit number which uses
four seven segment. I have to display the maximum and the average speed of the
rotating part. It may leads to increased number of interconnection and the circuit
complexity will be increased. To minimize the circuit I have used the liquid
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crystal display. It has less number of interconnection and requires less power. It
occupies less area than the seven segment display. I will explain each and every
point in the detail that is the principle, the algorithm used, the program that I
have created. The microcontroller working and operation.

PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION
3 The idea behind most digital counting device, frequency meters and
tachometers, is a micro-controller, used to count the pulses coming from a sensor
or any other electronic device. In the case of this tachometer, the counted pluses
will come from proximity sensor, which will detect any reflective element
passing in front of it, and thus, will give an output pulse for each and every
rotation of the shaft, as show in the picture. Those pulses will be fed to the
microcontroller and counted. to understand the microcontroller counts pulses,
and deduce the frequency of those pulse, please refer to this tutorial about
building a frequency meter that elaborates the process of frequency counting.
The main difference between this tutorial about tachometer and frequency
meters, is that we need the reading in pulses per minutes (to count revolutions
per minutes), but in the same time, we don't want to wait a whole minute before
getting a correct reading. Thus we need some additional processing to predict the
number of revolutions per minute in less than a second that I will explain in the
algorithm.
INSTANTANEOUS MEASUREMENT ALGORITHM
4 To be able to deduce an RPM reading in less than second, while constantly
refining the reading's accuracy, a simple algorithm have been developed, where a
counter and a timer are used. Counter and timers are part of the internal features
of a micro-controller and they can be easily configured through programming.
The timer and the counter are used for this task; The counter is connected I such
a way to count pulses coming from the proximity sensor, while the timer is used
to precisely feed the counted value to the microcontroller every filth of a second,
and stable reading and prevent display flickering.

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Figure 1. Principle of counting

CONTACT LESS TACHOMETER CIRCUIT


5 This device is composed of 2 electronic circuits that are the Sensor, which is
a slightly modified proximity sensor, and the microcontroller board, which
analyses pulses coming from the sensor, processes them and display the result on
the LCD display.

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Figure 2. Circuit diagram of contact less tachometer


CIRCUIT EXPLANATION
6 The LCD connections are a standard for most of alpha numeric LCDs, the
only feature I added is to be able to control the back light via the P89V51RD2BN
microcontroller. Standard in any 8051 microcontroller circuit, which includes the
reset circuitry along with the crystal resonator that generates the clock pulses
required. The power supply regulates a 9V rechargeable Ni-CD battery and also

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provides a very simple battery monitor, with a green and a red LED, showing
whether the battery needs to be recharged or not. The switch SW1 is used to
enable/disable the measurement or the counting process. When the switch is
pressed, the device measures the RPM of the shaft under test, and constantly
updates the reading on the LCD, when the switch is released, the last reading is
held unchanged on the display, as long as the device stays on. When the switch is
pressed again the old reading is replaced by the new one. The wire connection
P1, which is connected to the output of the sensor, is connected to the pin 3.4 of
the microcontroller, this pin has a dual function which is to count incoming
pulses and increment a 8, 13, or 16 bit register according to the configuration of
the timer T0.

Figure 3. The modified IR proximity sensor


7 Which is the fact that the emitter LED uses a current limiting resistor of a
higher value, to allow it to be turned on for a long period of time, because in this
specific application, we need to turn the IR emissions on or off, but we don’t
need to inject high currents to reach high ranges? The CTRL line, is an input
coming from the microcontroller (at the wire connection: P4), turning the IR
emissions ON and OFF, and the OUT line, is the output of the sensor, which is
fed to the microcontroller.
IR PROXIMITY SENSOR
8 This sensor can be used for most indoor applications where no important
ambient light is present. For simplicity, this sensor doesn't provide ambient light
immunity, but a more complicated, ambient light ignoring sensor should be
discussed in a coming article. However, this sensor can be used to measure the
speed of object moving at a very high speed, like in industry or in tachometers.
In such applications, ambient light ignoring sensor, which rely on sending 40
Khz pulsed signals cannot be used because there are time gaps between the
pulses where the sensor is 'blind'. The solution proposed doesn't contain any
special components, like photo-diodes, photo-transistors, or IR receiver ICs, only
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a couple if IR leds, an Op amp, a transistor and a couple of resistors. In need a


standard IR led is used for the purpose of detection. It is the same principle in all
Infra-Red proximity sensors. The basic idea is to send infra red light through IR-
LEDs, which is then reflected by any object in front of the sensor. Then all you
have to do is to pick-up the reflected IR light. For detecting the reflected IR light,
we are going to use a very original technique: we are going to use another IR-
LED, to detect the IR light that was emitted from another led of the exact same
type. This is an electrical property of Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) which is the
fact that a led produces a voltage difference across its leads when it is subjected
to light. As if it was a photo-cell, but with much lower output current. In other
words, the voltage generated by the L.E.D. can't be - in any way - used to
generate electrical power from light, It can barely be detected. I am going to use
a Op-Amp (operational Amplifier) to accurately detect very small voltage
changes.

OPERATION OF MICROCONTROLLER
9 Even though there are a large number of different types of microcontrollers
and even more programs created for their use only, all of them have many things
in common. A typical scenario on the basis of which it all functions is as follows
(a) Power supply is turned off and everything is still the program is
loaded into the microcontroller
(b) Power supply is turned on and everything starts to happen at high
speed! The control logic unit keeps everything under control. It
disables all other circuits except quartz crystal to operate. While the
preparations are in progress, the first milliseconds go by.
(c) Power supply voltage reaches its maximum and oscillator
frequency becomes stable. SFRs are being filled with bits reflecting
the state of all circuits within the microcontroller. All pins are
configured as inputs. The overall electronic starts operation in
rhythm with pulse sequence. From now on the time is measured in
micro and nanoseconds.
(d) Program Counter is set to zero. Instruction from that address is
sent to instruction decoder which recognizes it, after which it is
executed with immediate effect.
(e) The value of the Program Counter is incremented by 1 and the
whole process is repeated several million times per second.

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Figure 4. Parts of microcontroller

READ ONLY MEMORY (ROM)

10 Read Only Memory (ROM) is a type of memory used to permanently


save the program being executed. The size of the program that can be written
depends on the size of this memory. ROM can be built in the microcontroller or
added as an external chip, which depends on the type of the microcontroller.
Both options have some disadvantages. If ROM is added as an external chip, the
microcontroller is cheaper and the program can be considerably longer. At the
same time, a number of available pins is reduced as the microcontroller uses its
own input/output ports for connection to the chip. The internal ROM is usually
smaller and more expensive, but leaves more pins available for connecting to
peripheral environment. The size of ROM ranges from 512B to 64KB.

RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY (RAM)

11 Random Access Memory (RAM) is a type of memory used for


temporary storing data and intermediate results created and used during the
operation of the microcontrollers. The content of this memory is cleared once the
power supply is off. For example, if the program performs an addition, it is
necessary to have a register standing for what in everyday life is called the “sum”
. For that purpose, one of the registers in RAM is called the "sum" and used for
storing results of addition. The size of RAM goes up to a few KBs.

ELECTRICALLY ERASABLE PROGRAMMABLE ROM (EEPROM)

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12 The EEPROM is a special type of memory not contained in all


microcontrollers. Its contents may be changed during program execution (similar
to RAM ), but remains permanently saved even after the loss of power (similar to
ROM). It is often used to store values, created and used during operation (such as
calibration values, codes, values to count up to etc.), which must be saved after
turning the power supply off. A disadvantage of this memory is that the process
of programming is relatively slow. It is measured in milliseconds.

Figure 5. Registers of microcontroller

SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS (SFR)

13 Special function registers are part of RAM memory. Their purpose is


predefined by the manufacturer and cannot be changed therefore. Since their bits
are physically connected to particular circuits within the microcontroller, such as
A/D converter, serial communication module etc., any change of their state
directly affects the operation of the microcontroller or some of the circuits. For
example, writing zero or one to the SFR controlling an input/output port causes
the appropriate port pin to be configured as input or output. In other words, each
bit of this register controls the function of one single pin.

PROGRAM COUNTER

14 Program Counter is an engine running the program and points to the


memory address containing the next instruction to execute. After each instruction
execution, the value of the counter is incremented by 1. For this reason, the
program executes only one instruction at a time just as it is written. However…
the value of the program counter can be changed at any moment, which causes a

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“jump” to a new memory location. This is how subroutines and branch


instructions are executed. After jumping, the counter resumes even and
monotonous automatic counting.

CENTRAL PROCESSOR UNIT (CPU)

15 This is a unit which monitors and controls all processes within the
microcontroller and the user cannot affect its work. It consists of several smaller
subunits, of which the most important are
(a) Instruction decoder is a part of the electronics which recognizes
program instructions and runs other circuits on the basis of that. The
abilities of this circuit are expressed in the "instruction set" which is
different for each microcontroller family.
(b) Arithmetical Logical Unit (ALU) performs all mathematical and
logical operations upon data.
(c) Accumulator is an SFR closely related to the operation of ALU.
It is a kind of working desk used for storing all data upon which
some operations should be executed (addition, shift etc.). It also
stores the results ready for use in further processing. One of the
SFRs, called the Status Register, is closely related to the
accumulator, showing at any given time the "status" of a number
stored in the accumulator.
16 A bit is just a word invented to confuse novices at electronics. Joking
aside, this word in practice indicates whether the voltage is present on a
conductor or not. If it is present, the appropriate pin is set to logic one (1), i.e. the
bit’s value is 1. Otherwise, if the voltage is 0 V, the appropriate pin is cleared (0),
i.e. the bit’s value is 0. It is more complicated in theory where a bit is referred to
as a binary digit, but even in this case, its value can be either 0 or 1.

INPUT/OUTPUT PORTS (I/O PORTS)

17 In order to make the microcontroller useful, it is necessary to connect


it to peripheral devices. Each microcontroller has one or more registers (called a
port) connected to the microcontroller pins. Why do we call them input/output
ports? Because it is possible to change a pin function according to the user's
needs. These registers are the only registers in the microcontroller the state of
which can be checked by voltmeter.

OSCILLATOR

18 Even pulses generated by the oscillator enable harmonic and


synchronous operation of all circuits within the microcontroller. It is usually
configured as to use quartz-crystal or ceramics resonator for frequency
stabilization. It can also operate without elements for frequency stabilization
(like RC oscillator). It is important to say that program instructions are not
executed at the rate imposed by the oscillator itself, but several times slower. It
happens because each instruction is executed in several steps. For some

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microcontrollers, the same number of cycles is needed to execute any instruction,


while it's different for other microcontrollers. Accordingly, if the system uses
quartz crystal with a frequency of 20MHz, the execution time of an instruction is
not expected 50nS, but 200, 400 or even 800 nS, depending on the type of the
microcontroller!

TIMERS/COUNTERS

19 Most programs use these miniature electronic "stopwatches" in their


operation. These are commonly 8- or 16-bit SFRs the contents of which are
automatically incremented by each coming pulse. Once the register is completely
loaded, an interrupt is generated. If these registers use an internal quartz
oscillator as a clock source, then it is possible to measure the time between two
events (if the register value is T1 at the moment measurement has started, and T2
at the moment it has finished, then the elapsed time is equal to the result of
subtraction T2-T1 ). If the registers use pulses coming from external source, then
such a timer is turned into a counter. This is only a simple explanation of the
operation itself. It’s somehow more complicated in practice. A register or a
memory cell is an electronic circuit which can memorize the state of one byte.
Besides 8 bits available to the user, each register has also a number of addressing
bits. It is important to remember that are
(a) All registers of ROM as well as those of RAM referred to as
general-purpose registers are mutually equal and nameless. During
programming, each of them can be assigned a name, which makes
the whole operation much easier.
(b) All SFRs are assigned names which are different for different
types of the microcontrollers and each of them has a special function
as their name suggests.
WATCHDOG TIMER

20 The Watchdog Timer is a timer connected to a completely separate


RC oscillator within the microcontroller. If the watchdog timer is enabled, every
time it counts up to the program end, the microcontroller reset occurs and
program execution starts from the first instruction. The point is to prevent this
from happening by using a special command. The whole idea is based on the fact
that every program is executed in several longer or shorter loops. If instructions
resetting the watchdog timer are set at the appropriate program locations, besides
commands being regularly executed, then the operation of the watchdog timer
will not affect the program execution. If for any reason (usually electrical noise
in industry), the program counter "gets stuck" at some memory location from
which there is no return, the watchdog will not be cleared, so the register’s value
being constantly incremented will reach the maximum et voila! Reset occurs!

POWER SUPPLY CIRCUIT

21 There are two things worth attention concerning the microcontroller


power supply circuit
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(a) Brown out is a potentially dangerous state which occurs at the


moment the microcontroller is being turned off or when power
supply voltage drops to the lowest level due to electric noise. As the
microcontroller consists of several circuits which have different
operating voltage levels, this can cause it’s out of control
performance. In order to prevent it, the microcontroller usually has a
circuit for brown out reset built-in. This circuit immediately resets
the whole electronics when the voltage level drops below the lower
limit.
(b) Reset pin is usually referred to as Master Clear Reset (MCLR)
and serves for external reset of the microcontroller by applying logic
zero (0) or one (1) depending on the type of the microcontroller. In
case the brown out is not built in the microcontroller, a simple
external circuit for brown out reset can be connected to this pin.

SERIAL COMMUNICATION

22 Parallel connections between the microcontroller and peripherals


established over I/O ports are the ideal solution for shorter distances up to several
meters. However, in other cases, when it is necessary to establish communication
between two devices on longer distances it is obviously not possible to use
parallel connections. Then, serial communication is the best solution. Most
microcontrollers have several different systems for serial communication built in
as standard equipment. One of the most important things concerning serial
communication is the Protocol which should be strictly observed. It is a set of
rules which must be applied in order that devices can correctly interpret data they
mutually exchange. Fortunately, the microcontrollers automatically take care of
this, so the work of the programmer/user is reduced to a simple write and read. A
byte consists of 8 bits grouped together. If a bit is a digit then it is logical that
bytes are numbers. All mathematical operations can be performed upon them,
just like upon common decimal numbers, which is carried out in the ALU. It is
important to remember that byte digits are not of equal significance. The largest
value has the leftmost bit called the most significant bit (MSB). The rightmost bit
has the least value and is therefore called the least significant bit (LSB). Since 8
digits (zeros and ones) of one byte can be combined in 256 different ways, the
largest decimal number which can be represented by one byte is 255.

PROGRAM

23 Unlike other integrated circuits which only need to be connected to


other components and turn the power supply on, the microcontrollers need to be
programmed first. This is a so called "bitter pill" and the main reason why
hardware-oriented electronics engineers stay away from microcontrollers. It is a
trap causing huge losses because the process of programming the microcontroller
is basically very simple. In order to write a program for the microcontroller,
several "low-level" programming languages can be used such as Assembly, C
and Basic (and their versions as well). Writing program procedure consists of
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simple writing instructions in the order in which they should be executed. There
are also many programs running in Windows environment used to facilitate the
work providing additional visual tools.
24 Interrupt electronics is usually faster than physical processes it
should keep under control. This is why the microcontroller spends most of its
time waiting for something to happen or execute. In other words, when some
event takes place, the microcontroller does something. In order to prevent the
microcontroller from spending most of its time endlessly checking for logic state
on input pins and registers, an interrupt is generated. It is the signal which
informs the central processor that something attention worthy has happened. As
its name suggests, it interrupts regular program execution. It can be generated by
different sources so when it occurs, the microcontroller immediately stops
operation and checks for the cause. If it is needed to perform some operations, a
current state of the program counter is pushed onto the Stack and the appropriate
program is executed. It's the so called interrupt routine.
25 Stack is a part of RAM used for storing the current state of the
program counter (address) when an interrupt occurs. In this way, after a
subroutine or an interrupt execution, the microcontroller knows from where to
continue regular program execution. This address is cleared after returning to the
program because there is no need to save it any longer, and one location of the
stack is automatically available for further use. In addition, the stack can consist
of several levels. This enables subroutines’ nesting, i.e. calling one subroutine
from another.

8051 STANDARD
26 I am describing the 8051 standards. Microcontroller manufacturers
have been competing for a long time for attracting choosy customers and every
couple of days a new chip with a higher operating frequency, more memory and
upgraded A/D converters appeared on the market. However, most of them had
the same or at least very similar architecture known in the world of
microcontrollers as “8051 compatible”. What is all this about. The whole story
has its beginnings in the far 80s when Intel launched the first series of
microcontrollers called the MCS 051. Even though these microcontrollers had
quite modest features in comparison to the new ones, they conquered the world
very soon and became a standard for what nowadays is called the
microcontroller.
27 The main reason for their great success and popularity is a skillfully
chosen configuration which satisfies different needs of a large number of users
allowing at the same time constant expansions. Besides, the software has been
developed in great extend in the meantime, and it simply was not profitable to
change anything in the microcontroller’s basic core. This is the reason for having
a great number of various microcontrollers which basically are solely upgraded
versions of the 8051 family.
(a) 4 Kb of ROM is not much at all.
(b) 128b of RAM (including SFRs) satisfies the user's basic needs.

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(c) 4 ports having in total of 32 input/output lines are in most cases


sufficient to make all necessary connections to peripheral
environment.

Figure 6. Configuration of microcontroller

28 The whole configuration is obviously thought of as to satisfy the needs


of most programmers working on development of automation devices. One of its
advantages is that nothing is missing and nothing is too much. In other words, it
is created exactly in accordance to the average user‘s taste and needs. Another
advantages are RAM organization, the operation of Central Processor Unit
(CPU) and ports which completely use all recourses and enable further upgrade.

PINOUT DESCRIPTION

(a) Pins 1-8 port 1 each of these pins can be configured as an input or an
output.
(b) Pin 9 (Rs)A logic one on this pin disables the microcontroller and
clears the contents of most registers. In other words, the positive
voltage on this pin resets the microcontroller. By applying logic zero
to this pin, the program starts execution from the beginning.
(c) Pin 10-17:port 3:Similar to port 1, each of these pins can serve as
general input or output. Besides, all of them have alternative
functions:
(d) Pin 10 Rxd Serial asynchronous communication input or Serial
synchronous communication output.
(e) Pin 11 Txd Serial asynchronous communication output or Serial
synchronous communication clock output.
(f) Pin 12 Int 0 Interrupt 0 input.
(g) Pin 13 Int 1 Interrupt 1 input.
(h) Pin 14 Counter 0 clock input.
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(i) Pin 15 Counter 1 clock input.


(j) Pin 16 WR Write to external (additional) RAM.
(k) Pin 17 RD Read from external RAM.
(l) Pin 18,19 XT,X1Internal oscillator input and output. A quartz crystal
which specifies operating frequency is usually connected to these
pins. Instead of it, miniature ceramics resonators can also be used for
frequency stability. Later versions of microcontrollers operate at a
frequency of 0 Hz up to over 50 Hz.
(m) Pin 20 Ground.
(n) Pin 21-22 If there is no intention to use external memory then these
port pins are configured as general inputs/outputs. In case external
memory is used, the higher address byte, i.e. addresses A8-A15 will
appear on this port. Even though memory with capacity of 64Kb is
not used, which means that not all eight port bits are used for its
addressing, the rest of them are not available as inputs/outputs.
(o) Pin 29 Psen If external ROM is used for storing program then a logic
zero (0) appears on it every time the microcontroller reads a byte
from memory.
(p) Pin 30ALE prior to reading from external memory, the
microcontroller puts the lower address byte (A0-A7) on P0 and
activates the ALE output. After receiving signal from the ALE pin,
the external register (usually 74HCT373 or 74HCT375 add-on chip)
memorizes the state of P0 and uses it as a memory chip address.
Immediately after that, the ALU pin is returned its previous logic
state and P0 is now used as a Data Bus. As seen, port data
multiplexing is performed by means of only one additional (and
cheap) integrated circuit. In other words, this port is used for both
data and address transmission.
(q) Pin 31 EA By applying logic zero to this pin, P2 and P3 are used for
data and address transmission with no regard to whether there is
internal memory or not. It means that even there is a program written
to the microcontroller, it will not be executed. Instead, the program
written to external ROM will be executed. By applying logic one to
the EA pin, the microcontroller will use both memories, first internal
then external .
(r) Pin 32-39 Similar to P2, if external memory is not used, these pins
can be used as general inputs/outputs. Otherwise, P0 is configured as
address output (A0-A7) when the ALE pin is driven high (1) or as
data output (Data Bus) when the ALE pin is driven low (0).
(s) Pin 40 VCC +5V power supply.

INPUT/OUTPUT PORTS (I/O PORTS)

29 All 8051 microcontrollers have 4 I/O ports each comprising 8 bits


which can be configured as inputs or outputs. Accordingly, in total of 32
input/output pins enabling the microcontroller to be connected to peripheral
devices are available for use. Pin configuration, i.e. whether it is to be configured
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as an input (1) or an output (0), depends on its logic state. In order to configure a
microcontroller pin as an input, it is necessary to apply logic zero (0) to
appropriate I/O port bit. In this case, voltage level on appropriate pin will be 0.
Similarly, in order to configure a microcontroller pin as an input, it is necessary
to apply a logic one (1) to appropriate port. In this case, voltage level on
appropriate pin will be 5V (as is the case with any TTL input). This may seem
confusing but don't loose your patience. It all becomes clear after studying
simple electronic circuits connected to an I/O pin.
30 INPUT/OUTPUT (I/O) PIN
It refers to all the pins except those of the P0 port which do not have pull-up
resistors built-in.

(a) OUTPUT PIN


A logic zero (0) is applied to a bit of the P register. The output FE
transistor is turned on, thus connecting the appropriate pin to ground.
(b) INPUT PIN
a logic one (1) is applied to a bit of the P register. The output FE
transistor is turned off and the appropriate pin remains connected to
the power supply voltage over a pull-up resistor of high

PORT 0

31 The P0 port is characterized by two functions. If external memory is


used then the lower address byte (addresses A0-A7) is applied on it. Otherwise,
all bits of this port are configured as inputs/outputs. The other function is
expressed when it is configured as an output. Unlike other ports consisting of
pins with built-in pull-up resistor connected by its end to 5 V power supply; pins
of this port have this resistor left out. This apparently small difference has its
consequences. If any pin of this port is configured as an input then it acts as if it
“floats”. Such an input has unlimited input resistance and undetermined
potential. When the pin is configured as an output, it acts as an “open drain”. By
applying logic 0 to a port bit, the appropriate pin will be connected to ground
(0V). By applying logic 1, the external output will keep on “floating”. In order to
apply logic 1 (5V) on this output pin.

PORT 1

32 P1 is a true I/O port, because it doesn't have any alternative functions


as is the case with P0, but can be cofigured as general I/O only. It has a pull-up
resistor built-in and is completely compatible with TTL circuits.

PORT 2

33 P2 acts similarly to P0 when external memory is used. Pins of this port


occupy addresses intended for external memory chip. This time it is about the
higher address byte with addresses A8-A15. When no memory is added, this port
can be used as a general input/output port showing features similar to P1.

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PORT 3

34 All port pins can be used as general I/O, but they also have an
alternative function. In order to use these alternative functions, a logic one (1)
must be applied to appropriate bit of the P3 register. In terms of hardware, this
port is similar to P0, with the difference that its pins have a pull-up resistor built-
in.

PIN'S CURRENT LIMITATIONS

35 When configured as outputs (logic zero (0)), single port pins can
receive a current of 10mA. If all 8 bits of a port are active, a total current must be
limited to 15mA (port P0: 26mA). If all ports (32 bits) are active, total maximum
current must be limited to 71mA. When these pins are configured as inputs (logic
1), built-in pull-up resistors provide very weak current.

MEMORY ORGANIZATION

36 The 8051 has two types of memory and these are Program Memory
and Data Memory. Program Memory (ROM) is used to permanently save the
program being executed, while Data Memory (RAM) is used for temporarily
storing data and intermediate results created and used during the operation of the
microcontroller. Depending on the model in use (we are still talking about the
8051 microcontroller family in general) at most a few Kb of ROM and 128 or
256 bytes of RAM is used. All 8051 microcontrollers have a 16-bit addressing
bus and are capable of addressing 64 kb memory. It is neither a mistake nor a big
ambition of engineers who were working on basic core development.

PROGRAM MEMORY

37 The first models of the 8051 microcontroller family did not have
internal program memory. It was added as an external separate chip. These
models are recognizable by their label beginning with 803 (for example 8031 or
8032). All later models have a few Kbyte ROM embedded. Even though such an
amount of memory is sufficient for writing most of the programs, there are
situations when it is necessary to use additional memory as well.

(a) EA=0 In this case, the microcontroller completely ignores


internal program memory and executes only the program stored in
external memory.
(b) EA=1 In this case, the microcontroller executes first the program
from built-in ROM, then the program stored in external memory.

In both cases, P0 and P2 are not available for use since being used for data and
address transmission. Besides, the ALE and PSEN pins are also used.

DATA MEMORY

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38 Data Memory is used for temporarily storing data and intermediate


results created and used during the operation of the microcontroller. Besides,
RAM memory built in the 8051 family includes many registers such as hardware
counters and timers, input/output ports, serial data buffers etc. The previous
models had 256 RAM locations, while for the later models this number was
incremented by additional 128 registers. However, the first 256 memory
locations (addresses 0-FFh) are the heart of memory common to all the models
belonging to the 8051 family. Locations available to the user occupy memory
space with addresses 0-7Fh, i.e. first 128 registers. This part of RAM is divided
in several blocks. The first block consists of 4 banks each including 8 registers
denoted by R0-R7. Prior to accessing any of these registers, it is necessary to
select the bank containing it. The next memory block (address 20h-2Fh) is bit-
addressable, which means that each bit has its own address (0-7Fh). Since there
are 16 such registers, this block contains in total of 128 bits with separate
addresses (address of bit 0 of the 20h byte is 0, while address of bit 7 of the 2Fh
byte is 7Fh). The third group of registers occupies addresses 2Fh-7Fh, i.e. 80
locations, and does not have any special functions or features.

ADDITIONAL RAM

39 In order to satisfy the programmers’ constant hunger for Data


Memory, the manufacturers decided to embed an additional memory block of
128 locations into the latest versions of the 8051 microcontrollers. However, it’s
not as simple as it seems to be… The problem is that electronics performing
addressing has 1 byte (8 bits) on disposal and is capable of reaching only the first
256 locations, therefore. In order to keep already existing 8-bit architecture and
compatibility with other existing models a small trick was done. It means that
additional memory block shares the same addresses with locations intended for
the SFRs (80h- FFh). In order to differentiate between these two physically
separated memory spaces, different ways of addressing are used. The SFRs
memory locations are accessed by direct addressing, while additional RAM
memory locations are accessed by indirect addressing.

Figure 7. Structure of R.A.M.


MEMORY EXPANSION
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40 In case memory (RAM or ROM) built in the microcontroller is not


sufficient, it is possible to add two external memory chips with capacity of 64Kb
each. P2 and P3 I/O ports are used for their addressing and data transmission.

Figure 8. Memory expansion

41 From the user’s point of view, everything works quite simply when
properly connected because most operations are performed by the
microcontroller itself. The 8051 microcontroller has two pins for data read
RD#(P3.7) and PSEN#. The first one is used for reading data from external data
memory (RAM), while the other is used for reading data from external program
memory (ROM). Both pins are active low. A typical example of memory
expansion by adding RAM and ROM chips (Hardware architecture). Even
though additional memory is rarely used with the latest versions of the
microcontrollers, we will describe in short what happens when memory chips are
connected according to the previous schematic. The whole process described
below is performed automatically.
(a) When the program during execution encounters an instruction
which resides in external memory (ROM), the microcontroller will
activate its control output ALE and set the first 8 bits of address (A0-
A7) on P0. IC circuit 74HCT573 passes the first 8 bits to memory
address pins.
(b) A signal on the ALE pin latches the IC circuit 74HCT573 and
immediately afterwards 8 higher bits of address (A8-A15) appear on

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the port. In this way, a desired location of additional program


memory is addressed. It is left over to read its content.
(c) Port P0 pins are configured as inputs, the PSEN pin is activated
and the microcontroller reads from memory chip.
42 Similar occurs when it is necessary to read location from external
RAM. Addressing is performed in the same way, while read and write are
performed via signals appearing on the control outputs RD (is short for read) or
WR (is short for write).
ADDRESSING
43 While operating, the processor processes data as per program
instructions. Each instruction consists of two parts. One part describes WHAT
should be done, while the other explains HOW to do it. The latter part can be a
data (binary number) or the address at which the data is stored. Two ways of
addressing are used for all 8051 microcontrollers depending on which part of
memory should be accessed:

DIRECT ADDRESSING

44 On direct addressing, the address of memory location containing data


to be read is specified in instruction. The address may contain a number being
changed during operation (variable). Since the address is only one byte in size
(the largest number is 255), only the first 255 locations of RAM can be accessed
this way. The first half of RAM is available for use, while another half is
reserved for SFRs. MOV A,33h Means move a number from address 33 hex. to
accumulator

INDIRECT ADDRESSING

45 On indirect addressing, a register containing the address of another


register is specified in instruction. Data to be used in the program is stored in the
letter register. Indirect addressing is only used for accessing RAM locations
available for use. This is the only way of accessing all the latest versions of the
microcontrollers with additional memory block (128 locations of RAM). Simply
put, when the program encounters instruction including “@” sign and if the
specified address is higher than 128 ( 7F hex.), the processor knows that indirect
addressing is used and skips memory space reserved for SFRs. MOV A,@R0
Store the value from the register whose address is in the R0 register into
accumulator. On indirect addressing, registers R0, R1 or Stack Pointer are used
for specifying 8-bit addresses. Since only 8 bits are avilable, it is possible to
access only registers of internal RAM this way (128 locations when speaking of
previous models or 256 locations when speaking of latest models of
microcontrollers). If an extra memory chip is added then the 16-bit DPTR
Register (consisting of the registers DPTRL and DPTRH) is used for specifying
address. In this way it is possible to access any location in the range of 64K.

SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS (SFRS)


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46 Special Function Registers (SFRs) are a sort of control table used for
running and monitoring the operation of the microcontroller. Each of these
registers as well as each bit they include, has its name, address in the scope of
RAM and precisely defined purpose such as timer control, interrupt control,
serial communication control etc. Even though there are 128 memory locations
intended to be occupied by them, the basic core, shared by all types of 8051
microcontrollers, has only 21 such registers. Rest of locations are intentionally
left unoccupied in order to enable the manufacturers to further develop
microcontrollers keeping them compatible with the previous versions. It also
enables programs written a long time ago for microcontrollers which are out of
production now to be

A REGISTER (ACCUMULATOR)

47 A register is a general-purpose register used for storing intermediate


results obtained during operation. Prior to executing an instruction upon any
number or operand it is necessary to store it in the accumulator first. All results
obtained from arithmetical operations performed by the ALU are stored in the
accumulator. Data to be moved from one register to another must go through the
accumulator. In other words, the A register is the most commonly used register
and it is impossible to imagine a microcontroller without it. More than half
instructions used by the 8051 microcontroller use somehow the accumulator.

B REGISTER

48 Multiplication and division can be performed only upon numbers


stored in the A and B registers. All other instructions in the program can use this
register as a spare accumulator (A).

R REGISTERS (R0-R7)

49 This is a common name for 8 general-purpose registers (R0, R1,


R2 ...R7). Even though they are not true SFRs, they deserve to be discussed here
because of their purpose. They occupy 4 banks within RAM. Similar to the
accumulator, they are used for temporary storing variables and intermediate
results during operation. Which one of these banks is to be active depends on two
bits of the PSW Register. Active bank is a bank the registers of which are
currently used. The following example best illustrates the purpose of these
registers. Suppose it is necessary to perform some arithmetical operations upon
numbers previously stored in the R registers (R1+R2) - (R3+R4). Obviously, a
register for temporary storing results of addition is needed. This is how it looks
in the program
(a) MOV A,R3 move number from R3 into accumulator
(b) ADD A,R4 add number from R4 to accumulator
(c) MOV R5,A temporarily move the result from accumulator
into R5
(d) MOV A,R1 move number from R1 to accumulator

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ADD A,R2 add number from R2 to accumulator


(e)
SUBB A,R5 subtract number from R5 (there are R3+R4)
(f)
PROGRAM STATUS WORD (PSW) REGISTER

50 PSW register is one of the most important SFRs. It contains several


status bits that reflect the current state of the CPU. Besides, this register contains
Carry bit, Auxiliary Carry, two register bank select bits, Overflow flag, parity bit
and user-definable status flag.

(a) P - Parity bit. If a number stored in the accumulator is even then


this bit will be automatically set (1), otherwise it will be cleared (0).
It is mainly used during data transmit and receive via serial
communication.
(b) Bit 1. This bit is intended to be used in the future versions of
microcontrollers.
(c) OV Overflow occurs when the result of an arithmetical operation
is larger than 255 and cannot be stored in one register. Overflow
condition causes the OV bit to be set (1). Otherwise, it will be
cleared (0).
(d) RS0, RS1 - Register bank select bits. These two bits are used to
select one of four register banks of RAM. By setting and clearing
these bits, registers R0-R7 are stored in one of four banks of RAM.
(e) F0 - Flag 0. This is a general-purpose bit available for use.
(f) AC - Auxiliary Carry Flag is used for BCD operations only.
(g) CY - Carry Flag is the (ninth) auxiliary bit used for all
arithmetical operations and shift instructions.

DATA POINTER REGISTER (DPTR)

51 DPTR register is not a true one because it doesn't physically exist. It


consists of two separate registers: DPH (Data Pointer High) and (Data Pointer
Low). For this reason it may be treated as a 16-bit register or as two independent
8-bit registers. Their 16 bits are primarily used for external memory addressing.
Besides, the DPTR Register is usually used for storing data and intermediate
results.

STACK POINTER (SP) REGISTER

52 A value stored in the Stack Pointer points to the first free stack address
and permits stack availability. Stack pushes increment the value in the Stack
Pointer by 1. Likewise, stack pops decrement its value by 1. Upon any reset and
power-on, the value 7 is stored in the Stack Pointer, which means that the space
of RAM reserved for the stack starts at this location. If another value is written to
this register, the entire Stack is moved to the new memory location.

P0, P1, P2, P3 - INPUT/OUTPUT REGISTERS

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53 If neither external memory nor serial communication system are used


then 4 ports within total of 32 input/output pins are available for connection to
peripheral environment. Each bit within these ports affects the state and
performance of appropriate pin of the microcontroller. Thus, bit logic state is
reflected on appropriate pin as a voltage (0 or 5 V) and vice versa, voltage on a
pin reflects the state of appropriate port bit. Port bit state affects performance of
port pins, i.e. whether they will be configured as inputs or outputs. If a bit is
cleared (0), the appropriate pin will be configured as an output, while if it is set
(1), the appropriate pin will be configured as an input. Upon reset and power-on,
all port bits are set (1), which means that all appropriate pins will be configured
as inputs.

COUNTERS AND TIMERS

54 The microcontroller oscillator uses quartz crystal for its operation. As


the frequency of this oscillator is precisely defined and very stable, pulses it
generates are always of the same width, which makes them ideal for time
measurement. Such crystals are also used in quartz watches. In order to measure
time between two events it is sufficient to count up pulses coming from this
oscillator. That is exactly what the timer does. If the timer is properly
programmed, the value stored in its register will be incremented (or
decremented) with each coming pulse, i.e. once per each machine cycle. A single
machine-cycle instruction lasts for 12 quartz oscillator periods, which means that
by embedding quartz with oscillator frequency of 12MHz, a number stored in the
timer register will be changed million times per second, i.e. each microsecond.
The 8051 microcontroller has 2 timers/counters called T0 and T1. As their names
suggest, their main purpose is to measure time and count external events.
Besides, they can be used for generating clock pulses to be used in serial
communication, so called Baud Rate.

Timer T0

55 Timer T0 consists of two registers – TH0 and TL0 representing a low


and a high byte of one 16-digit binary number. Accordingly, if the content of the
timer T0 is equal to 0 (T0=0) then both registers it consists of will contain 0. If
the timer contains for example number 1000 (decimal), then the TH0 register
(high byte) will contain the number 3, while the TL0 register (low byte) will
contain decimal number 232. Formula used to calculate values in these two
registers is very simple
TH0 × 256 + TL0 = T
Matching the previous example it would be as follows:
3 × 256 + 232 = 1000

Since the timer T0 is virtually 16-bit register, the largest value it can store is 65
535. In case of exceeding this value, the timer will be automatically cleared and
counting starts from 0. This condition is called an overflow. Two registers
TMOD and TCON are closely connected to this timer and control its operation.
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TMOD Register (Timer Mode)


56 The TMOD register selects the operational mode of the timers T0 and
T1. As seen in figure below, the low 4 bits (bit0 - bit3) refer to the timer 0, while
the high 4 bits (bit4 - bit7) refer to the timer 1. There are 4 operational modes and
each of them is described herein. Bits of this register have the following function
(a) GATE1 enables and disables Timer 1 by means of a signal
brought to the INT1 pin (P3.3):
(i) 1 - Timer 1 operates only if the INT1 bit is set.
(ii) 0 - Timer 1 operates regardless of the logic state of
the INT1 bit.
(b) C/T1 selects pulses to be counted up by the timer/counter 1:
(i) 1 - Timer counts pulses brought to the T1 pin (P3.5).
(ii) 0 - Timer counts pulses from internal oscillator.
(c) T1M1,T1M0 These two bits select the operational mode of the
Timer 1. GATE0 enables and disables Timer 1 using a signal
brought to the INT0 pin (P3.2):
(i) 1 - Timer 0 operates only if the INT0 bit is set.
(ii) 0 - Timer 0 operates regardless of the logic state of
the INT0 bit.
(d) C/T0 selects pulses to be counted up by the timer/counter 0:
(i) 1 - Timer counts pulses brought to the T0 pin (P3.4).
(ii) 0 - Timer counts pulses from internal oscillator.
(e) T0M1,T0M0 These two bits select the operational mode of the
Timer 0.

TIMER 0 IN MODE 0 (13-BIT TIMER)

57 This is one of the rarities being kept only for the purpose of
compatibility with the previous versions of microcontrollers. This mode
configures timer 0 as a 13-bit timer which consists of all 8 bits of TH0 and the
lower 5 bits of TL0. As a result, the Timer 0 uses only 13 of 16 bits. How does it
operate? Each coming pulse causes the lower register bits to change their states.
After receiving 32 pulses, this register is loaded and automatically cleared, while
the higher byte (TH0) is incremented by 1. This process is repeated until registers
count up 8192 pulses. After that, both registers are cleared and counting starts
from 0.

TIMER 0 IN MODE 1 (16-BIT TIMER)

58 Mode 1 configures timer 0 as a 16-bit timer comprising all the bits of


both registers TH0 and TL0. That's why this is one of the most commonly used
modes. Timer operates in the same way as in mode 0, with difference that the
registers count up to 65 536 as allowable by the 16 bits.

TIMER 0 IN MODE 2 (AUTO-RELOAD TIMER)

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59 Mode 2 configures timer 0 as an 8-bit timer. Actually, timer 0 uses


only one 8-bit register for counting and never counts from 0, but from an
arbitrary value (0-255) stored in another (TH0) register. If mode 1 or mode 0 is
used, It is necessary to write the number 200 to the timer registers and constantly
check whether an overflow has occurred, i.e. whether they reached the value 255.
When it happens, it is necessary to rewrite the number 200 and repeat the whole
procedure. The same procedure is automatically performed by the
microcontroller if set in mode 2. In fact, only the TL0 register operates as a
timer, while another (TH0) register stores the value from which the counting
starts. When the TL0 register is loaded, instead of being cleared, the contents of
TH0 will be reloaded to it. Referring to the previous example, in order to register
each 55th pulse, the best solution is to write the number 200 to the TH0 register
and configure the timer to operate in mode 2.

TIMER 0 IN MODE 3 (SPLIT TIMER)

60 Mode 3 configures timer 0 so that registers TL0 and TH0 operate as


separate 8-bit timers. In other words, the 16-bit timer consisting of two registers
TH0 and TL0 is split into two independent 8-bit timers. This mode is provided
for applications requiring an additional 8-bit timer or counter. The TL0 timer
turns into timer 0, while the TH0 timer turns into timer 1. In addition, all the
control bits of 16-bit Timer 1 (consisting of the TH1 and TL1 register), now
control the 8-bit Timer 1. Even though the 16-bit Timer 1 can still be configured
to operate in any of modes (mode 1, 2 or 3), it is no longer possible to disable it
as there is no control bit to do it. Thus, its operation is restricted when timer 0 is
in mode 3. The only application of this mode is when two timers are used and the
16-bit Timer 1 the operation of which is out of control is used as a baud rate
generator.

TIMER CONTROL (TCON) REGISTER


61 TCON register is also one of the registers whose bits are directly in
control of timer operation. Only 4 bits of this register are used for this purpose,
while rest of them is used for interrupt control
(a) TF1 bit is automatically set on the Timer 1 overflow.
(b) TR1 bit enables the Timer 1.
(i) 1 - Timer 1 is enabled.
(ii) 0 - Timer 1 is disabled.

(c) TF0 bit is automatically set on the Timer 0 overflow.


(d) TR0 bit enables the timer 0.
(i) 1 - Timer 0 is enabled.
(ii) 0 - Timer 0 is disabled.
TIMER 0 USE
62 In order to use timer 0, it is first necessary to select it and configure
the mode of its operation. Bits of the TMOD register are in control of it. The
timer 0 operates in mode 1 and counts pulses generated by internal clock the
frequency of which is equal to 1/12 the quartz frequency. The TR0 bit is set and
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the timer starts operation. If the quartz crystal with frequency of 12MHz is
embedded then its contents will be incremented every microsecond. After 65.536
microseconds, the both registers the timer consists of will be loaded. The
microcontroller automatically clears them and the timer keeps on repeating
procedure from the beginning until the TR0 bit value is logic zero (0).
'READ' A TIMER

63 Depending on application, it is necessary either to read a number


stored in the timer registers or to register the moment they have been cleared. It
is extremely simple to read a timer by using only one register configured in mode
2 or 3. It is sufficient to read its state at any moment. It is somehow complicated
to read a timer configured to operate in mode 2. Suppose the lower byte is read
first (TL0), then the higher byte (TH0). In case of negligence, such an error in
counting (255 pulses) may occur for not so obvious but quite logical reason. The
lower byte is correctly read (255), but at the moment the program counter was
about to read the higher byte TH0, an overflow occurred and the contents of both
registers have been changed (TH0: 14→15, TL0: 255→0). This problem has a
simple solution. The higher byte should be read first, then the lower byte and
once again the higher byte. If the number stored in the higher byte is different
then this sequence should be repeated. It's about a short loop consisting of only 3
instructions in the program. There is another solution as well. It is sufficient to
simply turn the timer off while reading is going on (the TR0 bit of the TCON
register should be cleared), and turn it on again after reading is finished.

TIMER 0 OVERFLOWS DETECTION

64 There is no need to constantly read timer registers. It is sufficient to


register the moment they are cleared, i.e. when counting starts from 0. This
condition is called an overflow. When it occurs, the TF0 bit of the TCON register
will be automatically set. The state of this bit can be constantly checked from
within the program or by enabling an interrupt which will stop the main program
execution when this bit is set. Suppose it is necessary to provide a program delay
of 0.05 seconds (50 000 machine cycles), i.e. time when the program seems to be
stopped. First a number to be written to the timer registers should be calculated.
When enabled, the timer will resume counting from this number. The state of the
TF0 bit, i.e. whether it is set, is checked from within the program. It happens at
the moment of overflow, i.e. after exactly 50.000 machine cycles or 0.05
seconds.

MEASURING PULSE DURATION

65 It is necessary to measure the duration of an operation, for example


how long a device has been turned on? Look again at the figure illustrating the
timer and pay attention to the function of the GATE0 bit of the TMOD register.
If it is cleared then the state of the P3.2 pin doesn't affect timer operation. If
GATE0 = 1 the timer will operate until the pin P3.2 is cleared. Accordingly, if
this pin is supplied with 5V through some external switch at the moment the
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device is being turned on, the timer will measure duration of its operation, which
actually was the objective.

COUNTING UP PULSES

66 This time it's about the C/T0 bit. If the bit is cleared the timer counts
pulses generated by the internal oscillator, i.e. measures the time passed. If the
bit is set, the timer input is provided with pulses from the P3.4 pin (T0). Since
these pulses are not always of the same width, the timer cannot be used for time
measurement and is turned into a counter, therefore. The highest frequency that
could be measured by such a counter is 1/24 frequency of used quartz-crystal.

TIMER 1

67 Timer 1 is identical to timer 0, except for mode 3 which is a hold-


count mode. It means that they have the same function, their operation is
controlled by the same registers TMOD and TCON and both of them can operate
in one out of 4 different modes.

UART (UNIVERSAL ASYNCHRONOUS RECEIVER AND


TRANSMITTER)

68 One of the microcontroller features making it so powerful is an


integrated UART, better known as a serial port. It is a full-duplex port, thus
being able to transmit and receive data simultaneously and at different baud
rates. Without it, serial data send and receive would be an enormously
complicated part of the program in which the pin state is constantly changed and
checked at regular intervals. When using UART, all the programmer has to do is
to simply select serial port mode and baud rate. When it's done, serial data
transmit is nothing but writing to the SBUF register, while data receive
represents reading the same register. The microcontroller takes care of not
making any error during data transmission. Serial port must be configured prior
to being used. In other words, it is necessary to determine how many bits is
contained in one serial “word”, baud rate and synchronization clock source. The
whole process is in control of the bits of the SCON register (Serial Control).

SERIAL PORT CONTROL (SCON) REGISTER


(a) SM0 - Serial port mode bit 0 is used for serial port mode
selection.
(b) SM1 - Serial port mode bit 1.
(c) SM2 - Serial port mode 2 bit, also known as multiprocessor
communication enable bit. When set, it enables multiprocessor
communication in mode 2 and 3, and eventually mode 1. It should be
cleared in mode 0.
(d) REN - Reception Enable bit enables serial reception when set.
When cleared, serial reception is disabled.

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(e) TB8 - Transmitter bit 8. Since all registers are 8-bit wide, this bit
solves the problem of transmitting the 9th bit in modes 2 and 3. It is
set to transmit logic 1 in the 9th bit.
(f) RB8 - Receiver bit 8 or the 9th bit received in modes 2 and 3.
Cleared by hardware if 9th bit received is a logic 0. Set by hardware
if 9th bit received is logic 1.
(g) TI - Transmit Interrupt flag is automatically set at the moment the
last bit of one byte is sent. It's a signal to the processor that the line is
available for a new byte transmits. It must be cleared from within the
software.
(h) RI - Receive Interrupt flag is automatically set upon one byte
receive. It signals that byte is received and should be read quickly
prior to being replaced by a new data. This bit is also cleared from
within the software.
69 Serial port mode is selected by combining the SM0 and SM2 bits. In
mode 0, serial data are transmitted and received through the RXD pin, while the
TXD pin output clocks. The bout rate is fixed at 1/12 the oscillator frequency. On
transmit, the least significant bit (LSB bit) is sent/received first.

TRANSMIT

(a) Data transmit is initiated by writing data to the SBUF register. In


fact, this process starts after any instruction being performed upon
this register. When all 8 bits have been sent, the TI bit of the SCON
register is automatically set.

RECEIVE

(b) Data receive through the RXD pin starts upon the two following
conditions are met: bit REN=1 and RI=0 (both of them are stored in
the SCON register). When all 8 bits have been received, the RI bit of
the SCON register is automatically set indicating that one byte
receive is complete. Since there are no START and STOP bits or any
other bit except data sent from the SBUF register in the pulse
sequence, this mode is mainly used when the distance between
devices is short, noise is minimized and operating speed is of
importance. A typical example is I/O port expansion by adding a
cheap IC

MODE 1

70 In mode 1, 10 bits are transmitted through the TXD pin or received


through the RXD pin in the following manner: a START bit (always 0), 8 data
bits (LSB first) and a STOP bit (always 1). The START bit is only used to
initiate data receive, while the STOP bit is automatically written to the RB8 bit
of the SCON register.

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(a) TRANSMIT

Data transmit is initiated by writing data to the SBUF register. End of


data transmission is indicated by setting the TI bit of the SCON
register.

(b)RECEIVE

The START bit (logic zero (0)) on the RXD pin initiates data
receive. The following two conditions must be met: bit REN=1 and
bit RI=0. Both of them are stored in the SCON register. The RI bit is
automatically set upon data reception is complete. The Baud rate in
this mode is determined by the timer 1 overflow.

MODE 2

71 In mode 2, 11 bits are transmitted through the TXD pin or received


through the RXD pin a START bit (always 0), 8 data bits (LSB first), a
programmable 9th data bit and a STOP bit (always 1). On transmit; the 9th data
bit is actually the TB8 bit of the SCON register. This bit usually has a function of
parity bit. On receive, the 9th data bit goes into the RB8 bit of the same register
(SCON).The baud rate is either 1/32 or 1/64 the oscillator frequency.

(a) TRANSMIT - Data transmit is initiated by writing data to the


SBUF register. End of data transmission is indicated by setting the TI
bit of the SCON register.
(b) RECEIVE - The START bit (logic zero (0)) on the RXD pin
initiates data receive. The following two conditions must be met: bit
REN=1 and bit RI=0. Both of them are stored in the SCON register.
The RI bit is automatically set upon data reception is complete.

MODE 3

72 Mode 3 is the same as Mode 2 in all respects except the baud rate. The
baud rate in Mode 3 is variable.

BAUD RATE
73 Baud Rate is a number of sent/received bits per second. In case the
UART is used, baud rate depends on: selected mode, oscillator frequency and in
some cases on the state of the SMOD bit of the SCON register. Timer 1 is
usually used as a clock generator as it enables various baud rates to be easily set.
(a) First, enable Timer 1 overflow interrupt.
(b) Configure Timer T1 to operate in auto-reload mode.
(c) Depending on needs, select one of the standard values from the
table and write it to the TH1 register. That's all.
MULTIPROCESSOR COMMUNICATION

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74 Additional 9th data bit is a part of message in mode 2 and 3. It can be


used for checking data via parity bit. Another useful application of this bit is in
communication between two or more microcontrollers, i.e. multiprocessor
communication. This feature is enabled by setting the SM2 bit of the SCON
register. As a result, after receiving the STOP bit, indicating end of the message,
the serial port interrupt will be generated only if the bit RB8 = 1 (the 9th bit).
This is how it looks like in practice. Suppose there are several microcontrollers
sharing the same interface. Each of them has its own address. An address byte
differs from a data byte because it has the 9th bit set (1), while this bit is cleared
(0) in a data byte. When the microcontroller A (master) wants to transmit a block
of data to one of several slaves, it first sends out an address byte which identifies
the target slave. An address byte will generate an interrupt in all slaves so that
they can examine the received byte and check whether it matches their address.
Only one of them will match the address and immediately clear the SM2 bit of
the SCON register and prepare to receive the data byte to come. Other slaves not
being addressed leave their SM2 bit set ignoring the coming data bytes.

8051 MICROCONTROLLER INTERRUPTS

75 There are five interrupt sources for the 8051, which means that they
can recognize 5 different events that can interrupt regular program execution.
Each interrupt can be enabled or disabled by setting bits of the IE register.
Likewise, the whole interrupt system can be disabled by clearing the EA bit of
the same register. Now, it is necessary to explain a few details referring to
external interrupts- INT0 and INT1. If the IT0 and IT1 bits of the TCON register
are set, an interrupt will be generated on high to low transition, i.e. on the falling
pulse edge (only in that moment). If these bits are cleared, an interrupt will be
continuously executed as far as the pins are held low.

IE REGISTER (INTERRUPT ENABLE)


76 The following are the I.E.
(a) EA - global interrupt enable/disable
(i) 0 - disables all interrupt requests.
(ii) 1 - enables all individual interrupt requests.
(b) ES - enables or disables serial interrupt
(i) 0 - UART system cannot generate an interrupt.
(ii) 1 - UART system enables an interrupt.
(c) ET1 - bit enables or disables Timer 1 interrupt
(i) 0 - Timer 1 cannot generate an interrupt.
(ii) 1 - Timer 1 enables an interrupt.
(d) EX1 - bit enables or disables external 1 interrupt
(i) 0 - change of the pin INT0 logic state cannot generate an
interrupt.
(ii) 1 - enables an external interrupt on the pin INT0 state
change.
(e) ET0 - bit enables or disables timer 0 interrupt
(i) 0 - Timer 0 cannot generate an interrupt.
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(ii) 1 - enables timer 0 interrupt.


(f) EX0 - bit enables or disables external 0 interrupt
(i) 0 - change of the INT1 pin logic state cannot generate an
interrupt.
(ii) 1 - enables an external interrupt on the pin INT1 state
change.
INTERRUPT PRIORITIES
77 If several interrupts are enabled, it may happen that while one of them
is in progress, another one is requested. In order that the microcontroller knows
whether to continue operation or meet a new interrupt request, there is a priority
list instructing it what to do. The priority list offers 3 levels of interrupt priority
(a) Reset the absolute master. When a reset request arrives,
everything is stopped and the microcontroller restarts.
(b) Interrupt priority 1 can be disabled by Reset only.
(c) Interrupt priority 0 can be disabled by both Reset and interrupt
priority 1.
78 The IP Register (Interrupt Priority Register) specifies which one of
existing interrupt sources have higher and which one has lower priority. Interrupt
priority is usually specified at the beginning of the program. If an interrupt of
higher priority arrives while an interrupt is in progress, it will be immediately
stopped and the higher priority interrupt will be executed first. If two interrupt
requests, at different priority levels, arrive at the same time then the higher
priority interrupt is serviced first. If the both interrupt requests, at the same
priority level, occur one after another, the one which came later has to wait until
routine being in progress ends. If two interrupt requests of equal priority arrive at
the same time then the interrupt to be serviced is selected according to the
following priority list
(a) External interrupt INT0
(b) Timer 0 interrupt
(c) External Interrupt INT1
(d) Timer 1 interrupt
(e) Serial Communication Interrupt
IP REGISTER (INTERRUPT PRIORITY)
The IP register bits specify the priority level of each interrupt (high or low
priority).
(a) PS - Serial Port Interrupt priority bit
(i) Priority 0
(ii) Priority 1
(b) PT1 - Timer 1 interrupt priority
(i) Priority 0
(ii) Priority 1
(c) PX1 - External Interrupt INT1 priority
(i) Priority 0
(ii) Priority 1
(d) PT0 - Timer 0 Interrupt Priority
(i) Priority 0

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(ii) Priority 1
(e) PX0 - External Interrupt INT0 Priority
(i) Priority 0
(ii) Priority 1
HANDLING INTERRUPT
79 When an interrupt request arrives the following occurs
(a) Instruction in progress is ended.
(b) The address of the next instruction to execute is pushed on the
stack.
(c) Depending on which interrupt is requested, one of 5 vectors
(addresses) is written to the program counter in accordance to the
table below
(d) These addresses store appropriate subroutines processing
interrupts. Instead of them, there are usually jump instructions
specifying locations on which these subroutines reside.
(e) When an interrupt routine is executed, the address of the next
instruction to execute is poped from the stack to the program counter
and interrupted program resumes operation from where it left off.
RESET
80 Reset occurs when the RS pin is supplied with a positive pulse in
duration of at least 2 machine cycles (24 clock cycles of crystal oscillator). After
that, the microcontroller generates an internal reset signal which clears all SFRs,
except SBUF registers, Stack Pointer and ports (the state of the first two ports is
not defined, while FF value is written to the ports configuring all their pins as
inputs). Depending on surrounding and purpose of device, the RS pin is usually
connected to a power-on reset push button or circuit or to both of them. Figure
below illustrates one of the simplest circuits providing safe power-on reset.
Basically, everything is very simple: after turning the power on, electrical
capacitor is being charged for several milliseconds through a resistor connected
to the ground. The pin is driven high during this process. When the capacitor is
charged, power supply voltage is already stable and the pin remains connected to
the ground, thus providing normal operation of the microcontroller. Pressing the
reset button causes the capacitor to be temporarily discharged and the
microcontroller is reset. Microcontrollers normally operate at very high speed.
The use of 12 Mhz quartz crystal enables 1.000.000 instructions to be executed
per second. Basically, there is no need for higher operating rate. In case it is
needed, it is easy to build in a crystal for high frequency. The problem arises
when it is necessary to slow down the operation of the microcontroller. For
example during testing in real environment when it is necessary to execute
several instructions step by step in order to check I/O pins' logic state.Interrupt
system of the 8051 microcontroller practically stops operation of the
microcontroller and enables instructions to be executed one after another by
pressing the button. Two interrupt features enable that
(a) Interrupt request is ignored if an interrupt of the same priority
level is in progress.

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(b) Upon interrupt routine execution, a new interrupt is not executed


until at least one instruction from the main program is executed.
81 In order to use this in practice, the following steps should be done
(a) External interrupt sensitive to the signal level should be enabled
(for example INT0).
(b) Three following instructions should be inserted into the program
(at the 03hex. address)
82 As soon as the P3.2 pin is cleared (for example, by pressing the
button), the microcontroller will stop program execution and jump to the 03hex
address will be executed. This address stores a short interrupt routine consisting
of 3 instructions. The first instruction is executed until the push button is realised
(logic one (1) on the P3.2 pin). The second instruction is executed until the push
button is pressed again. Immediately after that, the RETI instruction is executed
and the processor resumes operation of the main program. Upon execution of any
program instruction, the interrupt INT0 is generated and the whole procedure is
repeated.

8051 MICROCONTROLLER POWER CONSUMPTION CONTROL

83 The microcontroller is inactive for the most part and just waits for
some external signal in order to takes its role in a show. This can cause some
problems in case batteries are used for power supply. In extreme cases, the only
solution is to set the whole electronics in sleep mode in order to minimize
consumption. A typical example is a TV remote controller: it can be out of use
for months but when used again it takes less than a second to send a command to
TV receiver. The AT89S53 uses approximately 25mA for regular operation,
which doesn't make it a power-saving microcontroller. Anyway, it doesn’t have
to be always like that, it can easily switch the operating mode in order to reduce
its total consumption to approximately 40uA. Actually, there are two power-
saving modes of operation: Idle and Power Down.

IDLE MODE

84 Upon the IDL bit of the PCON register is set, the microcontroller turns
off the greatest power consumer- CPU unit while peripheral units such as serial
port, timers and interrupt system continue operating normally consuming 6.5mA.
In Idle mode, the state of all registers and I/O ports remains unchanged. In order
to exit the Idle mode and make the microcontroller operate normally, it is
necessary to enable and execute any interrupt or reset. It will cause the IDL bit to
be automatically cleared and the program resumes operation from instruction
having set the IDL bit. It is recommended that first three instructions to execute
now are NOP instructions. They don't perform any operation but provide some
time for the microcontroller to stabilize and prevents undesired changes on the
I/O ports.

POWER DOWN MODE

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85 By setting the PD bit of the PCON register from within the program,
the microcontroller is set to Power down mode, thus turning off its internal
oscillator and reduces power consumption enormously. The microcontroller can
operate using only 2V power supply in power- down mode, while a total power
consumption is less than 40uA. The only way to get the microcontroller back to
normal mode is by reset. While the microcontroller is in Power Down mode, the
state of all SFR registers and I/O ports remains unchanged. By setting it back
into the normal mode, the contents of the SFR register is lost, but the content of
internal RAM is saved. Reset signal must be long enough, approximately 10mS,
to enable stable operation of the quartz oscillator.

PCON REGISTER
86 The purpose of the Register PCON bits is
(a) SMOD Baud rate is twice as much higher by setting this bit.
(b) GF1 General-purpose bit.
(c) GF1 General-purpose bit.
(d) GF0 General-purpose bit.
(e) PD By setting this bit the microcontroller enters the Power Down
mode.
(f) IDL By setting this bit the microcontroller enters the Idle mode.
THE 8051 INSTRUCTION SET
87 The process of writing program for the microcontroller mainly
consists of giving instructions (commands) in the specific order in which they
should be executed in order to carry out a specific task. As electronics cannot
“understand” what for example an instruction “if the push button is pressed- turn
the light on” means, then a certain number of simpler and precisely defined
orders that decoder can recognize must be used. All commands are known as
instruction set. All microcontrollers compatible with the 8051 have in total of
255 instructions, i.e. 255 different words available for program writing. At first
sight, it is imposing number of odd signs that must be known by heart. However,
It is not so complicated as it looks like. Many instructions are considered to be
“different”, even though they perform the same operation, so there are only 111
truly different commands. For example: ADD A, R0, ADD A, R1, ADD A, R7
are instructions that perform the same operation (addition of the accumulator and
register). Since there are 8 such registers, each instruction is counted separately.
Taking into account that all instructions perform only 53 operations (addition,
subtraction, copy etc.) and most of them are rarely used in practice, there are
actually 20-30 abbreviations to be learned, which is acceptable.

TYPES OF INSTRUCTIONS

88 Depending on operation they perform, all instructions are divided in


several groups
(a) Arithmetic Instructions
(b) Branch Instructions
(c) Data Transfer Instructions
(d) Logic Instructions
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(e) Bit-oriented Instructions


89 The first part of each instruction, called MNEMONIC refers to the
operation an instruction performs (copy, addition, logic operation etc.).
Mnemonics are abbreviations of the name of operation being executed.
INC R1 - Means: Increment register R1 (increment register R1)
LJMP LAB5 - Means: Long Jump LAB5
JNZ LOOP - Means: Jump if Not Zero LOOP. The other part of instruction,
called OPERAND is separated from mnemonic by at least one whitespace and
defines data being processed by instructions. Some of the instructions have no
operand, while some of them have one, two or three. If there is more than one
operand in an instruction, they are separated by a comma. For example:
RET - return from a subroutine.
JZ TEMP - if the number in the accumulator is not 0, jump to the address marked
as TEMP;
ADD A,R3 - add R3 and accumulator
CJNE A,#20,LOOP - compare accumulator with 20. If they are not equal, jump
to the address marked as LOOP.
ARITHMETIC INSTRUCTIONS

90 Arithmetic instructions perform several basic operations such as


addition, subtraction, division, multiplication etc. After execution, the result is
stored in the first operand. For example:

ADD A, R1 the result of addition (A+R1) will be stored in the accumulator.


BRANCH INSTRUCTIONS

91 There are two kinds of branch instructions:

(a) Unconditional jump instructions: upon their execution a jump to a


new location from where the program continues execution is
executed.
(b) Conditional jump instructions: a jump to a new program location
is executed only if a specified condition is met. Otherwise, the
program normally proceeds with the next instruction.

DATA TRANSFER INSTRUCTIONS

92 Data transfer instructions move the content of one register to another.


The register the content of which is moved remains unchanged. If they have the
suffix “X” (MOVX), the data is exchanged with external memory.

LOGIC INSTRUCTIONS

93 Logic instructions perform logic operations upon corresponding bits of


two registers. After execution, the result is stored in the first operand.

BIT-ORIENTED INSTRUCTIONS

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94 Similar to logic instructions, bit-oriented instructions perform logic


operations. The difference is that these are performed upon single bits.

DESCRIPTION OF ALL 8051 INSTRUCTIONS

95 Here is a list of the operands and their meanings

A - Accumulator;
Rn - is one of working registers (R0-R7) in the currently active RAM memory
bank;
Direct - is any 8-bit address register of RAM. It can be any general-purpose
register or a SFR (I/O port, control register etc.);
@Ri - is indirect internal or external RAM location addressed by register R0 or
R1;
#data - is an 8-bit constant included in instruction (0-255);
#data16 - is a 16-bit constant included as bytes 2 and 3 in instruction (0-65535);
addr16 - is a 16-bit address. May be anywhere within 64KB of program
memory;
addr11 - is an 11-bit address. May be within the same 2KB page of program
memory as the first byte of the following instruction;
rel - is the address of a close memory location (from -128 to +127 relative to the
first byte of the following instruction). On the basis of it, assembler computes the
value to add or subtract from the number currently stored in the program counter;
bit - is any bit-addressable I/O pin, control or status bit; and
C - is carry flag of the status register (register PSW).

ACALL addr11 - Absolute subroutine call

Addr 11 subroutine address

Instruction unconditionally calls a subroutine located at the specified code


address. Therefore, the current address and the address of called subroutine must
be within the same 2K byte block of the program memory, starting from the first
byte of the instruction following ACALL.

Syntax: ACALL [subroutine name];


Bytes: 2 (instruction code, subroutine address);
STATUS register flags: No flags are affected.

ADD A,Rn - Adds the register Rn to the accumulator

A: accumulator

R:register(R0-R7)

Instruction adds the register Rn (R0-R7) to the accumulator. After addition, the
result is stored in the accumulator.

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Syntax: ADD A,Rn;


Byte: 1 (instruction code);
STATUS register flags: C, OV and AC;

ADD A,@Ri - Adds the indirect RAM to the accumulator

A: accumulator

R:register(R0-R1)

Instruction adds the indirect RAM to the accumulator. Address of indirect RAM
is stored in the Ri register (R0 or R1). After addition, the result is stored in the
accumulator.

Syntax: ADD A,@Ri;


Byte: 1 (instruction code);
STATUS register flags: C, OV and AC;

ADD A,direct - Adds the direct byte to the accumulator

A: accumulator

R:arbitrary address with 0-255

Instruction adds the direct byte to the accumulator. As it is direct addressing, the
direct can be any SFR or general-purpose register with address 0-7 Fh. The result
is stored in the accumulator.

Syntax: ADD A, register name;


Bytes: 2 (instruction code, direct byte address);

ADDC A,Rn - Adds the register to the accumulator with a carry flag

A: accumulator

Rn:register(R0-R7)

Instruction adds the accumulator with a carry flag and Rn register (R0-R7). After
addition, the result is stored in the accumulator.

Syntax: ADDC A,Rn;


Byte: 1 (instruction code);
STATUS register flags: C, OV and AC;

ADD A,#data - Adds the immediate data to the accumulator

A: accumulator

Data: constant within 0-255


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Instruction adds data (0-255) to the accumulator. After addition, the result is
stored in the accumulator.

Syntax: ADD A,#data;


Bytes: 2 (instruction code, data);
STATUS register flags: C, OV and AC;

ADDC A,direct - Adds the direct byte to the acumulator with a carry flag

A: accumulator

Direct:arbitrary with address 0-255.

Instruction adds the direct byte to the accumulator with a carry flag. As it is
direct addressing, the register can be any SFRs or general purpose register with
address 0-7Fh (0-127dec.). The result is stored in the accumulator.

Syntax: ADDC A, register address;


Bytes: 2 (instruction code, direct);
STATUS register flags: C, OV and AC;

ADDC A,@Ri - Adds the indirect RAM to the accumulator with a carry flag

A: accumulator

R:register(R0-R1)

Instruction adds the indirect RAM to the accumulator with a carry flag. RAM
address is stored in the Ri register (R0 or R1). After addition, the result is stored
in the accumulator.

Syntax: ADDC A,@Ri;


Byte: 1 (instruction code);
STATUS register flags: C, OV and AC;

Register address: SUM = 4Fh R0=4Fh


Before execution: A= C3h (195 dec.) SUM = AAh (170 dec.) C=1
After execution: A= 6Eh (110 dec.) AC=0, C=1, OV=1

ADDC A,#data - Adds the immediate data to the accumulator with a carry flag

A: accumulator

Data:constant with address 0-255.

Instruction adds data (0-255) to the accumulator with a carry flag. After addition,
the result is stored in the accumulator.

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Syntax: ADDC A,#data;


Bytes: 2 (instruction code, data);
STATUS register flags: C, OV and AC;

AJMP addr11 - Absolute jump

Addr 11: jump address 11.

Program continues execution after executing a jump to the specified address.


Similar to the ACALL instruction, the jump must be executed within the same
2K byte block of program memory starting from the first byte of the instruction
following AJMP.

Syntax: AJMP address (label);


Bytes: 2 (instruction code, jump address);
STATUS register flags: No flags are affected;

ANL A,Rn - AND register to the accumulator

A: accumulator

R:register(R0-R7)

Instruction performs logic AND operation between the accumulator and Rn


register. The result is stored in the accumulator.

Syntax: ANL A,Rn;


Byte: 1 (instruction code);
STATUS register flags: No flags are affected;

ANL A,direct - AND direct byte to the accumulator

A: accumulator

R:register(R0-R7)

Direct:arbitrary register with address 0-255.

Instruction performs logic AND operation between the accumulator and drect
register. As it is direct addressing, the register can be any SFRs or general-
purpose register with address 0-7Fh (o-127 dec.). The result is stored in the
accumulator.

Syntax: ANL A,direct;


Byte: 2 (instruction code, direct);
STATUS register flags: No flags are affected;

ANL A,@Ri - AND indirect RAM to the accumulator

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A: accumulator

R:register(R0-R1)

Instruction performs logic AND operation between the accumulator and


register.As it is indirect addressing, the register address is stored in the Ri
register (R0 or R1). The result is stored in the accumulator.

Syntax: ANL A,@Ri;


Byte: 1 (instruction code);
STATUS register flags: No flags are affected;

Register address SUM = 4Fh R0=4Fh


Before execution: A= C3h (11000011 Bin.)
R0= 55h (01010101 Bin.)
After execution: A= 41h (01000001 Bin.)

ANL A,#data - AND immediate data to the accumulator

A: accumulator

Data: constant in the range of 0-255.

Instruction performs logic AND operation between the accumulator and data.
The result is stored in the accumulator.

Syntax: ANL A,#data;


Bytes: 2 (instruction code, data);
STATUS register flags: No flags are affected;

Before execution: A= C3h (11000011 Bin.)


After execution: A= 41h (01000001 Bin.)
A: accumulator

Direct: arbitrary register with address 0-255

Instruction performs logic AND operation between direct byte and accumulator.
As it is direct addressing, the register can be any SFRs or general-purpose
register with address 0-7Fh (0-127 dec.). The result is stored in the direct byte.

Syntax: ANL register address,A;


Bytes: 2 (instruction code, direct byte address);
STATUS register flags: No flags are affected.

Before execution: A= C3h (11000011 Bin.)


MASK= 55h (01010101 Bin.)
After execution: MASK= 41h (01000001 Bin.)

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ANL direct,#data - AND immediate data to direct byte

Direct: arbitrary register with address 0-255

Data: constant in the range between 0-255.

Instruction performs logic AND operation between direct byte and data. As it is
direct addressing, the register can be any SFRs or general-purpose register with
address 0-7Fh (0-127 dec.). The result is stored in the direct byte.

Syntax: ANL register address ,#data;


Bytes: 3 (instruction code, direct byte address, data);
STATUS register flags: No flags are affected;

ANL C,bit - AND direct bit to the carry flag

C: carry flag

Bit: any bit of RAM

Instruction performs logic AND operation between the direct bit and the carry
flag. Syntax: ANL C, bit address;
Bytes: 2 (instruction code, bit address);
STATUS register flags: C;

Before execution: ACC= 43h (01000011 Bin.)


C=1
After execution: ACC= 43h (01000011 Bin.)
C=0

ANL C,/bit - AND complements of direct bit to the carry flag

C: carry flag

Bit: any bit of RAM

Description: Instruction performs logic AND operation between inverted


addressed bit and the carry flag. The result is stored in the carry flag.

Syntax: ANL C,/[bit address];


Bytes: 2 (instruction code, bit address);
STATUS register flags: No flags are affected;

Before execution: ACC= 43h (01000011 Bin.)


C=1
After execution: ACC= 43h (01000011 Bin.)
C=1

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CJNE A,direct,rel - Compares direct byte to the accumulator and jumps if not
equal

Instruction first compares the number in the accumulator with the directly
addressed byte. If they are equal, the program proceeds with execution.
Otherwise, a jump to the specified address will be executed. This is a short jump
instruction, which means that the address of a new location must be relatively
near the current one (-128 to +127 locations relative to the first following
instruction).

Syntax: CJNE A,direct,[jump address];


Bytes: 3 (instruction code, direct byte address, jump address);
STATUS register flags: C;

CJNE A,#data,rel - Compares immediate data to the accumulator and jumps if


not equal. Instruction first compares the number in the accumulator with the
immediate data. If they are equal, the program proceeds with execution.
Otherwise, a jump to the specified address will be executed. This is a short jump
instruction, which means that the address of a new location must be relatively
near the current one

Syntax: CJNE A,X,[jump address];


Bytes: 3 (instruction code, data, jump address);
STATUS register flags: C;

96 CJNE Rn,#data,rel Compares immediate data to the register Rn and


jumps if not equal. Instruction first compares immediate data to the register Rn.
If they are equal, the program proceeds with execution. Otherwise, a jump to the
specified address will be executed. This is a short jump instruction, which means
that the address of a new location must be relatively near the current one (-128 to
+ 127 locations relative to the first following instruction).

Syntax: CJNE Rn,data,[jump address];


Bytes: 3 (instruction code, data, jump address);
STATUS register flags: C;

97 CJNE @Ri,#data,rel - Compares immediate data to indirectly addressed


register and jumps if not equal. This instruction first compares immediate data to
indirectly addressed register. If they are equal, the program proceeds with
execution. Otherwise, a jump to the specified address in the program will be
executed. This is a short jump instruction, which means that the address of a new
location must be relatively near the current one (-128 to +127 locations relative
to the next instruction).

Syntax: CJNE @Ri,data,[jump address];


Bytes: 3 (instruction code, data, jump address);
STATUS register flags: C;

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CLR A - Clears the accumulator

Instruction clears the accumulator.

Syntax: CLR A;
Byte: 1 (instruction code);
STATUS register flags: No flags are affected.

After execution: A=0

CLR C - clears the carry flag

Instruction clears the carry flag.

Syntax: CLR C;
Byte: 1 (instruction code);
STATUS register flags: C;

After execution: C=0

CLR bit - clears the direct bit

Instruction clears the specified bit.

Syntax: CLR [bit address];


Bytes: 2 (instruction code, bit address);
STATUS register flags: No flags are affected.

Before execution: P0.3=1 (input pin)


After execution: P0.3=0 (output pin)

CPL A - Complements the accumulator

Instruction complements all the bits in the accumulator (1==>0, 0==>1).

Syntax: CPL A;
Bytes: 1 (instruction code);
STATUS register flags: No flags are affected.

Before execution: A= (00110110)


After execution: A= (11001001)

CPL bit - Complements the direct bit

Instruction coplements the specified bit of RAM (0==>1, 1==>0).

Syntax: CPL [bit address];


Bytes: 2 (instruction code, bit address);
STATUS register flags: No flags are affected;
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Before execution: P0.3=1 (input pin)


After execution: P0.3=0 (output pin)

CPL C - Complements the carry flag

Instruction complements the carry flag (0==>1, 1==>0).

Syntax: CPL C;
Byte: 1 (instruction code);
STATUS register flags: C;

Before execution: C=1


After execution: C=0

DA A - Decimal adjust accumulator

Instruction adjusts the contents of the accumulator to correspond to a BCD


number after two BCD numbers have been added by the ADD and ADDC
instructions. The result in form of two 4-digit BCD numbers is stored in the
accumulator.

Syntax: DA A;
Byte: 1 (instruction code);
STATUS register flags: C;

Before execution: A=56h (01010110) 56 BCD


B=67h (01100111) 67BCD
DEC A - Decrements the accumulator by 1

Instruction decrements the value in the accumulator by 1. If there is a 0 in the


accumulator, the result of the operation is FFh. (255 dec.)

Syntax: DEC A;
Byte: 1 (instruction code);
STATUS register flags: No flags are affected;

Before execution: A=E4h


After execution: A=E3h

DEC Rn - Decrements the register Rn by 1

Instruction decrements the value in the Rn register by 1. If there is a 0 in the


register, the result of the operation will be FFh. (255 dec.)

Syntax: DEC Rn;


Byte: 1 (instruction code);
STATUS register flags: No flags are affected;

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Before execution: R3=B0h


After execution: R3=AFh

DEC direct - Decrements the direct byte by 1

Instruction decrements the value of directly addressed register by 1. As it is


direct addressing, the register must be within the first 255 locations of RAM. If
there is a 0 in the register, the result will be FFh.

Syntax: DEC [register address];


Byte: 2 (instruction code, direct);
STATUS register flags: No flags are affected;

DIV AB - Divides the accumulator by the register B

Instruction divides the value in the accumulator by the value in the B register.
After division the integer part of result is stored in the accumulator while the
register contains the remainder. In case of dividing by 1, the flag OV is set and
the result of division is unpredictable. The 8-bit quotient is stored in the
accumulator and the 8-bit remainder is stored in the B register.

Syntax: DIV AB;


Byte: 1 (instruction code);
STATUS register flags: C, OV;

Before execution: A=FBh (251dec.) B=12h (18 dec.)


After execution: A=0Dh (13dec.) B=11h (17dec.)
13·18 + 17 =251

DEC @Ri - Decrements the indirect RAM by 1

This instruction decrements the value in the indirectly addressed register of RAM
by 1. The register address is stored in the Ri register (R0 or R1). If there is a 0 in
the register, the result will be FFh.

Syntax: DEC @Ri;


Byte: 1 (instruction code);
STATUS register flags: No flags are affected;

Register Address CNT = 4Fh R0=4Fh


Before execution: CNT=35h
After execution: CNT= 34h

DJNZ direct,rel - Decrements direct byte by 1 and jumps if not 0

This instruction first decrements value in the register. If the result is 0, the
program proceeds with execution. Otherwise, a jump to the specified address in
the program will be executed. As it is direct addressing, the register must be
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within the first 255 locations of RAM. This is a short jump instruction, which
means that the address of a new location must be relatively near the current one
(-128 to +127 locations relative to the first following instruction).

Syntax: DJNZ direct,[jump address];


Bytes: 3 (instruction code, direct, jump address);
STATUS register flags: No flags are affected;

Before execution: PC=0445h


After execution: If CNT≠0: PC=0423h
If CNT=0: PC=0446h

DJNZ Rn,rel - Decrements the Rn register by 1 and jumps if not 0

98 This instruction first decrements the value in the Rn register. If the result
is 0, the program proceeds with execution. Otherwise, a jump to the specified
address in the program will be executed. This is a short jump instruction, which
means that the address of a new location must be relatively near the current one
(- 128 to +127 locations relative to the first following instruction).
99 Syntax: DJNZ Rn, [jump address];
Bytes: 2 (instruction code, jump address);
STATUS register flags: No flags are affected;

Before execution: PC=0445h


After execution: If R1≠0: PC=0423h
If R1=0: PC=0446h

INC Rn - Increments the Rn register by 1

Instruction increments the value in the Rn register by 1. If the register includes


the number 255, the result of the operation will be 0.

Syntax: INC Rn;


Byte: 1 (instruction code);
STATUS register flags: No flags are affected;

Before execution: R4=18h


After execution: R4=19h

INC A - Increments the accumulator by 1

This instruction increments the value in the accumulator by 1. If the accumulator


includes the number 255, the result of the operation will be 0.

Syntax: INC A;
Byte: 1 (instruction code);
STATUS register flags: No flags are affected;

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Before execution: A=E4h


After execution: A=E5h

INC @Ri - Increments the value of indirectly addressed register of RAM by 1

This instruction increments the value in the directly addressed register of RAM
by 1. The register address is stored in the Ri Register (R0 or R1). If the register
includes the number 255, the result of the operation will be 0.

Syntax: INC @Ri;


Byte: 1 (instruction code);
STATUS register flags: No flags are affected;

Register Address CNT = 4Fh


Before execution: CNT=35h R1=4Fh
After execution: CNT=36h

INC direct - Increments the direct byte by 1

Instruction increments the direct byte by 1. If the register includes the number
255, the result of the operation will be 0. As it is direct addressing, the register
must be within the first 255 RAM locations.

Syntax: INC direct;


Bytes: 2 (instruction code, direct byte address);
STATUS register flags: No flags are affected;

Before execution: CNT=33h


After execution: CNT=34h

JB bit,rel - Jump if direct bit is set

If the bit is set, a jump to the specified address will be executed. Otherwise, if the
value of bit is 0, the program proceeds with the next instruction. This is a short
jump instruction, which means that the address of a new location must be
relatively near the current one (-128 to + 127 locations relative to the first
following instruction).

Syntax: JB bit, [jump address];


Bytes: 3 (instruction code, bit address, jump address);
STATUS register flags: No flags are affected;

Before execution: PC=0323h


After execution: If P0.5=0: PC=0324h
If P0.5=1: PC=0345h

INC DPTR - Increments the Data Pointer by 1

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Instruction increments the value of the 16-bit data pointer by 1. This is the only
16-bit register upon which this operation can be performed.

Syntax: INC DPTR;


Byte: 1 (instruction code);
STATUS register flags: No flags are affected;

Before execution: DPTR = 13FF (DPH = 13h DPL = FFh )


After execution: DPTR = 1400 (DPH = 14h DPL = 0)

JC rel - Jump if carry flag is set

Instruction first checks if the carry flag is set. If set, a jump to the specified
address is executed. Otherwise, the program proceeds with the next instruction.
This is a short jump instruction, which means that the address of a new location
must be relatively near the current one (-129 to + 127 locations relative to the
first following instruction).

Syntax: JC [jump address];


Bytes: 2 (instruction code, jump value);
STATUS register flags: No flags are affected;

Before instruction: PC=0323h


After instruction: If C=0: PC=0324h
If C=1: PC=0345h

JBC bit,rel - Jump if direct bit is set

This instruction first checks if the bit is set. If set, a jump to the specified address
is executed and the bit is cleared. Otherwise, the program proceeds with the first
following instruction. This is a short jump instruction, which means that the
address of a new location must be relatively near the current one (-129 to + 127
locations relative to the first following instruction).

Syntax: JBC bit, [jump address];


Bytes: 3 (instruction code, bit address, jump address);
STATUS register flags: No flags are affected;

Before execution: PC=0323h


After execution: If TEST0.4=1: PC=0345h, TEST0.4=0
If TEST0.4=0: PC=0324h, TEST0,4=0

JNB bit,rel - Jump if direct bit is not set

If the bit is cleared, a jump to the specified address will be executed. Otherwise,
if the bit value is 1, the program proceeds with the first following instruction.
This is a short jump instruction, which means that the address of a new location

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must be relatively near the current one (-129 to + 127 locations relative to the
first following instruction).

Syntax: JNB bit,[jump address];


Bytes: 3 (instruction code, bit address, jump address);
STATUS register flags: No flags are affected;

Before execution: PC=0323h


After execution: If P0.5=1: PC=0324h
If P0.5=0: PC=0345h

JMP @A+DPTR - Jump indirect relative to the DPTR

This instruction causes a jump to the address calculated by adding value stored in
the accumulator to the 16-bit number in the DPTR Register. It is used with
complex program branching where the accumulator affects jump address, for
example when reading a table. Neither accumulator nor DPTR register are
affected.

Syntax: JMP @A+DPTR;


Byte: 1 (instruction code);
STATUS register flags: No flags are affected;

Before execution: PC=223 DPTR=1400h


After execution: PC = 1402h if A=2
PC = 1404h if A=4
PC = 1406h if A=6
As instructions AJMP LABELS occupy two locations each, the values in the
accumulator specifying them must be different from each other by 2.

JNZ Jump if accumulator is not zero. This instruction checks if the value stored
in the accumulator is 0. If not, a jump to the specified address will be executed.
Otherwise, the program proceeds with the first following instruction. This is a
short jump instruction, which means that the address of a new location must be
relatively near the current one (-129 to + 127 locations relative to the first
following instruction).

Syntax: JNZ [jump address]:


Bytes: 2 (instruction code, jump value);
STATUS register flags: No flags are affected;

Before execution: PC=0323h


After execution: If A=0: PC=324h
If A≠0: PC=283h

JNC rel - Jump if carry flag is not set

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This instruction first checks whether the carry flag is set. If not, a jump to the
specified address will be executed. Otherwise, the program proceeds with the
first following instruction. This is a short jump instruction, which means that the
address of a new location must be relatively near the current one (-129 to + 127
locations relative to the first following instruction).

Syntax: JNC [jump address];


Bytes: 2 (instruction code, jump value);
STATUS register flags: No flags are affected;

Before execution: PC=0323h


After execution: If C=0: PC=360h
If C=1: PC=324h

LCALL addr16 - Long subroutine call

This instruction unconditionally calls a subroutine located at the specified


address. The current address and the start of the subroutine called can be located
anywhere within the memory space of 64K.

Syntax: LCALL [subroutine name];


Bytes: 3 (instruction code, address (15-8), address (7-0));
STATUS register flags: No flags are affected;

Before execution: PC=0123h


After execution: PC=1234h

JZ rel - Jump if accumulator is zero

The instruction checks whether the value stored in the accumulator is 0. If yes, a
jump to the specified address will be executed. Otherwise, the program proceeds
with the following instruction. This is a short jump instruction, which means that
the address of a new location must be relatively near the current one (-129 to +
127 locations relative to the first following instruction).

Syntax: JZ [jump address];


Bytes: 2 (instruction code, jump value);
STATUS register flags: No flags are affected;

Before execution: PC=0323h


After execution: If A0: PC=324h
If A=0: PC=283h

MOV A,Rn - Moves the Rn register to the accumulator

The instruction moves the Rn register to the accumulator. The Rn register is not
affected.

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Syntax: MOV A,Rn;


Byte: 1 (instruction code);
STATUS register flags: No flags are affected;

Before execution: R3=58h


After execution: R3=58h A=58h

LJMP addr16 - Long jump

Instruction causes a jump to the specified 16-bit address.

Syntax: LJMP [jump address];


Bytes: 3 (instruction code, address (15-8), address (7-0));
STATUS register flags: No flags are affected;

Before execution: PC=0123h


After execution: PC=1234h

MOV A,@Ri - Moves the indirect RAM to the accumulator

Instruction moves the indirectly addressed register of RAM to the accumulator.


The register address is stored in the Ri register (R0 or R1). The result is stored in
the accumulator. The register is not affected.

Syntax: MOV A,@Ri;


Byte: 1 (instruction code);
STATUS register flags: No flags are affected;

Register Address SUM=F2h R0=F2h


Before execution: SUM=58h
After execution: A=58h SUM=58h

MOV A,direct - Moves the direct byte to the accumulator

Instruction moves the direct byte to the accumulator. As it is direct addressing,


the register can be any SFRs or general-purpose register with address 0-7Fh. (0-
127 dec.). After executing the instruction, the register is not affected.

Syntax: MOV A,direct;


Byte: 2 (instruction code, direct byte address);
STATUS register flags: No flags are affected;

Before execution: Rx=68h


After execution: Rx=68h A=68h

MOV Rn,A - Moves the accumulator to the Rn register

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Instruction moves the accumulator to the Rn register. The accumulator is not


affected.

Syntax: MOV Rn,A;


Byte: 1 (instruction code);
STATUS register flags: No flags are affected;

Before execution: A=58h


After execution: R3=58h A=58h

MOV A,#data - Moves the immediate data to the accumulator

Instruction moves the immediate data to the accumulator.

Syntax: MOV A,#data;


Bytes: 2 (instruction code, data);
STATUS register flags: No flags are affected;

After execution: A=28h

MOV Rn,#data - Moves the immediate data to the Rn register

Instruction moves the immediate data to the Rn register.

Syntax: MOV Rn,#data;


Bytes: 2 (instruction code, data);
STATUS register flags: No flags are affected;

After execution: R5=32h

MOV Rn,direct - Moves the direct byte to the Rn register

Instruction moves the direct byte to the Rn register. As it is direct addressing, the
register can be any SFRs or general-purpose register with address 0-7Fh. (0-127
dec.). After executing the instruction, the register is not affected.

Syntax: MOV Rn,direct;


Bytes: 2 (instruction code, direct);
STATUS register flags: No flags are affected;

Before execution: SUM=58h


After execution: SUM=58h R3=58h

MOV direct,Rn - Moves the Rn register to the direct byte

Instruction moves the Rn register to the direct byte. As it is direct addressing, the
register can be any SFRs or general-purpose register with address 0-7Fh. (0-127
dec.). After executing the instruction, the register is not affected.

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Syntax: MOV direct,Rn;


Bytes: 2 (instruction code, direct byte address);
STATUS register flags: No flags are affected;

Before execution: R3=18h


After execution: R3=18h CIF=18h

MOV direct,A - Moves the accumulator to the direct byte

Instruction moves the accumulator to the direct byte. As it is direct addressing,


the register can be any SFRs or general-purpose register with address 0-7Fh. (0-
127 dec.). After executing the instruction, the register is not affected.

Syntax: MOV direct,A;


Bytes: 2 (instruction code, direct byte address);
STATUS register flags: No flags are affected;

Before execution: A=98h


After execution: A=98h REG=98h

MOV direct,@Ri - Moves the indirect RAM to the direct byte

Instruction moves the indirectly adressed register of RAM to the direct byte. The
register is not affected.

Syntax: MOV direct,@Ri;


Bytes: 2 (instruction code, direct byte address);
STATUS register flags: No flags are affected;

Register Address SUM=F3


Before execution: SUM=58h R1=F3
After execution: SUM=58h TEMP=58h

MOV direct1,direct2 - Moves the direct byte to the direct byte

Instruction moves the direct byte to another direct byte. As it is direct addressing,
both registers can be any SFRs or general-purpose registers with address 0-7Fh.
(0-127 dec.). The direct1 is not affected.

Syntax: MOV direct1,direct2;


Bytes: 3 (instruction code, direct1 address, direct2 address);
STATUS register flags: No flags are affected.

Before execution: TEMP=58h


After execution: TEMP=58h SUM=58h

MOV @Ri,A - Moves the accumulator to the indirect RAM

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Instruction moves the accumulator to the indirectly addressed register of RAM.


The register address is stored in the Ri register (R0 or R1). After executing the
instruction, the accumulator is not affected.

Syntax: MOV @Ri,A;


Byte: 1 (instruction code);
STATUS register flags: No flags are affected;

Register Address SUM=F2h


Before execution: R0=F2h A=58h
After execution: SUM=58h A=58h

MOV direct,#data - Moves the immediate data to the direct byte

Instruction moves the immediate data to the direct byte. As it is direct


addressing, the direct byte can be any SFRs or general-purpose register with
address 0-7Fh. (0-127 dec.).

Syntax: MOV direct,#data;


Bytes: 3 (instruction code, direct byte address, data);
STATUS register flags: No flags are affected;

After execution: TEMP=22h

MOV @Ri,#data - Moves the immediate data to the indirect RAM

Instruction moves the immediate data to the idirectly addressed register of RAM.
The register address is stored in the Ri register (R0 or R1).

Syntax: MOV @Ri,#data;


Bytes: 2 (instruction code, data);
STATUS register flags: No flags are affected;

Register address TEMP=E2h


Before execution: R1=E2h
After execution: TEMP=44h

MOV @Ri,direct - Moves the direct byte to the indirect RAM

Instruction moves the direct byte to a register the address of which is stored in
the Ri register (R0 or R1). After executing the instruction, the direct byte is not
affected.

Syntax: MOV @Ri,direct;


Bytes: 2 (instruction code, direct byte address);
STATUS register flags: No flags are affected;

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Register address TEMP=E2h


Before execution: SUM=58h R1=E2h
After execution: SUM=58h TEMP=58h

MOV bit,C - Moves the carry flag to the direct bit

Instruction moves the carry flag to the direct bit. After executing the instruction,
the carry flag is not affected.

Syntax: MOV bit,C;


Bytes: 2 (instruction code, bit address);
STATUS register flags: No flags are affected;

After execution: If C=0 P1.2=0


If C=1 P1.2=1

MOV C,bit - Moves the direct bit to the carry flag

Instruction moves the direct bit to the carry flag. After executing the instruction,
the bit is not affected.

Syntax: MOV C,bit;


Bytes: 2 (instruction code, bit address);
STATUS register flags: C;

After execution: If P1.4=0 C=0


If P1.4=1 C=1

MOVC A,@A+DPTR - Moves the code byte relative to the DPTR to the
accumulator

Instruction first adds the 16-bit DPTR register to the accumulator. The result of
addition is then used as a memory address from which the 8-bit data is moved to
the accumulator.

Syntax: MOVC A,@A+DPTR;


Byte: 1 (instruction code);
STATUS register flags: No flags affected;

DB (Define Byte) is a directive in assembly language used to define constant.

MOV DPTR,#data16 - Loads the data pointer with a 16-bit constant

Instruction stores a 16-bit constant to the DPTR register. The 8 high bits of the
constant are stored in the DPH register, while the 8 low bits are stored in the
DPL register.

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Syntax: MOV DPTR,#data;


Bytes: 3 (instruction code, constant (15-8), constant (7-0));
STATUS register flags: No flags affected;

After execution: DPH=12h DPL=34h

MOVX A,@Ri - Moves the external RAM (8-bit address) to the accumulator

Instruction reads the content of a register in external RAM and moves it to the
accumulator. The register address is stored in the Ri register (R0 or R1).

Syntax: MOVX A,@Ri;


Byte: 1 (instruction code);
STATUS register flags: No flags affected;

Register Address: SUM=12h


Before execution: SUM=58h R0=12h
After execution: A=58h
SUM Register is stored in external RAM which is 256 bytes in size.

MOVC A,@A+PC - Moves the code byte relative to the PC to the accumulator

Instruction first adds the 16-bit PC register to the accumulator (the current
program address is stored in the PC register). The result of addition is then used
as a memory address from which the 8-bit data is moved to the accumulator.

Syntax: MOVC A,@A+PC;


Byte: 1 (instruction code);
STATUS register flags: No flags affected;

100 DB (Define Byte) is a directive in assembly language used to define


constant.

MOVX @Ri,A - Moves the accumulator to the external RAM (8-bit address)

101 Instruction moves the accumulator to a register stored in external RAM.


Its address is stored in the Ri register.

Syntax: MOVX @Ri,A;


Byte: 1 (instruction code);
STATUS register flags: No flags affected;

Register address: SUM=34h


Before execution: A=58 R1=34h
After execution: SUM=58h
Register SUM is located in external RAM which is 256 bytes in size.

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MOVX A,@DPTR - Moves the external memory (16-bit address) to the


accumulator

Instruction moves the content of a register in external memory to the


accumulator. The 16-bit address of the register is stored in the DPTR register
(DPH and DPL).

Syntax: MOVX A,@DPTR;


Byte: 1
STATUS register flags: No flags affected;

Register address: SUM=1234h


Before execution: DPTR=1234h SUM=58
After execution: A=58h
Register SUM is located in external RAM which is up to 64K in size.

MUL AB - Multiplies A and B

Instruction multiplies the value in the accumulator with the value in the B
register. The low-order byte of the 16-bit result is stored in the accumulator,
while the high byte remains in the B register. If the result is larger than 255, the
overflow flag is set. The carry flag is not affected.

Syntax: MUL AB;


Byte: 1 (instruction code);
STATUS register flags: No flags affected;

Before execution: A=80 (50h) B=160 (A0h)


After execution: A=0 B=32h
A·B=80·160=12800 (3200h)

MOVX @DPTR,A - Moves the accumulator to the external RAM (16-bit


address)

Instruction moves the accumulator to a register stored in external RAM. The 16-
bit address of the register is stored in the DPTR register (DPH and DPL).

Syntax: MOVX @DPTR,A;


Byte: 1 (instruction code);
STATUS register flags: No flags affected

Register address: SUM=1234h


Before execution: A=58 DPTR=1234h
After execution: SUM=58h
Register SUM is located in RAM which is up to 64K in size.

102 ORL A,Rn - OR register to the accumulator

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Instruction performs logic OR operation between the accumulator and Rn


register. The result is stored in the accumulator.

Syntax: ORL A,Rn;


Byte: 1 (instruction code);
STATUS register flags: No flags affected;

Before execution: A= C3h (11000011 Bin.)


R5= 55h (01010101 Bin.)
After execution: A= D7h (11010111 Bin.)

NOP - No operation

103 Instruction doesn’t perform any operation and is used when additional
time delays are needed.

Syntax: NOP;
Byte: 1 (instruction code);
STATUS register flags: No flags affected;

Such a sequence provides a negative pulse which lasts exactly 5 machine


cycles on the P2.3. If a 12 MHz quartz crystal is used then 1 cycle lasts 1uS,
which means that this output will be a low-going output pulse for 5 uS.

ORL A,@Ri - OR indirect RAM to the accumulator

Instruction performs logic OR operation between the accumulator and a register.


As it is indirect addressing, the register address is stored in the Ri register (R0 or
R1). The result is stored in the accumulator.

Syntax: ANL A,@Ri;


Byte: 1 (instruction code);
STATUS register flags: No flags affected;

Register address: TEMP=FAh


Before execution: R1=FAh
TEMP= C2h (11000010 Bin.)
A= 54h (01010100 Bin.)
After execution: A= D6h (11010110 Bin.)

ORL A,direct - OR direct byte to the accumulator

Instruction performs logic OR operation between the accumulator and a register.


As it is direct addressing, the register can be any SFRs or general-purpose
register with address 0-7Fh (0-127 dec.). The result is stored in the accumulator.

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Syntax: ORL A,direct;


Bytes: 2 (instruction code, direct byte address);
STATUS register flags: No flags affected;

Before execution: A= C2h (11000010 Bin.)


LOG= 54h (01010100 Bin.)
After execution: A= D6h (11010110 Bin.)

ORL direct,A - OR accumulator to the direct byte

Instruction performs logic OR operation between a register and accumulator. As


it is direct addressing, the register can be any SFRs or general- purpose register
with address 0-7Fh (0-127 dec.). The result is stored in the register.

Syntax: ORL [register address], A;


Bytes: 2 (instruction code, direct byte address);
STATUS register flags: No flags affected;

Before execution: TEMP= C2h (11000010 Bin.)


A= 54h (01010100 Bin.)
After execution: A= D6h (11010110 Bin.)

ORL A,#data - OR immediate data to the accumulator

Instruction performs logic OR operation between the accumulator and the


immediate data. The result is stored in the accumulator.

Syntax: ORL A, #data;


Bytes: 2 (instruction code, data);
STATUS register flags: No flags affected;

Before execution: A= C2h (11000010 Bin.)


After execution: A= C3h (11000011 Bin.)

ORL C,bit - OR direct bit to the carry flag

Instruction performs logic OR operation between the direct bit and the carry flag.
The result is stored in the carry flag.

Syntax: ORL C,bit;


Bytes: 2 (instruction code, direct bit address);
STATUS register flags: No flags affected;

104 Before execution: ACC= C6h (11001010 Bin.)


C=0
After execution: C=1

ORL direct,#data - OR immediate data to direct byte

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Instruction performs logic OR operation between the immediate data and the
direct byte. As it is direct addressing, the direct byte can be any SFRs or general-
purpose register with address 0-7Fh (0-127 dec.). The result is stored in the direct
byte.

Syntax: ORL [register address],#data;


Bytes: 3 (instruction code, direct byte address, data);
STATUS register flags: No flags affected;

Before execution: TEMP= C2h (11000010 Bin.)


After execution: A= D2h (11010010 Bin.)

POP direct - Pop the direct byte from the stack

105 Instruction first reads data from the location being pointed to by the
Stack. The data is then copied to the direct byte and the value of the Stack
Pointer is decremented by 1. As it is direct addressing, the direct byte can be any
SFRs or general-purpose register with address 0-7Fh. (0-127 dec.).

Syntax: POP direct;


Bytes: 2 (instruction code, direct byte address);
STATUS register flags: No flags affected;

Before execution: Address Value


030h 20h
031h 23h
SP==> 032h 01h
DPTR=0123h (DPH=01, DPL=23h)

After execution: Address Value


SP==> 030h 20h
031h 23h
032h 01h

ORL C,/bit - OR complements of direct bit to the carry flag

106 Instruction performs logic OR operation between the addressed inverted


bit and the carry flag. The result is stored in the carry flag.

Syntax: ORL C,/bit;


Bytes: 2 (instruction code, bit address);
STATUS register flags: No flags affected;

Before execution: ACC= C6h (11001010 Bin.)


C=0
After execution: C=0

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RET - Return from subroutine. This instruction ends every subroutine. After
execution, the program proceeds with the instruction following an ACALL or
LCALL.

Syntax: RET;
Byte: 1 (instruction code);
STATUS register flags: No flags affected;

PUSH direct - Pushes the direct byte onto the stack

107 Address currently pointed to by the Stack Pointer is first incremented by


1 and afterwards the data from the register Rx is copied to it. As it is direct
addressing, the direct byte can be any SFRs or general-purpose register with
address 0-7Fh.

Syntax: PUSH direct;


Bytes: 2 (instruction code, direct byte address);
STATUS register flags: No flags affected;

Before execution: Address Value


SP==> 030h 20h
DPTR=0123h (DPH=01, DPL=23h)

After execution: Address Value


030h 20h
031h 23h
SP==> 032h 01h

RL A - Rotates the accumulator one bit left

Eight bits in the accumulator are rotated one bit left, so that the bit 7 is rotated
into the bit 0 position.

Syntax: RL A;
Byte: 1 (instruction code);
STATUS register flags: No flags affected;

Before execution: A= C2h (11000010 Bin.)


After execution: A=85h (10000101 Bin.)

RETI - Return from interrupt

This instruction ends every interrupt routine and informs processor about it. After
executing the instruction, the program proceeds from where it left off. The PSW
is not automatically returned its pre-interrupt status.

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Syntax: RETI;
Byte: 1 (instruction code);
STATUS register flags: No flags affected;

RR A - Rotates the accumulator one bit right

108 All eight bits in the accumulator are rotated one bit right so that the bit 0
is rotated into the bit 7 position.

Syntax: RR A;
Byte: 1 (instruction code);
STATUS register flags: No flags affected;

execution: A= C2h (11000010 Bin.)


After execution: A= 61h (01100001 Bin.)

RLC A - Rotates the accumulator one bit left through the carry flag

109 All eight bits in the accumulator and carry flag are rotated one bit left.
After this operation, the bit 7 is rotated into the carry flag position and the carry
flag is rotated into the bit 0 position.

Syntax: RLC A;
Byte: 1 (instruction code);
STATUS register flags: C;

Before execution: A= C2h (11000010 Bin.)


C=0
After execution: A= 85h (10000100 Bin.)
C=1

SETB C - Sets the carry flag

Instruction sets the carry flag.

Syntax: SETB C;
Byte: 1 (instruction code);
STATUS register flags: C;

110 After execution: C=1

RRC A - Rotates the accumulator one bit right through the carry flag

All eight bits in the accumulator and carry flag are rotated one bit right. After this
operation, the carry flag is rotated into the bit 7 position and the bit 0 is rotated
into the carry flag position.

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Syntax: RRC A;
Byte: 1 (instruction code);
STATUS register flags: C;

Before execution: A= C2h (11000010 Bin.)


C=0
After execution: A= 61h (01100001 Bin.)
C=0

SJMP rel - Short Jump (relative address)

Instruction enables jump to the new address which should be in the range of -128
to +127 locations relative to the first following instruction.

Syntax: SJMP [jump address];


Bytes: 2 (instruction code, jump value);
STATUS register flags: No flags are affected;

Before execution: PC=323


After execution: PC=345

SETB bit - Sets the direct bit

Instruction sets the specified bit. The register containing that bit must belong to
the group of the so called bit addressable registers.

Syntax: SETB [bit address];


Bytes: 2 (instruction code, bit address);
STATUS register flags: No flags affected;

Before execution: P0.1 = 34h (00110100)


pin 1 is configured as an output
After execution: P0.1 = 35h (00110101)
pin 1 is configured as an input

SUBB A,direct - Subtracts the direct byte from the accumulator with a borrow

Instruction subtracts the direct byte from the accumulator with a borrow. If the
higher bit is subtracted from the lower bit then the carry flag is set. As it is direct
addressing, the direct byte can be any SFRs or general-purpose register with
address 0-7Fh. (0-127 dec.). The result is stored in the accumulator.

Syntax: SUBB A,direct;


Bytes: 2 (instruction code, direct byte address);
STATUS register flags: C, OV, AC;

Before execution: A=C9h, DIF=53h, C=0


After execution: A=76h, C=0
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SUBB A,Rn - Subtracts the Rn register from the accumulator with a borrow

Instruction subtracts the Rn register from the accumulator with a borrow. If the
higher bit is subtracted from the lower bit then the carry flag is set. The result is
stored in the accumulator.

Syntax: SUBB A,Rn;


Byte: 1 (instruction code);
STATUS register flags: C, OV, AC;

Before execution: A=C9h, R4=54h, C=1


After execution: A=74h, C=0
The result is different (C9 - 54=75) because the carry flag is set (C=1) before the
instruction starts execution.

SUBB A,#data - Subtracts the immediate data from the accumulator with a
borrow

Instruction subtracts the immediate data from the accumulator with a borrow. If
the higher bit is subtracted from the lower bit then the carry flag is set. The result
is stored in the accumulator.

Syntax: SUBB A,#data;


Bytes: 2 (instruction code, data);
STATUS register flags: C, OV, AC;

Before execution: A=C9h, C=0


After execution: A=A7h, C=0

SUBB A,@Ri - Subtracts the indirect RAM from the accumulator with a borrow

Instruction subtracts the indirectly addressed register of RAM from the


accumulator with a borrow. If the higher bit is subtracted from the lower bit then
the carry flag is set. As it is indirect addressing, the register address is stored in
the Ri register (R0 or R1). The result is stored in the accumulator.

Syntax: SUBB A,@Ri;


Byte: 1 (instruction code);
STATUS register flags: C, OV, AC;

Register address: MIN=F4


Before execution: A=C9h, R1=F4h, MIN=04, C=0
After execution: A=C5h, C=0

XCH A,Rn - Exchanges the Rn register with the accumulator

Instruction causes the accumulator and Rn register to exchange data. The content
of the accumulator is moved to the Rn register and vice versa.
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Syntax: XCH A,Rn;


Byte: 1 (instruction code);
STATUS register flags: No flags are affected;

Before execution: A=C6h, R3=29h


After execution: R3=C6h, A=29h

SWAP A - Swaps nibbles within the accumulator

A nibble refers to a group of 4 bits within one register (bit0-bit3 and bit4-
bit7).This instruction interchanges high and low nibbles of the accumulator.

Syntax: SWAP A;
Byte: 1 (instruction code);
STATUS register flags: No flags are affected;

Before execution: A=E1h (11100001)bin.


After execution: A=1Eh (00011110)bin.

XCH A,@Ri - Exchanges the indirect RAM with the accumulator

Instruction moves the contents of accumulator to the indirectly addressed register


of RAM and vice versa. As it is indirect addressing, the register address is stored
in the register Ri (R0 or R1).

Syntax: XCH A,@Ri;


Byte: 1 (instruction code);
STATUS register flags: No flags are affected;

Register address: SUM=E3


Before execution: R0=E3, SUM=29h, A=98h
After execution: A=29h, SUM=98h

XCH A,direct - Exchanges the direct byte with the accumulator

Instruction moves the contents of the accumulator into the direct byte and vice
versa. As it is direct addressing, the direct byte can be any SFRs or general-
purpose register with address 0-7Fh (0-127 dec.).

Syntax: XCH A,direct;


Bytes: 2 (instruction code, direct byte address);
STATUS register flags: No flags are affected;

Before execution: A=FFh, SUM=29h


After execution: SUM=FFh A=29h

XRL A,Rn - Exclusive OR register to accumulator

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Instruction performs exclusive OR operation between the accumulator and the


Rn register. The result is stored in the accumulator.

Syntax: XRL A,Rn;


Byte: 1 (instruction code);
STATUS register flags: No flags are affected;

Before execution: A= C3h (11000011 Bin.)


R3= 55h (01010101 Bin.)
After execution: A= 96h (10010110 Bin.)

XCHD A,@Ri - Exchanges the low-order nibble indirect RAM with the
accumulator

This instruction interchanges the low-order nibbles (bits 0-3) of the accumulator
with the low-order nibbles of the indirectly addressed register of RAM. High-
order nibbles of the accumulator and register are not affected. This instruction is
mainly used when operating with BCD values. As it is indirect addressing, the
register address is stored in the register Ri (R0 or R1).

Syntax: XCHD A,@Ri;


Byte: 1 (instruction code);
STATUS register flags: No flags are affected;

Register address: SUM=E3


Before execution: R0=E3 SUM=29h A=A8h,
After execution: A=A9h, SUM=28h

XRL A,@Ri - Exclusive OR indirect RAM to the accumulator

Instruction performs exclusive OR operation between the accumulator and the


indirectly addressed register. As it is indirect addressing, the register address is
stored in the Ri register (R0 or R1). The result is stored in the accumulator.

Syntax: XRL A,@Ri;


Byte: 1 (instruction code);
STATUS register flags: No flags are affected;

Register address: TEMP=FAh, R1=FAh


Before execution: TEMP= C2h (11000010 Bin.)
A= 54h (01010100 Bin.)
After execution: A= 96h (10010110 Bin.)

XRL A,direct - Exclusive OR direct byte to the accumulator

Instruction performs exclusive OR operation between the accumulator and the


direct byte. As it is direct addressing, the register can be any SFRs or general-

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purpose register with address 0-7Fh (0-127 dec.). The result is stored in the
accumulator.

Syntax: XRL A,direct;


Bytes: 2 (instruction code, direct byte address);
STATUS register flags: No flags are affected;

Before execution: A= C2h (11000010 Bin.)


LOG= 54h (01010100 Bin.)
After execution: A= 96h (10010110 Bin.)

XRL direct,A - Exclusive OR accumulator to the direct byte

Instruction performs exclusive OR operation between the direct byte and the
accumulator. As it is direct addressing, the register can be any SFRs or general-
purpose register with address 0-7Fh (0-127 dec.). The result is stored in the
register.

Syntax: XRL direct,A;


Bytes: 2 (instruction code, direct byte address);
STATUS register flags: No flags affected;

Before execution: TEMP= C2h (11000010 Bin.)


A= 54h (01010100 Bin.)
After execution: A= 96h (10010110 Bin.)

XRL A,#data - Exclusive OR immediate data to the accumulator

Instruction performs exclusive OR operation between the accumulator and the


immediate data. The result is stored in the accumulator.

Syntax: XRL A,#data;


Bytes: 2 (instruction code, data);
STATUS register flags: No flags are affected;

Before execution: A= C2h (11000010 Bin.)


X= 11h (00010001 Bin.)
After execution: A= D3h (11010011 Bin.)

XRL direct,#data - Exclusive OR immediate data to direct byte

Instruction performs exclusive OR operation between the immediate data and the
direct byte. As it is direct addressing, the register can be any SFRs or general-
purpose register with address 0-7Fh (0-127 dec.). The result is stored in the
register.

Syntax: XRL direct,#data;


Bytes
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3 (instruction code, direct byte address, data);


STATUS register flags

No flags affected;

Before execution: TEMP= C2h (11000010 Bin.)


X=12h (00010010 Bin.)
After execution: A= D0h (11010000 Bin.)

P89V51RD2BN MICROCONTROLLER
111 The 8051 microcontroller is being manufactured across the globe by
many manufacturers and under different names. Of course, the latest versions are
by far more advanced than the original one. Many of them has the label “8051
compatible”, “8051 compliant”or “8051 family” in order to emphasize their
“noble heritage”. These tags imply that microcontrollers have similar architecture
and are programmed in a similar way using the same instruction set. Practically,
if you know how to handle one microcontroller belonging to this family, you will
be able to handle any of them. In other words, several hundreds of different
models are at your disposal. Because it is widely used, cheap and uses Flash
memory for storing programs. The last feature mentioned makes it ideal for
experimentation due to the fact that program can be loaded and erased from it for
many times. Besides, thanks to the built-in SPI System, the program can be
loaded to the microcontroller even after embedding the chip in the target device.

THE P89V51RD2BN MICROCONTROLLER ID


(a) Compatible with 8051 family.
(b) 12Kb of Flash Memory for storing programs.
(i) Program is loaded via SPI System (Serial Peripheral
Interface).
(ii) Program may be loaded/erased up to 1000 times.
(c) 2Kb of EEPROM Memory.
(d) Power supply voltage: 4-6V.
(e) Operating clock frequency: 0-24MHz.
(f) 256 bytes of internal RAM for storing variables.
(g) 32 input/output pins.
(h) Three 16-bit timers/counters.
(i)9 interrupt sources.
(j)2 additional power saving modes (low-power idle and power-
down mode).
(k) Programmable UART serial communication.
(l)Programmable watchdog timer.
(m) Three-level program memory lock

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Figure 9. Structure of P89V51RD2BN

112 The P89V51RD2BN comes in the following packages

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Figure 10. Microcontroller pakage

PINOUT DESCRIPTION

(a) PORT 0

If configured as outputs, each of these pins can be connected to up to


8 TTL inputs. If configured as inputs, the pins can be used as high-
impedance inputs as their potential is not defined relative to ground,
i.e. they are floating. If additional (external) memory is used, these
pins are used for accessing it. Signal on the ALE pin determines what
and when will be transferred to this port.

(b)PORT 1

If configured as outputs, each of these pins can be connected to up to


4 TTL inputs. When configured as inputs, these pins act as standard
TTL inputs, that is, each of them is internally connected to the
positive supply voltage via a resistor of relatively high impedance.
Power supply voltage provided on these inputs is 5V.

(c) PORT 2

Whether configured as an input or an output, this port acts the same


as Port 1. If external memory is used, the high byte of the address

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(A8-A15) comes out on the Port 2 which is thus used for addressing
it.

(d) Port 3 Similar to P1, Port 3 pins can be used as general inputs or
outputs.
(e) RST

Logic one (1) on this pin causes the microcontroller to be reset.

(f) ALE

In normal operation, the ALE pin is activated at a constant rate of


1/16 the oscillator frequency and can be used for external clocking
and timing purposes. When external memory is used, a signal from
this pin is used to latch the low byte of an address (A0-A7) from P0.
During the process of writing a program to the microcontroller, this
pin also serves as a control input.

(g) PSEN

This pin provides a signal used for accessing external program


memory (ROM).

(h)EA/VPP

When this pin is connected to ground, the microcontroller reads


program instructions from external program memory. If internal
program memory is used, which is the common case, this pin should
be connected to the positive power supply voltage (VCC). During the
process of programming internal Flash mamory, this pin is supplied
with +12V.

(i) XTAL 1

This is internal oscillator input. It is used for the purpose of


synchronizing the operation of the microcontroller with some other
circuit or for connecting external oscillator when used.

(j) XTAL 2

This pin is connected to internal oscillator output. Therefore, it is out


of use when using external oscillator.

THE P89V51RD2BN MICROCONTROLLER MEMORY


ORGANISATION

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PROGRAM MEMORY (ROM)

113 Program memory (ROM) with a capacity of 12Kb is designed in


FLASH technology, which enables programs to be loaded and erased a large
number of times. It is programmed via embedded SPI module (Serial Peripheral
Interface). If necessary, it is possible to add external ROM memory chip,
although 12Kb of ROM is usually more than enough.

RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY (RAM)


114 RAM memory consists of 3 blocks containing 128 registers each. Its
structure falls into the 8051 standard
(a) 128 general-purpose registers;
(b) 128 memory locations reserved for SFRs. Even though only some
of them are truly used, free locations shouldn’t be used for storing
variables; and
(c) 128 additional registers available for use (have no special
purpose). Since they have the same addresses as SFRs, they are
accessed by indirect addressing.
EEPROM MEMORY

115 EEPROM is a special type of memory having features of both RAM and
ROM. The contents of the EEPROM may be changed during operation, but
remains permanently saved even after the loss of power. The P89V51RD2BN
microcontroller has in total of 2K of EEPROM that is 2048 locations.

MEMORY EXPANSION

116 All mentioned above about ROM and RAM memory expansion remains
in force when it comes to the P89V51RD2BN microcontroller as it is based on
the 8051 core. In other words, both memories can be added as external chips with
the capacity of up to 64Kb. The process of addressing is also the same as in the
8051 standard.

TYPES OF ADDRESSING
117 Similar to all microcontrollers compatible with the 8051, there are two
ways of addressing
(a) Direct addressing (for example: MOV A,30h)
(b) Indirect addressing (for example: MOV A,@R0).
SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS (SFRS)

118 The P89V51RD2BN microcontroller has in total of 40 Special Function


Registers. For the sake of the compatibility with the previous 8051 models, the
core registers (22 in total) are the same for all of them, while the others were
added later for the purpose of controlling upgraded functions of the
microcontroller. Each of these registers has its name and specific address in
RAM. Unoccupied locations are intended for the future upgraded versions of the
microcontroller and shouldn’t be used. As their name suggests, these registers are

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mostly in control of one specific circuit within the microcontroller such as timers
or SPI.

ACCUMULATOR (ACC)

119 The accumulator, otherwise marked as ACC or A, belongs to the core


registers of the 8051 microcontroller. Its contents are not modified.

B REGISTER

120 The B register also belongs to the core registers of the 8051
microcontroller. Bits of this register are not modified. It is used during multiply
and divide operations (MUL and DIV instructions) to store the operands upon
which these operations are performed.

PSW REGISTER (PROGRAM STATUS WORD REGISTER)

121 The PSW register belongs to the core registers of the 8051
microcontroller. Bits of this register are not modified.

SP REGISTAR (STACK POINTER REGISTER)

122 The SP register belongs to the core registers of the 8051


microcontroller. Bits of this register are not modified.

REGISTERS P0, P1, P2, P3

123 Each bit of these registers corresponds to one of the port pins having the
same name. These registers are therefore used for communication with peripheral
environment which is carried out by sending data from registers to the
corresponding pins and vice versa. They belong to the core registers of the 8051
microcontroller and their bits are not modified.

R REGISTERS (R0 - R7)

124 They belong to the core registers of the 8051 microcontroller. Their bits
are not modified.

AUXR REGISTER (AUXILIARY REGISTER)

125 The AUXR register contains only two active bits

DISALE
(a) 0 ALE is activated at a constant rate of 1/6 the oscillator
frequency.
(b)1 ALE is active only during execution of MOVX or MOVC
instructions.

INTEL_PWD_EXIT
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(a) 0 When the microcontroller is in Power Down mode, the


program proceeds with execution on high-to-low transition (1-0).
(b)1 When the microcontroller is in Power Down mode, the
program proceeds with execution on low-to-high transition (0-1).

CLKREG REGISTER (CLOCK REGISTER) X2


(a) 0 - The oscillator frequency (the XTAL1 pin) is divided by 2
before used as a clock (machine cycle lasts for 6 such periods).
(b) 1 - Quartz oscillator is used as a clock generator. This enables the
quartz crystal of two times lower frequency (for example 6MHz
instead of 12MHz) to be used for the same operating rate of the
microcontroller.
DATA POINTERS

126 Data Pointers are not true registers as they don’t physically exist. They
consist of two separate registers: DPH (Data Pointer High) and DPL (Data
Pointer Low). All 16 bits are used for addressing external and internal EEPROM
memory. The DPS bit of the EECON register determines the registers to be used
as data pointers.

(a) DPS=0 -> Data pointer consists of DP0L and DP0H registers and
is marked as DPTR0.
(b) DPS=1 -> Data pointer consists of DP1L and DP1H registers and
is marked as DPTR1.

HANDLING EEPROM MEMORY

127 2 Kb of on-chip EEPROM memory enables this microcontroller to store


data created during operation which must be permanently saved. In other words,
all data stored in this memory remains permanently saved even after the loss of
power. Minimum 100 000 writing cycles can be executed. This memory is easily
used since there are only a few control bits enabling it. EEPROM write and read
is under control of the EECON special function register. Since the process of
programming EEPROM is relatively slow (write to one register takes
approximately 4mS), a small hardware trick is done in order to speed it up. When
the EELD bit of the EECON register is set, the data is not directly written to the
EEPROM registers, but loaded in a small buffer (temporary memory) with a
capacity of 32 bytes. When this bit is cleared, the first data following it will be
normally written to the EEPROM (takes 4 mS) along with all registers currently
loaded in the buffer. Thus, it takes only 4mS to write all 32 bytes instead of
128mS otherwise required in a single byte writing. EEPROM memory is handled
in the same way as external memory. For this reason, a special instruction for
additional memory chip (MOVX) is also used for EEPROM write and read. The
EEMEN bit of the EECON register determines whether the data is to be
written/read from additional memory chip or on-chip EEPROM memory.

EECON REGISTER

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128 Bits of the EECON register controls the operation of EEPROM


memory:

WRTINH

129 The WRTINH bit is read-only. When the power supply voltage is too
low for programming EEPROM, hardware automatically clears this bit, which
means that write to EEPROM cannot be completed or is aborted if in progress.

RDY/BSY
130 The RDY/BSY bit is read-only.
(a) 0 - Write in progress (takes approximately 4mS).
(b) 1 - Write complete (data is written to EEPROM).
131 DPS
(a) 0 - Address for EEPROM write/read is stored in the DP0H and
DP0L registers.
(b) 1 - Address for EEPROM write/read is stored in the DP1H and
DP1L registers.
132 EEMEN
(a) 0 - Instruction MOVX is used for accessing external memory
chip.
(b) 1 - Instruction MOVX is used for accessing internal EEPROM
memory. If the register address is larger than 2K, the microcontroller
will access external memory chip.
EEMWE

133 When set, the EEMWE bit enables write to EEPROM using the MOVX
instruction. After completing EEPROM write, the bit must be cleared from
within the program.

EELD

134 When set, the EELD bit enables up to 32 bytes to be written


simultaneously. The bit is set and the MOVX instruction writes data to EEPROM
(buffer is loaded). The bit is cleared before writing the last data. When the last
MOVX is executed, the entire buffer is automatically loaded to EEPROM for
4mS.

WATCHDOG TIMER (WDT)

135 The watchdog timer uses pulses generated by the quartz oscillator for its
operation. It is disabled after reset and during Power Down Mode, thus having no
effect on the program execution. If enabled, every time it counts up to the
program end, the microcontroller reset occurs and program execution starts from
the first instruction. Reset condition indicates that the program doesn’t work
properly for some reason. The point is to prevent this from happening by setting
instruction to reset the watchdog timer at the appropriate program location.

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Practically, the whole this process is in control of several bits of the WDTCON
register. Three bits (PS2, PS1 and PS0), which are in control of the prescaler,
determine the most important feature of the watchdog timer- nominal time, i.e.
time required to count up a full cycle.

WDTCON Register (Watchdog Control Register) PS2,PS1,PS0

136 These three bits are in control of the prescaler and determine the
nominal time of the watchdog timer. If the program doesn’t clear the WSWRST
bit during that time, the watchdog timer will reset the microcontroller. When all
three bits are cleared to 0, the watchdog timer has a nominal period of 16K
machine cycles. When all three bits are set to 1, the nominal period is 2048K
machine cycles.

WDIDLE
137 The WDIDLE bit enables/disables the watchdog timer in Idle mode:
(a) 0 - Watchdog timer is enabled in Idle mode (low-consumption
mode).
(b) 1 - Watchdog timer is disabled in Idle mode.
DISRTO
138 The DISRTO bit enables/disables reset of peripheral circuits connected
to the RST pin
(a) 0 - Watchdog controls the state of the input reset pin. At the
moment of reset, this pin acts for a moment as an output and
generates a logic one (1). It causes the microcontroller and all other
circuits connected to the RST pin to be reset.
(b) 1 - Reset triggered by the watchdog timer doesn’t affect the state
of the reset pin. At the moment the watchdog timer resets the
microcontroller, the reset pin remains configured as an input.
HWDT
139 The HWDT bit selects hardware or software mode for the watchdog
timer:
(a) 0 - Watchdog is in software mode and can be enabled or disabled
by the WDTEN bit.
(b) 1 - Watchdog is in hardware mode. To enable it, the sequence
1E/E1(hex) should be written to the WDTRST register. Only reset
condition can disable the watchdog timer. In order to prevent the
WCDT from resetting the microcontroller when the nominal time
expires, the same sequence 1E/E1hex must be constantly repeated.
WSWRST

140 When set, this bit resets the watchdog timer in software mode (bit
HWDT=0). In order to enable the microcontroller to operate without being
interrupted, this bit must regularly be cleared from within the program. After
being set, the watchdog timer is cleared by hardware, counting starts from zero
and the bit is automatically cleared. If the watchdog timer is in hardware mode,
setting this bit has no effect on the watchdog timer operation.
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WDTEN
141 The WDTEN bit enables/disables the watchdog timer in software mode
(HWDT=0)
(a) 0 - Watchdog disabled.
(b) 1 - Watchdog enabled.
142 When the watchdog timer is in hardware mode (HWDT=1), this bit is
read-only and reflects the status of the watchdog timer (whether it is enabled or
disabled).

INTERRUPTS

143 The P89V51RD2BN has in total of six interrupt sources, which means
that it can recognize up to 6 different events that can interrupt regular program
execution. Each of these interrupts can be individually enabled or disabled by
setting bits of the IE register, whereas the whole interrupt system can be disabled
by clearing the EA bit of the same register. Since this microcontroller has
embedded Timer T2 and SPI (they don't fall under the “8051 Standard”) which
can generate an interrupt, it was necessary to make some changes in registers
controlling interrupt system. Besides, there is a new interrupt vector i.e. program
memory address from which the program proceeds with execution when the
Timer T2 generates an interrupt. All these changes are made on the previously
unused bits. This enables all programs written for the previous versions of the
microcontrollers to be used in this one too without being modified. This is why
the 8051-based microcontrollers are so popular.

IE REGISTER (INTERRUPT ENABLE REGISTER)


(a) EA bit enables or disables all interrupt sources (globally)
(i) 0 - disables all interrupts (even enabled).
(ii) 1 - enables specific interrupts.
(b) ET2 bit enables or disables Timer T2 interrupt:
(i) 0 - Timer T2 interrupt disabled.
(ii) 1 - Timera T2 interrupt enabled.
(c) ES bit enables or disables serial communication (UART and SPI)
interrupts:
(i) 0 - UART and SPI interrupt disabled.
(ii) 1 - UART and SPI interrupts enabled.
(d) ET1 bit enables or disables Timer T1 interrupt:
(i) 0 - Timer T1 interrupt disabled.
(ii) 1 - Timer T1 interrupt enabled.
(e) EX1 bit enables or disables external interrupt through the INT0
pin:
(i) 0 - Interrupt on the INT0 pin disabled.
(ii) 1 - Interrupt on the INT0 pin enabled.
(f) ET0 bit enables or disables Timer T0 interrupt:
(i) 0 - Timer T0 interrupt disabled.
(ii) 1 - Timer T0 interrupt enabled.

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(g) EX0 bit enables or disables external interrupt through the INT1
pin:
(i) 0 - Interrupt on the INT1 pin disabled.
(ii) 1 - Interrupt on the INT1 pin enabled.
INTERRUPT PRIORITIES
144 When several interrupts are enabled, it may happen that while one of
them is in progress, another one is requested. In such situations, the
microcontroller needs to know whether to proceed with the execution of current
interrupt routine or to meet a new interrupt request. For this reason, there is a
priority list on the basis of which the microcontroller knows what to do. The
previous versions of the microcontrollers differentiate between two priority
levels defined in the IP register. As for the P89V51RD2BN microcontroller,
there is an additional SFR register IPH which enables all the interrupts to be
assigned 1 out of 4 priorities (excluding reset). Here is a list of priorities
(a) Reset. If a reset request arrives, all processes are stopped and the
microcontroller restarts.
(b) The high priority interrupt (3) can be disabled by reset only.
(c) The low priority interrupt (2, 1 or 0) can be disabled by any high
priority interrupt and reset.
145 It is usually defined at the beginning of the program which one of the
existing interrupt sources have high and which one has low priority level.
According to this, the following occurs.If two interrupt requests, at different
priority levels, arrive at the same time then the higher priority interrupt is always
serviced first. If the both interrupt requests, at the same priority level, occur one
after another, the one which came later has to wait until routine being in progress
ends. If two interrupt requests of equal priority arrive at the same time then the
interrupt to be serviced is selected according to the following priority list
(a) External interrupt INT0
(b) Timer T0 interrupt
(c) External interrupt INT1
(d) Timer T1 interrupt
(e) Serial communication interrupt
(f) Timer T2 Interrupt
IP REGISTER (INTERRUPT PRIORITY REGISTER)

146 Bits of this register determine the interrupt source priority.


(a) PT2 Timer T2 interrupt priority
(i) 0 - Priority 0
(ii) 1 - Priority 1
(b) PS Serial port interrupt priority:
(i) 0 - Priority 0
(ii) 1 - Priority 1
(c) PT1 Timer T1 interrupt priority:
(i) 0 - Priority 0
(ii) 1 - Priority 1
(d) PX1 External interrupt INT1 priority:
(i) 0 - Priority 0
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(ii) 1 - Priority 1
(e) PT0 Timer T0 interrupt priority:
(i) 0 - Priority 0
(ii) 1 - Priority 1
(f) PX0 External interrupt INT0 priority:
(i) 0 - Priority 0
(ii) 1 - Priority 1
147 IPH Register (Interrupt Priority High)
(a) PT2H Timer T2 interrupt priority
(b) PSH Serial port interrupt priority
(c) PT1H Timer T1interrupt priority
(d) PX1H External interrupt INT1 priority
(e) PT0H Timer T0 interrupt priority
(f) PX0H External interrupt INT0 Priority

Bits of this register can be combined with appropriate bits of the IP register.
This is how a new priority list with 4 interrupt priority levels is obtained.

PROCESSING INTERRUPT

148 When an interrupt request arrives, the microcontroller automatically


detects the interrupt source and the following occurs
(a) Instruction in progress is ended;
(b) The address of the next instruction to execute is pushed onto the
stack
(c) Depending on which interrupt is requested.
149 Appropriate subroutines processing interrupts are stored at these
addresses. Instead of them, there are usually jump instructions specifying
locations at which these subroutines reside. When an interrupt routine is
executed, the address of the next instruction to be executed is popped from the
stack to the program counter and the program proceeds from where it left off.

COUNTERS AND TIMERS

TIMERS T0 AND T1

150 The P89V51RD2BN has three timers/counters marked as T0, T1 and


T2. Timers T0 and T1 completely fall under the 8051 Standard. There are no
changes in their operation.

TIMER T2

151 Timer 2 is a 16-bit timer/counter installed only in new versions of the


8051 family. Unlike timers T0 and T1, this timer consists of 4 registers. Two of
them, TH2 and TL2, are connected serially in order to form a larger 16-bit timer
register. Like timers 0 and 1, it can operate either as a timer or as an event
counter. Another two registers, RCAP2H and RCAP2L, are also serially

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connected and operate as capture registers. They are used to temporarily store the
contents of the counter register. The main advantage of this timer compared to
timers 0 and 1 is that all read and swap operations are easily performed using one
instruction. Similar to T0 and T1, it has four different modes of operation.

T2CON (TIMER/COUNTER 2 CONTROL REGISTER)

152 This register contains bits controlling the operation of timer 2.


(a) TF2 bit is automatically set on timer 2 overflow. In order to
detect the next overflow, this bit must be cleared from within the
program. If bits RCLK and TCLK are set, overflow has no effect on
the TF2 bit.
(b) EXF2 bit is automatically set when a capture or a reload is caused
by a negative transition on the T2EX pin. It generates an interrupt (if
enabled), unless the DCEN bit of the T2CON register is set. The
EXF2 bit must be cleared from within the program.
(c) RCLK is receive clock bit which determines which timer is to be
used as receive clock for serial port
(i) 1 - T2 is used as receive clock for serial port.
(ii) 0 - T1 is used as receive clock for serial port.
(d) TCLK is transmit clock bit which determines which timer is to be
used as transmit clock for serial port
(i) 1 - T2 is used as transmit clock for serial port.
(ii) 0 - T1 is used as transmit clock for serial port.
(e) EXEN2 is timer 2 external enable bit used to include the T2EX
pin in timer 2 operation
(i) 1 - Signal on the T2EX pin affects timer 2 operation.
(ii) 0 - Signal on the T2EX pin is ignored.
(f) TR2 is timer 2 run control bit used to enable/disable timer 2
(i) 1 - Timer 2 enabled.
(ii) 0 - Timer 2 disabled.
(g) C/T2 is timer/counter 2 select bit used to select pulses to be
counted by counter/timer
(i) 1 - 16-bit register (T2H and T2L) counts pulses on
the C/T2 pin (counter).
(ii) 0 - 16-bit register (T2H and T2L) counts pulses from
the oscillator (timer).
(h) CP/RL2 is timer 2 capture/reload bit used to define transfer
direction
(i) 1 - If EXEN=1, pulse on the T2EX pin will cause a
number to be transferred from counter to capture register.
(ii) 0 - Under the same condition, signal on the T2EX
pin will cause a number to be transferred from capture to
counter register.
TIMER T2 IN CAPTURE MODE

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153 If the CP/RL2 bit of the T2CON register is set, timer 2 operates. This is
so called Capture mode in which the value of the counter register can be
“captured” and copied to the capture register, thus not affecting the counting
process.
154 First, it is necessary to write a number from which the counting starts to
a 16-bit register (TH2+TL2). Timer 2 is enabled by setting the TR2 bit of the
TCON register. Each coming pulse increments the number stored in the 16-bit
register by 1. When both registers are loaded (decimal number 65536), the first
next pulse causes an overflow, reset occurs and counting starts from zero.

Figure 11.T2 in capture mode.

TIMER T2 IN AUTO-RELOAD MODE

155 The auto-reload mode configures timer 2 as a 16-bit timer or event


counter with automatic reload. It is controlled by the DCEN bit of the T2MOD
register. Setting the DCEN bit enables timer 2 to count up or down from the
specified value. The T2EX pin controls the counting direction

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Figure 12.T2 in auto reload mode.

T2OE Enables timer 2 to operate as independent clock generator.

DCEN - When set, it enables counting in either direction- "up" and "down".

All previously mentioned about timer 2 is in force only if the T2MOD register
hasn't been changed, i.e. if DCEN = 0. Otherwise, timer/counter is enabled to
count in either direction, which depends on the T2EX pin

(a) T2EX = 0 Timer 2 counts down


(b) T2EX = 1 Timer 2 counts up

156 On counting up, the whole procedure is similar to the previous mode
with one exception referring to the function of the EXF2 bit. On counting down,
an overflow occurs when values stored in the counter and capture registers
match. It causes the TF2 bit as well as all bits of registers T2H and T2L to be set
while the counter keeps on counting down: 65535, 65534 and 65533. In either
case, the EXF2 bit is assigned a new function. When an overflow occurs, this bit
inverts the signal and cannot be used for generating an interrupt anymore.
Instead, it serves as supplementary bit (the 17th bit) of the counter register,
making this counters virtually a 17-bit register.

TIMER T2 AS A BAUD RATE GENERATOR

157 The Timer T2 can be used as a baud rate generator and a clock generator
simultaneously. If the RCLK or TCLK bit of the register TCON is set, timer T2
turns into a clock generator, so called Baud Rate generator). This mode is very
similar to auto-reload mode. The baud rate is computed using the following
formula

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158 There are a few details to be aware of


(a) This formula works only if the internal oscillator is used as a
clock generator (in this mode, clock is divided by 2, instead of 12)
(b) Overflow has no effect on the TF2 bit and does not generate an
interrupt.
(c) Whether the EXEN2 bit is set or not, the T2EX pin logic state has
no effect on the timer. It means that the T2EX pin can be used as an
external interrupt source in this mode.
(d) Timer should be disabled (TR2=0) prior to writing or reading
from registers TH2 and TL2. Otherwise, an error in serial
communication might occur.
TIMER T2 AS A CLOCK GENERATOR

159 Timer T2 can also be used as a clock generator. In all previous


examples, the P1.0 pin (marked as T2 in figures) is used as an alternative clock
generator for this timer, i.e. it acts as an input. Besides, it can also output pulses.
By using a 16MHz quartz crystal, the frequency of pulses it generates ranges
from 61Hz to 4MHz with a 50% duty-cycle. To configure this pin as an output,
the C/T2 bit of the T2CON register must be cleared, whereas the T2OE bit of the
T2MOD register must be set. The TR2 bit enables the timer and the pin outputs
rectangular waves the frequency of which ca be calculated using the formula
below

UNIVERSAL ASYNCHRONOUS RECEIVER TRANSMITTER (UART)

160 The Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (UART) has the


same features as that of the standard 8051 microcontrollers. It means that it can
operate in 1 out of 4 different modes, which is controlled by bits SM0 and SM1
of the SCON register.

MULTIPROCESSOR COMMUNICATION

161 Multiprocessor communication (the SM2 bit of the SCON register is


set) enables automatic address recognition by allowing the serial port to examine
the address of each incoming command. The process of writing a program is
much easier therefore as the microcontrollers sharing the same interface don't
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have to check each address received via the serial port. Let's make it clear. Two
special function registers, SADDR and SADEN, enable multiprocessor
communication. Each device has an individual address that is specified in the
SADDR register, while the so called mask address is written to the SADEN
register. The mask address contains don't care bits which provide the flexibility
to address one or more slaves at a time. In other words, it defines which bits of
the SADDR register are to be used and which are to be ignored. When the master
wants to transmit data to one of several slaves, it first sends out an address byte
which identifies the target device. An address byte differs from a data byte in that
the 9th bit is 1 in an address byte and 0 in a data byte. After receiving the address
byte, all slaves check whether it matches their address. The adressed slave clears
its SM2 bit and prepares to receive the data bytes to come. The slaves that
weren't addressed leave their SM2 bits set and ignore the coming data bytes.

Microcontroller B: SADDR = 1100 0000


(a) SADEN = 1111 1101
(b) Address = 1100 00X0
Microcontroller C: SADDR = 1100 0000
(a) SADEN = 1111 1110
(b) Address = 1100 000X
162 Although both microcontrollers B and C are assigned the same address
(1100 0000), the mask in register SADEN is used to differentiate between them.
It enables the master to communicate with both of them separately or at the same
time

(a) If transmit address is 1100 0010, the data will be sent to slave device B.
(b) If transmit address is 1100 0001 the data will be sent to slave device C.
(c) If transmit address is 1100 0000 the data will be sent to both slave devices.

SPI SYSTEM (SERIAL PERIPHERAL INTERFACE)

163 In addition to UART system, the P89V51RD2BN has also another


system for serial communication which doesn’t fall into the 8051 Standard. It is
SPI system which provides a high-speed synchronous data transfer between the
microcontroller and one or more peripheral devices or between multiple
microcontrollers. Here, one microcontroller is always considered main and is
called master therefore. It defines rate, transfer direction (whether data is to be
transferred or eceived) and data format. The other is slave device which is in
subordinated position, which further means that it cannot start data transfer, but
has to adjust to conditions set by the master device. The data are transferred via
full duplex connection using 3 conductors connected to pins MISO (P1.6),
MOSI (P1.5) and SCK (P1.7). The forth pin-control pin SS- is not used on the
master side and may be used as a general-purpose input/output therefore, while
on the slave side it must have voltage level 0. When the SS pin on the slave side
is set, its SPI system is deactivated and the MOSI pin can be used as a general-
purpose input.

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NORMAL SPI MODE (BUFFER OUT OF USE)

164 Data written to the SPI data register SPDR is automatically transferred
to an 8- bit shift register. SPI clock generator is enabled and serial data appears
on the MOSI pin. An initial delay may occur for the sake of synchronization with
the main oscillator. After sending one byte, the SPI clock generator stops, the
SPIF bit (flag) is set, the received byte is transferred to the SPDR register and, if
enabled, an interrupt is generated. Any attempt to write another byte to the SPDR
register while byte transmits is in progress will cause the WCOL bit to be set. It
indicates that an error has occurred. However, the byte will be successfully
transmitted, while the new byte will be ignored, i.e. it will not be transmitted.

ENHANCED SPI MODE (BUFFER IN USE)

165 Enhanced mode is similar to normal except that this time data goes
through one more register while being transmitted. It makes no sense at first
sight, but communication is really faster. Data written to the SPI data register
SPDR is automatically transferred to the capture register (buffer), which causes
the WCOL bit to be set. It means that the buffer is full and any further write will
cause an overflow. Control electronics (hardware) cleares this bit after
transmitting data from buffer to the shift register and after commencing serial
data transmit. If the byte sent is the first, the data is immediately transmitted to
the shift register (still empty), thus clearing the WCOL bit. While one byte
transmit is in progress, the next byte to transmit may be written to the SPDR
register. It will be immediately moved to buffer. In order to check whether data
transmit is in progress, it is sufficient to check the logic state of the LDEN bit of
the SPSR register. If this bit is set and the WCOL bit is cleared, data transmit is
in progress and buffer is empty so the next byte can be written to the SPDR
register. If individual bytes are sent occasionally then there is no need to
complicate- the best solution is the normal mode. If it is necessary to send a great
amount of data, it is better to use enhanced mode in which the clock oscillator is
enabled as far as buffer is regularly loaded and the WCOL bit is set. In addition,
no time is needed for synchronization and data is easily and efficiently
transferred. The SPI system is under control of 3 special function registers. These
are SPDR, SPSR and SPCR.

SPDR (SPI DATA REGISTER)

The SPDR register is used for storing data to be transferred via SPI (in serial
format). It is also used for storing received data.

SPSR (SPI STATUS REGISTER)

(a) SPIF Interrupt flag. Upon data transfer, this bit is automatically
set and an interrupt is generated if SPIE=1 and ES=1. The SPIF bit is
cleared by reading SPSR followed by reading/writing SPDR register.

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(b) WCOL This bit is set in normal mode (ENH=0) if the SPDR
register is written during data transfer is in progress. The write is
premature and has no effect. It is called Write Collision. This bit is
cleared in the same manner as the SPIF bit.The bit is set in enhanced
mode (ENH=1) when buffer is full. It is indication that a new data is
ready to be transmitted to the shift register.

166 In enhanced mode, a new data can be written to buffer when the WCOL
bit is set. In addition, the WCOL bit must be cleared.

(a) DISSO When set, this bit causes the MISO pin to float,
thus enabling several slave microcontrollers to share the same
interface. Normally, the first byte, called address byte, is received
by all of them, but only one should clear its DISSO bit.
(b) ENH
0 SPI system operates in normal mode (without buffer).
1 SPI system operates in enhanced mode.

SPCR (SPI CONTROL REGISTER)


(a) SPIE When this bit is set, the SPI system can generate an
interrupt.
(b) SPE This bit enables SPI communication. When set, pins SS,
MOSI, MISO and SCK are connected to the microcontroller pins
P1.4, P1.5, P1.6 and P1.7.
(c) DORD Bit determines which bytes in serial communication are to
be sent first
(i) 0 - MSB bit is sent first.
(ii) 1 - LSB bit is sent first.
(d) MSTR Bit determines whether the microcontroller is to operate
as master or slave:
(i) 0 - Operate as slave.
(ii) 1 - Operate as master.
(e) CPOL Bit controls the SCK pin logic state when the SPI
communication is not in progress:
(i) 0 - Pin SCK is cleared.
(ii) 1 - Pin SCK is set.
(f) CPHA This bit along with the CPOL bit controls relation
between clock and data in serial format. Refer to the figure below.
(g) SPR1, SPR0 When SPI system operates as master, these two bits
determine bound rate, i.e. clock signal frequency of the master
device. When operates as slave, these bits have no effect and SPI
system operates at a rate imposed by the master device.

POWER CONSUMPTION CONTROL

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167 Like all models belonging to the 8051 series, this microcontroller can
operate in 1 out of 3 modes: normal (consumption ca. 25 mA), Idle
(consumption ca. 6.5 mA) and Power Down (consumption ca. 40 uA). The mode
of operation is selected by bits of the PCON register (Power Control Register).
Three bits are changed compared to the basic model:

PCON REGISTER

168 The purpose of the bits of the PCON register


(a) SMOD1 When set, this bit makes bound rate twice as high.
(b) SMOD0 Bit determines the purpose of the 7th bit of the
SCON register:
(i) 0 Seventh bit of the SCON register has the function
of SM0, i.e. selects mode of operation.
(ii) 1 Seventh bit has the function of FE, i.e. detects
errors. It is rarely used.
(c) POF Bit is automatically set when the voltage level reaches
maximum (must be higher than 3V) after powering on. It is used
for detecting cause for reset (power on or restart condition after
exiting Power Down mode).
(d) GF1 General Purpose bit (available for use).
(e) GF0 General Purpose bit (available for use).
(f) PD By setting this bit, the microcontroller is set in Power
Down mode.
(g) IDL By setting this bit, the microcontroller is set in Idle
mode.
169 If bit-variables are not used in the program, program memory locations
20h-2Fh are available for use. If the program contains bit-variables, you should
be careful when using these locations in order not to change them accidentally.
By default, the data pushed onto stack occupy program memory locations
starting from 08h. If the banks 1, 2 or 3 are in use, their contents will be certainly
erased. For this reason, it is recommended to set the Stack Pointer value to be
greater than 20h or even greater at the beginning of the program. SFRs are used
for controlling the microcontroller operation. Each of them has its specific
purpose and it should be observed. It means that they cannot be used as general
purpose registers even in the event that some of their locations is not occupied.
Instruction set, recognized by the microcontroller, contains instructions which
can be used for controlling individual bits of registers at program memory
location 20h-7Fh. Besides, individual bits of some SFRs (not all of them) can
also be directly accessed. Addresses of these registers are divisible by 8. If
memory is expanded by adding external RAM or ROM memory chip, ports P0
and P2 are not available for use regardless of how many pins are actually used
for memory expansion. The DPTR register is a 16-bit register comprised of
registers DPH and DPL which are 8-bit wide each. The DPTR register should be
considered like that practically. When pushing it onto the Stack, DPL should be
pushed first, then DPH. When used, serial communication is under control of the
SCON register. Besides, registers TCON and TMOD should be configured for
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this purpose as well since the timer T1 is mostly used for bound rate generation.
When some of the interrupts is enabled, you should be careful because there is a
risk that program starts to perform unexpectedly. When an interrupt request
arrives, the microcontroller will execute instruction in progress, push the address
of the first following location onto the stack (in order to know from where to
continue) and jump to the specified interrupt routine address. When the routine
has been executed, the microcontroller will pop the address from the stack and
continue from where it left off. The microcontroller saves only the address to
continue from after routine execution. What is usually neglected is the fact that
the contents of many registers can be changed during routine execution. The
program normally procedees with execution considering the changed registers
correct if their original vaules haven't been saved, thus causing a total chaos. The
worst thing is that this problem can be manifested anytime: at the moment or
several days later (depending on the moment an interrupt occurs). Obviously, the
only solution is to save the state of all important registers at the beginning of
interrupt routine and to update these values before returning to the program. We
are actually talking about the following registers
(a) PSW
(b) DPTR (DPH, DPL)
(c) ACC
(d) B
(e) Registers R0 - R7
170 When some of the instructions for indirect addressing is used, you
should be careful not to use them for accessing SFRs as the microcontroller
ignores their addresses and accesses free RAM locations having the same
addresses as SFRs. When UART system for serial communication is used,
setting bits RI and TI of the SCON register generated the same interrupt. If such
an interrupt is generated, it is first necessary to detect interrupt source (byte is
sent, received or both). It is important to remember that the microcontroller only
sets these bits so that they must be cleared from within the program. Otherwise,
the program gets stuck and executes the same interrupt routine over and over
again.

ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE
171 It was time that hardware-oriented to the core made compromise if they
wanted to stay “in the game”. Namely, unlike other circuits which only need to
be connected to other components and powered in order to be of any use,
microcontrollers require to be programmed as well. Fortunately, they still didn't
progress so far in their evolution, so that all microcontroller families
“understand” only one language - machine language. That's a good thing. The
bad one is that, even primitive, this language of zeros and ones can only be
understood by microcontrollers and some of the experts working on its
development. In order to bridge this gap between machine and humans, the first
high-level programming language called Assembly language was created. The
main problem of remembering codes recognized as instructions by electronics
was solved therefore, but another one, equally complicated to both us and
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“them”(microcontrollers) arose. This problem was also easily solved by means of


the program for a PC called assembler and a simple device called programmer.
This program enables the PC to receive commands in the form of abbreviations
and convert them unerringly into so called “executable file”. The moment of
compiling a program into machine language is crucial as this file, called HEX
file, represents a series of binary numbers understandable to microcontrollers
only. The program written in assembly language cannot be executed practically
unless this file is loaded into the microcontroller memory. This is the moment
when the last link in the chain - the programmer - appears on the scene. It is a
small device connected to a PC via some of the ports and has a socket for placing
chip in.

ELEMENTS OF ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE

172 Assembly language is basically like any other language, which means
that it has its words, rules and syntax. The basic elements of assembly language
are
(a) Labels;
(b) Orders;
(c) Directives; and
(d) Comments.
SYNTAX OF ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE
173 When writing a program in assembly language it is necessary to observe
specific rules in order to enable the process of compiling into executable “HEX-
code” to run without errors. These compulsory rules are called syntax and there
are only several of them
(a) Every program line may consist of a maximum of 255
characters;
(b) Every program line to be compiled, must start with a
symbol, label, mnemonics or directive;
(c) Text following the mark “;” in a program line represents a
comment ignored (not compiled) by the assembler; and
(d) All the elements of one program line (labels, instructions
etc.) must be separated by at least one space character. For the
sake of better clearness, a push button TAB on a keyboard is
commonly used instead of it, so that it is easy to delimit columns
with labels, directives etc. in a program.

NUMBERS
174 If octal number system, otherwise considered as obsolete, is
disregarded, assembly language allows numbers to be used in one out of three
number systems

DECIMAL NUMBERS

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175 If not stated otherwise, the assembly language considers all the numbers
as decimal. All ten digits are used (0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9). Since at most 2 bytes are
used for saving them in the microcontroller, the largest decimal number that can
be written in assembly language is 65535. If it is necessary to specify that some
of the numbers is in decimal format, then it has to be followed by the letter “D”.

HEXADECIMAL NUMBERS

176 Hexadecimal numbers are commonly used in programming. There are


16 digits in hexadecimal number system (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E,
F). The largest hexadecimal number that can be written in assembly language is
FFFF. It corresponds to decimal number 65535. In order to distinguish
hexadecimal numbers from decimal, they are followed by the letter “h”.

BINARY NUMBERS

177 Binary numbers are often used when the value of each individual bit of
some of the registers is important, since each binary digit represents one bit.
There are only two digits in use (0 and 1). The largest binary number written in
assembly language is 1111111111111111. In order to distinguish binary numbers
from other numbers, they are followed by the letter “b” (either in upper- or
lowercase).

OPERATORS

178 Some of the assembly-used commands use logical and mathematical


expressions instead of symbols having specific values.

SYMBOLS

179 Every register, constant, address or subroutine can be assigned a specific


symbol in assembly language, which considerably facilitates the process of
writing a program. For example, if the P0.3 input pin is connected to a push
button used to stop some process manually (push button STOP), the process of
writing a program will be much simpler if the P0.3 bit is assigned the same name
as the push button, i.e. “pushbutton STOP”. Of course, like in any other
language, there are specific rules to be observed as well:
180 For the purpose of writing symbols in assembly language, all letters
from alphabet (A-Z, a-z), decimal numbers (0-9) and two special characters ("?"
and "_") can be used. Assembly language is not case sensitive.
SERIAL_PORT_BUFFER
(a) In order to distinguish symbols from constants (numbers),
every symbol starts with a letter or one of two special characters
(? or _).
(b) The symbol may consist of maximum of 255 characters,
but only first 32 are taken into account. In the following example,

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the first two symbols will be considered duplicate (error), while


the third and forth symbols will be considered different
(c) Some of the symbols cannot be used when writing a
program in assembly language because they are already part of
instructions or assembly directives. Thus, for example, a register
or subroutine cannot be assigned name “A” or “DPTR” because
there are registers having the same name.

LABELS

181 A label is a special type of symbols used to represent a textual version


of an address in ROM or RAM memory. They are always placed at the beginning
of a program line. It is very complicated to call a subroutine or execute some of
the jump or branch instructions without them. They are easily used
(a) A symbol (label) with some easily recognizable name
should be written at the beginning of a program line from which a
subroutine starts or where jump should be executed.
(b) It is sufficient to enter the name of label instead of address
in the form of 16-bit number in instructions calling a subroutine
or jump.

During the process of compiling, the assembler automatically replaces such


symbols with appropriate addresses.

DIRECTIVES

182 Unlike instructions being compiled and written to chip program


memory, directives are commands of assembly language itself and have no
influence on the operation of the microcontroller. Some of them are obligatory
part of every program while some are used only to facilitate or speed up the
operation.
Directives are written in the column reserved for instructions. There is a rule
allowing only one directive per program line.

EQU DIRECTIVE

183 The EQU directive is used to replace a number by a symbol. After using
this directive, every appearance of the label “MAXIMUM” in the program will
be interpreted by the assembler as the number 99 (MAXIMUM = 99). Symbols
may be defined this way only once in the program. The EQU directive is mostly
used at the beginning of the program therefore.

SET DIRECTIVE

184 The SET directive is also used to replace a number by a symbol. The
significant difference compared to the EQU directive is that the SET directive
can be used an unlimited number of times.

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BIT DIRECTIVE

185 The BIT directive is used to replace a bit address by a symbol. The bit
address must be in the range of 0 to 255.
(a) TRANSMIT BIT PSW.7 ;Transmit bit (the seventh bit in
PSW register) is assigned the name "TRANSMIT"
(b) OUTPUT BIT 6 ;Bit at address 06 is assigned the name
"OUTPUT"
(c) RELAY BIT 81 ;Bit at address 81 (Port 0)is assigned the
name "RELAY"
CODE DIRECTIVE

186 The CODE directive is used to assign a symbol to a program memory


address. Since the maximum capacity of program memory is 64K, the address
must be in the range of 0 to 65535.
(a) RESET CODE 0 ;Memory location 00h called "RESET"
(b) TABLE CODE 1024 ;Memory location 1024h called
"TABLE"
DATA DIRECTIVE

187 The DATA directive is used to assign a symbol to an address within


internal RAM. The address must be in the range of 0 to 255. It is possible to
change or assign a new name to any register. For example:
(a) TEMP12 DATA 32 ;Register at address 32 is named ;as
"TEMP12"
(b) STATUS_R DATA D0h ;PSW register is assigned the name
;"STATUS_R"
IDATA DIRECTIVE

188 The IDATA directive is used to change or assign a new name to an indirectly
addressed register.
(a) TEMP22 IDATA 32 ;Register whose address is in register
;at address 32 is named as "TEMP22"
(b) TEMP33 IDATA T_ADR ;Register whose address is in
;register T_ADR is named as "TEMP33"
XDATA DIRECTIVE

189 The XDATA directive is used to assign a name to registers within


external (additional) RAM memory. The addresses of these registers cannot be
larger than 65535.

ORG DIRECTIVE

190 The ORG directive is used to specify a location in program memory


where the program following directive is to be placed. This program starts at
location 100. The table containing data is to be stored at location 1024 (1000h).

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USING DIRECTIVE

191 The USING directive is used to define which register bank (registers
R0-R7) is to be used in the program.
(a) USING 0 ;Bank 0 is used (registers R0-R7 at RAM-
addresses 0-7)
(b) USING 1 ;Bank 1 is used (registers R0-R7 at RAM-
addresses 8-15)
(c) USING 2 ,Bank 2 is used (registers R0-R7 at RAM-
addresses 16-23)
(d) USING 3 ;Bank 3 is used (registers R0-R7 at RAM-
addresses 24-31)
END DIRECTIVE

192 The END directive is used at the end of every program. The assembler
will stop compiling once the program encounters this directive.

DIRECTIVES USED FOR SELECTING MEMORY SEGMENTS

193 There are 5 directives used for selecting one out of five memory
segments in the microcontroller
(a) CSEG ;Indicates that the next segment refers to program
memory;
(b) BSEG ;Selects bit-addressable part of RAM;
(c) DSEG ;Indicates that the next segment refers to the part of
internal RAM accessed by direct addressing
(d) ISEG ;Indicates that the next segment refers to the part of
internal RAM accessed by indirect addressing using registers R0
and R1);
(e) XSEG ;Selects external RAM memory.
194 The CSEG segment is activated by default after enabling the assembler
and remains active until a new directive is specified. Each of these memory
segments has its internal address counter which is cleared every time the
assembler is activated. Its value can be changed by specifying value after the
mark AT. It can be a number, an arithmetical operation or a symbol.

DS directive

195 The DS directive is used to reserve memory space expressed in bytes. It


is used if some of the following segments ISEG, DSEG or XSEG is currently
active.

DBIT DIRECTIVE

196 The DBIT directive is used to reserve space within bit-addressable part
of RAM. The memory size is expressed in bits. It can be used only if the BSEG
segment is active.

92
93

DB DIRECTIVE

197 The DB directive is used for writing specified value into program
memory. If several values are specified, then they are separated by a comma. If
ASCII array is specified, it should be enclosed within single quotation marks.
This directive can be used only if the CSEG segment is active.

DW DIRECTIVE

198 The DW directive is similar to the DB directive. It is used for writing a


two-byte value into program memory. The higher byte is written first, then the
lower one.

IF, ENDIF AND ELSE DIRECTIVES


199 These directives are used to create so called conditional blocks in the
program. Each of these blocks starts with directive IF and ends with directive
ENDIF or ELSE. The statement or symbol (in parentheses) following the IF
directive represents a condition which specifies the part of the program to be
compiled:
(a) If the statement is correct or if the symbol is equal to one,
the program will include all instructions up to directive ELSE or
ENDIF.
(b) If the statement is not correct or if the symbol value is
equal to zero, all instructions are ignored, i.e. not compiled, and
the program continues with instructions following directives
ELSE or ENDIF.
CONTROL DIRECTIVES

200 Control directives start with a dollar symbol $. They are used to
determine which files are to be used by the assembler during compilation, where
the executable file is to be stored as well as the final layout of the compiled
program called Listing. There are many control directives, but only few of them
is of importance.

INCLUDE DIRECTIVE

201 This directive enables the assembler to use data stored in other files
during compilation. $INCLUDE(TABLE.ASM)

$MOD8253 DIRECTIVE

202 This directive is a file containing names and addresses of all SFRs of
8253 microcontrollers. By means of this file and directive having the same name,
the assembler can compile the program on the basis of register names. If they are
not used, it is necessary to specify name and address of every SFRs to be used at
the beginning of the program.

BASIC CONNECTING
93
94

203 As seen in the figure above, in order to enable the microcontroller to


operate properly it is necessary to provide
(a) Power supply
(b) Reset signal
(c) Clock signal
204 Clearly, it is about very simple circuits, but it does not have to be always
like that. If the target device is used for controlling expensive machines or
maintaining vital functions, everything gets increasingly complicated.

POWER SUPPLY

205 Even though this microcontroller can operate at different power supply
voltages, why to test “Murphy’s low”?! A 5V DC is most commonly used. The
circuit, shown in the figure, uses a cheap integrated three-terminal positive
regulator LM7805, and provides high-quality voltage stability and quite enough
current to enable the microcontroller and peripheral electronics to operate.

RESET SIGNAL

206 In order that the microcontroller can operate properly, a logic 0 (0V)
must be applied to the reset pin RS. The push button connecting the reset pin RS
to power supply VCC is not necessary. However, it is almost always provided
because it enables the microcontroller safe return to normal operating conditions
if something goes wrong. 5V is brought to this pin, the microcontroller is reset
and program starts execution from the beginning.

CLOCK SIGNAL

207 Even though the microcontroller has a built-in oscillator, it cannot


operate without two external capacitors and quartz crystal which stabilize its
operation and determines its frequency.Of course, it is not always possible to
apply this solution so that there are always alternative ones. One of them is to
provide clock signal from a special source through invertor. See the figure on the
left.

16*2 LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAYS (LCD)

208 An LCD display is specifically manufactured to be used with


microcontrollers, which means that it cannot be activated by standard IC circuits.
It is used for displaying different messages on a miniature liquid crysal display.
The model described here is for its low price and great capabilities most
frequently used in practice. It is based on the HD44780 microcontroller (Hitachi)
and can display messages in two lines with 16 characters each. It displays all the
letters of alphabet, Greek letters, punctuation marks, mathematical symbols etc.
In addition, it is possible to display symbols made up by the user. Other useful
features include automatic message shift (left and right), cursor appearance, LED
backlight.

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95

LCD PINS

209 There are pins along one side of a small printed board. These are used
for connecting to the microcontroller. There are in total of 14 pins marked with
numbers (16 if it has backlight). Their function is described in the table bellow

LCD SCREEN

210 An LCD screen consists of two lines each containing 16 characters.


Each character consists of 5x8 or 5x11 dot matrix. This book covers the most
commonly used display, i.e. the 5x8 character display. Display contrast depends
on the power supply voltage and whether messages are displayed in one or two
lines. For this reason, varying voltage 0-Vdd is applied on the pin marked as
Vee. Trimmer potentiometer is usually used for that purpose. Some LCD
displays have built-in backlight (blue or green LEDs). When used during
operation, a current limiting resistor should be serially connected to one of the
pins for backlight power supply.

LCD MEMORY

211 The LCD display contains three memory blocks


(a) DDRAM Display Data RAM;
(b) CGRAM Character Generator RAM; and
(c) CGROM Character Generator ROM.
DDRAM Memory

212 DDRAM memory is used for storing characters to be displayed. The


size of this memory is sufficient for storing 80 characters. Some memory
locations are directly connected to the characters on display. It works quite
simply: it is sufficient to configure the display so as to increment addresses
automatically (shift right) and set the starting address for the message that should
be displayed (for example 00 hex). After that, all characters sent through lines
D0-D7 will be displayed in the message format we are used to- from left to right.
In this case, displaying starts from the first field of the first line since the address
is 00 hex. If more than 16 characters are sent, then all of them will be
memorized, but only the first sixteen characters will be visible. In order to
display the rest of them, a shift command should be used. Virtually, everything
looks as if the LCD display is a “window” which moves left-right over memory
locations containing different characters. This is how the effect of message
“moving” on the screen is made. If the cursor is on, it appears at the location
which is currently addressed. In other words, when a character appears at the
cursor position, it will automatically move to the next addressed location. Since
this is a sort of RAM memory, data can be written to and read from it, but its
contents is irretrievably lost when the power goes off.

CGROM Memory

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96

213 CGROM memory contains the default character map with all characters
that can be displayed on the screen. Each character is assigned to one memory
location. The addresses of CGROM memory locations match the characters of
ASCII. If the program being currently executed encounters a command “send
character P to port”, then the binary value 0101 0000 appears on the port. This
value is the ASCII equivalent to the character P. It is then written to LCD, which
results in displaying the symbol from 0101 0000 location of CGROM. In other
words, the character “P” is displayed. This applies to all letters of alphabet
(capitals and small), but not to numbers. “Map”, addresses of all digits are
pushed forward by 48 relative to their values (digit 0 address is 48, digit 1
address is 49, digit 2 address is 50 etc.). Accordingly, in order to display digits
correctly, each of them needs to be added a decimal number 48 prior to be sent to
LCD.

CGRAM MEMORY

214 Apart from standard characters, the LCD display can also display
symbols defined by the user itself. It can be any symbol in the size of 5x8 pixels.
RAM memory called CGRAM in the size of 64 bytes enables it. Symbols are
usually defined at the beginning of the program by simply writing zeros and ones
to registers of CGRAM memory so that they form desired shapes. In order to
display them it is sufficient to specify their address. Pay attention to the first
coloumn in the CGROM map of characters. It doesn't contain RAM memory
addresses, but symbols being discussed here. In this example, “display 0” means
- display “č”, “display 1” means - display “ž” etc.

LCD BASIC COMMANDS

215 All data transferred to LCD through the outputs D0-D7 will be
interpreted as a command or a data, which depends on the pin RS logic state:

(a) RS = 1 - Bits D0-D7 are addresses of the characters to be


displayed. LCD processor addresses one character from the
character map and displays it. The DDRAM address specifies the
location on which the character is to be displayed. This address is
defined before the character is transferred or the address of
previously transferred character is automatically incremented.
(b) RS = 0 - Bits D0 - D7 are commands which determine the
display mode. The commands recognized by the LCD.

BUSY FLAG

216 Compared to the microcontroller, the LCD is an extremely slow


component. Because of this, it was necessary to provide a signal which will,
upon command execution, indicate that the display is ready to receive a new
data. That signal, called the busy flag, can be read from line D7. When the BF bit
is cleared (BF=0), the display is ready to receive a new data.

96
97

LCD CONNECTION

217 Depending on how many lines are used for connecting the LCD to the
microcontroller, there are 8-bit and 4-bit LCD modes. The appropriate mode is
selected at the beginning of the operation. This process is called “initialization”.
8-bit LCD mode uses outputs D0-D7 to transfer data in the way explained on the
previous page. The main purpose of 4-bit LED mode is to save valuable I/O pins
of the microcontroller. Only 4 higher bits (D4-D7) are used for communication,
while other may be left unconnected. Each data is sent to the LCD in two steps:
four higher bits are sent first (normally through the lines D4-D7), then four lower
bits. Initialization enables the LCD to link and interpret received bits correctly.
Data is rarely read from the LCD (it is mainly transferred from the
microcontroller to LCD) so that it is often possible to save an extra I/O pin by
simple connecting R/W pin to ground. Such saving has its price. Messages will
be normally displayed, but it will not be possible to read the busy flag since it is
not possible to read the display either. Fortunately, there is a simple solution.
After sending a character or a command it is important to give the LCD enough
time to do its job. Owing to the fact that execution of the slowest command lasts
for approximately 1.64mS, it will be sufficient to wait approximately 2mS for
LCD.

LCD INITIALIZATION

218 The LCD is automatically cleared when powered up. It lasts for
approximately 15mS. After that, the display is ready for operation. The mode of
operation is set by default. It means that:

(a) Display is cleared


(b) Mode

(i) DL = 1 Communication through 8-bit interface


(ii) N = 0 Messages are displayed in one line
(iii) F = 0 Character font 5 x 8 dots

(c) Display/Cursor on/off

(i) D = 0 Display off


(ii) U = 0 Cursor off
(iii) B = 0 Cursor blink off

(d) Character entry


(i) ID = 1 Displayed addresses are automatically
incremented by 1
(ii) S = 0 Display shift off
219 Automatic reset is in most cases performed without any problems. In
most cases, but not always! If for any reason the power supply voltage does not
reach full value within 10mS, the display will start to perform completely

97
98

unpredictably. If the voltage supply unit is not able to meet this condition or if it
is needed to provide completely safe operation, the process of initialization is
applied. Initialization, among other things, causes a new reset enabling display to
operate normally. Apart from components necessary for the operation of the
microcontroller such as oscillator with capacitors and the simplest reset circuit,
there are also several LEDs and one push button. These are used to indicate the
operation of the program. All LEDs are polarized in such a way that they are
activated by driving a microcontroller pin low. A microcontroller is a good-
natured “genie in the bottle” and no extra knowledge is required to use it. In
order to create a device controlled by the microcontroller, it is necessary to
provide the simplest PC, program for compiling and simple device to transfer the
code from PC to the chip itself. Even though the whole process is quite logical,
there are often some queries, not because it is complicated, but for numerous
variations.
PROGRAM IN ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE

220 In order to write a program for the microcontroller, a specialized


program in the Windows environment may be used. It may, but it does not have
to... When using such a software, there are numerous tools which facilitate the
operation (simulator tool comes first), which is an obvious advantage. But there
is also another ways to write a program. Basically, text is the only thing that
matters. Any program for text processing can be used for this purpose. The point
is to write all instructions in such an order they should be executed by the
microcontroller, observe the rules of assembly language and write instructions
exactly as they are defined. In other words, you just have to follow the program
idea.

#include <REGX51.h>
#include <math.h>
unsigned int
clk_tmp,clk_tmp2,clk_sec,clk_sec2,ex_pulses,rps,rps_tmp,temp,rps_avg,rps_max;
unsigned int rps_his[5];
char a,b,c,d,e,ani;
unsigned char count1,count2,scale;
unsigned char scale = 4;
unsigned char bcd[10];
delay(y){
unsigned int i;
for(i=0;i<y;i++){;}
}
ena(){
P2_7 = 1;
delay (5);
P2_7 = 0;
}
ini_lcd(){
98
99

P1_1 = 0;
P2_7 = 0; //transfering instructions
P2_6 = 0;
P0 = 56; //function set
ena();
P0 = 56; //function set
ena();
P0 = 12; // display on, cursor on, blink on
ena();
P0 = 1; //clr display
ena();
P0 = 6; //entry mode set
ena();
//enable on 2_6
//RS on 2_7
P2_6 = 1; // ready to transfere diplay data
}
locate(pos){
P2_6 = 0; //transfering instructions
P0 = pos; // change DDRAM adress
ena();
P2_6 = 1; // ready to transfere diplay data
}
line_2(){//go to botom line
locate(192);
}
line_1(){//go to botom line
locate(128);
}
lcd_send(chr){
P0 = chr;
ena();
}
lcd_send_slow(chr){
delay(1500);
P0 = chr;
ena();
}
lcd_send_num(num){
if (num == 0){
lcd_send (48);
}else if(num == 1){
lcd_send (49);
}else if(num == 2){
lcd_send (50);
}else if(num == 3){

99
100

lcd_send (51);
}else if(num == 4){
lcd_send (52);
}else if(num == 5){
lcd_send (53);
}else if(num == 6){
lcd_send (54);
}else if(num == 7){
lcd_send (55);
}else if(num == 8){
lcd_send (56);
}else if(num == 9){
lcd_send (57);
}
}
setup_interrupts(){
EA = 1;
EX0 = 0;
EX1 = 0;
ET0 = 1; //set the Timer/counter 0
TR0 = 1; //Enable Timer/counter 0 to count
TMOD = 0X25; //counter 0 in mode 1 (16 bit counter) , timer 1 in mode 2 (auto
reload from TH1
TL0 = 0; //empty the counting registers
TH0 = 0; //empty the counting registers
TH1 = 0; //start counter from 0
ET1 = 1; //enable timer 1
TR1 = 1; //Enable Timer/counter 1 to count
PT0 = 1;
PT1 = 0;
}
void int_to_digits(unsigned int number){ //store the 5 digits of an integer number in
the variable a,b,c,d,e
float itd_a,itd_b;
itd_a = number / 10.0;
e = floor((modf(itd_a,&itd_b)* 10)+0.5);
itd_a = itd_b / 10.0;
d = floor((modf(itd_a,&itd_b)* 10)+0.5);
itd_a = itd_b / 10.0;
c = floor((modf(itd_a,&itd_b)* 10)+0.5);
itd_a = itd_b / 10.0;
b = floor((modf(itd_a,&itd_b)* 10)+0.5);
itd_a = itd_b / 10.0;
a = floor((modf(itd_a,&itd_b)* 10)+0.5);
}
clk() interrupt 3 //timer 1 interrupt

100
101

{
clk_tmp++;
clk_tmp2++;
if (clk_tmp2 > (1236)){ // update display
clk_tmp2 = 0;
rps_avg = floor(((rps_his[0] + rps_his[1] + rps_his[2] + rps_his[3] +
rps_his[4])/5)*60);
line_1();
int_to_digits(rps_avg);
// to lcd: AVG:
lcd_send (65);
lcd_send (86);
lcd_send (71);
lcd_send (58);
lcd_send_num(a);
lcd_send_num(b);
lcd_send_num(c);
lcd_send_num(d);
lcd_send_num(e);
// to lcd: rpm
lcd_send (32);
lcd_send (114);
lcd_send (112);
lcd_send (109);
if (P2_0 == 0){
if (ani == 0){
ani = 1;
lcd_send (32);
lcd_send (32);
lcd_send (32);
}else if(ani == 1){
ani = 2;
lcd_send (46);
lcd_send (32);
lcd_send (32);
}else if(ani == 2){
ani = 3;
lcd_send (46);
lcd_send (111);
lcd_send (32);
}else if(ani == 3){
ani = 0;
lcd_send (46);
lcd_send (111);
lcd_send (79);;
}

101
102

}else{
lcd_send (32);
lcd_send (32);
lcd_send (88);
}
rps_max = rps_his[0];
if (rps_his[1] > rps_max){
rps_max = rps_his[1];
}
if(rps_his[2] > rps_max){
rps_max = rps_his[2];
}
if(rps_his[4] > rps_max){
rps_max = rps_his[3];
}
if(rps_his[4] > rps_max){
rps_max = rps_his[4];
}
int_to_digits(rps_max*60);
line_2();
// to lcd: MAX:
lcd_send (77);
lcd_send (65);
lcd_send (88);
lcd_send (58);
lcd_send_num(a);
lcd_send_num(b);
lcd_send_num(c);
lcd_send_num(d);
lcd_send_num(e);
// to lcd: rpm
lcd_send (32);
lcd_send (114);
lcd_send (112);
lcd_send (109);
lcd_send (32);
lcd_send (32);
lcd_send (32);
}
if (clk_tmp > (6584/scale)){ // update data
clk_tmp = 0;
if (P2_0 == 0){
rps = TL0;
temp = TH0;
temp = temp * 256;
rps = (rps + temp)* scale;

102
103

rps_his[4] = rps_his[3];
rps_his[3] = rps_his[2];
rps_his[2] = rps_his[1];
rps_his[1] = rps_his[0];
rps_his[0] = rps;
}
TL0 = 0;
TH0 = 0;
}
}
count_pulses() interrupt 1 //counter 0 interrupt
{
if (scale < 10)
scale++;
//ex_pulses++;
}
void main(){
scale = 10 ;
P3_3 = 0; // ini proximity sensor, OFF
P3_4 = 1; // ini sensor input
P1_1 = 0; //turn LCD backlight ON
P2_0 = 1; //ini count/hold button
ini_lcd(); // ini the LCD
lcd_send_slow (32);
lcd_send_slow (32);
lcd_send_slow (32);
lcd_send_slow (32);
lcd_send_slow (32);
lcd_send_slow (68);
lcd_send_slow (45);
lcd_send_slow (84);
lcd_send_slow (65);
lcd_send_slow (67);
lcd_send_slow (72);
lcd_send_slow (32);
lcd_send_slow (32);
lcd_send_slow (32);
lcd_send_slow (32);
lcd_send_slow (32);
delay(30000);
delay(30000);
delay(30000);
delay(30000);
line_2();
lcd_send_slow (105);
lcd_send_slow (107);

103
104

lcd_send_slow (97);
lcd_send_slow (64);
lcd_send_slow (105);
lcd_send_slow (107);
lcd_send_slow (97);
lcd_send_slow (108);
lcd_send_slow (111);
lcd_send_slow (103);
lcd_send_slow (105);
lcd_send_slow (99);
lcd_send_slow (46);
lcd_send_slow (99);
lcd_send_slow (111);
lcd_send_slow (109);
delay(30000);
delay(30000);
delay(30000);
delay(30000);
delay(30000);
delay(30000);
delay(30000);
delay(30000);
delay(30000);
setup_interrupts();
while(1){
P3_3 = ~P2_0;
if (P2_0 == 1){
scale= 4;
}
//e = fmod(5,10);
}
}
221 Then this code is converted into the hexadecimal code by the K.E.I.L.
software and fed to the 8051 microcontroller by mounting it on the burner. To
enable the compiler to operate successfully, it is necessary that a document
containing this program has the extension, .asm in its name, for example:
Program asm. When a specialized program (K.E.I.L.)) is used, this extension will
be automatically added. If any other program for text processing (Notepad) is
used then the document should be saved and renamed.
COMPILING A PROGRAM

222 The microcontroller “does not understand” assembly language as such.


That is why it is necessary to compile the program into machine language. It is
more than simple when a specialized program (K.E.I.L.) is used because a
compiler is a part of the software. Just one click on the appropriate icon solves
the problem and a new document with .hex extension appears. It is actually the
same program, only compiled into machine language which the microcontroller
104
105

perfectly understands. Such documentation is commonly named “hex code” and


seemingly represents a meaningless sequence of numbers in hexadecimal number
system. I am giving the hexadecimal code of Contact less tachometer

:030BF600010C04EB
:0D0B87007F307E75120B94120B94120B94AC
:100B9400E4FDFCC3ED9FEC9E50070DBD00010C80ED
:010BA400F25E
:010BA500222D
:0C000E00D2A77F057E00120B94C2A7222F
:100B6000C291C2A7C2A675803812000E75803812D5
:100B7000000E75800C12000E75800112000E75803B
:070B80000612000ED2A622AE
:0A0BE500C2A68F8012000ED2A622D5
:070003007FC07E00020BE547
:070BEF007F807E00020BE590
:0B0BD5007F207E00120BE07F207E00DE
:050BE0008F8002000EF1
:100B30007F207E00120B507F207E00120B507F2002
:100B40007E00120B507F207E00120B507F207E0013
:100B5000AB07AA067FDC7E05120B948B8002000E89
:100A04007E00120BE07F3A7E00120BE0AF26EF333C
:100A140095E0FE120A3FAF27EF3395E0FE120A3F3E
:100A2400AF28EF3395E0FE120A3FAF29EF3395E08C
:0B0A3400FE120A3FAF2AEF3395E0FEF0
:100A3F00EF4E70047F308058EF64014E70047F31A9
:100A4F00804EEF64024E70047F328044EF64034E99
:100A5F0070047F33803AEF64044E70047F3480302B
:100A6F00EF64054E70047F358026EF64064E7004E8
:100A7F007F36801CEF64074E70047F378012EF645F
:100A8F00084E70047F388008EF64094E70067F3976
:050A9F00FE120BE02235
:100BA600D2AFC2A8C2AAD2A9D28C758925E4F58A89
:0D0BB600F58CF58DD2ABD28ED2B9C2BB2228
:1006CF00AD07AC06E41202C1E4FBFA7920784112BF
:1006DF00021F7B007A00793912095BE4FBFA79205B
:1006EF007841120116E4FBFAF9783F12002512083F
:1006FF00AB1202FA8F2AE4FBFA79207841AF3CAEB5
:10070F003BAD3AAC3912021F7B007A0079391209DE
:10071F005BE4FBFA79207841120116E4FBFAF978D1
:10072F003F1200251208AB1202FA8F29E4FBFA7967
:10073F00207841AF3CAE3BAD3AAC3912021F7B0083
:10074F007A00793912095BE4FBFA792078411201BA
:10075F0016E4FBFAF9783F1200251208AB1202FAE1
:10076F008F28E4FBFA79207841AF3CAE3BAD3AAC31
:10077F003912021F7B007A00793912095BE4FBFA08
:10078F0079207841120116E4FBFAF9783F1200251F
105
106

:10079F001208AB1202FA8F27E4FBFA79207841AFE7
:1007AF003CAE3BAD3AAC3912021F7B007A0079396F
:1007BF0012095BE4FBFA79207841120116E4FBFA87
:0E07CF00F9783F1200251208AB1202FA8F26AD
:0107DD0022F9
:03001B000204AC30
:1004AC00C0E0C0F0C083C082C0D075D000C000C016
:1004BC0001C002C003C004C005C006C007052CE57E
:1004CC002C7002052B0510E5107002050FD394D487
:1004DC00E50F94045003020647750F00751000E5F4
:1004EC00302532CFE52F3531CF2534CF3533CF25DD
:1004FC0036CF3535CF2538CF3537FE7C007D05120C
:10050C0003FA7C007D3C1203E8AC06AD07E4120252
:10051C00C11208AB1202FA8E2D8F2E120BEFAF2EDA
:10052C00AE2D1206CF7F417E00120BE07F567E006F
:10053C00120BE07F47120A04120BDC7F727E001252
:10054C000BE07F707E00120BE07F6D7E00120BE0E3
:10055C0020A052E51D7008751D017F20FE800CE562
:10056C001DB4010E751D027F2E7E00120BE07F2044
:10057C008011E51DB40215751D037F2E7E00120B34
:10058C00E07F6F7E00120BE07F20801EE51D640370
:10059C00701DF51D7F2EFE120BE07F6F7E00120B7F
:1005AC00E07F4F8005120BD57F587E00120BE08543
:1005BC002F08853009D3E5329509E53195084006B9
:1005CC00853108853209D3E5349509E53395084022
:1005DC0006853308853409D3E5389509E537950840
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223 In the event that other software for program writing in assembly
language is used, a special software for compiling the program must be installed
and used as follows - set up the compiler, open the document with .asm extension
and compile. The result is the same- a new document with extension .hex. The
only problem now is that it is stored in your PC.

PROGRAMMING A MICROCONTROLLER
224 In order to transfer a “hex code” to the microcontroller, it is necessary to
provide a cable for serial communication and a special device, called
programmer, with software. There are several ways to do it. A large number of
programs and electronic circuits having this purpose can be found on the
Internet. Open hex code document, set a few parameters and click the icon for
compiling. After a while, a sequence of zeros and ones will be programmed into
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the microcontroller through the serial connection cable and programmer


hardware. What's left is to place the programmed chip into the taget device. In
the event that it is necessary to make some changes in the program, the previous
procedure may be repeated an unlimited number of times. The program is written
and successfully compiled. All that's left is to dump the program to the
microcontroller. For this purpose it is necessary to have a software that takes the
written and compiled program and passes it to the microcontroller.
(a) Connect the PC and programmer via a USB cable;
(b) Load the HEX code using command: File -> Load HEX;
and
(c) Click the 'Write' push button and wait...

DEVELOPMENT SYSTEMS

225 A device which in the testing program phase can simulate any
environment is called a development system. Apart from the programmer, the
power supply unit and the microcontroller’s socket, the development system
contains elements for input pin activation and output pin monitoring. The
simplest version has every pin connected to one push button and one LED as
well. A high quality version has LED displays, LCD displays, temperature
sensors and all other elements which can be supplied with the target device.
These peripherals can be connected to the MCU via miniature jumpers. In this
way, the whole program may be tested in practice during its development stage,
because the microcontroller doesn't know or care whether its input is activated by
a push button or a sensor built in a real device.

EASY8051A DEVELOPMENT SYSTEM

226 The Easy8051A development system is a high-quality development


system used for programming 8051 compatible microcontrollers manufactured
by Atmel. In addition to chip programming, this system enables all the parts of
the program to be tested as it contains most components which are normally built
in real devices. The Easy8051A development system consists of
(a) Sockets for placing microcontrollers in (14, 16, 20 and 40- pin
packages)
(b) Connector for external power supply (DC 12V)
(c) USB programmer
(d) Power Supply Selector (external or via USB cable)
(e) 8 Mhz Quartz Crystal Oscillator
(f) 32 LEDs for output pin state indication
(g) 32 push buttons for input pin activation
(h) Four 7-segment LED displays in multiplex mode
(i) Graphic LCD display
(j) Alphanumeric LCD display (4- or 8- bit mode)
(k) Connector and driver for serial communication RS232
(l) Digital thermometer DS1820
(m) 12- bit A/D converter (MCP3204)
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(n) 12- bit D/A converter (MCP4921)


(o) Reference voltage source 4.096V (MCP1541)
(p) Multiple-pin connectors for direct access to I/O ports
SOCKETS

227 All microcontrollers manufactured by Atmel appear in a few standard


DIP packages. In order to enable their programming using one device,
corresponding pins (having the same name) on sockets are connected in parallel.
As a result, by being placed in the appropriate socket, each microcontroller is
automatically properly connected. Figure on the right shows a microcontroller in
40-pin package and connection of one of its I/O pins (P1.5). As seen, the pin can
be connected to an external device (connector PORT1), LED (microswitch
SW2), push button or resistor through connectors. In the last two cases, polarity
of voltage is selected using on-board jumpers. The purpose of the programmer is
to transfer HEX code from PC to appropriate pins and provide regular voltage
levels during chip programming as well. For this development system, the
programmer is built in it and should be connected to PC via USB cable. When
the process of programming is completed, pins used for it are automatically
available for other application. There is a connector on the development board
enabling connection to external power supply source (AC/DC, 8-16V). Besides,
voltage necessary for device operation can also be obtained from PC via USB
cable. Jumper J5 is used for power supply selection.

8MHZ OSCILLATOR

228 The EASY8051A development system has built-in oscillator used as a


clock signal generator. The frequency of this oscillator is stabilized by 8Hz
quartz crystal. Besides, it is also possible to select internal RC oscillator during
chip programming,.

LEDS FOR OUTPUT PIN STATE INDICATION

229 Each I/O port pin is connected to one LED which enables visual
indication of its logic state. In the event that the presence of directly polarized
LEDs and serial resistors is not acceptable in some applications, DIP switch SW2
enables them to be disconnected from the port.

PUSH BUTTONS FOR INPUT PIN ACTIVATION

230 Similar to LEDs, each I/O port pin is connected to one push button on
the development board. It enables simple activation of input pins. Jumper J6 is
used for selecting voltage polarity (+ or -) brought to pins by pressing
appropriate push button.

7-SEGMENT LED DISPLAYS

231 Being often applied in the industry, four high-performance LED


displays set in multiplex mode belong to the development system. Display
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segments are connected to the port P0 via resistors. Transistor drivers used for
activating individual digits are connected to the first four port P1 pins. It enables
programs using 7-segment displays to be tested with minimum use of I/O ports.
Similar to LEDs, DIP switch SW2 enables transistor drivers to be disconnected
from microcontroller pins.

LCD DISPLAYS

232 The EASY8051A development system provides connection to eather


graphic or alphanumeric LCD display. Both types of displays are connected by
being placed into appropriate connector and by switching position of the jumper
J8. If displays are not in use, all pins used for their operation are available for
other applications. Apart from connectors, there is also a potentiometer for
contrast regulation on the board.

FEATURES

233 The following are the feature of the L.C.D.


(a) Intelligent LCD controller and RAM providing simple
interfacing
(b) 61 x 15.8 mm viewing area
(c) 5 x 7 dot matrix format for 2.96 x 5.56 mm characters, plus
cursor line
(d) Can display 224 different symbols
(e) Low power consumption (1 mA typical)
(f) Powerful command set and user-produced characters
(g) TTL and CMOS compatible
(h) Connector for standard 0.1-pitch pin headers
SERIAL COMMUNICATION VIA RS232

234 In order to enable programs using serial communication to be tested, the


development system has built in standard 9-pin SUB-D connector. The MAX232
is used as a voltage regulator. Similar to other built-in circuits, electronics
supporting serial communication can be enabled or disabled by using jumpers J9
and J10.

12-BIT A/D CONVERTER MCP3204

235 A built-in 12-bit AD Converter MCP3204 has four input channels


connected to on-board connectors. Data are interchanged with the
microcontroller via SPI serial communication system using pins P1.5, P1.6, P1.7
and P3.5. If A/D converter is not in use, these pins can be used for other
applications (DIP switch SW1). In order to check operation, there is a
potentiometer on the development board used as a variable voltage source. It can
be brought to the converter’s input pins using one of four jumpers J12. As a
special convenience, a reference voltage source MCP1541 (4,096V) is built in.
Jumper J11 is used to select whether converter will use this voltage or 5V.

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12-BIT D/A CONVERTER MCP4921

236 Digital to analog conversion (D/A) is another operation ofen performed


by the microcontroller in practice. For this reason, there is a special on-board
chip which interchanges data with the microcontroller via SPI communication
system. It can also generate analog voltage in 12-bit resolution on its output pin.
When it is not in use, all microcontroller pins are available for other applications
using DIP switch SW1. Similar to A/D converter, jumper J11 is used for
selecting reference voltage.

CONNECTORS FOR DIRECT ACCESS TO I/O PORTS

237 In order to enable microcontroller ports to be directly connected to


additional components, each of them is connected to one on-board connector.
Besides, two pins of each connector are connected to power supply voltage while
each pin can be connected to + or - polarity of voltage via resistors (pull up or
pull down resistors). Presence and connection of these resistors are determined
by jumpers. Jumper J3 which controls port P3 is shown in figure on the right.

LIST OF THE COMPONENTS


238 The following are the components used for the Contact less tachometer
(a) Philips P89V51RD2BN (i.e. 8051 microcontroller).
(b) The proximity sensor (i.e. the infrared sensor).
(c) LM 741
(d) JHD162A(Liquid crystal display)
(e) Resistors (1K ohm).
(f) Capacitors(100uF).
(g) L.E.D.
(h) Transistor.
(i) Battery connevtor.
(j) Battery (9V)
COMMISSIONING OF WORK

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Figure 13. Layout of Contact Less Tachometer


239 First of all the P.C.B. is scrubbed and then it is taken to the dark room.
Then in the dark room negative is used to develop the P.C.B. in the dark room
first of all we put the P.C.B. in the negative photo resistant. Then it is illuminated
in the ultra violet light for 2 minutes. Then this P.C.B. is dipped in the developer
solution for 2 minutes. Then it is washed with the fresh water. The layout is
visible put it is transparent. Then the P.C.B. is dipped in the dye. After dipping in
the dye the layout is visible with the blue dye. Then it is taken out of the dark
room. In the lab the etching of the P.C.B. is done. It removes the unwanted
copper and the tracks are left. After etching it is cleaned with the fresh water.
Then continuity check is done for the tracks. It is ready for the drilling. The
points are marked and then it is drilled out with the help of drilling machine.
Then the components are mounted on the P.C.B.

APPLICATIONS
240 The tachometer measures how fast the engine is turning in RPM -
Revolutions per Minute.
(a) This tachometer information is useful if your car has a
standard shift transmission and you want to shift at the optimum
tachometer RPM for best fuel economy or best acceleration. One
of the least used gauges on a car with an automatic transmission.
You should never race your engine so fast that the tachometer
moves into the red zone as this can cause engine damage. Some
engines are protected by the engine computer from going into the
red zone. Usually, the tachometer shows single digit markings
like 1, 2, 3 etc. Somewhere, you will also see an indicator that
says RPM x 1000. This means that you multiply the reading by
1000 to get the actual RPM, so if the needle is pointing to 2, the
engine is running at 2000 RPM.

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(b) This can be used by the companies that prepare the fan. It
can be used to check the performance of the fan.
(c) This can be used by the companies that manufacture motor
that has the r.p.m. less than 9900 can use this device it shows the
maximum and the average speed of the motor or rotating part.
(d) It can be used as optical counter just the thing is that the
material to be counted should reflect the infrared radiation.
(e) It can be used to check the r.p.m for the hard disk drives,
floppy disk drives in the field of electronics.
(f) When choosing a motorcycle tachometer there is a decent
selection of manufacturers to choose from. Autometer
tachometers are a brand that are well known. Each of these
companies make a quality Tach for bikes. Autometer makes
Tach's for cars and has expanded to making them for motor cycles
as well. This line is called Pro-Cycle. When it comes to choosing
the right Tach it is important to keep in mind the application that
you are going to use it for. They are fairly easy to install and have
a range of up too 9,000 RPM. Since most bikes have high revving
engines it is important to find one that suits your application.
Autometer Tachometers are mostly electronic and come in a
variety of sizes and variations. Their is bound to be one that suits
your application. Autometer also makes tachometers that have
integrated shift lights or you can buy the shift light kit by itself. In
order to use a shift light you will also need a RPM activated
module and a RPM Pill module kit. You can also choose from a
black or white face as well as the diameter of the gauge.
Lightning Performance makes a pretty cool looking electronic
tachometer. I am currently of currently aware of 3 different
Lightning Performance tach's. They are all micro gauges and are
easily mounted on to a handlebar. They integrate very well in to
most motor cycle’s lines. Lightning Performance Electronic
tachometers are CNC machined from a 5 lb brick of billet
aluminum which is then chrome plated for a show quality finish.

BENEFITS
241 The following are the benefits of the contact less tachometer
(a) It takes less than a minute to read out r.p.m.
(b) It reads the r.p.m. with the maximum speed and the average
speed.
(c) It gives better performance and reliability.
(d) It saves the energy consumed by the conventional tachometer.
(e) Since it is working with the nine volt battery so it can be used
even if the electricity is not there.
(f) It is portable so we can carry it to large rotating machine to note
the r.p.m.

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(g) It does not slow the speed of the main motor as it was in the
conventional contact tachometer.
(h) It does not interfere with the motor on test because we are not
touching any component.
(i) It refreshes the L.C.D. after the reset key is pressed.
(j) It can hold the reading if hold key is pressed.
(k) It can measure accurately in the range of 10cm.
(l) It has a flexible I.R.proximity sensor which can be turned round
according to the requirement.
(m) It does not cause the friction and the wear and tear of the
components as in the conventional tachometer.
(n) Light in weight as compared to the conventional tachometer.
(o) Compact in size.
(p) Simple circuitry and easy to understand.
(q) Mass production may reduce the cost of Contact less tachometer.
(r) Calibrations points are given to change the capacitance.
(s) It can measure maximum r.p.m. of 9900 which was less in the
conventional tachometer.
(t) Easy to repair and can be extended to the wireless tachometer.
(u) Unique method of setting the conversion factor.

SAFETY
242 The following are the safety measure use to kept in mind while making
this project and using it.
(a) Do not touch the sensor this may lead to wrong reading.
(b) Keep the sensor away from the rotating part because
mishandling may lead to damage of the sensor.
(c) The sensor should be kept at the safe place.
(d) The microcontroller should be mounted properly. If it is not
mounted properly then the pins get bent and break this make the
microcontroller useless.
CONCLUSION
243 It gives me immense pleasure that I have completed my project
successfully. This project helps me to enhance my skill. By selecting this project
I have understood the applications of the microcontroller. I understood how the
microcontroller reduces the circuit and performs the function accurately. It was
my great opportunity to work on this project “Contact-Less Tachometer”. By this
project I have learnt the P.C.B. designing, layout preparation, burning of the
microcontroller, tinning. It gives me immense pleasure that I have learnt
something new from the project which helps me in my technical life. This project
helps the mechanical students to know the r.p.m. of any motor, fan, engine shaft
which can helps him to decide the engine performance. The electrical students
are also benefited by this project that they do not have to wait for minutes to
know the r.p.m. of the fan. The application of this project are very much
interesting because now a days this technology is being used in the car and the

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bikes, which replaces the analog speedometer by digital contact less tachometer
which first find out the r.p.m. then calculates the speed in Km/Hr.
244 The mounting of the component is very interesting because with
precautions the components are damaged. I have done the component mounting
carefully. I like the drilling of the P.C.B. because it requires concentration and
attention on the target point. The etching of the P.C.B. is a very interesting
because the fine tracks are formed by this process. I think my efforts may leads
to new innovation in extending this project into the wireless Tachometer. I am
glad that I have created something new. I have prepared this report that one can
easily understand and if anyone wants to extend it can easily find each and every
information. In this report I have explained the project step by step so one follow
those steps and can make this project and can extend according to the
requirement. This report look like a simple project but it is mine of knowledge
about the new electronics components. By this project I have understood the
power of microcontroller.
245 I conclude with these words that whatever I have understood in this
project I have given it as a record for future reference which can help my junior
to know about the new innovation of hardware interfacing. This project will help
me to gain knowledge. I understood what is the difference between the
theoretical knowledge and the practical knowledge. How the theoretical
knowledge can be used to make new project and utilize our potential in new
innovation. In making this project I have found many problems relating to the
component availability. I have found the substitute to every component which
has the same operation and working. This helps me to know different types of
components. I have learnt how components are classified according to the
performance, company. I have learnt the specifications of the components.
Different companies manufacture the same components with different name and
the serial number. Finally, I would like to say that my concept can be utilized in
the manufacturing of the Contact less tachometer.

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