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National Workshop on “Sustainable Industrial

Development Through Cleaner Production”

Cleaner Production in Textile


Sector: Asian Scenario

C. Visvanathan, S.Kumar & Shi Han*


School of Environment Resources and Development,
Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand
*Center for Environmentally Sound Technology Transfer, Beijing, China

12-13 November, 2000


Colombo, Sri Lanka
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Contents

Introduction

Textile processing

Energy and environmental issues


in textile industry

CP approach for textile industry

Case Study from China

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Introduction

Five main sectors of textile industry:


• Fiber production
• Spinning
• Weaving and knitting
• Dyeing-printing and finishing
• Garment production

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Cloth production
More than 70% of world cloth production is from
Asia/Oceania

Asia/Oceania 7196

Europe 1043

Africa 231

Western 1414
Hemiphere

Others 230
0 2500 5000 7500 10000

Source: Statistics- All Pakistan Textile Mills Association, 1997-98

World cloth production in ‘000 metric tonnes (1997-1998)

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Yarn production
Nearly 70% of world yarn production is from
Asia/Oceania
Asia/Oceania 11981

Europe 1573

Africa 446

Western 3229
Hemiphere

Others 400

0 5000 10000 15000


Source: Statistics- All Pakistan Textile Mills Association, 1997-98

World yarn production in ‘000 metric tonnes (1997-1998)

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Share of value addition of textile sector to national
GDP in world leading textile producers, 1993
India 18.2
Turkey 8.8
Brazil 7.7
Argentina 7
Republic of Korea 6.2
Mexico 6
Taiwan 4.8
Hong Kong 3.5
Iran 3.1
Indonesia 2.9
Pakistan 2.3
Egypt 2.1
Colombia 1.8
Thailand 1.6
Morocco 1.6
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
Value added share to total value added by textile industry in developing countries (%) (constant 1980 prices)
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Textile
Textile labour
labour cost
cost comparison
comparison
Texile labour cost in developing countries is much
lower than in developed countries
25.6
27
24
21 18.5
18 15.7
15
12.4 11.9 10.7
12
9
6
3 1.4
1.0 0.5 0.5 0.4
0

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es

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ia

a
K

nd

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n

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y

di
U
an

na
pa

al
al

Ch
in
la

In
tr
It

pp
rm

et
Ja

ai
us

Th

Vi
ili
Ge

Ph
Source: Werner International Managing Consultants

Labor Cost Comparison[per Hour], 1994 (in US $)

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Business situation…turning more complex

• Less popularity of “vertically integrated”


textile units
• Export thrust
• Increased competition
• Environment and trade “mix-up” especially in
Germany, Sweden and UK markets
• Environmental pollution control expectations

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Textile Fiber in

processing
Blow Room
Electrical Carding
Energy Draw Frame
Lap Preparation Solid waste, Fiber waste,

Yarn
Comber Yarn waste, dust, etc.
Fly Frame
• Yarn formation Ring Frame
Winding
(fiber production, Electrical Yarn
spinning)
Energy
Warping

Formation
Sizing Waste water containing

Fabric
• Fabric formation
Preparation cellulose derivatives
Weaving or
Knitting
(weaving, knitting) Steam
Gray Fabric

• Wet processing
Wet Processing and Fabricastion
Singering High BOD, high TS,
Electrical neutral pH
Desizing
(dyeing, printing, Energy
Scouring
High BOD, high TS, high
alkalinity, high temperature
finishing) and Bleaching
Mercerizing
High BOD, high TS,
Alkaline WW
Heatsetting Low BOD, low Solids,
• fabrication Steam
Dyeing or/and alkaline WW

(garment) Printing
Finishing
Wasted dyes, high BOD,
COD, Solids, neutral to
alkaline WW
Product Fabrication

Finished Fabric
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Yarn formation

Fiber formation (carding)

Fiber formation (drawing)

Spinning
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Fabric formation

Knitting : Fabric is formed by


using hooked needles to
interlock one or more sets of
yarns through a set of loops

Weaving

Weaving: Fabric is formed by


interlacing of threads

Knitting

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Textile Wet Processing Industry
Major Production Process Steps
Bleaching
Desizing Scouring Dyeing Finishing

Mercerizing

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Wet processing
Dyeing: A process that adds color
and intricacy to textiles and
increase product value
Dyeing method
• batch-wise
• continuous

Bleaching

Bleaching: A chemical process


that eliminates unwanted colored
matter from fibers, yarns, or
cloth

Dyeing

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Wet processing (cont’d)
Finishing: the final operation
carried out after dyeing/printing and
encompasses various chemical or
mechanical treatments performed on
fiber, yarn, or fabric to improve
appearance, texture, or quality

Printing

Printing: a process used to


impart a colored pattern or
design to the cloth

Finishing
(heat setting)
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Fabrication

Fabrication :
Finished cloth is
fabricated into a
variety of apparel and
household and industrial
products bags, sheets,
towels,
blankets,draperies, etc

Fabrication

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Energy
Energy and
and Environmental
Environmental Issues
Issues in
in Textile
Textile Industry
Industry

Energy consumption in textile processing

Spinning Weaving Wet Processing

16%
48%

36%
Source : Chandran et al , SITRA, 1997

Wet processing consumes a share of


energy in textile processing

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Energy Issues in Textile Industry
• High electricity consumption and
steam consumption: Cost for
factory, cost for the country
Spinning and weaving processes consumes high amount
of electricity consumption while wet processing
consumes a considerable amount of steam.
This may share a quite considerable part of
operating cost of the factory;
This affects the energy demand of the country
(increase energy demand could be translated as
increased country’s expenses)

• High energy consumption means high


greenhouse gas emissions generated!!

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Major Environmental Concerns in Textile Industry

Textile Wet Processing


• High water consumption
Number of washing steps
involved in the production
process consume substantial
amount of water (and
energy too)

• Color and metals in the wastewater


Due to a variety of
dyestuffs and auxiliary
chemicals used.

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Textile Wet Processing
Major Environmental Concerns
• Worker health and safety
due to VOC emissions
Number of dyestuffs,
auxiliary chemicals (like
finishing agents) gives rise
to hazardous VOC
emissions.

• Toxicity to aquatic
world in receiving water
bodies
Due to the hazardous
chemicals involved in wet
processing that escape
through wastewater
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Energy and environmental indicators in textile industry
Energy, water and pollution indicators: These indicators may facilitate the
benchmarking with other standards and norms to measure the energy and
environmental performance of textile industry

Energy and water Pollution


1. Specific fuel consumption: 1. Specific wastewater generation:
Yearly fuel consumption/yearly production Yearly wastewater generated/
yearly production
2. Specific fuel cost: 2. Liquid effluent: BOD, COD and
Yearly fuel cost/yearly production TSS:

a) Liquid effluent
3. Specific electricity consumption: concentration
Yearly electricity consumption/yearly (mg/L)
production b) Specific liquid
effluent (kg/ton
of product)
4. Specific electricity cost:
Yearly electricity cost/yearly production

5. Specific water consumption:


Yearly water consumption/yearly production
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Survey Results: Specific Fuel Consumption
Printing, weaving and spinning mills in Thailand

3.22
Printing
Textile subsectors

0.26

Max
2.5 Min
Weaving
2.2

0.73
Spinning
0.14

0 1 2 3 4
Specific fuel consumption (GJ/ton)

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Survey Results: Specific Electricity Consumption
Integrated, dyeing and finishing and man-made fiber mills

Integrated 1.2
textile mills 0.37
Textile subsectors

Max
Dyeing and 12.6 Min
finishing 0.28

Man-made 2.9
fiber 0.6

0 5 10 15
Specific electricity consumption (MWh/ton)

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Examples of benchmarking: Specific energy
consumption in Thai Textile Industry
Study on energy German Textile
consumption in Thai UNIDOb
Industryc
Type of textile industrya
establishment
Fuel Electricity Fuel Electricity Fuel + Electricity
(GJ/ton) (MWh/ton) (GJ/ton) (MWh/ton) (MWh/ton)

Spinning 0.14 - 0.73 0.55 - 7.3 Not Not 2-6


Available Available
Weaving 2.2-25 5.7-5.8 Not 3.7-4.8 3-18
Available

Dyeing and 14-63 0.3-12.6 68-70 18.7-20.7 3-12


finishing

Integrated 25.8-50 0.2-1.2 68-70 13.9-26.4 Not Available


Textile

Source:aKumar et al., (1999), bhttp://www.unido.org,chttp://www.eutech.de

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Survey Results: Specific Water Consumption in Thai
Textile Industry
• Largest variation of specific water consumption is found to be in dyeing and finishing
sector
• Specific water consumption in weaving mill and dyeing and finishing mills is within the
US EPAa Norms (0.8-140.1 m3/ton of product and 5.507.9 m3/ton of product for
weaving and dyeing and finishing mills respectively)
• Specific water consumption in printing mills is lower than the norms established by
NITRAb(40-100 m3/ton of product)

Category Specific water consumption


(m3/ton of product)

Man-made fiber 4.4-30.7


Dyeing and finishing Yarn 115-180
Fabric 125-160
Yarn+Fabric 73.1-167
Integrated mills 108-183
Printing 11.9-62.5

Source:aUnited States Environment Protection Agency (1979),bNorthern Indian


Textile Research Association (1989)
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Survey Results: Specific Wastewater Generation in
Thai Textile Industry
• High maximum level of specific wastewater generated is found in integrated
textile mills and dyeing and finishing sector
• The maximum specific wastewater generated in integrated textile mills and is
lower than the minimum value of WHOa Standard (100-125 m3/ton of product)
• The maximum specific wastewater generated in made-made fiber and printing mills
is lower than the minimum standard set-up by World Bankb (100m3/ton of product)

Category Specific wastewater


generated
(m3/ton of product)
Man-made fiber 2.7-27.4
Dyeing and finishing Yarn 115-180
Fabric 125-160
Yarn+Fabric 67-167
Integrated mills 108-183
Printing 10.7-62.5

Source:aWorld Health Organisation (1993),bWorld Bank (1998)

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Cleaner Production Approach
A Textile Processor has to be Lean, Efficient and Innovative

Lean Good housekeeping, Conservation,


Control

Efficient “Right in First Time”


Approach, Mechanical/ Chemical/ Water/
Energy/ Audits, Optimization/
Rationalization.

Innovative Reuse, Recovery, and Recycle Initiative


Process Change,
“Informed” Equipment Selection.

Productivity and Environmental consideration


will remain Inseparable
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General Approaches to Textile Waste Reduction in
textile wet processing
• General
•• Waste
Waste characterisation
characterisation
• Preparation stage in •• Raw
Raw materials
materials
fabric formation •• The
The fate
fate of
of processing
processing
chemicals
chemicals
• Recovery
Recovery systems
systems •• Equalisation
Equalisation
•• Waste
Waste steam
steam reuse
reuse
•• Chemical
Chemical substitutions
substitutions
•• Alternative
Alternative processing
processing

•Dyeing
•Reconstitution/reuse
•Reconstitution/reuse of
of dyebath
dyebath
•Finishing •Chemical
•Chemical substitution
substitution
•• Reuse
Reuse •Alternative
•Alternative processes
processes
•• Substitution
Substitution
•• Alternative
Alternative processes
processes

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Commonly Observed Sources of Water Wastage
•• Excessive
Excessive use
use of
of water
water in
in washing
washing operations
operations
•• Poor
Poor housekeeping
housekeeping measures
measures such
such as
as broken
broken or
or missing
missing valves
valves
•• Unattended
Unattended leaks
leaks through
through pipes
pipes and
and hoses
hoses
•• Instances
Instances when
when cooling
cooling waters
waters are
are left
left running
running when
when machinery
machinery is
is
shut
shut down,
down, etc.
etc.
•• Choice
Choice of
of inefficient
inefficient washing
washing equipment
equipment
•• Excessive
Excessive long
long washing
washing cycles
cycles
•• Use
Use of
of fresh
fresh water
water at
at all
all points
points of
of water
water use
use

Implementation of strict housekeeping measures


such as plugging of leakages, check on running
taps etc., and installation of meters and level
controllers on major water carrying lines are
examples of simple water conservation strategies

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Recovery and reuse of process chemicals
Process chemicals must be selected in such a way that
the reuse does not create quality problems such as
spotting
Three
Three important
important areas
areas where
where chemicals
chemicals recovery
recovery and
and reuse
reuse has
has
proved
proved most
most effective
effective are:
are:
•• Reuse
Reuse of
of dye
dye solutions
solutions from
from dye-bath
dye-bath
•• Recovery
Recovery of
of caustic
caustic in
in mercerising
mercerising (by
(by effective
effective evaporation
evaporation or
or
using
using membrance
membrance technology)
technology) and
and recovery
recovery of
of size
size in
in cotton
cotton
processing
processing (using
(using technologies
technologies like
like Ultra-filtration)
Ultra-filtration)
•• Recovery
Recovery of
of grease
grease in
in wool
wool processing
processing (by
(by acid
acid cracking,
cracking,
centrifuging
centrifuging or
or by
by solvent
solvent extraction).
extraction).

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Improvement of Washing Operations
Parameters affecting washing efficiency:
•Water
•Water application
application per
per unit
unit weight
weight of
of fabric
fabric
•Method
•Method of
of application
application such
such as
as spraying,
spraying, pulsing,
pulsing, cascading,
cascading, etc.
etc.
•Water
•Water temperature
temperature
•Contact
•Contact time
time and/or
and/or fabric
fabric speed
speed
•Number
•Number of
of washes
washes and
and washing
washing cycle
cycle
•Intermediate
•Intermediate water
water extraction
extraction method
method such
such as
as squeezing,
squeezing,
suction,
suction, beating,
beating, etc
etc
Waste minimisation opportunities:
•Use
•Use of
of hot
hot water
water instead
instead of
of cold
cold water:
water: half
half water
water consumption
consumption
for
for comparable
comparable washing
washing efficiency
efficiency
•Performance
•Performance of
of horizontal
horizontal washing
washing configurations
configurations comparable
comparable to
to
two conventional vertical configurations
two conventional vertical configurations
•Use
•Use aa more
more efficient
efficient design
design of
of nozzle
nozzle
•Optimise
•Optimise on
on the
the sequence
sequence of
of washing
washing
•Intermediate
•Intermediate water
water extraction
extraction method
method such
such as
as squeezing,
squeezing, suction,
suction,
beating, etc
beating, etc
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Recent
Recent Improvement
Improvement in
in World
World Textile
Textile Industry
Industry
• Equipment size getting bigger
Jigger-Jumbo jigger-super jumbo
• Equipment size getting smaller
Mercerizer-baby mercerizer
• Process control lending several advantages
(old processes in new “bottle”)
Pad-batch—micro processor control
Single tage design scour-bleach
Dyebath re-use

Customisation and control are the keys

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Recent
Recent Improvement
Improvement inin World
World Textile
Textile Industry
Industry (cont’d)
(cont’d)
• Selection of dyes
New brands requiring less energy and
having high exhaust properties…..
(Matal content…market request are
broadening)
Lab/R&D investigation needed
• Recipe
Size
Dye
Use of catalysts has been one initiative
to minimise consumption of chemicals
Computer based selection, expert system,
databases, factsheets
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Recent
Recent Improvement
Improvement in
in World
World Textile
Textile Industry
Industry (cont’d)
(cont’d)
• “De-Facto” Emergence of process
standards
E.g. Parcom recommendations
Starch-PVA/CMC………..?
CL2 Bleach-Peroxide Bleach………..
Recovery of caustic in merceriser
Low MLR Dyeing (Ultra Low)…………?
Recovery of chemicals in stentors………….?

Avoiding of Harmful Substances


PCP
Formaldehyde
Benserine Based Dyes

Substitution of non-biodegradables to
degradables
………Sandoz RDT dyes
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Recent
Recent Improvement
Improvement in
in World
World Textile
Textile Industry
Industry (cont’d)
(cont’d)
Game of Eco-Labelling Textile, Trade and Environment
• Carpet
Govt-label, Belgium/Europe

•Textile products
OKO-TEX-Lable (100), Austria
MST: German Standard
STE/LMANN: Germany
MVT: Germany
Red List: UK/EEC

Cleaner fashion: “Criteria for buying conditions”


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INPUT OUTPUT
CONTROLLER CONTROLLER

Price of Water Cost of Effluent Control


EOP Standard
Cost of Chemical TECHNOLOGY
Green Consumption
Labour
(Environment and Trade)

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No of CP Initiatives in the Textile Industry (ICPIC)
Australia Australia
Austria
2% Austria
6% Chile
USA Chile
4%
25% China
China
6% Denmark
Egypt
Denmark
France
4%
Egypt Germany
2% Greece
Tunisia
4% India
France
Thailand 2% Indonesia
2%
Spain Italy
2% Germany Latvia
Poland 2%
Norway
4% India
Norway Greece Poland
4% 15% 2%
Latvia Spain
Italy Indonesia
6% 2% Thailand
4%
Tunisia
USA

Source:International Cleaner Production Information Clearinghouse (ICPIC)


UNEPIE, Paris 1995
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Country Wide Example
US ATMI’s Environmental Excellence Program
(25 Textile Units Identified)
AUSRIA Institute of Textile and Environmental
Checking Quality Standard
PERU GTZ’s Waste Minimization
Initiative in Textile
INDIA Jetpur-Counciling Project
From Nederland
BELGIUM Centexbil on Excolour
Technologies and Databases
DENMARK “Green Cotton” Wave from NAVATOX
GHANA AND NIGERIA
Textile Effluents Play Havoc
INDONESIA AND PORTUGAL
CP Training on textiles Thailand

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CP
CP Services
Services at
at AIT
AIT

Certificate
Diploma
⌦ Formal Training Masters
Doctoral
(Course work & Thesis)

Training/Workshop
⌦ Professional Training Student Exchange
Programs Programs

⌦ Research and Consulting Regional Projects


- Networking/Capacity -
Mobilisation/Strengthening

National Projects

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Research
Research and
and Consulting
Consulting
L Journals > 15
L Conferences > 25

L Books > 4

L UNEP Publication 3

L Master Thesis > 35


Example:
• Cleaner Production Technology Fact
Sheets for Pulp & Paper Industry for
UNEP – NIEM project, 1999
• Textile Sector Related work at AIT:
Project Case Work Document
Video on CDG CP Demonstration Projects
Consultancy and Out react activities
Masters’ research in waste auditing

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Regional
Regional Networking
Networking
SMI in Asia: Energy, Environment and Climate Interrelations,
ARRPEEC-II - Sida
Identification and promotion of E3ST by capacity
Project Objective: mobilisation and policy intervention
Partner
organisations

Partner
organisations China Partner
Centre of organisations
Environmentally Sound
Vietnam Technology Transfer
India
The Non-State PSG College
Economic of
Development Technology
AIT
Centre
Overall Coordination Partner
Partner and organisations
organisations Management
Sri Lanka The Philippines
Industrial Service Industrial Technology
Bureau of Development
Northwestern Institute
Province

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Case study on Cleaner Production at Tong
Niu Textile Factory - China
L Located at Beijing and established in 1952
L State owned enterprise
L Production: 15 million pieces or 1500 tons/annum
1500 employees
L Main production sections: yarn weaving bleaching, dyeing,
printing and finishing
L Sales : US$ 14 Million/annum
L Export oriented: Europe, America, Australia, Japan and
South-East Asia

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Problems addressed
Beck dyeing machine

••Capacity:
Capacity: 100kg/batch
100kg/batch
••High
High bath
bath ratio:
ratio: 1:20
1:20 to
to 1:25
1:25
••Low
Low efficiency
efficiency in
in chemicals,
chemicals, water
water and
and steam
steam consumption
consumption
••High
High volumetric
volumetric loading
loading of
of effluents
effluents :: 341,200
341,200 million
million tonnes
tonnes of
of
wastewater,
wastewater, 61
61 tonnes
tonnes ofof COD,
COD, 334
334 tonnes
tonnes of
of solid
solid waste
waste (1996)
(1996)

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Initial
Initial condition
condition in
in the
the beck
beck dyeing
dyeing machine
machine
Water, chemical and heat usage, and COD generated
for a batch of 100 kg of cotton:
Process step Mass input, m Heat Temperature COD
Water, chemical and (ton) input difference
heat (steam) input (MJ) (∆T)
Mg/L Kg
1. Filling and
heating of the
bath 2.5 241.5a 170C – 400C N/A N/A
Water

Note:acalculation:
Heat transferred by water : m Cp ∆T
: 2.5 ton x 4.2 kJ/kg.Kx (40-17) K =241.5 MJ
Where: Cp: Constant-pressure specific heat of water

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Water, chemical and heat usage, and COD generated
for a batch of 100 kg of cotton (cont’d):
Process step Mass input, m Heat Temperature COD
Water, chemical and (ton) input difference
heat (steam) input (MJ) (∆T)

Mg/L Kg
2. Wetting
wetting agent 0.0001 N/A N/A N/A N/A

3. Bleaching
H2O2 0.005
Alkaline (40%) 0.003 983 2.5d
Stabiliser 0.002
Steam 1 609

4. Hot water washing


Waterb 2.5 714 170C – 850C 319 0.8
Steamc 0.32

Note:bEstimation of heat input of water: use similar equation as in a


cHeat
input of steam is not calculated: heat transferred by the water ≈ heat from
the steam to heat the water
dMass of COD = COD concentration (mg/L) x liquid volume (L)
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Water, chemical and heat usage, and COD generated
for a batch of 100 kg of cotton (cont’d):
Process step Mass input, m Heat Temperature COD
Water, chemical and (ton) (MJ) difference
heat (steam) input (∆T)

Mg/L Kg
5. Cold water
washing water 2.5 N/A N/A 166 0.42

6. Dyeing
Water 2.5 451.5 170C – 600C 983 2.5
Dyestuff 0.006
NaCl 0.1
Na2CO3 0.03
Steam 0.6

7. Hot water washing


Water 2.5 714 170C – 850C 420 1.05
Steam 0.32

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Water, chemical and heat usage, and COD generated
for a batch of 100 kg of cotton (cont’d):
Process step Mass input, m Heat Temperature COD
Water, chemical and heat (ton) (MJ) difference
(steam) input (∆T)
Mg/L Kg
8. Cold water washing
water 2.5 N/A N/A 122 0.3
9. Washing
Waterb 2.5 451.5 170C – 600C 179 0.45
Detergent 0.006
10. Hot water washing
Waterc 2.5 714 170C – 850C 114 0.29
Steam
11. Cold water washing
Water 2.5 N/A N/A 31 0.08
12. Softening
Water 2.5 346.5 170C – 500C 48 0.12
Softener
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Selected E ST
3

Criteria of required E3ST


• Significant pollution reduction
• Technology proven in China
• Estimated payback period under three years

Chosen E3ST
High pressure dyeing machine having the following features:
• Low bath ratio of 1:10-12
• 400 kg per run capacity
• Closed and pressure jet dyeing
• Auto-control by water, pressure, temperature meters and
mixing motors
• Total investment cost: 997, 745 RMB (704,000 for equipment
cost, 293, 745 for VAT, tariff and additional costs and
70,400 for depreciation)
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New
New Rapid
Rapid Dyeing
Dyeing Machine
Machine

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Water, chemical and heat usage, and COD generated
for a batch of 100 kg of cotton (cont’d):

Assumption:
- The heat input estimated does not take into account the loss of
heating of the equipment or the loss of heat to the environment
- 1 ton of coal generates 5.6 ton of steam
- Heat generated by 1 ton of coal ≈ 20,900 MJ
- Total heat input/100 kg of product based on the calculation in the
table: 4609.5 MJ ≈ (4609.5/20,900)
≈ 0.22 ton of coal ≈ 1.23 ton of steam
- Total COD/100 kg of product = 8.43 kg
- Total chemical/100 kg of product = 0.15 kg

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Water, chemical and heat usage, and COD generated
for a ton of product:

1. Steam : Taking into account the


inefficient heating, the total
consumption is about 25- 37 ton of steam
2. Water consumption : 250 ton
3. Chemical consumption : 1.5 kg
4. COD Generated : 84.3 kg

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Environmental Feasibility Study
Replacement of beck dyeing machine by rapid dyeing machine may
result in the following:
- The reduction of bath ratio from 1:20-25 to 1:20-12 may reduce
50% water consumption;
- When 50% of water is reduced, 50% energy consumed may also be
reduced
- 50% reduction may lead to 30% chemical consumption
- 30% chemical consumption reduction may lead to 30% reduction in
COD
- Annual production using dyeing machine: 140 ton of product

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Condition before and after installation of E3STs, and
the estimation during environmental feasibility study
Item Estimation Estimation Evaluation after % of reduction
using Beck during rapid dyeing (before and after
dyeing environmental machine is installation of
machine feasibility study installed rapid dyeing
(A) (B) (C) machine)
(C-A)/A x 100%
Annual reduction 140 140 140 N/A
(ton)

Annual steam 3,500 1,750 308 80%


consumption (ton)

Annual water 35,000 17,500 18,200 48%


Consumption (ton)

Annual chemical 210 147 140 33%


consumption (ton)
• NaCl 140 112 20%
• Na2CO3 42 21 50%

Annual COD 11,802 8,261.4 4,200 64%


generated (kg)

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Investment, financial savings and
payback period
Item Cost (RMB Yuan)
Capital Investment
1. Equipment cost 704,000
2. VAT, tariff and 293,745
additional costs
70,400
3. Operational costs
(depreciation) 25,060
Total Investment 1,093,205
Annual savings
4. Dyestuff 210,000
5. Water 17,470
6. Chemicals 60,747
7. Steam 1 25,400
8. Labour 25,200
Waste water treatment 22,540
Net annual savings 436,297
Payback Period < 3 years

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Comparison with Benchmarks: Water
Specific water consumption for dyeing
Country/institutions and finishing process (for knitted fabric)
Minimum Maximum Average

UKa (m /1000 metres of


3
52 200 98
cloth)

USA/US EPAb(l/kg) 8.3 392.8 135.9


Indiac (l/kg) 25 60 N/A

Tong-Niud (l/kg) N/A N/A 250


(with old dyeing machine)

Tong-Niud (l/kg)
N/A N/A 130
(with new dyeing machine)

Source: aETBPP (2000), bUS EPA (1999) cP.B., Jhala, et al (1981)

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Comparison with benchmarks:
thermal energy consumption
Specific fuel consumption for dyeing and
Country/institutions finishing process (GJ ton/Product)
Quantity
UKa 1.5 -20

UNIDOb
14-63

Tong-Niu 93
(with old dyeing machine)

Tong-Niu
8.2
(with new dyeing machine)

Source: aETBPP(2000), bUNIDO(http://www.unido.org)

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Conclusion/Summary
• Textile industry is a major export earner for many
Asian economies

• Energy efficiency could be improved and pollution


reduced, and make the product more competitive

• Benchmarks on energy use and pollution based on


Thai textile industry and other international
organisations has been given

• A case study in China clearly illustrates the benefits


of implementing E3ST holistically to reduce pollution
and improve efficiency

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